Russia

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This article is about the Russian Federation. Russia_sentence_0

For other uses, see Russia (disambiguation). Russia_sentence_1

Russia_table_infobox_0

Russian FederationRussia_header_cell_0_0_0
Capital

and largest cityRussia_header_cell_0_1_0

MoscowRussia_cell_0_1_1
Official language
and national languageRussia_header_cell_0_2_0
RussianRussia_cell_0_2_1
Recognised national languagesRussia_header_cell_0_3_0 See Languages of RussiaRussia_cell_0_3_1
Ethnic groups (2010)Russia_header_cell_0_4_0 Russia_cell_0_4_1
Religion (2017)Russia_header_cell_0_5_0 73% Christianity

—70% Russian Orthodoxy —3% Other Christian 15% No religion 10% Islam 2% OthersRussia_cell_0_5_1

Demonym(s)Russia_header_cell_0_6_0 RussianRussia_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentRussia_header_cell_0_7_0 Federal semi-presidential constitutional republicRussia_cell_0_7_1
PresidentRussia_header_cell_0_8_0 Vladimir PutinRussia_cell_0_8_1
Prime MinisterRussia_header_cell_0_9_0 Mikhail MishustinRussia_cell_0_9_1
Speaker of the

Federation CouncilRussia_header_cell_0_10_0

Valentina MatviyenkoRussia_cell_0_10_1
Speaker of the

State DumaRussia_header_cell_0_11_0

Vyacheslav VolodinRussia_cell_0_11_1
Chief JusticeRussia_header_cell_0_12_0 Vyacheslav LebedevRussia_cell_0_12_1
LegislatureRussia_header_cell_0_13_0 Federal AssemblyRussia_cell_0_13_1
Upper houseRussia_header_cell_0_14_0 Federation CouncilRussia_cell_0_14_1
Lower houseRussia_header_cell_0_15_0 State DumaRussia_cell_0_15_1
FormationRussia_header_cell_0_16_0
Novgorod builtRussia_header_cell_0_17_0 c. 862Russia_cell_0_17_1
Kievan Rus'Russia_header_cell_0_18_0 879Russia_cell_0_18_1
Duchy of MoscowRussia_header_cell_0_19_0 1283Russia_cell_0_19_1
Tsardom of RussiaRussia_header_cell_0_20_0 16 January 1547Russia_cell_0_20_1
Russian EmpireRussia_header_cell_0_21_0 2 November 1721Russia_cell_0_21_1
Monarchy abolishedRussia_header_cell_0_22_0 15 March 1917Russia_cell_0_22_1
Russian FederationRussia_header_cell_0_23_0 12 December 1991Russia_cell_0_23_1
Current constitutionRussia_header_cell_0_24_0 12 December 1993Russia_cell_0_24_1
Last polity admittedRussia_header_cell_0_25_0 18 March 2014Russia_cell_0_25_1
Last amendmentsRussia_header_cell_0_26_0 4 July 2020Russia_cell_0_26_1
Area Russia_header_cell_0_27_0
TotalRussia_header_cell_0_28_0 17,098,246 km (6,601,670 sq mi) (without Crimea) (1st)Russia_cell_0_28_1
Water (%)Russia_header_cell_0_29_0 13 (including swamps)Russia_cell_0_29_1
PopulationRussia_header_cell_0_30_0
2020 estimateRussia_header_cell_0_31_0 (9th)Russia_cell_0_31_1
DensityRussia_header_cell_0_32_0 8.4/km (21.8/sq mi) (225th)Russia_cell_0_32_1
GDP (PPP)Russia_header_cell_0_33_0 2019 estimateRussia_cell_0_33_1
TotalRussia_header_cell_0_34_0 $4.135 trillion (6th)Russia_cell_0_34_1
Per capitaRussia_header_cell_0_35_0 $28,184 (50th)Russia_cell_0_35_1
GDP (nominal)Russia_header_cell_0_36_0 2019 estimateRussia_cell_0_36_1
TotalRussia_header_cell_0_37_0 $1.702 trillion (11th)Russia_cell_0_37_1
Per capitaRussia_header_cell_0_38_0 $11,601 (61st)Russia_cell_0_38_1
Gini (2018)Russia_header_cell_0_39_0 37.5

medium · 98thRussia_cell_0_39_1

HDI (2018)Russia_header_cell_0_40_0 0.824

very high · 49thRussia_cell_0_40_1

CurrencyRussia_header_cell_0_41_0 Russian ruble () (RUB)Russia_cell_0_41_1
Time zoneRussia_header_cell_0_42_0 UTC+2 to +12Russia_cell_0_42_1
Date formatRussia_header_cell_0_43_0 dd.mm.yyyyRussia_cell_0_43_1
Mains electricityRussia_header_cell_0_44_0 230 V–50 HzRussia_cell_0_44_1
Driving sideRussia_header_cell_0_45_0 rightRussia_cell_0_45_1
Calling codeRussia_header_cell_0_46_0 +7Russia_cell_0_46_1
ISO 3166 codeRussia_header_cell_0_47_0 RURussia_cell_0_47_1
Internet TLDRussia_header_cell_0_48_0 Russia_cell_0_48_1

Russia, or the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country located in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. Russia_sentence_2

It extends from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east, and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the south. Russia_sentence_3

Russia covers over 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi), spanning more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, stretching eleven time zones, and bordering 16 sovereign nations. Russia_sentence_4

Moscow is the country's capital and largest city; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, Chelyabinsk and Samara. Russia_sentence_5

Russia is the largest country in the world, the ninth-most populous country, as well as the most populous country in Europe. Russia_sentence_6

The country is one of the world's most sparsely populated and urbanized. Russia_sentence_7

About half of the country's total area is forested, concentrating around four-fifths of its total population of over 146.7 million on its smaller and dense western portion, as opposed to its larger and sparse eastern portion. Russia_sentence_8

Russia is administratively divided into 85 federal subjects. Russia_sentence_9

The Moscow Metropolitan Area is the largest metropolitan area in Europe, and among the largest in the world, with more than 20 million residents. Russia_sentence_10

The East Slavs emerged as a recognisable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Russia_sentence_11

The medieval state of Rus' arose in the 9th century. Russia_sentence_12

In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Russia_sentence_13

Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states, until it was finally reunified by the Grand Duchy of Moscow in the 15th century. Russia_sentence_14

By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which became a major European power, and the third-largest empire in history. Russia_sentence_15

Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian SFSR became the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. Russia_sentence_16

The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. Russia_sentence_17

The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. Russia_sentence_18

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognised as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. Russia_sentence_19

Following the constitutional crisis of 1993, a new constitution was adopted, and Russia has since been governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia_sentence_20

Russia is described as a potential superpower, with the world's second-most powerful military, and the fourth-highest military expenditure. Russia_sentence_21

As a recognised nuclear-weapon state, the country possesses the world's largest stockpile of nuclear weapons. Russia_sentence_22

Its economy ranks as the eleventh-largest in the world by nominal GDP and the sixth-largest by PPP. Russia_sentence_23

Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. Russia_sentence_24

Russia hosts the world's ninth-greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and is simultaneously ranked very high in the Human Development Index, has a universal healthcare system and a free university education. Russia_sentence_25

It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the SCO, the G20, the Council of Europe, the APEC, the OSCE, the IIB and the WTO, as well as being the leading member of the CIS, the CSTO and a member of the EAEU. Russia_sentence_26

Etymology Russia_section_0

Main articles: Rus' people and Rus' (name) Russia_sentence_27

See also: Russian (disambiguation) Russia_sentence_28

The name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated mostly by the East Slavs. Russia_sentence_29

However, this proper name became more prominent in the later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля" (russkaja zemlja), which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". Russia_sentence_30

In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography. Russia_sentence_31

The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that later became Kievan Rus. Russia_sentence_32

An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. Russia_sentence_33

The current name of the country, Россия (Rossija), comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία (Rosía pronounced [roˈsia) in Modern Greek. Russia_sentence_34

The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is "Russians" in English and rossiyane (Russian: россияне) in Russian. Russia_sentence_35

There are two Russian words which are commonly translated into English as "Russians". Russia_sentence_36

One is "русские" (russkiye), which most often means "ethnic Russians". Russia_sentence_37

Another is "россияне" (rossiyane), which means "citizens of Russia, regardless of ethnicity". Russia_sentence_38

Translations into other languages often do not distinguish these two groups. Russia_sentence_39

History Russia_section_1

Main article: History of Russia Russia_sentence_40

Early history Russia_section_2

Further information: Scythia, Ancient Greek colonies, Early Slavs, East Slavs, Huns, Turkic expansion, and Prehistory of Siberia Russia_sentence_41

See also: Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Uralic Russia_sentence_42

Nomadic pastoralism developed in the Pontic-Caspian steppe beginning in the Chalcolithic. Russia_sentence_43

In classical antiquity, the Pontic Steppe was known as Scythia. Russia_sentence_44

Beginning in the 8th century BC, Ancient Greek traders brought their civilization to the trade emporiums in Tanais and Phanagoria. Russia_sentence_45

Ancient Greek explorers, most notably Pytheas, even went as far as modern day Kaliningrad, on the Baltic Sea. Russia_sentence_46

Romans settled on the western part of the Caspian Sea, where their empire stretched towards the east. Russia_sentence_47

In the 3rd to 4th centuries AD a semi-legendary Gothic kingdom of Oium existed in Southern Russia until it was overrun by Huns. Russia_sentence_48

Between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD, the Bosporan Kingdom, a Hellenistic polity which succeeded the Greek colonies, was also overwhelmed by nomadic invasions led by warlike tribes, such as the Huns and Eurasian Avars. Russia_sentence_49

A Turkic people, the Khazars, ruled the lower Volga basin steppes between the Caspian and Black Seas until the 10th century. Russia_sentence_50

The ancestors of modern Russians are the Slavic tribes, whose original home is thought by some scholars to have been the wooded areas of the Pinsk Marshes. Russia_sentence_51

The East Slavs gradually settled Western Russia in two waves: one moving from Kiev toward present-day Suzdal and Murom and another from Polotsk toward Novgorod and Rostov. Russia_sentence_52

From the 7th century onwards, the East Slavs constituted the bulk of the population in Western Russia and assimilated the native Finno-Ugric peoples, including the Merya, the Muromians, and the Meshchera. Russia_sentence_53

Kievan Rus' Russia_section_3

Main articles: Rus' Khaganate, Kievan Rus', and List of early East Slavic states Russia_sentence_54

The establishment of the first East Slavic states in the 9th century coincided with the arrival of Varangians, the traders, warriors and settlers from the Baltic Sea region. Russia_sentence_55

Primarily they were Vikings of Scandinavian origin, who ventured along the waterways extending from the eastern Baltic to the Black and Caspian Seas. Russia_sentence_56

According to the Primary Chronicle, a Varangian from Rus' people, named Rurik, was elected ruler of Novgorod in 862. Russia_sentence_57

In 882, his successor Oleg ventured south and conquered Kiev, which had been previously paying tribute to the Khazars. Russia_sentence_58

Oleg, Rurik's son Igor and Igor's son Sviatoslav subsequently subdued all local East Slavic tribes to Kievan rule, destroyed the Khazar khaganate and launched several military expeditions to Byzantium and Persia. Russia_sentence_59

In the 10th to 11th centuries Kievan Rus' became one of the largest and most prosperous states in Europe. Russia_sentence_60

The reigns of Vladimir the Great (980–1015) and his son Yaroslav the Wise (1019–1054) constitute the Golden Age of Kiev, which saw the acceptance of Orthodox Christianity from Byzantium and the creation of the first East Slavic written legal code, the Russkaya Pravda. Russia_sentence_61

In the 11th and 12th centuries, constant incursions by nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Kipchaks and the Pechenegs, caused a massive migration of Slavic populations to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north, particularly to the area known as Zalesye. Russia_sentence_62

The age of feudalism and decentralization was marked by constant in-fighting between members of the Rurik Dynasty that ruled Kievan Rus' collectively. Russia_sentence_63

Kiev's dominance waned, to the benefit of Vladimir-Suzdal in the north-east, Novgorod Republic in the north-west and Galicia-Volhynia in the south-west. Russia_sentence_64

Ultimately Kievan Rus' disintegrated, with the final blow being the Mongol invasion of 1237–40 that resulted in the destruction of Kiev and the death of about half the population of Rus'. Russia_sentence_65

The invading Mongol elite, together with their conquered Turkic subjects (Cumans, Kipchaks, Bulgars), became known as Tatars, forming the state of the Golden Horde, which pillaged the Russian principalities; the Mongols ruled the Cuman-Kipchak confederation and Volga Bulgaria (modern-day southern and central expanses of Russia) for over two centuries. Russia_sentence_66

Galicia-Volhynia was eventually assimilated by the Kingdom of Poland, while the Mongol-dominated Vladimir-Suzdal and Novgorod Republic, two regions on the periphery of Kiev, established the basis for the modern Russian nation. Russia_sentence_67

The Novgorod Republic together with Pskov retained some degree of autonomy during the time of the Mongol yoke and were largely spared the atrocities that affected the rest of the country. Russia_sentence_68

Led by Prince Alexander Nevsky, Novgorodians repelled the invading Swedes in the Battle of the Neva in 1240, as well as the Germanic crusaders in the Battle of the Ice in 1242, breaking their attempts to colonise the Northern Rus'. Russia_sentence_69

Grand Duchy of Moscow Russia_section_4

Main article: Grand Duchy of Moscow Russia_sentence_70

The most powerful state to eventually arise after the destruction of Kievan Rus' was the Grand Duchy of Moscow ("Muscovy" in the Western chronicles), initially a part of Vladimir-Suzdal. Russia_sentence_71

While still under the domain of the Mongol-Tatars and with their connivance, Moscow began to assert its influence in the Central Rus' in the early 14th century, gradually becoming the leading force in the process of the Rus' lands' reunification and expansion of Russia. Russia_sentence_72

Moscow's last rival, the Novgorod Republic, prospered as the chief fur trade center and the easternmost port of the Hanseatic League. Russia_sentence_73

Times remained difficult, with frequent Mongol-Tatar raids. Russia_sentence_74

Agriculture suffered from the beginning of the Little Ice Age. Russia_sentence_75

As in the rest of Europe, plague was a frequent occurrence between 1350 and 1490. Russia_sentence_76

However, because of the lower population density and better hygiene—widespread practicing of banya, a wet steam bath—the death rate from plague was not as severe as in Western Europe, and population numbers recovered by 1500. Russia_sentence_77

Led by Prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow and helped by the Russian Orthodox Church, the united army of Russian principalities inflicted a milestone defeat on the Mongol-Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380. Russia_sentence_78

Moscow gradually absorbed the surrounding principalities, including formerly strong rivals such as Tver and Novgorod. Russia_sentence_79

Ivan III ("the Great") finally threw off the control of the Golden Horde and consolidated the whole of Central and Northern Rus' under Moscow's dominion. Russia_sentence_80

