Russian language

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Not to be confused with Rusyn language. Russian language_sentence_0

Russian language_table_infobox_0

RussianRussian language_header_cell_0_0_0
PronunciationRussian language_header_cell_0_1_0 [ˈruskʲɪj jɪˈzɨk (listen)Russian language_cell_0_1_1
Native toRussian language_header_cell_0_2_0 Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Estonia, Latvia and other neighboring post-Soviet states, and Russian diasporaRussian language_cell_0_2_1
EthnicityRussian language_header_cell_0_3_0 RussiansRussian language_cell_0_3_1
Native speakersRussian language_header_cell_0_4_0 150 million (2012)

L2 speakers: 110 million (2012)Russian language_cell_0_4_1

Language familyRussian language_header_cell_0_5_0 Indo-EuropeanRussian language_cell_0_5_1
Early formRussian language_header_cell_0_6_0 Old East SlavicRussian language_cell_0_6_1
Writing systemRussian language_header_cell_0_7_0 Cyrillic (Russian alphabet)

Russian BrailleRussian language_cell_0_7_1

Official statusRussian language_header_cell_0_8_0
Official language inRussian language_header_cell_0_9_0 11 statesRussian language_cell_0_9_1
Recognised minority

language inRussian language_header_cell_0_10_0

ListRussian language_cell_0_10_1
Regulated byRussian language_header_cell_0_11_0 Russian Language Institute at the Russian Academy of SciencesRussian language_cell_0_11_1
Language codesRussian language_header_cell_0_12_0
ISO 639-1Russian language_header_cell_0_13_0 Russian language_cell_0_13_1
ISO 639-2Russian language_header_cell_0_14_0 Russian language_cell_0_14_1
ISO 639-3Russian language_header_cell_0_15_0 Russian language_cell_0_15_1
GlottologRussian language_header_cell_0_16_0 Russian language_cell_0_16_1
LinguasphereRussian language_header_cell_0_17_0 53-AAA-ea < 53-AAA-e

(varieties: 53-AAA-eaa to 53-AAA-eat)Russian language_cell_0_17_1

Russian (русский язык, tr. Russian language_sentence_1

rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language native to the Russians in Eastern Europe. Russian language_sentence_2

It is an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. Russian language_sentence_3

Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages, one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages alongside, and part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch. Russian language_sentence_4

There is a high degree of mutual intelligibility between Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian. Russian language_sentence_5

Russian was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 26 December 1991. Russian language_sentence_6

Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states. Russian language_sentence_7

Large numbers of Russian speakers can also be found in other countries, such as Israel and Mongolia. Russian language_sentence_8

Russian is the largest native language in Europe, and the most geographically widespread language in Eurasia. Russian language_sentence_9

It is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages, with over 258 million total speakers worldwide. Russian language_sentence_10

Russian is the seventh-most spoken language in the world by number of native speakers and the eighth-most spoken language in the world by total number of speakers. Russian language_sentence_11

The language is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Russian language_sentence_12

Russian is also the second-most widespread language on the Internet, after English. Russian language_sentence_13

Russian is written using the Cyrillic script; it distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without, the so-called soft and hard sounds. Russian language_sentence_14

Almost every consonant has a hard or a soft counterpart, and the distinction is a prominent feature of the language. Russian language_sentence_15

Another important aspect is the reduction of unstressed vowels. Russian language_sentence_16

Stress, which is unpredictable, is not normally indicated orthographically though an optional acute accent may be used to mark stress, such as to distinguish between homographic words, for example (zamók – a lock) and (zámok – a castle), or to indicate the proper pronunciation of uncommon words or names. Russian language_sentence_17

Classification Russian language_section_0

Russian is an East Slavic language of the wider Indo-European family. Russian language_sentence_18

It is a descendant of the language used in Kievan Rus', a loose conglomerate of East Slavic tribes from the late 9th to the mid 13th centuries. Russian language_sentence_19

From the point of view of spoken language, its closest relatives are Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Rusyn, the other three languages in the East Slavic branch. Russian language_sentence_20

In many places in eastern and southern Ukraine and throughout Belarus, these languages are spoken interchangeably, and in certain areas traditional bilingualism resulted in language mixtures such as Surzhyk in eastern Ukraine and Trasianka in Belarus. Russian language_sentence_21

An East Slavic Old Novgorod dialect, although it vanished during the 15th or 16th century, is sometimes considered to have played a significant role in the formation of modern Russian. Russian language_sentence_22

Also Russian has notable lexical similarities with Bulgarian due to a common Church Slavonic influence on both languages, as well as because of later interaction in the 19th and 20th centuries, Bulgarian grammar differs markedly from Russian. Russian language_sentence_23

In the 19th century (in Russia until 1917), the language was often called "Great Russian" to distinguish it from Belarusian, then called "White Russian" and Ukrainian, then called "Little Russian". Russian language_sentence_24

The vocabulary (mainly abstract and literary words), principles of word formations, and, to some extent, inflections and literary style of Russian have been also influenced by Church Slavonic, a developed and partly Russified form of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic language used by the Russian Orthodox Church. Russian language_sentence_25

However, the East Slavic forms have tended to be used exclusively in the various dialects that are experiencing a rapid decline. Russian language_sentence_26

In some cases, both the East Slavic and the Church Slavonic forms are in use, with many different meanings. Russian language_sentence_27

For details, see Russian phonology and History of the Russian language. Russian language_sentence_28

Over the course of centuries, the vocabulary and literary style of Russian have also been influenced by Western and Central European languages such as Greek, Latin, Polish, Dutch, German, French, Italian, and English, and to a lesser extent the languages to the south and the east: Uralic, Turkic, Persian, and Arabic, as well as Hebrew. Russian language_sentence_29

According to the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, California, Russian is classified as a level III language in terms of learning difficulty for native English speakers, requiring approximately 1,100 hours of immersion instruction to achieve intermediate fluency. Russian language_sentence_30

It is also regarded by the United States Intelligence Community as a "hard target" language, due to both its difficulty to master for English speakers and its critical role in U.S. Russian language_sentence_31 world policy. Russian language_sentence_32

Standard Russian Russian language_section_1

Main article: Moscovian dialect Russian language_sentence_33

Feudal divisions and conflicts, as well as other obstacles to the exchange of goods and ideas that ancient Russian principalities have suffered from before and especially during the Mongol yoke, strengthened dialectical differences and for a while prevented the emergence of the standardized national language. Russian language_sentence_34

