São Paulo

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This article is about the city. São Paulo_sentence_0

For the state, see São Paulo (state). São Paulo_sentence_1

For other uses, see São Paulo (disambiguation). São Paulo_sentence_2

São Paulo_table_infobox_0

São PauloSão Paulo_header_cell_0_0_0
CountrySão Paulo_header_cell_0_1_0 BrazilSão Paulo_cell_0_1_1
StateSão Paulo_header_cell_0_2_0 São PauloSão Paulo_cell_0_2_1
FoundedSão Paulo_header_cell_0_3_0 January 25, 1554São Paulo_cell_0_3_1
Named forSão Paulo_header_cell_0_4_0 Paul the ApostleSão Paulo_cell_0_4_1
GovernmentSão Paulo_header_cell_0_5_0
TypeSão Paulo_header_cell_0_6_0 Mayor-councilSão Paulo_cell_0_6_1
MayorSão Paulo_header_cell_0_7_0 Bruno Covas (PSDB)São Paulo_cell_0_7_1
Vice MayorSão Paulo_header_cell_0_8_0 VacantSão Paulo_cell_0_8_1
AreaSão Paulo_header_cell_0_9_0
MegacitySão Paulo_header_cell_0_10_0 1,521.11 km (587.3039 sq mi)São Paulo_cell_0_10_1
UrbanSão Paulo_header_cell_0_11_0 11,698 km (4,517 sq mi)São Paulo_cell_0_11_1
MetroSão Paulo_header_cell_0_12_0 7,946.96 km (3,068.338 sq mi)São Paulo_cell_0_12_1
MacrometropolisSão Paulo_header_cell_0_13_0 53,369.61 km (20,606.12 sq mi)São Paulo_cell_0_13_1
ElevationSão Paulo_header_cell_0_14_0 760 m (2,493.4 ft)São Paulo_cell_0_14_1
Population (2018)São Paulo_header_cell_0_15_0 12,176,866São Paulo_cell_0_15_1
RankSão Paulo_header_cell_0_16_0 1st in BrazilSão Paulo_cell_0_16_1
DensitySão Paulo_header_cell_0_17_0 8,005.25/km (20,733.5/sq mi)São Paulo_cell_0_17_1
UrbanSão Paulo_header_cell_0_18_0 12,176,866São Paulo_cell_0_18_1
MetroSão Paulo_header_cell_0_19_0 21,571,281 (Greater São Paulo)São Paulo_cell_0_19_1
Metro densitySão Paulo_header_cell_0_20_0 2,714.45/km (7,030.4/sq mi)São Paulo_cell_0_20_1
MacrometropolisSão Paulo_header_cell_0_21_0 33,652,991São Paulo_cell_0_21_1
Demonym(s)São Paulo_header_cell_0_22_0 Portuguese: paulistanoSão Paulo_cell_0_22_1
Time zoneSão Paulo_header_cell_0_23_0 UTC−03:00 (BRT)São Paulo_cell_0_23_1
Postal Code (CEP)São Paulo_header_cell_0_24_0 01000-000São Paulo_cell_0_24_1
Area code(s)São Paulo_header_cell_0_25_0 +55 11São Paulo_cell_0_25_1
HDI (2016)São Paulo_header_cell_0_26_0 0.843 very high (2nd)São Paulo_cell_0_26_1
PPP 2018São Paulo_header_cell_0_27_0 US$687 billion (1st)São Paulo_cell_0_27_1
Per CapitaSão Paulo_header_cell_0_28_0 US$56,418 (1st)São Paulo_cell_0_28_1
Nominal 2018São Paulo_header_cell_0_29_0 US$274 billion (1st)São Paulo_cell_0_29_1
Per CapitaSão Paulo_header_cell_0_30_0 US$22,502 (1st)São Paulo_cell_0_30_1
WebsiteSão Paulo_header_cell_0_31_0 São Paulo_cell_0_31_1