He was also the first to take the title "Grand Duke of all the Russias". Russia_sentence_81

After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Moscow claimed succession to the legacy of the Eastern Roman Empire. Russia_sentence_82

Ivan III married Sophia Palaiologina, the niece of the last Byzantine emperor Constantine XI, and made the Byzantine double-headed eagle his own, and eventually Russia's, coat-of-arms. Russia_sentence_83

Tsardom of Russia Russia_section_5

Main article: Tsardom of Russia Russia_sentence_84

See also: Moscow, third Rome Russia_sentence_85

In development of the Third Rome ideas, the Grand Duke Ivan IV (the "Terrible") was officially crowned first Tsar ("Caesar") of Russia in 1547. Russia_sentence_86

The Tsar promulgated a new code of laws (Sudebnik of 1550), established the first Russian feudal representative body (Zemsky Sobor) and introduced local self-management into the rural regions. Russia_sentence_87

During his long reign, Ivan the Terrible nearly doubled the already large Russian territory by annexing the three Tatar khanates (parts of the disintegrated Golden Horde): Kazan and Astrakhan along the Volga River, and the Siberian Khanate in southwestern Siberia. Russia_sentence_88

Thus, by the end of the 16th century Russia was transformed into a multiethnic, multidenominational and transcontinental state. Russia_sentence_89

However, the Tsardom was weakened by the long and unsuccessful Livonian War against the coalition of Poland, Lithuania, and Sweden for access to the Baltic coast and sea trade. Russia_sentence_90

At the same time, the Tatars of the Crimean Khanate, the only remaining successor to the Golden Horde, continued to raid Southern Russia. Russia_sentence_91

In an effort to restore the Volga khanates, Crimeans and their Ottoman allies invaded central Russia and were even able to burn down parts of Moscow in 1571. Russia_sentence_92

But in the next year the large invading army was thoroughly defeated by Russians in the Battle of Molodi, forever eliminating the threat of an Ottoman–Crimean expansion into Russia. Russia_sentence_93

The slave raids of Crimeans, however, did not cease until the late 17th century though the construction of new fortification lines across Southern Russia, such as the Great Abatis Line, constantly narrowed the area accessible to incursions. Russia_sentence_94

The death of Ivan's sons marked the end of the ancient Rurik Dynasty in 1598, and in combination with the famine of 1601–03 led to civil war, the rule of pretenders, and foreign intervention during the Time of Troubles in the early 17th century. Russia_sentence_95

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth occupied parts of Russia, including Moscow. Russia_sentence_96

In 1612, the Poles were forced to retreat by the Russian volunteer corps, led by two national heroes, merchant Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky. Russia_sentence_97

The Romanov Dynasty acceded to the throne in 1613 by the decision of Zemsky Sobor, and the country started its gradual recovery from the crisis. Russia_sentence_98

Russia continued its territorial growth through the 17th century, which was the age of Cossacks. Russia_sentence_99

Cossacks were warriors organised into military communities, resembling pirates and pioneers of the New World. Russia_sentence_100

In 1648, the peasants of Ukraine joined the Zaporozhian Cossacks in rebellion against Poland-Lithuania during the Khmelnytsky Uprising in reaction to the social and religious oppression they had been suffering under Polish rule. Russia_sentence_101

In 1654, the Ukrainian leader, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, offered to place Ukraine under the protection of the Russian Tsar, Aleksey I. Russia_sentence_102

Aleksey's acceptance of this offer led to another Russo-Polish War. Russia_sentence_103

Finally, Ukraine was split along the Dnieper River, leaving the western part, right-bank Ukraine, under Polish rule and the eastern part (Left-bank Ukraine and Kiev) under Russian rule. Russia_sentence_104

Later, in 1670–71, the Don Cossacks led by Stenka Razin initiated a major uprising in the Volga Region, but the Tsar's troops were successful in defeating the rebels. Russia_sentence_105

In the east, the rapid Russian exploration and colonisation of the huge territories of Siberia was led mostly by Cossacks hunting for valuable furs and ivory. Russia_sentence_106

Russian explorers pushed eastward primarily along the Siberian River Routes, and by the mid-17th century there were Russian settlements in Eastern Siberia, on the Chukchi Peninsula, along the Amur River, and on the Pacific coast. Russia_sentence_107

In 1648, the Bering Strait between Asia and North America was passed for the first time by Fedot Popov and Semyon Dezhnyov. Russia_sentence_108

Imperial Russia Russia_section_6

Main article: Russian Empire Russia_sentence_109

Under Peter the Great, Russia was proclaimed an Empire in 1721 and became recognised as a world power. Russia_sentence_110

Ruling from 1682 to 1725, Peter defeated Sweden in the Great Northern War, forcing it to cede West Karelia and Ingria (two regions lost by Russia in the Time of Troubles), as well as Estland and Livland, securing Russia's access to the sea and sea trade. Russia_sentence_111

On the Baltic Sea, Peter founded a new capital called Saint Petersburg, later known as Russia's "window to Europe". Russia_sentence_112

Peter the Great's reforms brought considerable Western European cultural influences to Russia. Russia_sentence_113

The reign of Peter I's daughter Elizabeth in 1741–62 saw Russia's participation in the Seven Years' War (1756–63). Russia_sentence_114

During this conflict Russia annexed East Prussia for a while and even took Berlin. Russia_sentence_115

However, upon Elizabeth's death, all these conquests were returned to the Kingdom of Prussia by pro-Prussian Peter III of Russia. Russia_sentence_116

Catherine II ("the Great"), who ruled in 1762–96, presided over the Age of Russian Enlightenment. Russia_sentence_117

She extended Russian political control over the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and incorporated most of its territories into Russia during the Partitions of Poland, pushing the Russian frontier westward into Central Europe. Russia_sentence_118

In the south, after successful Russo-Turkish Wars against Ottoman Turkey, Catherine advanced Russia's boundary to the Black Sea, defeating the Crimean Khanate. Russia_sentence_119

As a result of victories over Qajar Iran through the Russo-Persian Wars, by the first half of the 19th century Russia also made significant territorial gains in Transcaucasia and the North Caucasus, forcing the former to irrevocably cede what is nowadays Georgia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan and Armenia to Russia. Russia_sentence_120

Catherine's successor, her son Paul, was unstable and focused predominantly on domestic issues. Russia_sentence_121

Following his short reign, Catherine's strategy was continued with Alexander I's (1801–25) wresting of Finland from the weakened kingdom of Sweden in 1809 and of Bessarabia from the Ottomans in 1812. Russia_sentence_122

At the same time, Russians colonised Alaska and even founded settlements in California, such as Fort Ross. Russia_sentence_123

In 1803–1806, the first Russian circumnavigation was made, later followed by other notable Russian sea exploration voyages. Russia_sentence_124

In 1820, a Russian expedition discovered the continent of Antarctica. Russia_sentence_125

In alliances with various European countries, Russia fought against Napoleon's France. Russia_sentence_126

The French invasion of Russia at the height of Napoleon's power in 1812 reached Moscow, but eventually failed miserably as the obstinate resistance in combination with the bitterly cold Russian winter led to a disastrous defeat of invaders, in which more than 95% of the pan-European Grande Armée perished. Russia_sentence_127

Led by Mikhail Kutuzov and Barclay de Tolly, the Russian army ousted Napoleon from the country and drove through Europe in the war of the Sixth Coalition, finally entering Paris. Russia_sentence_128

Alexander I headed Russia's delegation at the Congress of Vienna that defined the map of post-Napoleonic Europe. Russia_sentence_129

The officers of the Napoleonic Wars brought ideas of liberalism back to Russia with them and attempted to curtail the tsar's powers during the abortive Decembrist revolt of 1825. Russia_sentence_130

At the end of the conservative reign of Nicolas I (1825–55), a zenith period of Russia's power and influence in Europe was disrupted by defeat in the Crimean War. Russia_sentence_131

Between 1847 and 1851, about one million people died of Asiatic cholera. Russia_sentence_132

Nicholas's successor Alexander II (1855–81) enacted significant changes in the country, including the emancipation reform of 1861. Russia_sentence_133

These Great Reforms spurred industrialization and modernised the Russian army, which had successfully liberated Bulgaria from Ottoman rule in the 1877–78 Russo-Turkish War. Russia_sentence_134

The late 19th century saw the rise of various socialist movements in Russia. Russia_sentence_135

Alexander II was killed in 1881 by revolutionary terrorists, and the reign of his son Alexander III (1881–94) was less liberal but more peaceful. Russia_sentence_136

The last Russian Emperor, Nicholas II (1894–1917), was unable to prevent the events of the Russian Revolution of 1905, triggered by the unsuccessful Russo-Japanese War and the demonstration incident known as Bloody Sunday. Russia_sentence_137

The uprising was put down, but the government was forced to concede major reforms (Russian Constitution of 1906), including granting the freedoms of speech and assembly, the legalization of political parties, and the creation of an elected legislative body, the State Duma of the Russian Empire. Russia_sentence_138

The Stolypin agrarian reform led to a massive peasant migration and settlement into Siberia. Russia_sentence_139

More than four million settlers arrived in that region between 1906 and 1914. Russia_sentence_140

February Revolution and Russian Republic Russia_section_7

Main articles: February Revolution, Russian Provisional Government, and Russian Republic Russia_sentence_141

See also: 1917 Russian Constituent Assembly election and Russian Democratic Federative Republic Russia_sentence_142

In 1914, Russia entered World War I in response to Austria-Hungary's declaration of war on Russia's ally Serbia, and fought across multiple fronts while isolated from its Triple Entente allies. Russia_sentence_143

In 1916, the Brusilov Offensive of the Russian Army almost completely destroyed the military of Austria-Hungary. Russia_sentence_144

However, the already-existing public distrust of the regime was deepened by the rising costs of war, high casualties, and rumors of corruption and treason. Russia_sentence_145

All this formed the climate for the Russian Revolution of 1917, carried out in two major acts. Russia_sentence_146

The February Revolution forced Nicholas II to abdicate; he and his family were imprisoned and later executed in Yekaterinburg during the Russian Civil War. Russia_sentence_147

The monarchy was replaced by a shaky coalition of political parties that declared itself the Provisional Government. Russia_sentence_148

On 1 September (14), 1917, upon a decree of the Provisional Government, the Russian Republic was proclaimed. Russia_sentence_149

On 6 January (19), 1918, the Russian Constituent Assembly declared Russia a democratic federal republic (thus ratifying the Provisional Government's decision). Russia_sentence_150

The next day the Constituent Assembly was dissolved by the All-Russian Central Executive Committee. Russia_sentence_151

Soviet Russia and civil war Russia_section_8

Main articles: October Revolution, Russian Civil War, and White movement Russia_sentence_152

See also: Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and Russian Constitution of 1918 Russia_sentence_153

An alternative socialist establishment co-existed, the Petrograd Soviet, wielding power through the democratically elected councils of workers and peasants, called Soviets. Russia_sentence_154

The rule of the new authorities only aggravated the crisis in the country, instead of resolving it. Russia_sentence_155

Eventually, the October Revolution, led by Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Provisional Government and gave full governing power to the Soviets, leading to the creation of the world's first socialist state. Russia_sentence_156

Following the October Revolution, a civil war broke out between the anti-Communist White movement and the new Soviet regime with its Red Army. Russia_sentence_157

Bolshevist Russia lost its Ukrainian, Polish, Baltic, and Finnish territories by signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that concluded hostilities with the Central Powers of World War I. Russia_sentence_158

The Allied powers launched an unsuccessful military intervention in support of anti-Communist forces. Russia_sentence_159

In the meantime both the Bolsheviks and White movement carried out campaigns of deportations and executions against each other, known respectively as the Red Terror and White Terror. Russia_sentence_160

By the end of the civil war, Russia's economy and infrastructure were heavily damaged. Russia_sentence_161

There were an estimated 7–12 million casualties during the war, mostly civilians. Russia_sentence_162

Millions became White émigrés, and the Russian famine of 1921–22 claimed up to five million victims. Russia_sentence_163

Soviet Union Russia_section_9

Main articles: Soviet Union and History of the Soviet Union Russia_sentence_164

See also: Treaty on the Creation of the USSR Russia_sentence_165

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (called Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic at the time), together with the Ukrainian, Byelorussian, and Transcaucasian Soviet Socialist Republics, formed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), or Soviet Union, on 30 December 1922. Russia_sentence_166

Out of the 15 republics that would make up the USSR, the largest in size and over half of the total USSR population was the Russian SFSR, which came to dominate the union for its entire 69-year history. Russia_sentence_167

Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika was designated to govern the Soviet Union. Russia_sentence_168

However, Joseph Stalin, an elected General Secretary of the Communist Party, managed to suppress all opposition groups within the party and consolidate power in his hands to become the Soviet Union's de facto dictator by the 1930s. Russia_sentence_169

Leon Trotsky, the main proponent of world revolution, was exiled from the Soviet Union in 1929, and Stalin's idea of Socialism in One Country became the primary line. Russia_sentence_170

The continued internal struggle in the Bolshevik party culminated in the Great Purge, a period of mass repressions in 1937–38, during which hundreds of thousands of people were executed, including original party members and military leaders accused of coup d'état plots. Russia_sentence_171

Under Stalin's leadership, the government launched a command economy, industrialization of the largely rural country, and collectivization of its agriculture. Russia_sentence_172

During this period of rapid economic and social change, millions of people were sent to penal labor camps, including many political convicts for their opposition to Stalin's rule; millions were deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union. Russia_sentence_173

The transitional disorganisation of the country's agriculture, combined with the harsh state policies and a drought, led to the Soviet famine of 1932–1933, which killed between 2 and 3 million people in the Russian SFSR. Russia_sentence_174

The Soviet Union made the costly transformation from a largely agrarian economy to a major industrial powerhouse in a short span of time. Russia_sentence_175

Under the doctrine of state atheism in the Soviet Union, there was a "government-sponsored program of forced conversion to atheism". Russia_sentence_176

The Soviet government targeted religions based on state interests, and while most organised religions were never outlawed, religious property was confiscated, believers were harassed, and religion was ridiculed while atheism was propagated in schools. Russia_sentence_177

In 1925 the government founded the League of Militant Atheists to intensify the persecution. Russia_sentence_178

While persecution accelerated following Stalin's rise to power, a revival of Orthodoxy was fostered by the government during World War II and the Soviet authorities sought to control the Russian Orthodox Church rather than liquidate it. Russia_sentence_179

World War II Russia_section_10

The Appeasement policy of Great Britain and France towards Adolf Hitler's annexation of Austria and Czechoslovakia did not stem an increase in the power of Nazi Germany. Russia_sentence_180

Around the same time, the Third Reich allied with the Empire of Japan, a rival of the USSR in the Far East and an open enemy of the USSR in the Soviet–Japanese Border Wars in 1938–39. Russia_sentence_181