The formation of the unified and centralized Russian state in 15th and 16th centuries and the gradual (re)emergence of a common political, economic, and cultural space have created the need for a common standard language. Russian language_sentence_35

The initial impulse for the standardization came from the government bureaucracy for the lack of a reliable tool of communication in administrative, legal, and judicial affairs became an obvious practical problem. Russian language_sentence_36

The earliest attempts at standardizing Russian were made based on the so-called Moscow official or chancery language. Russian language_sentence_37

Since then the underlying logic of language reforms in Russia reflected primarily the considerations of standardizing and streamlining language norms and rules in order to ensure the Russian language's role as a practical tool of communication and administration. Russian language_sentence_38

The current standard form of Russian is generally regarded as the modern Russian literary language (современный русский литературный язык – "sovremenny russky literaturny yazyk"). Russian language_sentence_39

It arose in the beginning of the 18th century with the modernization reforms of the Russian state under the rule of Peter the Great, and developed from the Moscow (Middle or Central Russian) dialect substratum under the influence of some of the previous century's Russian chancery language. Russian language_sentence_40

Mikhail Lomonosov first compiled a normalizing grammar book in 1755; in 1783 the Russian Academy's first explanatory Russian dictionary appeared. Russian language_sentence_41

During the end of the 18th and 19th centuries, a period known as the "Golden Age", the grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation of the Russian language was stabilized and standardized, and it became the nationwide literary language; meanwhile, Russia's world-famous literature flourished. Russian language_sentence_42

Until the 20th century, the language's spoken form was the language of only the upper noble classes and urban population, as Russian peasants from the countryside continued to speak in their own dialects. Russian language_sentence_43

By the mid-20th century, such dialects were forced out with the introduction of the compulsory education system that was established by the Soviet government. Russian language_sentence_44

Despite the formalization of Standard Russian, some nonstandard dialectal features (such as fricative [ɣ] in Southern Russian dialects) are still observed in colloquial speech. Russian language_sentence_45

Geographic distribution Russian language_section_2

Main article: Geographical distribution of Russian speakers Russian language_sentence_46

In 2010, there were 259.8 million speakers of Russian in the world: in Russia – 137.5 million, in the CIS and Baltic countries – 93.7 million, in Eastern Europe – 12.9 million, Western Europe – 7.3 million, Asia – 2.7 million, Middle East and North Africa – 1.3 million, Sub-Saharan Africa – 0.1 million, Latin America – 0.2 million, U.S., Canada, Australia and New Zealand – 4.1 million speakers. Russian language_sentence_47

Therefore, the Russian language is the seventh-largest in the world by number of speakers, after English, Mandarin, Hindi-Urdu, Spanish, French, Arabic and Portuguese. Russian language_sentence_48

Russian is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Russian language_sentence_49

Education in Russian is still a popular choice for both Russian as a second language (RSL) and native speakers in Russia as well as many of the former Soviet republics. Russian language_sentence_50

Russian is still seen as an important language for children to learn in most of the former Soviet republics. Russian language_sentence_51

Europe Russian language_section_3

In Belarus, Russian is a second state language alongside Belarusian per the Constitution of Belarus. Russian language_sentence_52

77% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 67% used it as the main language with family, friends, or at work. Russian language_sentence_53

In Estonia, Russian is spoken by 29.6% of the population according to a 2011 estimate from the World Factbook. Russian language_sentence_54

and is officially considered a foreign language. Russian language_sentence_55

School education in the Russian language is a very contentious point in Estonian politics but has of 2019 promises have been given that such schools will remain open in the near future. Russian language_sentence_56

In Latvia, Russian is officially considered a foreign language. Russian language_sentence_57

55% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 26% used it as the main language with family, friends, or at work. Russian language_sentence_58

On 18 February 2012, Latvia held a constitutional referendum on whether to adopt Russian as a second official language. Russian language_sentence_59

According to the Central Election Commission, 74.8% voted against, 24.9% voted for and the voter turnout was 71.1%. Russian language_sentence_60

Beginning in 2019, instruction in Russian language will be gradually discontinued in private colleges and universities in Latvia, as well as general instruction in Latvian public high schools. Russian language_sentence_61

In Lithuania, Russian is not official, but it still retains the function of a lingua franca. Russian language_sentence_62

In contrast to the other two Baltic states, Lithuania has a relatively small Russian-speaking minority (5.0% as of 2008). Russian language_sentence_63

In Moldova, Russian is considered to be the language of inter-ethnic communication under a Soviet-era law. Russian language_sentence_64

50% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 19% used it as the main language with family, friends, or at work. Russian language_sentence_65

According to the 2010 census in Russia, Russian language skills were indicated by 138 million people (99.4% of the respondents), while according to the 2002 census – 142.6 million people (99.2% of the respondents). Russian language_sentence_66

In Ukraine, Russian is seen as a language of inter-ethnic communication, and a minority language, under the 1996 Constitution of Ukraine. Russian language_sentence_67

According to estimates from Demoskop Weekly, in 2004 there were 14,400,000 native speakers of Russian in the country, and 29 million active speakers. Russian language_sentence_68

65% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 38% used it as the main language with family, friends, or at work. Russian language_sentence_69

On 5 September 2017, Ukraine's Parliament passed a new education law which bars primary education to all students in any language but Ukrainian. Russian language_sentence_70

The law faced criticism from officials in Russia. Russian language_sentence_71

In the 20th century, Russian was a mandatory language taught in the schools of the members of the old Warsaw Pact and in other countries that used to be satellites of the USSR. Russian language_sentence_72

According to the Eurobarometer 2005 survey, fluency in Russian remains fairly high (20–40%) in some countries, in particular those where the people speak a Slavic language and thereby have an edge in learning Russian (namely, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Bulgaria). Russian language_sentence_73

Significant Russian-speaking groups also exist in Western Europe. Russian language_sentence_74

These have been fed by several waves of immigrants since the beginning of the 20th century, each with its own flavor of language. Russian language_sentence_75

The United Kingdom, Germany, Finland, Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Belgium, Greece, Norway, and Austria have significant Russian-speaking communities. Russian language_sentence_76

Asia Russian language_section_4

In Armenia, Russian has no official status, but it is recognized as a minority language under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. Russian language_sentence_77

30% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 2% used it as the main language with family, friends, or at work. Russian language_sentence_78

In Azerbaijan, Russian has no official status, but is a lingua franca of the country. Russian language_sentence_79

26% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 5% used it as the main language with family, friends, or at work. Russian language_sentence_80

In China, Russian has no official status, but it is spoken by the small Russian communities in the northeastern Heilongjiang province. Russian language_sentence_81