São Paulo (/ˌsaʊ ˈpaʊloʊ/; Portuguese pronunciation: [sɐ̃w̃ ˈpawlu (listen) (Portuguese for Saint Paul)) is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil. São Paulo_sentence_3

The metropolis is an alpha global city (as listed by the GaWC) and the most populous city in Brazil, the Americas, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere. São Paulo_sentence_4

Additionally, São Paulo is the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world. São Paulo_sentence_5

The municipality is also the world's 4th largest city proper by population. São Paulo_sentence_6

The city is the capital of the surrounding state of São Paulo, the most populous and wealthiest state in Brazil. São Paulo_sentence_7

It exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance, arts and entertainment. São Paulo_sentence_8

The name of the city honors the Apostle, Saint Paul of Tarsus. São Paulo_sentence_9

The city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th most populous on Earth. São Paulo_sentence_10

The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo (Campinas, Santos, Sorocaba and São José dos Campos) created the São Paulo Macrometropolis, a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. São Paulo_sentence_11

Having the largest economy by GDP in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere, the city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange. São Paulo_sentence_12

Paulista Avenue is the economic core of São Paulo. São Paulo_sentence_13

The city has the 11th largest GDP in the world, representing alone 10.7% of all Brazilian GDP and 36% of the production of goods and services in the state of São Paulo, being home to 63% of established multinationals in Brazil, and has been responsible for 28% of the national scientific production in 2005, as measured by the number of science papers published in journals. São Paulo_sentence_14

The metropolis is also home to several of the tallest skyscrapers in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale, Edifício Itália, Banespa, North Tower and many others. São Paulo_sentence_15

The city has cultural, economic and political influence nationally and internationally. São Paulo_sentence_16

It is home to monuments, parks and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Ibirapuera Park, Museum of Ipiranga, São Paulo Museum of Art, and the Museum of the Portuguese Language. São Paulo_sentence_17

The city holds events like the São Paulo Jazz Festival, São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix, São Paulo Fashion Week, the ATP Brasil Open, the Brasil Game Show and the Comic Con Experience. São Paulo_sentence_18

The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade rivals the New York City Pride March as the largest gay pride parade in the world. São Paulo_sentence_19

São Paulo is a cosmopolitan, melting pot city, home to the largest Arab, Italian, Japanese, and Portuguese diasporas, with examples including ethnic neighborhoods of , Bixiga, and Liberdade respectively. São Paulo_sentence_20

São Paulo is also home to the largest Jewish population in Brazil, with about 75,000 Jews. São Paulo_sentence_21

In 2016, inhabitants of the city were native to over 200 different countries. São Paulo_sentence_22

People from the city are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the state, including the paulistanos. São Paulo_sentence_23

The city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, duco, which translates as "I am not led, I lead." São Paulo_sentence_24

The city, which is also colloquially known as Sampa or Terra da Garoa (Land of Drizzle), is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, gastronomy, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers. São Paulo_sentence_25

São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 1950 and the 2014 FIFA World Cup. São Paulo_sentence_26

Additionally, the city hosted the IV Pan American Games and the São Paulo Indy 300. São Paulo_sentence_27

History São Paulo_section_0

Geography São Paulo_section_1

São Paulo is located in Southeastern Brazil, in southeastern São Paulo State, approximately halfway between Curitiba and Rio de Janeiro. São Paulo_sentence_28

The city is located on a plateau placed beyond the Serra do Mar (Portuguese for "Sea Range" or "Coastal Range"), itself a component of the vast region known as the Brazilian Highlands, with an average elevation of around 799 metres (2,621 ft) above sea level, although being at a distance of only about 70 kilometres (43 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean. São Paulo_sentence_29

The distance is covered by two highways, the Anchieta and the Imigrantes, (see "Transportation" below) that roll down the range, leading to the port city of Santos and the beach resort of Guarujá. São Paulo_sentence_30

Rolling terrain prevails within the urbanized areas of São Paulo except in its northern area, where the Serra da Cantareira Range reaches a higher elevation and a sizable remnant of the Atlantic Rain Forest. São Paulo_sentence_31