In August 1939, as attempts to form an anti-Nazi military alliance with Britain and France failed, the Soviet government signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact with Nazi Germany, pledging non-aggression between the two countries and secretly dividing Eastern Europe into their respective spheres of influence. Russia_sentence_182

When Germany launched the Invasion of Poland, the formally neutral Soviets followed weeks later with their own invasion of the country, claiming the eastern half of Poland. Russia_sentence_183

The Soviet government engaged in significant cooperation with Nazi Germany between 1939 and 1941, through extensive trade agreements which supplied Germany with vital raw materials for her war effort against Britain and France. Russia_sentence_184

As the other European powers were busy fighting in World War II, the USSR expanded her own military, and occupied the Hertza region as a result of the Winter War, annexed the Baltic states and annexed Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina from Romania. Russia_sentence_185

On 22 June 1941, Nazi Germany broke their non-aggression treaty with their erstwhile partner and invaded the Soviet Union with the largest and most powerful invasion force in human history, opening the largest theater of World War II. Russia_sentence_186

The Nazi Hunger Plan foresaw the "extinction of industry as well as a great part of the population". Russia_sentence_187

Nearly 3 million Soviet POWs in German captivity were murdered in just eight months of 1941–42. Russia_sentence_188

Although the German army had considerable early success, their attack was halted in the Battle of Moscow. Russia_sentence_189

Subsequently, the Germans were dealt major defeats first at the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of 1942–43, and then in the Battle of Kursk in the summer of 1943. Russia_sentence_190

Another German failure was the Siege of Leningrad, in which the city was fully blockaded on land between 1941 and 1944 by German and Finnish forces, and suffered starvation and more than a million deaths, but never surrendered. Russia_sentence_191

Under Stalin's administration and the leadership of such commanders as Georgy Zhukov and Konstantin Rokossovsky, Soviet forces took Eastern Europe in 1944–45 and captured Berlin in May 1945. Russia_sentence_192

In August 1945 the Soviet Army ousted the Japanese from China's Manchukuo and North Korea, contributing to the allied victory over Japan. Russia_sentence_193

The 1941–45 period of World War II is known in Russia as the "Great Patriotic War". Russia_sentence_194

The Soviet Union together with the United States, the United Kingdom and China were considered as the Big Four of Allied powers in World War II and later became the Four Policemen which was the foundation of the United Nations Security Council. Russia_sentence_195

During this war, which included many of the most lethal battle operations in human history, Soviet civilian and military death were about 27 million, accounting for about a third of all World War II casualties. Russia_sentence_196

The full demographic loss to the Soviet peoples was even greater. Russia_sentence_197

The Soviet economy and infrastructure suffered massive devastation which caused the Soviet famine of 1946–47, but the Soviet Union emerged as an acknowledged military superpower on the continent. Russia_sentence_198

The Soviet rear was also badly damaged by the German invasion. Russia_sentence_199

Luftwaffe bombed the cities of the Soviet Union from the air. Russia_sentence_200

Gorky suffered the most from the bombing. Russia_sentence_201

This city was the main industrial center of the USSR and was located near the Moscow Defence Zone. Russia_sentence_202

The bombing of the Volga capital destroyed the largest automobile plant GAZ. Russia_sentence_203

This plant supplied tanks for the front. Russia_sentence_204

Whole residential areas and other large factories of the city were destroyed. Russia_sentence_205

Cold War Russia_section_11

After the war, Eastern and Central Europe including East Germany and part of Austria was occupied by Red Army according to the Potsdam Conference. Russia_sentence_206

Dependent socialist governments were installed in the Eastern Bloc satellite states. Russia_sentence_207

Becoming the world's second nuclear weapons power, the USSR established the Warsaw Pact alliance and entered into a struggle for global dominance, known as the Cold War, with the United States and NATO. Russia_sentence_208

The Soviet Union supported revolutionary movements across the world, including the newly formed People's Republic of China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and, later on, the Republic of Cuba. Russia_sentence_209

Significant amounts of Soviet resources were allocated in aid to the other socialist states. Russia_sentence_210

After Stalin's death and a short period of collective rule, the new leader Nikita Khrushchev denounced the cult of personality of Stalin and launched the policy of de-Stalinization. Russia_sentence_211

The penal labor system was reformed and many prisoners were released and rehabilitated (many of them posthumously). Russia_sentence_212

The general easement of repressive policies became known later as the Khrushchev Thaw. Russia_sentence_213

At the same time, tensions with the United States heightened when the two rivals clashed over the deployment of the United States Jupiter missiles in Turkey and Soviet missiles in Cuba. Russia_sentence_214

In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, thus starting the Space Age. Russia_sentence_215

Russia's cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human to orbit the Earth, aboard the Vostok 1 manned spacecraft on 12 April 1961. Russia_sentence_216

Following the ousting of Khrushchev in 1964, another period of collective rule ensued, until Leonid Brezhnev became the leader. Russia_sentence_217

The era of the 1970s and the early 1980s was later designated as the Era of Stagnation, a period when economic growth slowed and social policies became static. Russia_sentence_218

The 1965 Kosygin reform aimed for partial decentralization of the Soviet economy and shifted the emphasis from heavy industry and weapons to light industry and consumer goods but was stifled by the conservative Communist leadership. Russia_sentence_219

In 1979, after a Communist-led revolution in Afghanistan, Soviet forces entered that country. Russia_sentence_220

The occupation drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results. Russia_sentence_221

Ultimately, the Soviet Army was withdrawn from Afghanistan in 1989 due to international opposition, persistent anti-Soviet guerrilla warfare, and a lack of support by Soviet citizens. Russia_sentence_222

From 1985 onwards, the last Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, who sought to enact liberal reforms in the Soviet system, introduced the policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation and to democratise the government. Russia_sentence_223

This, however, led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements. Russia_sentence_224

Prior to 1991, the Soviet economy was the second largest in the world, but during its last years it was afflicted by shortages of goods in grocery stores, huge budget deficits, and explosive growth in the money supply leading to inflation. Russia_sentence_225

By 1991, economic and political turmoil began to boil over, as the Baltic states chose to secede from the Soviet Union. Russia_sentence_226

On 17 March, a referendum was held, in which the vast majority of participating citizens voted in favour of changing the Soviet Union into a renewed federation. Russia_sentence_227

In August 1991, a coup d'état attempt by members of Gorbachev's government, directed against Gorbachev and aimed at preserving the Soviet Union, instead led to the end of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Russia_sentence_228

On 25 December 1991, the USSR was dissolved into 15 post-Soviet states. Russia_sentence_229

Post-Soviet Russia (1991–present) Russia_section_12

Main articles: History of Russia (1991–present), Russia and the United Nations, and 1993 Constitution of Russia Russia_sentence_230

See also: Commonwealth of Independent States, War of Laws, and 1993 Russian constitutional crisis Russia_sentence_231

In June 1991, Boris Yeltsin became the first directly elected president in Russian history when he was elected President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, which became the independent Russian Federation in December of that year. Russia_sentence_232

The economic and political collapse of USSR led to a deep and prolonged depression, characterised by a 50% decline in both GDP and industrial output between 1990 and 1995, although some of the recorded declines may have been a result of an upward bias in Soviet-era economic data. Russia_sentence_233

During and after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, wide-ranging reforms including privatization and market and trade liberalization were undertaken, including radical changes along the lines of "shock therapy" as recommended by the United States and the International Monetary Fund. Russia_sentence_234

The privatization largely shifted control of enterprises from state agencies to individuals with inside connections in the government. Russia_sentence_235

Many of the newly rich moved billions in cash and assets outside of the country in an enormous capital flight. Russia_sentence_236

The depression of the economy led to the collapse of social services; the birth rate plummeted while the death rate skyrocketed. Russia_sentence_237

Millions plunged into poverty, from a level of 1.5% in the late Soviet era to 39–49% by mid-1993. Russia_sentence_238

The 1990s saw extreme corruption and lawlessness, the rise of criminal gangs and violent crime. Russia_sentence_239

The 1990s were plagued by armed conflicts in the North Caucasus, both local ethnic skirmishes and separatist Islamist insurrections. Russia_sentence_240

From the time Chechen separatists declared independence in the early 1990s, an intermittent guerrilla war has been fought between the rebel groups and the Russian military. Russia_sentence_241

Terrorist attacks against civilians carried out by separatists, most notably the Moscow theater hostage crisis and Beslan school siege, caused hundreds of deaths and drew worldwide attention. Russia_sentence_242

Russia took up the responsibility for settling the USSR's external debts, even though its population made up just half of the population of the USSR at the time of its dissolution. Russia_sentence_243

In 1992, most consumer price controls were eliminated, causing extreme inflation and significantly devaluing the Ruble. Russia_sentence_244

With a devalued Ruble, the Russian government struggled to pay back its debts to internal debtors, as well as international institutions like the International Monetary Fund. Russia_sentence_245

Despite significant attempts at economic restructuring, Russia's debt outpaced GDP growth. Russia_sentence_246

High budget deficits coupled with increasing capital flight and inability to pay back debts caused the 1998 Russian financial crisis and resulted in a further GDP decline. Russia_sentence_247

On 31 December 1999, President Yeltsin unexpectedly resigned, handing the post to the recently appointed Prime Minister, Vladimir Putin, who then won the 2000 presidential election. Russia_sentence_248

Putin suppressed the Chechen insurgency although sporadic violence still occurs throughout the Northern Caucasus. Russia_sentence_249

High oil prices and the initially weak currency followed by increasing domestic demand, consumption, and investments helped the economy grow at an average of 7% per year from 1998 to 2008, improving the standard of living and increasing Russia's influence on the world stage. Russia_sentence_250

Putin went on to win a second presidential term in 2004. Russia_sentence_251

Following the world economic crisis of 2008 and a subsequent drop in oil prices, Russia's economy stagnated and poverty again started to rise until 2017 when, after the prolonged recession, Russia's economy began to grow again, supported by stronger global growth, higher oil prices, and solid macro fundamentals. Russia_sentence_252

While many reforms made during the Putin presidency have been generally criticised by Western nations as undemocratic, Putin's leadership over the return of order, stability, and progress has won him widespread admiration in Russia. Russia_sentence_253

On 2 March 2008, Dmitry Medvedev was elected President of Russia while Putin became Prime Minister. Russia_sentence_254

The Constitution of Russia prohibited Putin from serving a third consecutive presidential term. Russia_sentence_255

Putin returned to the presidency following the 2012 presidential elections, and Medvedev was appointed Prime Minister. Russia_sentence_256

This quick succession in leadership change was coined "tandemocracy" by outside media. Russia_sentence_257

Some critics claimed that the leadership change was superficial, and that Putin remained as the decision making force in the Russian government. Russia_sentence_258

Within the context of the ongoing Russia–Ukraine gas dispute in early January 2009, Nikolai Petrov, an analyst with the Carnegie Moscow Center said: "What we see right now is the dominant role of Putin. Russia_sentence_259

We see him as a real head of state. Russia_sentence_260

... Russia_sentence_261

This is not surprising. Russia_sentence_262

We are still living in Putin's Russia." Russia_sentence_263

Some Russian political analysts and commentators viewed the political power as truly tandem between Medvedev and Putin. Russia_sentence_264

Prior to the 2008 election, political scientists Gleb Pavlovsky and Stanislav Belkovsky discussed the future configuration of power. Russia_sentence_265

According to Mr. Pavlovsky, people would be very suited with the option of the union of Putin and Medvedev "similar to the two Consuls of Rome". Russia_sentence_266

Belkovsky called Medvedev "President of a dream", referring to the early 1990s when people ostensibly dreamed of the time they "would live without the stranglehold of ubiquitous ideology, and a common person would become the head of the state". Russia_sentence_267

Alleged fraud in the 2011 parliamentary elections and Putin's return to the presidency in 2012 sparked mass protests. Russia_sentence_268

In 2014, after President Viktor Yanukovych of Ukraine fled as a result of a revolution, Putin requested and received authorization from the Russian Parliament to deploy Russian troops to Ukraine, leading to the takeover of Crimea. Russia_sentence_269

Following a Crimean referendum in which separation was favoured by a large majority of voters, the Russian leadership announced the accession of Crimea into the Russian Federation, though this and the referendum that preceded it were not accepted internationally. Russia_sentence_270

On 27 March the United Nations General Assembly voted in favour of a non-binding resolution opposing the Russian annexation of Crimea by a vote of 100 member states in favour, 11 against and 58 abstentions. Russia_sentence_271

The annexation of Crimea led to sanctions by Western countries, in which the Russian government responded with its own against a number of countries. Russia_sentence_272

In September 2015, Russia started military intervention in the Syrian Civil War, consisting of air strikes against militant groups of the Islamic State, al-Nusra Front (al-Qaeda in the Levant), and the Army of Conquest. Russia_sentence_273

In January 2020, substantial amendments to the Constitution of Russia were proposed and took effect in July following a national vote, allowing Putin to run for two more six-year presidential terms after his current term ends. Russia_sentence_274

The vote was originally scheduled for April, but was postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Russia. Russia_sentence_275

As of November 2020, over 2 million cases were confirmed. Russia_sentence_276

Politics Russia_section_13

Main article: Politics of Russia Russia_sentence_277

Governance Russia_section_14

Russia_table_general_1

Russia_cell_1_0_0 Russia_cell_1_0_1
Vladimir Putin
PresidentRussia_cell_1_1_0
Mikhail Mishustin
Prime MinisterRussia_cell_1_1_1

According to the Constitution of Russia, the country is an asymmetric federation and semi-presidential republic, wherein the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government. Russia_sentence_278

The Russian Federation is fundamentally structured as a multi-party representative democracy, with the federal government composed of three branches: Russia_sentence_279

Russia_unordered_list_0

The president is elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term, but not for a third consecutive term). Russia_sentence_280

Ministries of the government are composed of the Premier and his deputies, ministers, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister (whereas the appointment of the latter requires the consent of the State Duma). Russia_sentence_281

Leading political parties in Russia include United Russia, the Communist Party, the Liberal Democratic Party, and A Just Russia. Russia_sentence_282

In 2019, Russia was ranked as 134th of 167 countries in the Democracy Index, compiled by The Economist Intelligence Unit, while the World Justice Project, as of 2014, ranked Russia 80th of 99 countries surveyed in terms of rule of law. Russia_sentence_283

Foreign relations Russia_section_15

Main article: Foreign relations of Russia Russia_sentence_284

The Russian Federation is recognised in international law as a successor state of the former Soviet Union. Russia_sentence_285

Russia continues to implement the international commitments of the USSR, and has assumed the USSR's permanent seat in the UN Security Council, membership in other international organisations, the rights and obligations under international treaties, and property and debts. Russia_sentence_286

Russia has a multifaceted foreign policy. Russia_sentence_287

As of 2009, it maintains diplomatic relations with 191 countries and has 144 embassies. Russia_sentence_288