In Georgia, Russian has no official status, but it is recognized as a minority language under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. Russian language_sentence_82

Russian is the language of 9% of the population according to the World Factbook. Russian language_sentence_83

Ethnologue cites Russian as the country's de facto working language. Russian language_sentence_84

In Kazakhstan, Russian is not a state language, but according to article 7 of the Constitution of Kazakhstan its usage enjoys equal status to that of the Kazakh language in state and local administration. Russian language_sentence_85

The 2009 census reported that 10,309,500 people, or 84.8% of the population aged 15 and above, could read and write well in Russian, as well as understand the spoken language. Russian language_sentence_86

In Kyrgyzstan, Russian is a co-official language per article 5 of the Constitution of Kyrgyzstan. Russian language_sentence_87

The 2009 census states that 482,200 people speak Russian as a native language, or 8.99% of the population. Russian language_sentence_88

Additionally, 1,854,700 residents of Kyrgyzstan aged 15 and above fluently speak Russian as a second language, or 49.6% of the population in the age group. Russian language_sentence_89

In Tajikistan, Russian is the language of inter-ethnic communication under the Constitution of Tajikistan and is permitted in official documentation. Russian language_sentence_90

28% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 7% used it as the main language with family, friends or at work. Russian language_sentence_91

The World Factbook notes that Russian is widely used in government and business. Russian language_sentence_92

In Turkmenistan, Russian lost its status as the official lingua franca in 1996. Russian language_sentence_93

Russian is spoken by 12% of the population according to an undated estimate from the World Factbook. Russian language_sentence_94

Nevertheless, the Turkmen state press and websites regularly publish material in Russian and there is the Russian-language newspaper Neytralny Turkmenistan, the television channel TV4, and there are schools like Joint Turkmen-Russian Secondary School. Russian language_sentence_95

In Uzbekistan, Russian is the language of inter-ethnic communication. Russian language_sentence_96

It has some official roles, being permitted in official documentation and is the lingua franca of the country and the language of the elite. Russian language_sentence_97

Russian is spoken by 14.2% of the population according to an undated estimate from the World Factbook. Russian language_sentence_98

In 2005, Russian was the most widely taught foreign language in Mongolia, and was compulsory in Year 7 onward as a second foreign language in 2006. Russian language_sentence_99

Russian is also spoken in Israel. Russian language_sentence_100

The number of native Russian-speaking Israelis numbers around 1.5 million Israelis, 15% of the population. Russian language_sentence_101

The Israeli press and websites regularly publish material in Russian and there are Russian newspapers, television stations, schools, and social media outlets based in the country. Russian language_sentence_102

There is an Israeli TV channel mainly broadcasting in Russian with Israel Plus. Russian language_sentence_103

See also Russian language in Israel. Russian language_sentence_104

Russian is also spoken as a second language by a small number of people in Afghanistan. Russian language_sentence_105

In Vietnam, Russian has been added in the elementary curriculum along with Chinese and Japanese and were named as "first foreign languages" for Vietnamese students to learn, on equal footing with English. Russian language_sentence_106

North America Russian language_section_5

See also: Russian language in the United States Russian language_sentence_107

The language was first introduced in North America when Russian explorers voyaged into Alaska and claimed it for Russia during the 18th century. Russian language_sentence_108

Although most Russian colonists left after the United States bought the land in 1867, a handful stayed and preserved the Russian language in this region to this day, although only a few elderly speakers of this unique dialect are left. Russian language_sentence_109

In Nikolaevsk, Alaska Russian is more spoken than English. Russian language_sentence_110

Sizable Russian-speaking communities also exist in North America, especially in large urban centers of the U.S. Russian language_sentence_111

and Canada, such as New York City, Philadelphia, Boston, Los Angeles, Nashville, San Francisco, Seattle, Spokane, Toronto, Baltimore, Miami, Chicago, Denver, and Cleveland. Russian language_sentence_112

In a number of locations they issue their own newspapers, and live in ethnic enclaves (especially the generation of immigrants who started arriving in the early 1960s). Russian language_sentence_113

Only about 25% of them are ethnic Russians, however. Russian language_sentence_114

Before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the overwhelming majority of Russophones in Brighton Beach, Brooklyn in New York City were Russian-speaking Jews. Russian language_sentence_115

Afterward, the influx from the countries of the former Soviet Union changed the statistics somewhat, with ethnic Russians and Ukrainians immigrating along with some more Russian Jews and Central Asians. Russian language_sentence_116

According to the United States Census, in 2007 Russian was the primary language spoken in the homes of over 850,000 individuals living in the United States. Russian language_sentence_117

In the second half of the 20th century, Russian was the most popular foreign language in Cuba. Russian language_sentence_118

Besides being taught at universities and schools, there were also educational programs on the radio and TV. Russian language_sentence_119

However, starting January 2019 the Cuban television opens an educational program devoted to the Russian language. Russian language_sentence_120

This project is fully entitled to be called an anticipated one, because the Russian – Cuban collaboration is a strategic direction actively developed as more and more young people are interested in the Russian language, the Education navigator informs. Russian language_sentence_121

The Havana State University has started a bachelor's specialization called the Russian Language and the Second Foreign Language. Russian language_sentence_122

There is also the Russian language department, where students can scrutinize e-books without internet connection. Russian language_sentence_123

Additional courses on the Russian language are open at two schools of the Cuban capital city. Russian language_sentence_124

An estimated 200,000 people speak the Russian language in Cuba, on the account that more than 23,000 Cubans who took higher studies in the former Soviet Union and later in Russia, and another important group of people who studied at military schools and technologists, plus the nearly 2,000 Russians residing in Cuba and their descendants. Russian language_sentence_125

As an international language Russian language_section_6

See also: Russophone, List of official languages by institution, and Internet in Russian Russian language_sentence_126

Russian is one of the official languages (or has similar status and interpretation must be provided into Russian) of the following: Russian language_sentence_127

The Russian language is also one of two official languages aboard the International Space StationNASA astronauts who serve alongside Russian cosmonauts usually take Russian language courses. Russian language_sentence_128

This practice goes back to the Apollo-Soyuz mission, which first flew in 1975. Russian language_sentence_129

In March 2013, it was announced that Russian is now the second-most used language on the Internet after English. Russian language_sentence_130

People use the Russian language on 5.9% of all websites, slightly ahead of German and far behind English (54.7%). Russian language_sentence_131

Russian is used not only on 89.8% of .ru sites, but also on 88.7% of sites with the former Soviet Union domain .su. Russian language_sentence_132

The websites of former Soviet Union nations also use high levels of Russian: 79.0% in Ukraine, 86.9% in Belarus, 84.0% in Kazakhstan, 79.6% in Uzbekistan, 75.9% in Kyrgyzstan and 81.8% in Tajikistan. Russian language_sentence_133

However, Russian is the sixth-most used language on the top 1,000 sites, behind English, Chinese, French, German, and Japanese. Russian language_sentence_134

Dialects Russian language_section_7

Main articles: Russian dialects and Moscow dialect Russian language_sentence_135

Russian is a rather homogeneous language, in terms of dialectal variation, due to the early political centralization under Moscow's rule, compulsory education, mass migration from rural to urban areas in the 20th century, as well as other factors. Russian language_sentence_136

The standard language is used in written and spoken form almost everywhere in the country, from Kaliningrad and Saint Petersburg in the West to Vladivostok and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in the East, the enormous distance between notwithstanding. Russian language_sentence_137

Despite leveling after 1900, especially in matters of vocabulary and phonetics, a number of dialects still exist in Russia. Russian language_sentence_138

Some linguists divide the dialects of Russian into two primary regional groupings, "Northern" and "Southern", with Moscow lying on the zone of transition between the two. Russian language_sentence_139

Others divide the language into three groupings, Northern, Central (or Middle), and Southern, with Moscow lying in the Central region. Russian language_sentence_140

All dialects are also divided into two main chronological categories: the dialects of primary formation (the territory of Muscovy roughly consists of the modern Central and Northwestern Federal districts) and secondary formation (other territories where Russian was brought by migrants from primary formation territories or adopted by the local population). Russian language_sentence_141

Dialectology within Russia recognizes dozens of smaller-scale variants. Russian language_sentence_142

The dialects often show distinct and non-standard features of pronunciation and intonation, vocabulary, and grammar. Russian language_sentence_143

Some of these are relics of ancient usage now completely discarded by the standard language. Russian language_sentence_144

The Northern Russian dialects and those spoken along the Volga River typically pronounce unstressed /o/ clearly, a phenomenon called okanye (оканье). Russian language_sentence_145

Besides the absence of vowel reduction, some dialects have high or diphthongal /e⁓i̯ɛ/ in place of Proto-Slavic *ě and /o⁓u̯ɔ/ in stressed closed syllables (as in Ukrainian) instead of Standard Russian /e/ and /o/. Russian language_sentence_146

Another Northern dialectal morphological feature is a post-posed definite article -to, -ta, -te similarly to that existing in Bulgarian and Macedonian. Russian language_sentence_147

In the Southern Russian dialects, instances of unstressed /e/ and /a/ following palatalized consonants and preceding a stressed syllable are not reduced to [ɪ] (as occurs in the Moscow dialect), being instead pronounced [a] in such positions (e.g. is pronounced [nʲaˈslʲi], not [nʲɪsˈlʲi]) – this is called yakanye (яканье). Russian language_sentence_148

Consonants include a fricative /ɣ/, a semivowel /w⁓u̯/ and /x⁓xv⁓xw/, whereas the Standard and Northern dialects have the consonants /ɡ/, /v/, and final /l/ and /f/, respectively. Russian language_sentence_149

The morphology features a palatalized final /tʲ/ in 3rd person forms of verbs (this is unpalatalized in the Standard and Northern dialects). Russian language_sentence_150

Some of these features such as akanye and yakanye, a debuccalized or lenited /ɡ/, a semivowel /w⁓u̯/ and palatalized final /tʲ/ in 3rd person forms of verbs are also present in modern Belarusian and some dialects of Ukrainian (Eastern Polesian), indicating a linguistic continuum. Russian language_sentence_151

The city of Veliky Novgorod has historically displayed a feature called chokanye or tsokanye (чоканье or цоканье), in which /tɕ/ and /ts/ were switched or merged. Russian language_sentence_152

So, (tsaplya, 'heron') has been recorded as чапля (chaplya). Russian language_sentence_153

Also, the second palatalization of velars did not occur there, so the so-called ě² (from the Proto-Slavic diphthong *ai) did not cause /k, ɡ, x/ to shift to /ts, dz, s/; therefore, where Standard Russian has ('chain'), the form кепь [kʲepʲ] is attested in earlier texts. Russian language_sentence_154

Among the first to study Russian dialects was Lomonosov in the 18th century. Russian language_sentence_155

In the 19th, Vladimir Dal compiled the first dictionary that included dialectal vocabulary. Russian language_sentence_156

Detailed mapping of Russian dialects began at the turn of the 20th century. Russian language_sentence_157

In modern times, the monumental Dialectological Atlas of the Russian Language (Диалектологический атлас русского языка – Dialektologichesky atlas russkogo yazyka), was published in three folio volumes 1986–1989, after four decades of preparatory work. Russian language_sentence_158

Derived languages Russian language_section_8

Russian language_unordered_list_0

  • Balachka, a dialect spoken in Krasnodar region, Don, Kuban, and Terek, brought by relocated Cossacks in 1793 and is based on the southwest Ukrainian dialect. During the Russification of the aforementioned regions in the 1920s to 1950s, it was replaced by the Russian language.Russian language_item_0_0
  • Fenya, a criminal argot of ancient origin, with Russian grammar, but with distinct vocabularyRussian language_item_0_1
  • Medny Aleut language, a nearly extinct mixed language spoken on Bering Island that is characterized by its Aleut nouns and Russian verbsRussian language_item_0_2
  • Padonkaffsky jargon, a slang language developed by padonki of RunetRussian language_item_0_3
  • Quelia, a macaronic language with Russian-derived basic structure and part of the lexicon (mainly nouns and verbs) borrowed from GermanRussian language_item_0_4
  • Runglish, a Russian-English pidgin. This word is also used by English speakers to describe the way in which Russians attempt to speak English using Russian morphology and/or syntax.Russian language_item_0_5
  • Russenorsk, an extinct pidgin language with mostly Russian vocabulary and mostly Norwegian grammar, used for communication between Russians and Norwegian traders in the Pomor trade in Finnmark and the Kola PeninsulaRussian language_item_0_6
  • Trasianka, a heavily russified variety of Belarusian used by a large portion of the rural population in BelarusRussian language_item_0_7
  • Taimyr Pidgin Russian, spoken by the Nganasan on the Taimyr PeninsulaRussian language_item_0_8

Alphabet Russian language_section_9

Main articles: Russian alphabet and Russian Braille Russian language_sentence_159