The foreign policy is determined by the President and implemented by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia. Russia_sentence_289

Although it is the successor state to a former superpower, Russia is commonly accepted to be a major great power, as well as a regional power. Russia_sentence_290

Russia is one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council. Russia_sentence_291

The country participates in the Quartet on the Middle East and the Six-party talks with North Korea. Russia_sentence_292

Russia is a member of the Council of Europe, OSCE, and APEC. Russia_sentence_293

Russia usually takes a leading role in regional organisations such as the CIS, EurAsEC, CSTO, and the SCO. Russia_sentence_294

Russia became the 39th member state of the Council of Europe in 1996. Russia_sentence_295

In 1998, Russia ratified the European Convention on Human Rights. Russia_sentence_296

The legal basis for EU relations with Russia is the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, which came into force in 1997. Russia_sentence_297

The Agreement recalls the parties' shared respect for democracy and human rights, political and economic freedom and commitment to international peace and security. Russia_sentence_298

In May 2003, the EU and Russia agreed to reinforce their cooperation on the basis of common values and shared interests. Russia_sentence_299

President Vladimir Putin had advocated a strategic partnership with close integration in various dimensions, including establishment of EU-Russia Common Spaces. Russia_sentence_300

From the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia has initially developed a friendlier relationship with the United States and NATO, however today, the trilateral relationship has significantly deteriorated due to several issues and conflicts between Russia and the Western countries. Russia_sentence_301

The NATO-Russia Council was established in 2002 to allow the United States, Russia and the 27 allies in NATO to work together as equal partners to pursue opportunities for joint collaboration. Russia_sentence_302

Russia maintains strong and positive relations with other SCO and BRICS countries. Russia_sentence_303

In recent years, the country has significantly strengthened bilateral ties with the People's Republic of China by signing the Treaty of Friendship as well as building the Trans-Siberian oil pipeline and gas pipeline from Siberia to China, and has since formed a special relationship with China. Russia_sentence_304

India is the largest customer of Russian military equipment and the two countries share extensive defence and strategic relations. Russia_sentence_305

Military Russia_section_16

Main article: Russian Armed Forces Russia_sentence_306

The Russian military is divided into the Ground Forces, Navy, and Air Force. Russia_sentence_307

There are also three independent arms of service: Strategic Missile Troops, Aerospace Defence Forces, and the Airborne Troops. Russia_sentence_308

As of 2017, the military comprised over one million active duty personnel, the fifth-largest in the world. Russia_sentence_309

Additionally, there are over 2.5 million reservists, with the total number of reserve troops possibly being as high as 20 million. Russia_sentence_310

It is mandatory for all male citizens aged 18–27 to be drafted for a year of service in Armed Forces. Russia_sentence_311

Russia has the largest stockpile of nuclear weapons in the world, the second-largest fleet of ballistic missile submarines, and the only modern strategic bomber force outside the United States. Russia_sentence_312

More than 90% of world's 14,000 nuclear weapons are owned by Russia and the United States. Russia_sentence_313

Russia's tank force is the largest in the world, while its surface navy and air force are among the largest. Russia_sentence_314

The country has a large and fully indigenous arms industry, producing most of its own military equipment with only a few types of weapons imported. Russia_sentence_315

It has been one of the world's top supplier of arms since 2001, accounting for around 30% of worldwide weapons sales and exporting weapons to about 80 countries. Russia_sentence_316

The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, SIPRI, found that Russia was the second biggest exporter of arms in 2010–14, increasing their exports by 37 per cent from the period 2005–2009. Russia_sentence_317

SIPRI estimated in 2020 that Russia is the third biggest exporters of arms, only behind the US and China. Russia_sentence_318

In 2010–14, Russia delivered weapons to 56 states and to rebel forces in eastern Ukraine. Russia_sentence_319

The Russian government's official 2014 military budget is about 2.49 trillion rubles (approximately US$69.3 billion), the third-largest in the world behind the United States and the People's Republic of China. Russia_sentence_320

The official budget is set to rise to 3.03 trillion rubles (approximately US$83.7 billion) in 2015, and 3.36 trillion rubles (approximately US$93.9 billion) in 2016. Russia_sentence_321

However, unofficial estimates put the budget significantly higher, for example the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) 2013 Military Expenditure Database estimated Russia's military expenditure in 2012 at US$90.749 billion. Russia_sentence_322

This estimate is an increase of more than US$18 billion on SIPRI's estimate of the Russian military budget for 2011 (US$71.9 billion). Russia_sentence_323

As of 2020, Russia's military budget is higher than any other European nation. Russia_sentence_324

Human rights Russia_section_17

Main article: Human rights in Russia Russia_sentence_325

Russia's human rights management has been criticised by leading democracy and human rights , including over LGBT rights, media freedom, and reports about killed journalists. Russia_sentence_326

In particular, such organisations as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch consider Russia to have not enough democratic attributes and to allow few political rights and civil liberties to its citizens. Russia_sentence_327

Freedom House, an international organisation funded by the United States, ranks Russia as "not free", citing "carefully engineered elections" and "absence" of debate. Russia_sentence_328

Russian authorities dismiss these claims and especially criticise Freedom House. Russia_sentence_329

The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has called the 2006 Freedom in the World report "prefabricated", stating that the human rights issues have been turned into a political weapon in particular by the United States. Russia_sentence_330

The ministry also claims that such organisations as Freedom House and Human Rights Watch use the same scheme of voluntary extrapolation of "isolated facts that of course can be found in any country" into "dominant tendencies". Russia_sentence_331

Putin has argued that Western-style liberalism is obsolete in Russia, while maintaining that the country is still a democratic nation. Russia_sentence_332

Political divisions Russia_section_18

Main article: Subdivisions of Russia Russia_sentence_333

Russia_description_list_1

According to the Constitution, the country comprises eighty-five federal subjects, including the disputed Republic of Crimea and federal city of Sevastopol. Russia_sentence_334

In 1993, when the Constitution was adopted, there were eighty-nine federal subjects listed, but later some of them were merged. Russia_sentence_335

These subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council. Russia_sentence_336

However, they differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy. Russia_sentence_337

Russia_unordered_list_2

  • 46 oblasts (provinces): most common type of federal subjects, with locally elected governor and legislature.Russia_item_2_3
  • 22 republics: nominally autonomous; each is tasked with drafting its own constitution, direct-elected head of republic or a similar post, and parliament. Republics are allowed to establish their own official language alongside Russian but are represented by the federal government in international affairs. Republics are meant to be home to specific ethnic minorities.Russia_item_2_4
  • 9 krais (territories): essentially the same as oblasts. The "territory" designation is historic, originally given to frontier regions and later also to the administrative divisions that comprised autonomous okrugs or autonomous oblasts.Russia_item_2_5
  • 4 autonomous okrugs (autonomous districts): originally autonomous entities within oblasts and krais created for ethnic minorities, their status was elevated to that of federal subjects in the 1990s. With the exception of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, all autonomous okrugs are still administratively subordinated to a krai or an oblast of which they are a part.Russia_item_2_6
  • 1 autonomous oblast (the Jewish Autonomous Oblast): historically, autonomous oblasts were administrative units subordinated to krais. In 1990, all of them except for the Jewish AO were elevated in status to that of a republic.Russia_item_2_7
  • 3 federal cities (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol): major cities that function as separate regions.Russia_item_2_8

Further information: Political status of Crimea and Sevastopol and Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation Russia_sentence_338

Russia_description_list_3

Federal subjects are grouped into eight federal districts, each administered by an envoy appointed by the President of Russia. Russia_sentence_339

Unlike the federal subjects, the federal districts are not a subnational level of government, but are a level of administration of the federal government. Russia_sentence_340

Federal districts' envoys serve as liaisons between the federal subjects and the federal government and are primarily responsible for overseeing the compliance of the federal subjects with the federal laws. Russia_sentence_341

Geography Russia_section_19

Main article: Geography of Russia Russia_sentence_342

See also: List of Russian explorers Russia_sentence_343

Russia is the largest country in the world; its total area is 17,075,200 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi). Russia_sentence_344

This makes it larger than the continents of Oceania, Europe and Antarctica. Russia_sentence_345

It lies between latitudes 41° and 82° N, and longitudes 19° E and 169° W. Russia_sentence_346

Russia's territorial expansion was achieved largely in the late 16th century under the Cossack Yermak Timofeyevich during the reign of Ivan the Terrible, at a time when competing city-states in the western regions of Russia had banded together to form one country. Russia_sentence_347

Yermak mustered an army and pushed eastward where he conquered nearly all the lands once belonging to the Mongols, defeating their ruler, Khan Kuchum. Russia_sentence_348

Russia has a wide natural resource base, including major deposits of timber, petroleum, natural gas, coal, ores and other mineral resources. Russia_sentence_349

Topography Russia_section_20

The two most widely separated points in Russia are about 8,000 km (4,971 mi) apart along a geodesic line. Russia_sentence_350

These points are: a 60 km (37 mi) long Vistula Spit the boundary with Poland separating the Gdańsk Bay from the Vistula Lagoon and the most southeastern point of the Kuril Islands. Russia_sentence_351

The points which are farthest separated in longitude are 6,600 km (4,101 mi) apart along a geodesic line. Russia_sentence_352

These points are: in the west, the same spit on the boundary with Poland, and in the east, the Big Diomede Island. Russia_sentence_353

The Russian Federation spans 11 time zones. Russia_sentence_354

Most of Russia consists of vast stretches of plains that are predominantly steppe to the south and heavily forested to the north, with tundra along the northern coast. Russia_sentence_355

Russia possesses 7.4% of the world's arable land. Russia_sentence_356

Mountain ranges are found along the southern borders, such as the Caucasus (containing Mount Elbrus, which at 5,642 m (18,510 ft) is the highest point in both Russia and Europe) and the Altai (containing Mount Belukha, which at the 4,506 m (14,783 ft) is the highest point of Siberia outside of the Russian Far East); and in the eastern parts, such as the Verkhoyansk Range or the volcanoes of Kamchatka Peninsula (containing Klyuchevskaya Sopka, which at the 4,750 m (15,584 ft) is the highest active volcano in Eurasia as well as the highest point of Siberia). Russia_sentence_357

The Ural Mountains, rich in mineral resources, form a north–south range that divides Europe and Asia. Russia_sentence_358

Russia has an extensive coastline of over 37,000 km (22,991 mi) along the Arctic and Pacific Oceans, as well as along the Baltic Sea, Sea of Azov, Black Sea and Caspian Sea. Russia_sentence_359

The Barents Sea, White Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian Sea, Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, and the Sea of Japan are linked to Russia via the Arctic and Pacific. Russia_sentence_360

Russia's major islands and archipelagos include Novaya Zemlya, the Franz Josef Land, the Severnaya Zemlya, the New Siberian Islands, Wrangel Island, the Kuril Islands, and Sakhalin. Russia_sentence_361

The Diomede Islands (one controlled by Russia, the other by the United States) are just 3 km (1.9 mi) apart, and Kunashir Island is about 20 km (12.4 mi) from Hokkaido, Japan. Russia_sentence_362

Russia has thousands of rivers and inland bodies of water, providing it with one of the world's largest surface water resources. Russia_sentence_363

Its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the world's liquid fresh water. Russia_sentence_364

The largest and most prominent of Russia's bodies of fresh water is Lake Baikal, the world's deepest, purest, oldest and most capacious fresh water lake. Russia_sentence_365

Baikal alone contains over one-fifth of the world's fresh surface water. Russia_sentence_366

Other major lakes include Ladoga and Onega, two of the largest lakes in Europe. Russia_sentence_367

Russia is second only to Brazil in volume of the total renewable water resources. Russia_sentence_368

Of the country's 100,000 rivers, the Volga is the most famous, not only because it is the longest river in Europe, but also because of its major role in Russian history. Russia_sentence_369

The Siberian rivers of Ob, Yenisey, Lena and Amur are among the longest rivers in the world. Russia_sentence_370

Climate Russia_section_21

Main article: Climate of Russia Russia_sentence_371

The enormous size of Russia and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the humid continental climate, which is prevalent in all parts of the country except for the tundra and the extreme southwest. Russia_sentence_372

Mountains in the south obstruct the flow of warm air masses from the Indian Ocean, while the plain of the west and north makes the country open to Arctic and Atlantic influences. Russia_sentence_373

Most of Northern European Russia and Siberia has a subarctic climate, with extremely severe winters in the inner regions of Northeast Siberia (mostly the Sakha Republic, where the Northern Pole of Cold is located with the record low temperature of −71.2 °C or −96.2 °F), and more moderate winters elsewhere. Russia_sentence_374

Both the strip of land along the shore of the Arctic Ocean and the Russian Arctic islands have a polar climate. Russia_sentence_375

The coastal part of Krasnodar Krai on the Black Sea, most notably in Sochi, possesses a humid subtropical climate with mild and wet winters. Russia_sentence_376

In many regions of East Siberia and the Far East, winter is dry compared to summer; other parts of the country experience more even precipitation across seasons. Russia_sentence_377

Winter precipitation in most parts of the country usually falls as snow. Russia_sentence_378

The region along the Lower Volga and Caspian Sea coast, as well as some areas of southernmost Siberia, possesses a semi-arid climate. Russia_sentence_379

Throughout much of the territory there are only two distinct seasons—winter and summer—as spring and autumn are usually brief periods of change between extremely low and extremely high temperatures. Russia_sentence_380

The coldest month is January (February on the coastline); the warmest is usually July. Russia_sentence_381

Great ranges of temperature are typical. Russia_sentence_382

In winter, temperatures get colder both from south to north and from west to east. Russia_sentence_383

Summers can be quite hot, even in Siberia. Russia_sentence_384

The continental interiors are the driest areas. Russia_sentence_385

Biodiversity Russia_section_22

Main articles: List of ecoregions in Russia, List of mammals of Russia, List of birds of Russia, List of freshwater fish of Russia, and Wildlife of Russia Russia_sentence_386

From north to south the East European Plain, also known as Russian Plain, is clad sequentially in Arctic tundra, coniferous forest (taiga), mixed and broad-leaf forests, grassland (steppe), and semi-desert (fringing the Caspian Sea), as the changes in vegetation reflect the changes in climate. Russia_sentence_387

Siberia supports a similar sequence but is largely taiga. Russia_sentence_388

Russia has the world's largest forest reserves, known as "the lungs of Europe", second only to the Amazon Rainforest in the amount of carbon dioxide it absorbs. Russia_sentence_389

There are 266 mammal species and 780 bird species in Russia. Russia_sentence_390

A total of 415 animal species have been included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation as of 1997 and are now protected. Russia_sentence_391

There are 28 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Russia, 40 UNESCO biosphere reserves, 41 national parks and 101 nature reserves. Russia_sentence_392

Russia still has many ecosystems which are still untouched by man— mainly in the northern areas taiga and in subarctic tundra of Siberia. Russia_sentence_393