Russian is written using a Cyrillic alphabet. Russian language_sentence_160

The Russian alphabet consists of 33 letters. Russian language_sentence_161

The following table gives their upper case forms, along with IPA values for each letter's typical sound: Russian language_sentence_162

Older letters of the Russian alphabet include ⟨ѣ⟩, which merged to ⟨е⟩ (/je/ or /ʲe/); ⟨і⟩ and ⟨ѵ⟩, which both merged to ⟨и⟩ (/i/); ⟨ѳ⟩, which merged to ⟨ф⟩ (/f/); ⟨ѫ⟩, which merged to ⟨у⟩ (/u/); ⟨ѭ⟩, which merged to ⟨ю⟩ (/ju/ or /ʲu/); and ⟨ѧ⟩ and ⟨ѩ⟩, which later were graphically reshaped into ⟨я⟩ and merged phonetically to /ja/ or /ʲa/. Russian language_sentence_163

While these older letters have been abandoned at one time or another, they may be used in this and related articles. Russian language_sentence_164

The yers ⟨ъ⟩ and ⟨ь⟩ originally indicated the pronunciation of ultra-short or reduced /ŭ/, /ĭ/. Russian language_sentence_165

Transliteration Russian language_section_10

Further information: Romanization of Russian and Informal romanizations of Russian Russian language_sentence_166

Because of many technical restrictions in computing and also because of the unavailability of Cyrillic keyboards abroad, Russian is often transliterated using the Latin alphabet. Russian language_sentence_167

For example, ('frost') is transliterated moroz, and ('mouse'), mysh or myš'. Russian language_sentence_168

Once commonly used by the majority of those living outside Russia, transliteration is being used less frequently by Russian-speaking typists in favor of the extension of Unicode character encoding, which fully incorporates the Russian alphabet. Russian language_sentence_169

Free programs leveraging this Unicode extension are available which allow users to type Russian characters, even on Western 'QWERTY' keyboards. Russian language_sentence_170

Computing Russian language_section_11

The Russian alphabet has many systems of character encoding. Russian language_sentence_171

KOI8-R was designed by the Soviet government and was intended to serve as the standard encoding. Russian language_sentence_172

This encoding was and still is widely used in UNIX-like operating systems. Russian language_sentence_173

Nevertheless, the spread of MS-DOS and OS/2 (IBM866), traditional Macintosh (ISO/IEC 8859-5) and Microsoft Windows (CP1251) meant the proliferation of many different encodings as de facto standards, with Windows-1251 becoming a de facto standard in Russian Internet and e-mail communication during the period of roughly 1995–2005. Russian language_sentence_174

All the obsolete 8-bit encodings are rarely used in the communication protocols and text-exchange data formats, having been mostly replaced with UTF-8. Russian language_sentence_175

A number of encoding conversion applications were developed. Russian language_sentence_176

"iconv" is an example that is supported by most versions of Linux, Macintosh and some other operating systems; but converters are rarely needed unless accessing texts created more than a few years ago. Russian language_sentence_177

In addition to the modern Russian alphabet, Unicode (and thus UTF-8) encodes the Early Cyrillic alphabet (which is very similar to the Greek alphabet), as well as all other Slavic and non-Slavic but Cyrillic-based alphabets. Russian language_sentence_178

Orthography Russian language_section_12

Main article: Russian orthography Russian language_sentence_179

The current spelling follows the major reform of 1918, and the final codification of 1956. Russian language_sentence_180

An update proposed in the late 1990s has met a hostile reception, and has not been formally adopted. Russian language_sentence_181

The punctuation, originally based on Byzantine Greek, was in the 17th and 18th centuries reformulated on the French and German models. Russian language_sentence_182

According to the Institute of Russian Language of the Russian Academy of Sciences, an optional acute accent (знак ударения) may, and sometimes should, be used to mark stress. Russian language_sentence_183

For example, it is used to distinguish between otherwise identical words, especially when context does not make it obvious: замо́к (zamók – "lock") – за́мок (zámok – "castle"), сто́ящий (stóyashchy – "worthwhile") – стоя́щий (stoyáshchy – "standing"), чудно́ (chudnó – "this is odd") – чу́дно (chúdno – "this is marvellous"), молоде́ц (molodéts – "well done!") Russian language_sentence_184

– мо́лодец (mólodets – "fine young man"), узна́ю (uznáyu – "I shall learn it") – узнаю́ (uznayú – "I recognize it"), отреза́ть (otrezát – "to be cutting") – отре́зать (otrézat – "to have cut"); to indicate the proper pronunciation of uncommon words, especially personal and family names, like афе́ра (aféra, "scandal, affair"), гу́ру (gúru, "guru"), Гарси́я (García), Оле́ша (Olésha), Фе́рми (Fermi), and to show which is the stressed word in a sentence, for example Ты́ съел печенье? Russian language_sentence_185

(Tý syel pechenye? Russian language_sentence_186

– "Was it you who ate the cookie?") Russian language_sentence_187

– Ты съе́л печенье? Russian language_sentence_188

(Ty syél pechenye? Russian language_sentence_189

– "Did you eat the cookie?) Russian language_sentence_190

– Ты съел пече́нье? Russian language_sentence_191

(Ty syel pechénye? Russian language_sentence_192

"Was it the cookie you ate?"). Russian language_sentence_193

Stress marks are mandatory in lexical dictionaries and books for children or Russian learners. Russian language_sentence_194

Phonology Russian language_section_13

Main article: Russian phonology Russian language_sentence_195

The phonological system of Russian is inherited from Common Slavonic; it underwent considerable modification in the early historical period before being largely settled around the year 1400. Russian language_sentence_196

The language possesses five vowels (or six, under the St. Petersburg Phonological School), which are written with different letters depending on whether the preceding consonant is palatalized. Russian language_sentence_197

The consonants typically come in plain vs. palatalized pairs, which are traditionally called hard and soft. Russian language_sentence_198

The hard consonants are often velarized, especially before front vowels, as in Irish and Marshallese. Russian language_sentence_199

The standard language, based on the Moscow dialect, possesses heavy stress and moderate variation in pitch. Russian language_sentence_200

Stressed vowels are somewhat lengthened, while unstressed vowels tend to be reduced to near-close vowels or an unclear schwa. Russian language_sentence_201

(See also: vowel reduction in Russian.) Russian language_sentence_202

The Russian syllable structure can be quite complex, with both initial and final consonant clusters of up to four consecutive sounds. Russian language_sentence_203

Using a formula with V standing for the nucleus (vowel) and C for each consonant, the maximal structure can be described as follows: Russian language_sentence_204