Over time Russia has been having improvement and application of environmental legislation, development and implementation of various federal and regional strategies and programmes, and study, inventory and protection of rare and endangered plants, animals, and other organisms, and including them in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. Russia_sentence_394

Economy Russia_section_23

Main article: Economy of Russia Russia_sentence_395

See also: Economic history of the Russian Federation and Taxation in Russia Russia_sentence_396

Russia has an upper-middle income mixed economy with enormous natural resources, particularly oil and natural gas. Russia_sentence_397

It has the 11th largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and the 6th largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Russia_sentence_398

Since the turn of the 21st century, higher domestic consumption and greater political stability have bolstered economic growth in Russia. Russia_sentence_399

The country ended 2008 with its ninth straight year of growth, but growth has slowed with the decline in the price of oil and gas. Russia_sentence_400

According to the World Bank, real GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) was 29,181 in 2019. Russia_sentence_401

Growth was primarily driven by non-traded services and goods for the domestic market, as opposed to oil or mineral extraction and exports. Russia_sentence_402

The average nominal salary in Russia was 47,867 rubles per month in 2019. Russia_sentence_403

Approximately 12.9% of Russians lived below the national poverty line in 2018. Russia_sentence_404

Unemployment in Russia was 4.5% in 2019. Russia_sentence_405

Officially, more than 70% of the Russian population is categorised as middle class; however some experts disagree with that. Russia_sentence_406

After the United States, the European Union and other countries imposed economic sanctions after the annexation of Crimea and a collapse in oil prices, the proportion of middle-class could decrease drastically. Russia_sentence_407

The economic development of the country has been uneven geographically with the Moscow region contributing a very large share of the country's GDP. Russia_sentence_408

By the end of December 2019, Russian foreign trade turnover reached $666.6 billion. Russia_sentence_409

Russia's exports totalled over $422.8 billion, while its imported goods were worth over $243.8 billion. Russia_sentence_410

Oil, natural gas, metals, and timber account for more than 80% of Russian exports abroad. Russia_sentence_411

Since 2003, the exports of natural resources started decreasing in economic importance as the internal market strengthened considerably. Russia_sentence_412

As of 2012 the oil-and-gas sector accounted for 16% of GDP, 52% of federal budget revenues and over 80% of total exports. Russia_sentence_413

Oil export earnings allowed Russia to increase its foreign reserves from $12 billion in 1999 to $597.3 billion on 1 August 2008. Russia_sentence_414

As of April 2017, foreign reserves in Russia fell to US$332 Billion. Russia_sentence_415

The macroeconomic policy under Finance Minister Alexei Kudrin was prudent and sound, with excess income being stored in the Stabilization Fund of Russia. Russia_sentence_416

In 2006, Russia repaid most of its formerly massive debts, leaving it with one of the lowest foreign debts among major economies. Russia_sentence_417

The Stabilization Fund helped Russia to come out of the global financial crisis in a much better state than many experts had expected. Russia_sentence_418

A simpler, more streamlined tax code adopted in 2001 reduced the tax burden on people and dramatically increased state revenue. Russia_sentence_419

Russia has a flat tax rate of 13%. Russia_sentence_420

This ranks it as the country with the second most attractive personal tax system for single managers in the world after the United Arab Emirates. Russia_sentence_421

The country has a higher proportion of higher education graduates than any other country in Eurasia. Russia_sentence_422

Inequality of household income and wealth has also been noted, with Credit Suisse finding Russian wealth distribution so much more extreme than other countries studied it "deserves to be placed in a separate category." Russia_sentence_423

In December 2011, Russia was approved as a member of the World Trade Organisation, allowing it a greater access to overseas markets. Russia_sentence_424

According to a stress test conducted by the central bank Russian financial system would be able to handle a currency decline of 25%–30% without major central bank interference. Russia_sentence_425

However, the Russian economy began stagnating in late 2013 and in combination with the War in Donbass is in danger of entering stagflation, slow growth and high inflation. Russia_sentence_426

The recent decline in the Russian ruble has increased the costs for Russian companies to make interest payments on debt issued in U.S. dollar or other foreign currencies that have strengthened against the ruble; thus it costs Russian companies more of their ruble-denominated revenue to repay their debt holders in dollars or other foreign currencies. Russia_sentence_427

The average inflation in Russia was 4.48% in 2019. Russia_sentence_428

In an October 2014 article in Bloomberg Business Week, it was reported that Russia had significantly started shifting its economy towards China in response to increasing financial tensions following its annexation of Crimea and subsequent Western economic sanctions. Russia_sentence_429

Energy Russia_section_24

Main articles: Energy in Russia, Nuclear power in Russia, and Russia in the European energy sector Russia_sentence_430

See also: Electricity sector in Russia, Renewable energy in Russia, and Hydroelectricity in Russia Russia_sentence_431

In recent years, Russia has frequently been described in the media as an energy superpower. Russia_sentence_432

The country has the world's largest natural gas reserves, the second largest coal reserves, the 8th largest oil reserves, and the biggest oil shale reserves in Europe. Russia_sentence_433

Russia is the world's leading natural gas exporter and second largest natural gas producer, while also the second largest oil exporter and the third largest oil producer. Russia_sentence_434

Fossil fuels cause most of the greenhouse gas emissions by Russia. Russia_sentence_435

Russia is the fourth largest electricity producer in the world, and the 9th largest renewable energy producer in 2019. Russia_sentence_436

Russia was the first country to develop civilian nuclear power and to construct the world's first nuclear power plant. Russia_sentence_437

In 2019 the country was the 4th largest nuclear energy producer in the world; nuclear generated 20% of the country's electricity. Russia_sentence_438

In 2014 Russia signed a deal to supply China with 38 billion cubic meters of natural gas per year. Russia_sentence_439

The project, which Putin has called the "world's biggest construction project," was launched in 2019 and is expected continue for 30 years at an ultimate cost to China of $400bn. Russia_sentence_440

External trade and investment Russia_section_25

See also: List of the largest trading partners of Russia, List of countries by oil exports, and List of countries by natural gas exports Russia_sentence_441

Russia recorded a trade surplus of US$130.1 billion in 2017. Russia_sentence_442

Russia's Trade Balance recorded a surplus of US$19.7 billion in October 2018, compared with a surplus of US$10.1 billion in October 2017. Russia_sentence_443

The European Union is Russia's largest trading partner and Russia is the EU's fourth largest trading partner. Russia_sentence_444

75% of foreign direct investment (FDI) stocks in Russia come from the EU. Russia_sentence_445

Reuters reported that U.S. Russia_sentence_446

companies "generated more than $90 billion in revenue from Russia in 2017." Russia_sentence_447

According to the AALEP, "there are almost 3,000 American companies in Russia, and the U.S. is also the leader in terms of foreign companies in Special Economic Zones, with 11 projects." Russia_sentence_448

Balance of trade in Russia is reported by the Central Bank of Russia. Russia_sentence_449

Historically, from 1997 until 2013, Russia balance of trade averaged US$8338.23 million reaching an all-time high of US$20647 million in December 2011 and a record low of −185 USD million in February 1998. Russia_sentence_450

Russia runs regular trade surpluses primarily due to exports of commodities. Russia_sentence_451

In 2015, Russia main exports are oil and natural gas (62.8% of total exports), ores and metals (5.9%), chemical products (5.8%), machinery and transport equipment (5.4%) and food (4.7%). Russia_sentence_452

Others include: agricultural raw materials (2.2%) and textiles (0.2%). Russia_sentence_453

Russia imports food, ground transports, pharmaceuticals and textile and footwear. Russia_sentence_454

Main trading partners are: China (7% of total exports and 10% of imports), Germany (7% of exports and 8% of imports) and Italy. Russia_sentence_455

This page includes a chart with historical data for Russia balance of trade. Russia_sentence_456

Exports in Russia decreased to US$39038 million in January 2013 from US$48568 million in December 2012. Russia_sentence_457

Exports in Russia is reported by the Central Bank of Russia. Russia_sentence_458

Historically, from 1994 until 2013, Russia Exports averaged US$18668.83 million reaching an all-time high of US$51338 million in December 2011 and a record low of US$4087 million in January 1994. Russia_sentence_459

Russia is the 16th largest export economy in the world (2016) and is a leading exporter of oil and natural gas. Russia_sentence_460

In Russia, services are the biggest sector of the economy and account for 58% of GDP. Russia_sentence_461

Within services the most important segments are: wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods (17% of total GDP); public administration, health and education (12%); real estate (9%) and transport storage and communications (7%). Russia_sentence_462

Industry contributes 40% to total output. Russia_sentence_463

Mining (11% of GDP), manufacturing (13%) and construction (4%) are the most important industry segments. Russia_sentence_464

Agriculture accounts for the remaining 2%. Russia_sentence_465

This page includes a chart with historical data for Russia Exports. Russia_sentence_466

Imports in Russia is reported by the Central Bank of Russia. Russia_sentence_467

Historically, from 1994 until 2013, Russia imports averaged US$11392.06 million reaching an all-time high of US$31553 million in October 2012 and a record low of US$2691 million in January 1999. Russia_sentence_468

Russia main imports are food (13% of total imports) and ground transports (12%). Russia_sentence_469

Others include: pharmaceuticals, textile and footwear, plastics and optical instruments. Russia_sentence_470

Main import partners are China (10% of total imports) and Germany (8%). Russia_sentence_471

Others include: Italy, France, Japan and United States. Russia_sentence_472

This page includes a chart with historical data for Russia Imports. Russia_sentence_473

Foreign trade of Russia – Russian export and import Russia_sentence_474

Russia_table_general_2

YearRussia_header_cell_2_0_0 2005Russia_cell_2_0_1 2006Russia_cell_2_0_2 2007Russia_cell_2_0_3 2008Russia_cell_2_0_4 2009Russia_cell_2_0_5 2010Russia_cell_2_0_6 2011Russia_cell_2_0_7 2012Russia_cell_2_0_8 2013Russia_cell_2_0_9 2014Russia_cell_2_0_10 2015Russia_cell_2_0_11 2016Russia_cell_2_0_12
Export (US$ Billions)Russia_header_cell_2_1_0 241Russia_cell_2_1_1 302Russia_cell_2_1_2 352Russia_cell_2_1_3 468Russia_cell_2_1_4 302Russia_cell_2_1_5 397Russia_cell_2_1_6 517Russia_cell_2_1_7 525Russia_cell_2_1_8 527Russia_cell_2_1_9 498Russia_cell_2_1_10 344Russia_cell_2_1_11 285Russia_cell_2_1_12
Import (US$ Billions)Russia_header_cell_2_2_0 99Russia_cell_2_2_1 138Russia_cell_2_2_2 200Russia_cell_2_2_3 267Russia_cell_2_2_4 171Russia_cell_2_2_5 229Russia_cell_2_2_6 306Russia_cell_2_2_7 316Russia_cell_2_2_8 315Russia_cell_2_2_9 287Russia_cell_2_2_10 183Russia_cell_2_2_11 182Russia_cell_2_2_12

Trade with CIS countries is up 13.2% to $23.3 billion. Russia_sentence_475

Trade with the EU forms 52.9%, with the CIS 15.4%, Eurasian Economic Community 7.8% and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation 15.9%. Russia_sentence_476

Tourism Russia_section_26

Main article: Tourism in Russia Russia_sentence_477

According to a UNWTO report, Russia is the sixteenth-most visited country in the world, and the tenth-most visited country in Europe, as of 2018, with 24.6 million visits. Russia_sentence_478

Russia is the 39th in the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2019. Russia_sentence_479

According to Federal Agency for Tourism, the number of inbound trips of foreign citizens to Russia amounted to 24.4 million in 2019. Russia_sentence_480

Russia's international tourism receipts in 2018 amounted to $11.6 billion. Russia_sentence_481

In 2020, Deputy Prime Minister of Russia Dmitry Chernyshenko said, that for now tourism accounts for about 4% of country's GDP. Russia_sentence_482

Major tourist routes in Russia include a journey around the Golden Ring theme route of ancient cities, cruises on the big rivers like the Volga, and long journeys on the famous Trans-Siberian Railway. Russia_sentence_483

The most visited destinations in Russia are Moscow and Saint Petersburg, the current and former capitals of the country. Russia_sentence_484

Recognised as World Cities, they feature such world-renowned museums as the Tretyakov Gallery and the Hermitage, famous theaters like Bolshoi and Mariinsky, ornate churches like Saint Basil's Cathedral, Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Saint Isaac's Cathedral and Church of the Savior on Blood, impressive fortifications like the Kremlin and Peter and Paul Fortress, beautiful squares and streets like Red Square, Palace Square, Tverskaya Street, Nevsky Prospect, and Arbat Street. Russia_sentence_485

Rich palaces and parks are found in the former imperial residences in suburbs of Moscow (Kolomenskoye, Tsaritsyno) and St Petersburg (Peterhof, Strelna, Oranienbaum, Gatchina, Pavlovsk and Tsarskoye Selo). Russia_sentence_486

Agriculture Russia_section_27

Main articles: Agriculture in Russia and Fishing industry in Russia Russia_sentence_487

Russia's total area of cultivated land is estimated at 1,237,294 square kilometres (477,722 sq mi), the fourth largest in the world. Russia_sentence_488

From 1999 to 2009, Russia's agriculture grew steadily, and the country turned from a grain importer to the third largest grain exporter after the EU and the United States. Russia_sentence_489

The production of meat has grown from 6,813,000 tonnes in 1999 to 9,331,000 tonnes in 2008, and continues to grow. Russia_sentence_490

The 2014 devaluation of the rouble and imposition of sanctions spurred domestic production, and in 2016 Russia exceeded Soviet grain production levels, and became the world's largest exporter of wheat. Russia_sentence_491

This restoration of agriculture was supported by a credit policy of the government, helping both individual farmers and large privatised corporate farms that once were Soviet kolkhozes and which still own the significant share of agricultural land. Russia_sentence_492

While large farms concentrate mainly on grain production and husbandry products, small private household plots produce most of the country's potatoes, vegetables and fruits. Russia_sentence_493

Since Russia borders three oceans (the Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific), Russian fishing fleets are a major world fish supplier. Russia_sentence_494

Russia captured 3,191,068 tons of fish in 2005. Russia_sentence_495

Both exports and imports of fish and sea products grew significantly in recent years, reaching $2,415 and $2,036 million, respectively, in 2008. Russia_sentence_496

Sprawling from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, Russia has more than a fifth of the world's forests, which makes it the largest forest country in the world. Russia_sentence_497

However, according to a 2012 study by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Government of the Russian Federation, the considerable potential of Russian forests is underutilised and Russia's share of the global trade in forest products is less than four percent. Russia_sentence_498

Transport Russia_section_28

Main articles: Transport in Russia, History of rail transport in Russia, and Rail transport in Russia Russia_sentence_499

Railway transport in Russia is mostly under the control of the state-run Russian Railways monopoly. Russia_sentence_500