(C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C) Russian language_sentence_205

However, Russian has a constraint on syllabification such that syllables cannot span multiple morphemes. Russian language_sentence_206

Clusters of four consonants are not very common, especially within a morpheme. Russian language_sentence_207

Some examples are: ([vzglʲat vzglyad, 'glance'), ([gəsʊˈdarstf gosudarstv, 'of the states'), ([strɐˈitʲɪlʲstf stroitelstv, 'of the constructions'). Russian language_sentence_208

Consonants Russian language_section_14

Russian language_table_general_1

Consonant phonemesRussian language_table_caption_1
Russian language_header_cell_1_0_0 LabialRussian language_header_cell_1_0_1 Alveolar

/DentalRussian language_header_cell_1_0_3

Post- alveolarRussian language_header_cell_1_0_5 PalatalRussian language_header_cell_1_0_7 VelarRussian language_header_cell_1_0_8
plainRussian language_header_cell_1_1_0 pal.Russian language_header_cell_1_1_1 plainRussian language_header_cell_1_1_2 pal.Russian language_header_cell_1_1_3 plainRussian language_header_cell_1_1_4 pal.Russian language_header_cell_1_1_5 plainRussian language_header_cell_1_1_6 pal.Russian language_header_cell_1_1_7
NasalRussian language_header_cell_1_2_0 mRussian language_cell_1_2_1 Russian language_cell_1_2_2 nRussian language_cell_1_2_3 Russian language_cell_1_2_4 Russian language_cell_1_2_5 Russian language_cell_1_2_6 Russian language_cell_1_2_7 Russian language_cell_1_2_8 Russian language_cell_1_2_9
StopRussian language_header_cell_1_3_0 p

bRussian language_cell_1_3_1

Russian language_cell_1_3_2


dRussian language_cell_1_3_3

Russian language_cell_1_3_4

Russian language_cell_1_3_5 Russian language_cell_1_3_6 Russian language_cell_1_3_7 k

ɡRussian language_cell_1_3_8

ɡʲRussian language_cell_1_3_9

AffricateRussian language_header_cell_1_4_0 Russian language_cell_1_4_1 Russian language_cell_1_4_2 tsRussian language_cell_1_4_3 Russian language_cell_1_4_4 Russian language_cell_1_4_5 Russian language_cell_1_4_6 Russian language_cell_1_4_7 Russian language_cell_1_4_8 Russian language_cell_1_4_9
FricativeRussian language_header_cell_1_5_0 f

vRussian language_cell_1_5_1

Russian language_cell_1_5_2


zRussian language_cell_1_5_3

Russian language_cell_1_5_4


ʐRussian language_cell_1_5_5


ʑːRussian language_cell_1_5_6

Russian language_cell_1_5_7 x

ɣRussian language_cell_1_5_8

ɣʲRussian language_cell_1_5_9

ApproximantRussian language_header_cell_1_6_0 Russian language_cell_1_6_1 Russian language_cell_1_6_2 ɫRussian language_cell_1_6_3 Russian language_cell_1_6_4 Russian language_cell_1_6_5 Russian language_cell_1_6_6 jRussian language_cell_1_6_7 Russian language_cell_1_6_8 Russian language_cell_1_6_9
TrillRussian language_header_cell_1_7_0 Russian language_cell_1_7_1 Russian language_cell_1_7_2 rRussian language_cell_1_7_3 Russian language_cell_1_7_4 Russian language_cell_1_7_5 Russian language_cell_1_7_6 Russian language_cell_1_7_7 Russian language_cell_1_7_8 Russian language_cell_1_7_9

Russian is notable for its distinction based on palatalization of most of its consonants. Russian language_sentence_209

While /k, ɡ, x/ do have palatalized allophones [kʲ, ɡʲ, xʲ], only /kʲ/ might be considered a phoneme, though it is marginal and generally not considered distinctive. Russian language_sentence_210

The only native minimal pair that argues for /kʲ/ being a separate phoneme is это ([ˈɛtə tkʲɵt] eto tkyot – "it weaves") – этот ([ˈɛtət kot], etot kot – "this cat"). Russian language_sentence_211

Palatalization means that the center of the tongue is raised during and after the articulation of the consonant. Russian language_sentence_212

In the case of /tʲ/ and /dʲ/, the tongue is raised enough to produce slight frication (affricate sounds; cf. Russian language_sentence_213

Belarusian ць, дзь, or Polish ć, dź). Russian language_sentence_214

The sounds /t, d, ts, s, z, n, rʲ/ are dental, that is, pronounced with the tip of the tongue against the teeth rather than against the alveolar ridge. Russian language_sentence_215

Vowels Russian language_section_15

Russian language_table_general_2

Russian language_header_cell_2_0_0 FrontRussian language_header_cell_2_0_1 CentralRussian language_header_cell_2_0_2 BackRussian language_header_cell_2_0_3
CloseRussian language_header_cell_2_1_0 iRussian language_cell_2_1_1 (ɨ)Russian language_cell_2_1_2 uRussian language_cell_2_1_3
MidRussian language_header_cell_2_2_0 eRussian language_cell_2_2_1 Russian language_cell_2_2_2 oRussian language_cell_2_2_3
OpenRussian language_header_cell_2_3_0 Russian language_cell_2_3_1 aRussian language_cell_2_3_2 Russian language_cell_2_3_3

Russian has five or six vowels in stressed syllables, /i, u, e, o, a/ and in some analyses /ɨ/, but in most cases these vowels have merged to only two to four vowels when unstressed: /i, u, a/ (or /ɨ, u, a/) after hard consonants and /i, u/ after soft ones. Russian language_sentence_216

Grammar Russian language_section_16

Main article: Russian grammar Russian language_sentence_217

Russian has preserved an Indo-European synthetic-inflectional structure, although considerable levelling has taken place. Russian language_sentence_218

Russian grammar encompasses: Russian language_sentence_219

Russian language_unordered_list_1

  • a highly fusional morphologyRussian language_item_1_9
  • a syntax that, for the literary language, is the conscious fusion of three elements:Russian language_item_1_10

The spoken language has been influenced by the literary one but continues to preserve characteristic forms. Russian language_sentence_220

The dialects show various non-standard grammatical features, some of which are archaisms or descendants of old forms since discarded by the literary language. Russian language_sentence_221

The Church Slavonic language (not to be confused with Old Church Slavonic which was introduced during the Christianization of the Kievan Rus' in the 10th century) was introduced to Moskovy in the late 15th century and was adopted as official language for correspondence for convenience. Russian language_sentence_222