The company accounts for over 3.6% of Russia's GDP and handles 39% of the total freight traffic (including pipelines) and more than 42% of passenger traffic. Russia_sentence_501

The total length of common-used railway tracks exceeds 85,500 km (53,127 mi), second only to the United States. Russia_sentence_502

Over 44,000 km (27,340 mi) of tracks are electrified, which is the largest number in the world, and additionally there are more than 30,000 km (18,641 mi) of industrial non-common carrier lines. Russia_sentence_503

Railways in Russia, unlike in the most of the world, use broad gauge of 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 ⁄32 in), with the exception of 957 km (595 mi) on Sakhalin island using narrow gauge of 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in). Russia_sentence_504

The most renowned railway in Russia is Trans-Siberian (Transsib), spanning a record seven time zones and serving the longest single continuous services in the world, Moscow-Vladivostok (9,259 km (5,753 mi)), Moscow–Pyongyang (10,267 km (6,380 mi)) and Kyiv–Vladivostok (11,085 km (6,888 mi)). Russia_sentence_505

As of 2006 Russia had 933,000 km of roads, of which 755,000 were paved. Russia_sentence_506

Some of these make up the Russian federal motorway system. Russia_sentence_507

With a large land area the road density is the lowest of all the G8 and BRIC countries. Russia_sentence_508

Much of Russia's inland waterways, which total 102,000 km (63,380 mi), are made up of natural rivers or lakes. Russia_sentence_509

In the European part of the country the network of channels connects the basins of major rivers. Russia_sentence_510

Russia's capital, Moscow, is sometimes called "the port of the five seas", because of its waterway connections to the Baltic, White, Caspian, Azov and Black Seas. Russia_sentence_511

Major sea ports of Russia include Rostov-on-Don on the Azov Sea, Novorossiysk on the Black Sea, Astrakhan and Makhachkala on the Caspian, Kaliningrad and St Petersburg on the Baltic, Arkhangelsk on the White Sea, Murmansk on the Barents Sea, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and Vladivostok on the Pacific Ocean. Russia_sentence_512

In 2008 the country owned 1,448 merchant marine ships. Russia_sentence_513

The world's only fleet of nuclear-powered icebreakers advances the economic exploitation of the Arctic continental shelf of Russia and the development of sea trade through the Northern Sea Route between Europe and East Asia. Russia_sentence_514

By total length of pipelines Russia is second only to the United States. Russia_sentence_515

Currently many new pipeline projects are being realised, including Nord Stream and South Stream natural gas pipelines to Europe, and the Eastern Siberia – Pacific Ocean oil pipeline (ESPO) to the Russian Far East and China. Russia_sentence_516

Russia has 1,216 airports, the busiest being Sheremetyevo, Domodedovo, and Vnukovo in Moscow, and Pulkovo in St. Petersburg. Russia_sentence_517

Typically, major Russian cities have well-developed systems of public transport, with the most common varieties of exploited vehicles being bus, trolleybus and tram. Russia_sentence_518

Seven Russian cities, namely Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Samara, Yekaterinburg, and Kazan, have underground metros, while Volgograd features a metrotram. Russia_sentence_519

The total length of metros in Russia is 465.4 kilometres (289.2 mi). Russia_sentence_520

Moscow Metro and Saint Petersburg Metro are the oldest in Russia, opened in 1935 and 1955 respectively. Russia_sentence_521

These two are among the fastest and busiest metro systems in the world, and some of them are famous for rich decorations and unique designs of their stations, which is a common tradition in Russian metros and railways. Russia_sentence_522

Science and technology Russia_section_29

Space exploration Russia_section_30

Russian achievements in the field of space technology and space exploration are traced back to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, the father of theoretical astronautics. Russia_sentence_523

His works had inspired leading Soviet rocket engineers, such as Sergey Korolyov, Valentin Glushko, and many others who contributed to the success of the Soviet space program in the early stages of the Space Race and beyond. Russia_sentence_524

In 1957 the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched; in 1961 the first human trip into space was successfully made by Yuri Gagarin. Russia_sentence_525

Many other Soviet and Russian space exploration records ensued, including the first spacewalk performed by Alexei Leonov, Luna 9 was the first spacecraft to land on the Moon, Zond 5 brought the first Earthlings (two tortoises and other life forms) to circumnavigate the Moon, Venera 7 was the first to land on another planet (Venus), Mars 3 then the first to land on Mars, the first space exploration rover Lunokhod 1, and the first space station Salyut 1 and Mir. Russia_sentence_526

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, some government-funded space exploration programs, including the Buran space shuttle program, were cancelled or delayed, while participation of the Russian space industry in commercial activities and international cooperation intensified. Russia_sentence_527

Nowadays Russia is the largest satellite launcher. Russia_sentence_528

After the United States Space Shuttle program ended in 2011, Soyuz rockets became the only provider of transport for astronauts at the International Space Station. Russia_sentence_529

Luna-Glob is a Russian Moon exploration programme, with first planned mission launch in 2021. Russia_sentence_530

Roscosmos is also developing the Orel spacecraft, to replace the aging Soyuz, it could also conduct mission to lunar orbit as early as 2026. Russia_sentence_531

In February 2019, it was announced that Russia is intending to conduct its first crewed mission to land on the Moon in 2031. Russia_sentence_532

Corruption Russia_section_31

Main article: Corruption in Russia Russia_sentence_533

According to the Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index, Russia ranked 137th out of 180 countries, and is considered the most corrupt country in Europe in 2019. Russia_sentence_534

Corruption in Russia is perceived as a significant problem, impacting all aspects of life, including economy, business, public administration, law enforcement, healthcare, and education. Russia_sentence_535

The phenomenon of corruption is strongly established in the historical model of public governance in Russia and attributed to general weakness of rule of law in Russia. Russia_sentence_536

Demographics Russia_section_32

Main articles: Demographics of Russia and Russians Russia_sentence_537

With a population of 142.8 million according to the 2010 census, rising to 146.7 million as of 2020. Russia_sentence_538

Russia is the most populous country in Europe, and the ninth-most populous country in the world, its population density stands at 9 inhabitants per square kilometre (23 per square mile). Russia_sentence_539

The overall life expectancy in Russia at birth is 72.4 years (66.9 years for males and 77.6 years for females). Russia_sentence_540

Since the 1990s, Russia's death rate has exceeded its birth rate. Russia_sentence_541

As of 2018, the total fertility rate (TFR) across Russia was estimated to be 1.57 born per woman, one of the lowest fertility rates in the world, below the replacement rate of 2.1, and considerably below the high of 7.44 children born per woman in 1908. Russia_sentence_542

Subsequently, the country has one of the oldest population in the world, with an average age of 40.3 years. Russia_sentence_543

Nevertheless, Russia's overall birth rate is higher than that of most European countries (13.3 births per 1000 people in 2014 compared to the European Union average of 10.1 per 1000), though its death rate is also substantially higher (in 2014, Russia's death rate was 13.1 per 1000 people compared to the EU average of 9.7 per 1000). Russia_sentence_544

Since 2010, Russia has seen increased population growth due to declining death rates, increased birth rates and increased immigration. Russia_sentence_545

In 2009, it recorded annual population growth for the first time in fifteen years, with total growth of 10,500. Russia_sentence_546

In 2012, the trend continued, with 1,896,263 births, the highest since 1990, and even exceeding annual births during the period 1967–1969. Russia_sentence_547

The government is implementing a number of programs designed to increase the birth rate and attract more migrants. Russia_sentence_548

Monthly government child-assistance payments were doubled to US$55, and a one-time payment of US$9,200 has been offered to women who have a second child since 2007. Russia_sentence_549

According to the UN, Russia's immigrant population is the third largest in the world, numbering 11.6 million. Russia_sentence_550

Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Moldova and Kazakhstan were the leading countries of origin for immigrants to Russia. Russia_sentence_551

There are about 3 million Ukrainians living in Russia. Russia_sentence_552

In 2016, 196,000 migrants arrived, mostly from the ex-Soviet states. Russia_sentence_553

Ethnic groups Russia_section_33

Main article: Ethnic groups in Russia Russia_sentence_554

Russia is a multinational state, with more than 193 ethnic groups within its borders. Russia_sentence_555

It had a population of 142.8 million according to the 2010 Russian Census, of which around 111 million were ethnic Russians, who consisted of 80.9% of the total population, while rest of the 19% of the population were minorities. Russia_sentence_556

The sizable numbers of Tatars, Ukrainians, Bashkirs, Chuvash and Chechens in the country made up around 8.4% of the total population. Russia_sentence_557

Rest of the 10.6% of the population were diverse Indo-European, Turkic and Baltic-Finnic peoples. Russia_sentence_558

Around 84.93% of the Russian population belonged to the European ethnic groups in 2010, of which the vast majority were Slavs, with minorities of Germanic, Baltic-Finnic and others. Russia_sentence_559

Russia is home to a large population from the Post-Soviet states of the former Soviet Union, of which Ukrainians consist the largest number. Russia_sentence_560

There are 22 republics in Russia, who have their own ethnicities, cultures, and languages. Russia_sentence_561

In 12 of them, ethnic Russians consist a minority: Russia_sentence_562

Russia_table_general_3

RepublicRussia_header_cell_3_0_0 ethnic Russians (%)Russia_header_cell_3_0_1
BashkortostanRussia_cell_3_1_0 36.1%Russia_cell_3_1_1
ChechnyaRussia_cell_3_2_0 1.9%Russia_cell_3_2_1
ChuvashiaRussia_cell_3_3_0 26.9%Russia_cell_3_3_1
DagestanRussia_cell_3_4_0 3.6%Russia_cell_3_4_1
IngushetiaRussia_cell_3_5_0 0.8%Russia_cell_3_5_1
Kabardino-BalkariaRussia_cell_3_6_0 22.5%Russia_cell_3_6_1
KalmykiaRussia_cell_3_7_0 30.2%Russia_cell_3_7_1
Mari ElRussia_cell_3_8_0 47.4%Russia_cell_3_8_1
North Ossetia–AlaniaRussia_cell_3_9_0 20.8%Russia_cell_3_9_1
YakutiaRussia_cell_3_10_0 37.8%Russia_cell_3_10_1
TatarstanRussia_cell_3_11_0 39.7%Russia_cell_3_11_1
TuvaRussia_cell_3_12_0 16.3%Russia_cell_3_12_1

Language Russia_section_34

Main articles: Russian language, Languages of Russia, and List of endangered languages in Russia Russia_sentence_563

Russia's 193 ethnic groups speak over 100 languages. Russia_sentence_564

According to the 2002 Census, 142.6 million people speak Russian, followed by Tatar with 5.3 million and Ukrainian with 1.8 million speakers. Russia_sentence_565

Russian is the only official state language, but the Constitution gives the individual republics the right to establish their own state languages in addition to Russian. Russia_sentence_566

Despite its wide distribution, the Russian language is homogeneous throughout the country. Russia_sentence_567

Russian is the most spoken native language in Europe, and the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, as well as the most widely spoken Slavic language. Russia_sentence_568

It belongs to the Indo-European language family and is one of the living members of the East Slavic languages, the others being Belarusian and Ukrainian (and possibly Rusyn). Russia_sentence_569

Written examples of Old East Slavic (Old Russian) are attested from the 10th century onwards. Russia_sentence_570

Russian is the second-most used language on the Internet after English, one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station and is one of the six official languages of the UN. Russia_sentence_571

35 languages are officially recognised in Russia in various regions by local governments. Russia_sentence_572

Russia_table_general_4

LanguageRussia_header_cell_4_0_0 Language familyRussia_header_cell_4_0_1 Federal subject(s)Russia_header_cell_4_0_2 SourceRussia_header_cell_4_0_3
AbazaRussia_cell_4_1_0 Northwest CaucasianRussia_cell_4_1_1 Karachay-CherkessiaRussia_cell_4_1_2 Russia_cell_4_1_3
AdygheRussia_cell_4_2_0 Northwest CaucasianRussia_cell_4_2_1 AdygeaRussia_cell_4_2_2 Russia_cell_4_2_3
AltaiRussia_cell_4_3_0 TurkicRussia_cell_4_3_1 Altai RepublicRussia_cell_4_3_2 Russia_cell_4_3_3
BashkirRussia_cell_4_4_0 TurkicRussia_cell_4_4_1 BashkortostanRussia_cell_4_4_2 ; see also regional lawRussia_cell_4_4_3
BuryatRussia_cell_4_5_0 MongolicRussia_cell_4_5_1 BuryatiaRussia_cell_4_5_2 Russia_cell_4_5_3
ChechenRussia_cell_4_6_0 Northeast CaucasianRussia_cell_4_6_1 ChechnyaRussia_cell_4_6_2 Russia_cell_4_6_3
CherkessRussia_cell_4_7_0 Northwest CaucasianRussia_cell_4_7_1 Karachay-CherkessiaRussia_cell_4_7_2 Russia_cell_4_7_3
ChuvashRussia_cell_4_8_0 TurkicRussia_cell_4_8_1 ChuvashiaRussia_cell_4_8_2 Russia_cell_4_8_3
Crimean TatarRussia_cell_4_9_0 TurkicRussia_cell_4_9_1 Republic of CrimeaRussia_cell_4_9_2 Russia_cell_4_9_3
ErzyaRussia_cell_4_10_0 UralicRussia_cell_4_10_1 MordoviaRussia_cell_4_10_2 Russia_cell_4_10_3
IngushRussia_cell_4_11_0 Northeast CaucasianRussia_cell_4_11_1 IngushetiaRussia_cell_4_11_2 Russia_cell_4_11_3
KabardianRussia_cell_4_12_0 Northwest CaucasianRussia_cell_4_12_1 Kabardino-BalkariaRussia_cell_4_12_2 Russia_cell_4_12_3
KalmykRussia_cell_4_13_0 MongolicRussia_cell_4_13_1 KalmykiaRussia_cell_4_13_2 Russia_cell_4_13_3
Karachay-BalkarRussia_cell_4_14_0 TurkicRussia_cell_4_14_1 Kabardino-Balkaria

 Karachay-CherkessiaRussia_cell_4_14_2

Russia_cell_4_14_3
KhakasRussia_cell_4_15_0 TurkicRussia_cell_4_15_1 KhakassiaRussia_cell_4_15_2 Russia_cell_4_15_3
KomiRussia_cell_4_16_0 UralicRussia_cell_4_16_1 Komi RepublicRussia_cell_4_16_2 Russia_cell_4_16_3
Hill MariRussia_cell_4_17_0 UralicRussia_cell_4_17_1 Mari ElRussia_cell_4_17_2 Russia_cell_4_17_3
Meadow MariRussia_cell_4_18_0 UralicRussia_cell_4_18_1 Mari ElRussia_cell_4_18_2 Russia_cell_4_18_3
MokshaRussia_cell_4_19_0 UralicRussia_cell_4_19_1 MordoviaRussia_cell_4_19_2 Russia_cell_4_19_3
NogaiRussia_cell_4_20_0 TurkicRussia_cell_4_20_1 Karachay-CherkessiaRussia_cell_4_20_2 Russia_cell_4_20_3
OsseticRussia_cell_4_21_0 Indo-EuropeanRussia_cell_4_21_1 North Ossetia–AlaniaRussia_cell_4_21_2 Russia_cell_4_21_3
TatarRussia_cell_4_22_0 TurkicRussia_cell_4_22_1 TatarstanRussia_cell_4_22_2 Russia_cell_4_22_3
TuvanRussia_cell_4_23_0 TurkicRussia_cell_4_23_1 TuvaRussia_cell_4_23_2 Russia_cell_4_23_3
UdmurtRussia_cell_4_24_0 UralicRussia_cell_4_24_1 UdmurtiaRussia_cell_4_24_2 Russia_cell_4_24_3
UkrainianRussia_cell_4_25_0 Indo-EuropeanRussia_cell_4_25_1 Republic of CrimeaRussia_cell_4_25_2 Russia_cell_4_25_3
YakutRussia_cell_4_26_0 TurkicRussia_cell_4_26_1 Sakha RepublicRussia_cell_4_26_2 Russia_cell_4_26_3

Religion Russia_section_35

Main articles: Religion in Russia and Consecration of Russia Russia_sentence_573

Though a secular state under the constitution, Russia is often said to have Russian Orthodoxy as the de facto national religion, despite other minorities: "The Russian Orthodox Church is de facto privileged religion of the state, claiming the right to decide which other religions or denominations are to be granted the right of registration". Russia_sentence_574

Russia has the largest Eastern Orthodox population in the world. Russia_sentence_575

As of a different sociological surveys on religious adherence, from 41% to over 80% of the total population of Russia adhere to the Russian Orthodox Church. Russia_sentence_576

In 2012 the research organization Sreda, in cooperation with the 2010 census and the Ministry of Justice, published the Arena Atlas, a detailed enumeration of religious populations and nationalities in Russia, based on a large-sample country-wide survey. Russia_sentence_577

The results showed that 46.8% of Russians declared themselves Christians—including 41% Russian Orthodox, 1.5% simply Orthodox or members of non-Russian Orthodox churches, 4.1% unaffiliated Christians, and less than 1% for both Old Believers, Catholics, and Protestants—while 25% were spiritual but not religious, 13% were atheists, 6.5% were Muslims, 1.2% were followers of "traditional religions honoring gods and ancestors" (including Rodnovery, Tengrism and other ethnic religions), and 0.5% were Buddhists, 0.1% were religious Jews and 0.1% were Hindus. Russia_sentence_578

The 2017 Survey Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe made by the Pew Research Center showed that 73% of Russians declared themselves Christians—including 71% Orthodox, 1% Catholic, and 2% Other Christians, while 15% were unaffiliated, 10% were Muslims, and 1% were from other religions. Russia_sentence_579

According to the same study, Christianity experienced significant increase since the fall of the USSR in 1991, and more Russians say they are Christian now (73%) than say they were raised Christian (65%). Russia_sentence_580

According to various reports, the proportion of not religious people in Russia is between 16% and 48% of the population. Russia_sentence_581

According to recent studies, the proportion of atheists has significantly decreased over the decades after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Russia_sentence_582

Islam is the second-largest religion in Russia. Russia_sentence_583

It is the traditional or predominant religion amongst the Caucasian ethnicities of the North Caucasus (notably the Chechens, the Avars, the Ingush and the Circassians), and amongst some Turkic peoples of the Volga Region (notably the Tatars, the Chuvash, and the Bashkirs). Russia_sentence_584

Buddhism is traditional in three republics of Russia: Buryatia, Tuva, and Kalmykia, the latter being the only region in Europe where Buddhism is the most practiced religion. Russia_sentence_585

Health Russia_section_36

Main article: Healthcare in Russia Russia_sentence_586

The Russian Constitution guarantees free, universal health care for all its citizens. Russia_sentence_587

In practice, however, free health care is partially restricted because of mandatory registration. Russia_sentence_588

While Russia has more physicians, hospitals, and health care workers than almost any other country in the world on a per capita basis, since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the health of the Russian population has declined considerably as a result of social, economic, and lifestyle changes; the trend has been reversed only in the recent years, with average life expectancy having increased 6.8 years for males and 4.2 years for females between 2006 and 2018. Russia_sentence_589

Due to the ongoing Russian financial crisis since 2014, major cuts in health spending have resulted in a decline in the quality of service of the state healthcare system. Russia_sentence_590

About 40% of basic medical facilities have fewer staff than they are supposed to have, with others being closed down. Russia_sentence_591

Waiting times for treatment have increased, and patients have been forced to pay for more services that were previously free. Russia_sentence_592

As of 2018, the average life expectancy at birth in Russia is 72.4 years (66.9 years for males and 77.6 years for females). Russia_sentence_593

The biggest factor contributing to the relatively low life expectancy for males is a high mortality rate among working-age males. Russia_sentence_594

Deaths mostly occur from preventable causes, including alcohol poisoning, smoking, traffic accidents and violent crime. Russia_sentence_595

As a result, Russia has one of the world's most female-biased sex ratios, with 0.859 males to every female. Russia_sentence_596

Education Russia_section_37

Main article: Education in Russia Russia_sentence_597

Russia has the most college-level or higher graduates in terms of percentage of population in the world, at 54%. Russia_sentence_598

Russia has a free education system, which is guaranteed for all citizens by the Constitution, however entry to subsidised higher education is highly competitive. Russia_sentence_599

As a result of great emphasis on science and technology in education, Russian medical, mathematical, scientific, and aerospace research is generally of a high order. Russia_sentence_600

Since 1990, the 11-year school education has been introduced. Russia_sentence_601

Education in state-owned secondary schools is free. Russia_sentence_602

University level education is free, with exceptions. Russia_sentence_603

A substantial share of students is enrolled for full pay (many state institutions started to open commercial positions in the last years). Russia_sentence_604

The oldest and largest Russian universities are Moscow State University and Saint Petersburg State University. Russia_sentence_605

In the 2000s, in order to create higher education and research institutions of comparable scale in Russian regions, the government launched a program of establishing "federal universities", mostly by merging existing large regional universities and research institutes and providing them with a special funding. Russia_sentence_606

These new institutions include the Southern Federal University, Siberian Federal University, Kazan Volga Federal University, North-Eastern Federal University, and Far Eastern Federal University. Russia_sentence_607

According to the 2021 QS World University Rankings, the highest-ranking Russian educational institution is Moscow State University, rated 74th in the world, and 21st in Europe. Russia_sentence_608

Culture Russia_section_38

Main article: Russian culture Russia_sentence_609

Folk culture and cuisine Russia_section_39

See also: Russian traditions, Russian political jokes, Russian fairy tales, Russian cuisine, and Gopnik Russia_sentence_610

There are over 193 different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples in Russia. Russia_sentence_611

The country's vast cultural diversity spans ethnic Russians with their Slavic Orthodox traditions, the Tatars and Bashkirs with their Turkic Muslim culture, Buddhist nomadic Buryats and Kalmyks, the only Buddhist people in Europe, Shamanistic peoples of the Extreme North and Siberia, highlanders of the Northern Caucasus, and Finno-Ugric peoples of the Russian North West and Volga Region. Russia_sentence_612

Handicraft, like Dymkovo toy, khokhloma, gzhel and palekh miniature represent an important aspect of Russian folk culture. Russia_sentence_613

Ethnic Russian clothes include kaftan, kosovorotka and ushanka for men, sarafan and kokoshnik for women, with lapti and valenki as common shoes. Russia_sentence_614

The clothes of Cossacks from Southern Russia include burka and papaha, which they share with the peoples of the Northern Caucasus. Russia_sentence_615

Russian cuisine widely uses fish, caviar, poultry, mushrooms, berries, and honey. Russia_sentence_616

Crops of rye, wheat, barley, and millet provide the ingredients for various breads, pancakes and cereals, as well as for kvass, beer and vodka drinks. Russia_sentence_617

Black bread is rather popular in Russia, compared to the rest of the world. Russia_sentence_618

Flavourful soups and stews include shchi, borsch, ukha, solyanka and okroshka. Russia_sentence_619

Smetana (a heavy sour cream) is often added to soups and salads. Russia_sentence_620

Pirozhki, blini and syrniki are native types of pancakes. Russia_sentence_621

Chicken Kiev, pelmeni and shashlyk are popular meat dishes, the last two being of Tatar and Caucasus origin respectively. Russia_sentence_622

Other meat dishes include stuffed cabbage rolls (golubtsy) usually filled with meat. Russia_sentence_623

Salads include Olivier salad, vinegret and dressed herring. Russia_sentence_624

Russia's large number of ethnic groups have distinctive traditions regarding folk music. Russia_sentence_625

Typical ethnic Russian musical instruments are gusli, balalaika, zhaleika, and garmoshka. Russia_sentence_626

Folk music had a significant influence on Russian classical composers, and in modern times it is a source of inspiration for a number of popular folk bands, like Melnitsa. Russia_sentence_627

Russian folk songs, as well as patriotic Soviet songs, constitute the bulk of the repertoire of the world-renowned Red Army choir and other popular ensembles. Russia_sentence_628

Russians have many traditions, including the washing in banya, a hot steam bath somewhat similar to sauna. Russia_sentence_629

Old Russian folklore takes its roots in the pagan Slavic religion. Russia_sentence_630

Many Russian fairy tales and epic bylinas were adapted for animation films, or for feature movies by the prominent directors like Aleksandr Ptushko (Ilya Muromets, Sadko) and Aleksandr Rou (Morozko, Vasilisa the Beautiful). Russia_sentence_631

Russian poets, including Pyotr Yershov and Leonid Filatov, made a number of well-known poetical interpretations of the classical fairy tales, and in some cases, like that of Alexander Pushkin, also created fully original fairy tale poems of great popularity. Russia_sentence_632

Architecture Russia_section_40

Main articles: Russian architecture and List of Russian architects Russia_sentence_633

Since the Christianization of Kievan Rus' for several ages Russian architecture was influenced predominantly by the Byzantine architecture. Russia_sentence_634

Apart from fortifications (kremlins), the main stone buildings of ancient Rus' were Orthodox churches with their many domes, often gilded or brightly painted. Russia_sentence_635

Aristotle Fioravanti and other Italian architects brought Renaissance trends into Russia since the late 15th century, while the 16th century saw the development of unique tent-like churches culminating in Saint Basil's Cathedral. Russia_sentence_636

By that time the onion dome design was also fully developed. Russia_sentence_637

In the 17th century, the "fiery style" of ornamentation flourished in Moscow and Yaroslavl, gradually paving the way for the Naryshkin baroque of the 1690s. Russia_sentence_638

After the reforms of Peter the Great the change of architectural styles in Russia generally followed that in the Western Europe. Russia_sentence_639

The 18th-century taste for rococo architecture led to the ornate works of Bartolomeo Rastrelli and his followers. Russia_sentence_640

The reigns of Catherine the Great and her grandson Alexander I saw the flourishing of Neoclassical architecture, most notably in the capital city of Saint Petersburg. Russia_sentence_641

The second half of the 19th century was dominated by the Neo-Byzantine and Russian Revival styles. Russia_sentence_642

Prevalent styles of the 20th century were the Art Nouveau, Constructivism, and the Stalin Empire style. Russia_sentence_643

With the change in values imposed by communist ideology, the tradition of preservation was broken. Russia_sentence_644

Independent preservation societies, even those that defended only secular landmarks such as Moscow-based OIRU were disbanded by the end of the 1920s. Russia_sentence_645

A new anti-religious campaign, launched in 1929, coincided with collectivization of peasants; destruction of churches in the cities peaked around 1932. Russia_sentence_646

A number of churches were demolished, including the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow. Russia_sentence_647

In Moscow alone losses of 1917–2006 are estimated at over 640 notable buildings (including 150 to 200 listed buildings, out of a total inventory of 3,500) – some disappeared completely, others were replaced with concrete replicas. Russia_sentence_648

In 1955, a new Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev, condemned the "excesses" of the former academic architecture, and the late Soviet era was dominated by plain functionalism in architecture. Russia_sentence_649

This helped somewhat to resolve the housing problem, but created a large quantity of buildings of low architectural quality, much in contrast with the previous bright styles. Russia_sentence_650

In 1959 Nikita Khrushchev launched his anti-religious campaign. Russia_sentence_651

By 1964 over 10 thousand churches out of 20 thousand were shut down (mostly in rural areas) and many were demolished. Russia_sentence_652

Of 58 monasteries and convents operating in 1959, only sixteen remained by 1964; of Moscow's fifty churches operating in 1959, thirty were closed and six demolished. Russia_sentence_653

Visual arts Russia_section_41

Main article: Russian artists Russia_sentence_654

Early Russian painting is represented in icons and vibrant frescos, the two genres inherited from Byzantium. Russia_sentence_655

As Moscow rose to power, Theophanes the Greek, Dionisius and Andrei Rublev became vital names associated with a distinctly Russian art. Russia_sentence_656

The Russian Academy of Arts was created in 1757 and gave Russian artists an international role and status. Russia_sentence_657

Ivan Argunov, Dmitry Levitzky, Vladimir Borovikovsky and other 18th-century academicians mostly focused on portrait painting. Russia_sentence_658

In the early 19th century, when neoclassicism and romantism flourished, mythological and Biblical themes inspired many prominent paintings, notably by Karl Briullov and Alexander Ivanov. Russia_sentence_659

In the mid-19th century the Peredvizhniki (Wanderers) group of artists broke with the Academy and initiated a school of art liberated from academic restrictions. Russia_sentence_660

These were mostly realist painters who captured Russian identity in landscapes of wide rivers, forests, and birch clearings, as well as vigorous genre scenes and robust portraits of their contemporaries. Russia_sentence_661

Some artists focused on depicting dramatic moments in Russian history, while others turned to social criticism, showing the conditions of the poor and caricaturing authority; critical realism flourished under the reign of Alexander II. Russia_sentence_662

Leading realists include Ivan Shishkin, Arkhip Kuindzhi, Ivan Kramskoi, Vasily Polenov, Isaac Levitan, Vasily Surikov, Viktor Vasnetsov, Ilya Repin, and Boris Kustodiev. Russia_sentence_663

The turn of the 20th century saw the rise of symbolist painting, represented by Mikhail Vrubel, Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, and Nicholas Roerich. Russia_sentence_664

The Russian avant-garde was a large, influential wave of modernist art that flourished in Russia from approximately 1890 to 1930. Russia_sentence_665

The term covers many separate, but inextricably related art movements that occurred at the time, namely neo-primitivism, suprematism, constructivism, rayonism, and Russian Futurism. Russia_sentence_666

Notable artists from this era include El Lissitzky, Kazimir Malevich, Wassily Kandinsky, and Marc Chagall. Russia_sentence_667