Firstly with the newly conquered southwestern regions of former Kyivan Rus and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, later, when Moskovy cut its ties with the Golden Horde, for communication between all newly consolidated regions of Moskovy. Russian language_sentence_223

In terms of actual grammar, there are three tenses in Russian – past, present, and future – and each verb has two aspects (perfective and imperfective). Russian language_sentence_224

Russian nouns each have a gender – either feminine, masculine, or neuter, indicated by spelling at the end of the word. Russian language_sentence_225

Words change depending on both their gender and function in the sentence. Russian language_sentence_226

Russian has six cases: Nominative (for the subject of the sentence), Accusative (for direct objects), Dative (for indirect objects), Genitive (to indicate possession), Instrumental (to indicate 'with' or 'by means of'), and Prepositional (used after a preposition). Russian language_sentence_227

Verbs of motion in Russian – such as 'go', 'walk', 'run', 'swim', and 'fly' – use the imperfective or perfective form to indicate a single or return trip, and also use a multitude of prefixes to add more meaning to the verb. Russian language_sentence_228

Vocabulary Russian language_section_17

See History of the Russian language for an account of the successive foreign influences on Russian. Russian language_sentence_229

The number of listed words or entries in some of the major dictionaries published during the past two centuries, and the total vocabulary of Alexander Pushkin (who is credited with greatly augmenting and codifying literary Russian), are as follows: Russian language_sentence_230

Russian language_table_general_3

WorkRussian language_header_cell_3_0_0 YearRussian language_header_cell_3_0_1 WordsRussian language_header_cell_3_0_2 NotesRussian language_header_cell_3_0_3
Academic dictionary, I Ed.Russian language_cell_3_1_0 1789–1794Russian language_cell_3_1_1 43,257Russian language_cell_3_1_2 Russian and Church Slavonic with some Old Russian vocabulary.Russian language_cell_3_1_3
Academic dictionary, II EdRussian language_cell_3_2_0 1806–1822Russian language_cell_3_2_1 51,388Russian language_cell_3_2_2 Russian and Church Slavonic with some Old Russian vocabulary.Russian language_cell_3_2_3
Dictionary of Pushkin's languageRussian language_cell_3_3_0 1810–1837Russian language_cell_3_3_1 >21,000Russian language_cell_3_3_2 The dictionary of virtually all words from his works was published in 1956–1961. Some consider his works to contain 101,105.Russian language_cell_3_3_3
Academic dictionary, III Ed.Russian language_cell_3_4_0 1847Russian language_cell_3_4_1 114,749Russian language_cell_3_4_2 Russian and Church Slavonic with Old Russian vocabulary.Russian language_cell_3_4_3
Explanatory Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language (Dahl's)Russian language_cell_3_5_0 1880–1882Russian language_cell_3_5_1 195,844Russian language_cell_3_5_2 44,000 entries lexically grouped; attempt to catalogue the full vernacular language. Contains many dialectal, local, and obsolete words.Russian language_cell_3_5_3
Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language (Ushakov's)Russian language_cell_3_6_0 1934–1940Russian language_cell_3_6_1 85,289Russian language_cell_3_6_2 Current language with some archaisms.Russian language_cell_3_6_3
Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language (Ozhegov's)Russian language_cell_3_7_0 1950–1965

1991 (2nd ed.)Russian language_cell_3_7_1

120,480Russian language_cell_3_7_2 "Full" 17-volumed dictionary of the contemporary language. The second 20-volumed edition was begun in 1991, but not all volumes have been finished.Russian language_cell_3_7_3
Lopatin's dictionaryRussian language_cell_3_8_0 1999–2013Russian language_cell_3_8_1 ≈200,000Russian language_cell_3_8_2 Orthographic, current language, several editionsRussian language_cell_3_8_3
Great Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian LanguageRussian language_cell_3_9_0 1998–2009Russian language_cell_3_9_1 ≈130,000Russian language_cell_3_9_2 Current language, the dictionary has many subsequent editions from the first one of 1998.Russian language_cell_3_9_3
Russian WiktionaryRussian language_cell_3_10_0 3 September 2019Russian language_cell_3_10_1 429,738Russian language_cell_3_10_2 Number of entries in the categoryRussian language_cell_3_10_3

History and examples Russian language_section_18

Main article: History of the Russian language Russian language_sentence_231

See also: Reforms of Russian orthography Russian language_sentence_232

The history of the Russian language may be divided into the following periods: Russian language_sentence_233

Russian language_unordered_list_2

Judging by the historical records, by approximately 1000 AD the predominant ethnic group over much of modern European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus was the Eastern branch of the Slavs, speaking a closely related group of dialects. Russian language_sentence_234

The political unification of this region into Kievan Rus' in about 880, from which modern Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus trace their origins, established Old East Slavic as a literary and commercial language. Russian language_sentence_235

It was soon followed by the adoption of Christianity in 988 and the introduction of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic as the liturgical and official language. Russian language_sentence_236

Borrowings and calques from Byzantine Greek began to enter the Old East Slavic and spoken dialects at this time, which in their turn modified the Old Church Slavonic as well. Russian language_sentence_237

Dialectal differentiation accelerated after the breakup of Kievan Rus' in approximately 1100. Russian language_sentence_238

On the territories of modern Belarus and Ukraine emerged Ruthenian and in modern Russia medieval Russian. Russian language_sentence_239

They became distinct since the 13th century, i.e. following the division of the land between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Poland in the west and independent Novgorod and Pskov feudal republics plus numerous small duchies (which came to be vassals of the Tatars) in the east. Russian language_sentence_240

The official language in Moscow and Novgorod, and later, in the growing Muscovy, was Church Slavonic, which evolved from Old Church Slavonic and remained the literary language for centuries, until the Petrine age, when its usage became limited to biblical and liturgical texts. Russian language_sentence_241

Russian developed under a strong influence of Church Slavonic until the close of the 17th century; afterward the influence reversed, leading to corruption of liturgical texts. Russian language_sentence_242

The political reforms of Peter the Great (Пётр Вели́кий, Pyótr Velíky) were accompanied by a reform of the alphabet, and achieved their goal of secularization and Westernization. Russian language_sentence_243

Blocks of specialized vocabulary were adopted from the languages of Western Europe. Russian language_sentence_244

By 1800, a significant portion of the gentry spoke French daily, and German sometimes. Russian language_sentence_245