Since the 1930s the revolutionary ideas of the avant-garde clashed with the newly emerged conservative direction of socialist realism. Russia_sentence_668

Soviet art produced works that were furiously patriotic and anti-fascist during and after the Great Patriotic War. Russia_sentence_669

Multiple war memorials, marked by a great restrained solemnity, were built throughout the country. Russia_sentence_670

Soviet artists often combined innovation with socialist realism, notably the sculptors Vera Mukhina, Yevgeny Vuchetich and Ernst Neizvestny. Russia_sentence_671

Music and dance Russia_section_42

Main articles: Music of Russia, Russian traditional music, Russian ballet, Russian opera, Russian rock, Russian pop, and Russian composers Russia_sentence_672

Music in 19th-century Russia was defined by the tension between classical composer Mikhail Glinka along with other members of The Mighty Handful, who embraced Russian national identity and added religious and folk elements to their compositions, and the Russian Musical Society led by composers Anton and Nikolay Rubinsteins, which was musically conservative. Russia_sentence_673

The later tradition of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era, was continued into the 20th century by Sergei Rachmaninoff. Russia_sentence_674

World-renowned composers of the 20th century include Alexander Scriabin, Igor Stravinsky, Sergei Prokofiev, Dmitri Shostakovich and Alfred Schnittke. Russia_sentence_675

Russian conservatories have turned out generations of famous soloists. Russia_sentence_676

Among the best known are violinists Jascha Heifetz, David Oistrakh, Leonid Kogan, Gidon Kremer, and Maxim Vengerov; cellists Mstislav Rostropovich, Natalia Gutman; pianists Vladimir Horowitz, Sviatoslav Richter, Emil Gilels, Vladimir Sofronitsky and Evgeny Kissin; and vocalists Fyodor Shalyapin, Mark Reizen, Elena Obraztsova, Tamara Sinyavskaya, Nina Dorliak, Galina Vishnevskaya, Anna Netrebko and Dmitry Hvorostovsky. Russia_sentence_677

During the early 20th century, Russian ballet dancers Anna Pavlova and Vaslav Nijinsky rose to fame, and impresario Sergei Diaghilev and his Ballets Russes' travels abroad profoundly influenced the development of dance worldwide. Russia_sentence_678

Soviet ballet preserved the perfected 19th-century traditions, and the Soviet Union's choreography schools produced many internationally famous stars, including Galina Ulanova, Maya Plisetskaya, Rudolf Nureyev, and Mikhail Baryshnikov. Russia_sentence_679

The Bolshoi Ballet in Moscow and the Mariinsky Ballet in St Petersburg remain famous throughout the world. Russia_sentence_680

Modern Russian rock music takes its roots both in the Western rock and roll and heavy metal, and in traditions of the Russian bards of the Soviet era, such as Vladimir Vysotsky and Bulat Okudzhava. Russia_sentence_681

Popular Russian rock groups include Mashina Vremeni, DDT, Aquarium, Alisa, Kino, Kipelov, Nautilus Pompilius, Aria, Grazhdanskaya Oborona, Splean, and Korol i Shut. Russia_sentence_682

Russian pop music developed from what was known in the Soviet times as estrada into full-fledged industry, with some performers gaining wide international recognition, such as t.A.T.u. Russia_sentence_683 , Nu Virgos and Vitas. Russia_sentence_684

Literature and philosophy Russia_section_43

Main articles: Russian literature, Russian philosophy, Russian poets, Russian playwrights, Russian novelists, and Russian science fiction and fantasy Russia_sentence_685

In the 18th century, during the era of Russian Enlightenment, the development of Russian literature was boosted by the works of Mikhail Lomonosov and Denis Fonvizin. Russia_sentence_686

By the early 19th century a modern national tradition had emerged, producing some of the greatest writers in Russian history. Russia_sentence_687

This period, known also as the Golden Age of Russian Poetry, began with Alexander Pushkin, who is considered the founder of the modern Russian literary language and often described as the "Russian Shakespeare". Russia_sentence_688

It continued with the poetry of Mikhail Lermontov and Nikolay Nekrasov, dramas of Alexander Ostrovsky and Anton Chekhov, and the prose of Nikolai Gogol and Ivan Turgenev. Russia_sentence_689

Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoyevsky have been described by literary critics as the greatest novelists of all time. Russia_sentence_690

By the 1880s, the age of the great novelists was over, and short fiction and poetry became the dominant genres. Russia_sentence_691

The next several decades became known as the Silver Age of Russian Poetry, when the previously dominant literary realism was replaced by symbolism. Russia_sentence_692

Leading authors of this era include such poets as Valery Bryusov, Vyacheslav Ivanov, Alexander Blok, Nikolay Gumilev and Anna Akhmatova, and novelists Leonid Andreyev, Ivan Bunin, and Maxim Gorky. Russia_sentence_693

Russian philosophy blossomed in the 19th century, when it was defined initially by the opposition of Westernizers, who advocated Western political and economical models, and Slavophiles, who insisted on developing Russia as a unique civilization. Russia_sentence_694

The latter group includes Nikolai Danilevsky and Konstantin Leontiev, the founders of eurasianism. Russia_sentence_695

In its further development Russian philosophy was always marked by a deep connection to literature and interest in creativity, society, politics and nationalism; Russian cosmism and religious philosophy were other major areas. Russia_sentence_696

Notable philosophers of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries include Vladimir Solovyev, Sergei Bulgakov, and Vladimir Vernadsky. Russia_sentence_697

Following the Russian Revolution of 1917 many prominent writers and philosophers left the country, including Bunin, Vladimir Nabokov and Nikolay Berdyayev, while a new generation of talented authors joined together in an effort to create a distinctive working-class culture appropriate for the new Soviet state. Russia_sentence_698

In the 1930s censorship over literature was tightened in line with the policy of socialist realism. Russia_sentence_699

In the late 1950s restrictions on literature were eased, and by the 1970s and 1980s, writers were increasingly ignoring official guidelines. Russia_sentence_700

Leading authors of the Soviet era include novelists Yevgeny Zamyatin (emigrated), Ilf and Petrov, Mikhail Bulgakov (censored) and Mikhail Sholokhov, and poets Vladimir Mayakovsky, Yevgeny Yevtushenko, and Andrey Voznesensky. Russia_sentence_701

The Soviet Union was also a major producer of science fiction, written by authors like Arkady and Boris Strugatsky, Kir Bulychov, Alexander Belayev and Ivan Yefremov. Russia_sentence_702

Cinema, animation and media Russia_section_44

Main articles: Cinema of Russia, Russian animation, Television in Russia, and Media of Russia Russia_sentence_703

Russian and later Soviet cinema was a hotbed of invention in the period immediately following 1917, resulting in world-renowned films such as The Battleship Potemkin by Sergei Eisenstein. Russia_sentence_704

Eisenstein was a student of filmmaker and theorist Lev Kuleshov, who developed the Soviet montage theory of film editing at the world's first film school, the All-Union Institute of Cinematography. Russia_sentence_705

Dziga Vertov, whose kino-glaz ("film-eye") theory—that the camera, like the human eye, is best used to explore real life—had a huge impact on the development of documentary film making and cinema realism. Russia_sentence_706

The subsequent state policy of socialist realism somewhat limited creativity; however, many Soviet films in this style were artistically successful, including Chapaev, The Cranes Are Flying, and Ballad of a Soldier. Russia_sentence_707

The 1960s and 1970s saw a greater variety of artistic styles in Soviet cinema. Russia_sentence_708

Eldar Ryazanov's and Leonid Gaidai's comedies of that time were immensely popular, with many of the catch phrases still in use today. Russia_sentence_709

In 1961–68 Sergey Bondarchuk directed an Oscar-winning film adaptation of Leo Tolstoy's epic War and Peace, which was the most expensive film made in the Soviet Union. Russia_sentence_710

In 1969, Vladimir Motyl's White Sun of the Desert was released, a very popular film in a genre of ostern; the film is traditionally watched by cosmonauts before any trip into space. Russia_sentence_711

Russian animation dates back to late Russian Empire times. Russia_sentence_712

During the Soviet era, Soyuzmultfilm studio was the largest animation producer. Russia_sentence_713

Soviet animators developed a great variety of pioneering techniques and aesthetic styles, with prominent directors including Ivan Ivanov-Vano, Fyodor Khitruk and Aleksandr Tatarsky. Russia_sentence_714

Many Soviet cartoon heroes such as the Russian-style Winnie-the-Pooh, cute little Cheburashka, Wolf and Hare from Nu, Pogodi! Russia_sentence_715 , are iconic images in Russia and many surrounding countries. Russia_sentence_716

The late 1980s and 1990s were a period of crisis in Russian cinema and animation. Russia_sentence_717

Although Russian filmmakers became free to express themselves, state subsidies were drastically reduced, resulting in fewer films produced. Russia_sentence_718

The early years of the 21st century have brought increased viewership and subsequent prosperity to the industry on the back of the economic revival. Russia_sentence_719

Production levels are already higher than in Britain and Germany. Russia_sentence_720

Russia's total box-office revenue in 2007 was $565 million, up 37% from the previous year. Russia_sentence_721

In 2002 the Russian Ark became the first feature film ever to be shot in a single take. Russia_sentence_722

The traditions of Soviet animation were developed recently by such directors as Aleksandr Petrov and studios like Melnitsa Animation. Russia_sentence_723

While there were few stations or channels in the Soviet time, in the past two decades many new state and privately owned radio stations and TV channels have appeared. Russia_sentence_724

In 2005 a state-run English language Russia Today TV started broadcasting, and its Arabic version Rusiya Al-Yaum was launched in 2007. Russia_sentence_725

Sports Russia_section_45

Main article: Sport in Russia Russia_sentence_726

Soviet and later Russian athletes have always been in the top four for the number of gold medals collected at the Summer Olympics. Russia_sentence_727

Soviet gymnasts, track-and-field athletes, weightlifters, wrestlers, boxers, fencers, shooters, cross country skiers, biathletes, speed skaters and figure skaters were consistently among the best in the world, along with Soviet basketball, handball, futsal, volleyball and ice hockey players. Russia_sentence_728

The 1980 Summer Olympics were held in Moscow while the 2014 Winter Olympics were hosted in Sochi. Russia_sentence_729

The Soviet Union national team managed to win gold at almost all the Olympics and World Championships they contested. Russia_sentence_730

Russian players Valery Kharlamov, Sergei Makarov, Vyacheslav Fetisov and Vladislav Tretiak hold four of six positions in the IIHF Team of the Century. Russia_sentence_731

Russia has not won the Olympic ice hockey tournament since the Unified Team won gold in 1992. Russia_sentence_732

Russia won the 1993, 2008, 2009, 2012 and the 2014 IIHF World Championships. Russia_sentence_733

The Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) was founded in 2008. Russia_sentence_734

It is ranked the top hockey league in Europe as of 2009, and the second-best in the world. Russia_sentence_735

KHL is on the 4th place by attendance in Europe. Russia_sentence_736

Bandy, also known as Russian hockey, is another traditionally popular ice sport. Russia_sentence_737

The Soviet Union won all the Bandy World Championships for men between 1957 and 1979 and some thereafter too. Russia_sentence_738

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia has continuously been one of the most successful teams, winning many world championships. Russia_sentence_739

Association football is one of the most popular sports in modern Russia. Russia_sentence_740

The Soviet national team became the first European Champions by winning Euro 1960. Russia_sentence_741

Appearing in four FIFA World Cups from 1958 to 1970, Lev Yashin is regarded as one of the greatest goalkeepers in the history of football, and was chosen on the FIFA World Cup Dream Team. Russia_sentence_742

The Soviet national team reached the finals of Euro 1988. Russia_sentence_743

In 1956 and 1988, the Soviet Union won gold at the Olympic football tournament. Russia_sentence_744

Russian clubs CSKA Moscow and Zenit St Petersburg won the UEFA Cup in 2005 and 2008. Russia_sentence_745

The Russian national football team reached the semi-finals of Euro 2008, losing only to the eventual champions Spain. Russia_sentence_746

Russia was the host nation for the 2018 FIFA World Cup. Russia_sentence_747

The matches were held from 14 June to 15 July 2018 in the stadiums of 11 host cities. Russia_sentence_748

This was the first football World Cup ever held in Eastern Europe, and the first held in Europe since 2006. Russia_sentence_749

Russia will also host games of Euro 2020. Russia_sentence_750

In 2007, the Russian national basketball team won the European Basketball Championship. Russia_sentence_751

The Russian basketball club PBC CSKA Moscow is one of the top teams in Europe, winning the Euroleague in 2006 and 2008. Russia_sentence_752

Larisa Latynina, who currently holds the record for the most gold Olympic medals won by a woman, established the USSR as the dominant force in gymnastics for many years. Russia_sentence_753

Today, Russia is the leading nation in rhythmic gymnastics. Russia_sentence_754

Double 50 m and 100 m freestyle Olympic gold medalist Alexander Popov is widely considered the greatest sprint swimmer in history. Russia_sentence_755

Russian synchronised swimming is the best in the world, with almost all gold medals at Olympics and World Championships having been swept by Russians in recent decades. Russia_sentence_756

Figure skating is another popular sport in Russia, especially pair skating and ice dancing. Russia_sentence_757

With the exception of 2010 and 2018 a Soviet or Russian pair has won gold at every Winter Olympics since 1964. Russia_sentence_758

Since the end of the Soviet era, tennis has grown in popularity and Russia has produced a number of famous players, including Maria Sharapova. Russia_sentence_759

In martial arts, Russia produced the sport Sambo and renowned fighters, like Fedor Emelianenko. Russia_sentence_760

Chess is a widely popular pastime in Russia; from 1927, Russian grandmasters have held the world chess championship almost continuously. Russia_sentence_761

In 2016 the McLaren Report found evidence of widespread state-sponsored doping and an institutional conspiracy to cover up Russian competitors' positive drug tests. Russia_sentence_762

Formula One is also becoming increasingly popular in Russia. Russia_sentence_763

In 2010 Vitaly Petrov became the first Russian to drive in Formula One, and was soon followed by a second – Daniil Kvyat – in 2014. Russia_sentence_764

There had only been two Russian Grands Prix (in 1913 and 1914), but the Russian Grand Prix returned as part of the Formula One season in 2014, as part of a six-year deal. Russia_sentence_765

See also: Doping in Russia Russia_sentence_766

Russia has the most Olympic medals stripped for doping violations (51), the most of any country, four times the number of the runner-up, and more than a third of the global total, and 129 athletes caught doping at the Olympics, also the most of any country. Russia_sentence_767

From 2011 to 2015, more than a thousand Russian competitors in various sports, including summer, winter, and Paralympic sports, benefited from a state-sponsored cover-up, with no indication that the program has ceased since then. Russia_sentence_768

See also Russia_section_46

Russia_unordered_list_4


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russia.