Many Russian novels of the 19th century, e.g. Leo Tolstoy's (Лев Толсто́й) War and Peace, contain entire paragraphs and even pages in French with no translation given, with an assumption that educated readers would not need one. Russian language_sentence_246

The modern literary language is usually considered to date from the time of Alexander Pushkin (Алекса́ндр Пу́шкин) in the first third of the 19th century. Russian language_sentence_247

Pushkin revolutionized Russian literature by rejecting archaic grammar and vocabulary (so-called высо́кий стиль — "high style") in favor of grammar and vocabulary found in the spoken language of the time. Russian language_sentence_248

Even modern readers of younger age may only experience slight difficulties understanding some words in Pushkin's texts, since relatively few words used by Pushkin have become archaic or changed meaning. Russian language_sentence_249

In fact, many expressions used by Russian writers of the early 19th century, in particular Pushkin, Mikhail Lermontov (Михаи́л Ле́рмонтов), Nikolai Gogol (Никола́й Го́голь), Aleksander Griboyedov (Алекса́ндр Грибое́дов), became proverbs or sayings which can be frequently found even in modern Russian colloquial speech. Russian language_sentence_250

The political upheavals of the early 20th century and the wholesale changes of political ideology gave written Russian its modern appearance after the spelling reform of 1918. Russian language_sentence_251

Political circumstances and Soviet accomplishments in military, scientific, and technological matters (especially cosmonautics), gave Russian a worldwide prestige, especially during the mid-20th century. Russian language_sentence_252

During the Soviet period, the policy toward the languages of the various other ethnic groups fluctuated in practice. Russian language_sentence_253

Though each of the constituent republics had its own official language, the unifying role and superior status was reserved for Russian, although it was declared the official language only in 1990. Russian language_sentence_254

Following the break-up of the USSR in 1991, several of the newly independent states have encouraged their native languages, which has partly reversed the privileged status of Russian, though its role as the language of post-Soviet national discourse throughout the region has continued. Russian language_sentence_255

The Russian language in the world declined after 1991 due to the collapse of the Soviet Union and decrease in the number of Russians in the world and diminution of the total population in Russia (where Russian is an official language), however this has since been reversed. Russian language_sentence_256

Russian language_table_general_4

Recent estimates of the total number of speakers of RussianRussian language_table_caption_4
SourceRussian language_header_cell_4_0_0 Native speakersRussian language_header_cell_4_0_1 Native rankRussian language_header_cell_4_0_2 Total speakersRussian language_header_cell_4_0_3 Total rankRussian language_header_cell_4_0_4
G. Weber, "Top Languages",

Language Monthly, 3: 12–18, 1997, ISSN 1369-9733Russian language_cell_4_1_0

160,000,000Russian language_cell_4_1_1 8Russian language_cell_4_1_2 285,000,000Russian language_cell_4_1_3 5Russian language_cell_4_1_4
World Almanac (1999)Russian language_cell_4_2_0 145,000,000Russian language_cell_4_2_1 8          (2005)Russian language_cell_4_2_2 275,000,000Russian language_cell_4_2_3 5Russian language_cell_4_2_4
SIL (2000 WCD)Russian language_cell_4_3_0 145,000,000Russian language_cell_4_3_1 8Russian language_cell_4_3_2 255,000,000Russian language_cell_4_3_3 5–6 (tied with Arabic)Russian language_cell_4_3_4
CIA World Factbook (2005)Russian language_cell_4_4_0 160,000,000Russian language_cell_4_4_1 8Russian language_cell_4_4_2 Russian language_cell_4_4_3 Russian language_cell_4_4_4

According to figures published in 2006 in the journal "" research deputy director of Research Center for Sociological Research of the Ministry of Education and Science (Russia) Arefyev A. L., the Russian language is gradually losing its position in the world in general, and in Russia in particular. Russian language_sentence_257

In 2012, A. L. Arefyev published a new study "Russian language at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries", in which he confirmed his conclusion about the trend of weakening of the Russian language after the Soviet Union's collapse in various regions of the world (findings published in 2013 in the journal ""). Russian language_sentence_258

In the countries of the former Soviet Union the Russian language was being replaced or used in conjunction with local languages. Russian language_sentence_259

Currently, the number of speakers of Russian in the world depends on the number of Russians in the world and total population in Russia. Russian language_sentence_260

Russian language_table_general_5

The changing proportion of Russian speakers in the world (assessment Aref'eva 2012)Russian language_table_caption_5
YearRussian language_header_cell_5_0_0 worldwide population, millionRussian language_header_cell_5_0_1 population Russian Empire, Soviet Union and Russian Federation, millionRussian language_header_cell_5_0_2 share in world population, %Russian language_header_cell_5_0_3 total number of speakers of Russian, millionRussian language_header_cell_5_0_4 share in world population, %Russian language_header_cell_5_0_5
1900Russian language_cell_5_1_0 1,650Russian language_cell_5_1_1 138.0Russian language_cell_5_1_2 8.4Russian language_cell_5_1_3 105Russian language_cell_5_1_4 6.4Russian language_cell_5_1_5
1914Russian language_cell_5_2_0 1,782Russian language_cell_5_2_1 182.2Russian language_cell_5_2_2 10.2Russian language_cell_5_2_3 140Russian language_cell_5_2_4 7.9Russian language_cell_5_2_5
1940Russian language_cell_5_3_0 2,342Russian language_cell_5_3_1 205.0Russian language_cell_5_3_2 8.8Russian language_cell_5_3_3 200Russian language_cell_5_3_4 7.6Russian language_cell_5_3_5
1980Russian language_cell_5_4_0 4,434Russian language_cell_5_4_1 265.0Russian language_cell_5_4_2 6.0Russian language_cell_5_4_3 280Russian language_cell_5_4_4 6.3Russian language_cell_5_4_5
1990Russian language_cell_5_5_0 5,263Russian language_cell_5_5_1 286.0Russian language_cell_5_5_2 5.4Russian language_cell_5_5_3 312Russian language_cell_5_5_4 5.9Russian language_cell_5_5_5
2004Russian language_cell_5_6_0 6,400Russian language_cell_5_6_1 146.0Russian language_cell_5_6_2 2.3Russian language_cell_5_6_3 278Russian language_cell_5_6_4 4.3Russian language_cell_5_6_5
2010Russian language_cell_5_7_0 6,820Russian language_cell_5_7_1 142.7Russian language_cell_5_7_2 2.1Russian language_cell_5_7_3 260Russian language_cell_5_7_4 3.8Russian language_cell_5_7_5

See also Russian language_section_19

Russian language_unordered_list_3

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: language.