The region is seismically stable and no significant seismic activity has ever been recorded. São Paulo_sentence_32

Metropolitan area São Paulo_section_2

Main articles: Greater São Paulo and São Paulo Macrometropolis São Paulo_sentence_33

The nonspecific term "Grande São Paulo" ("Greater São Paulo") covers multiple definitions. São Paulo_sentence_34

The legally defined Região Metropolitana de São Paulo consists of 39 municipalities in total and a population of 21.1 million inhabitants (as of the 2014 National Census). São Paulo_sentence_35

The Metropolitan Region of São Paulo is known as the financial, economic, and cultural center of Brazil. São Paulo_sentence_36

Among the largest municipalities, Guarulhos, with a population of more than 1 million people is the biggest one. São Paulo_sentence_37

Several others count more than 100,000 inhabitants, such as São Bernardo do Campo (811,000 inh.) São Paulo_sentence_38

and Santo André (707,000 inh.) São Paulo_sentence_39

in the ABC Region. São Paulo_sentence_40

The ABC Region, comprising Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo and São Caetano do Sul in the south of Grande São Paulo, is an important location for industrial corporations, such as Volkswagen and Ford Motors. São Paulo_sentence_41

Because São Paulo has urban sprawl, it uses a different definition for its metropolitan area called Expanded Metropolitan Complex of São Paulo. São Paulo_sentence_42

Analogous to the BosWash definition, it is one of the largest urban agglomerations in the world, with 32 million inhabitants, behind Tokyo, which includes 4 contiguous legally defined metropolitan regions and 3 micro-regions. São Paulo_sentence_43

Hydrography São Paulo_section_3

See also: Water management in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo São Paulo_sentence_44

The Tietê River and its tributary, the Pinheiros River, were once important sources of fresh water and leisure for São Paulo. São Paulo_sentence_45

However, heavy industrial effluents and wastewater discharges in the later 20th century caused the rivers to become heavily polluted. São Paulo_sentence_46

A substantial clean-up program for both rivers is underway, financed through a partnership between local government and international development banks such as the Japan Bank for International Cooperation. São Paulo_sentence_47

Neither river is navigable in the stretch that flows through the city, although water transportation becomes increasingly important on the Tietê river further downstream (near river Paraná), as the river is part of the River Plate basin. São Paulo_sentence_48

No large natural lakes exist in the region, but the Billings and Guarapiranga reservoirs in the city's southern outskirts are used for power generation, water storage and leisure activities, such as sailing. São Paulo_sentence_49

The original flora consisted mainly of broadleaf evergreens. São Paulo_sentence_50

Non-native species are common, as the mild climate and abundant rainfall permit a multitude of tropical, subtropical and temperate plants to be cultivated, especially the ubiquitous eucalyptus. São Paulo_sentence_51

The north of the municipality contains part of the 7,917 hectares (19,560 acres) Cantareira State Park, created in 1962, which protects a large part of the metropolitan São Paulo water supply. São Paulo_sentence_52

In 2015, São Paulo experienced a major drought, which led several cities in the state to start a rationing system. São Paulo_sentence_53

Climate São Paulo_section_4

According to the Köppen classification, the city has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa). São Paulo_sentence_54

In summer (January through March), the mean low temperature is about 19 °C (66 °F) and the mean high temperatures is near 28 °C (82 °F). São Paulo_sentence_55

In winter, temperatures tend to range between 12 and 22 °C (54 and 72 °F). São Paulo_sentence_56

The record high temperature was 37.8 °C (100.0 °F) on October 17, 2014 and the lowest −3.2 °C (26.2 °F) on June 25, 1918. São Paulo_sentence_57

The Tropic of Capricorn, at about 23°27' S, passes through north of São Paulo and roughly marks the boundary between the tropical and temperate areas of South America. São Paulo_sentence_58

Because of its elevation, however, São Paulo experiences a more temperate climate. São Paulo_sentence_59

The city experiences four seasons. São Paulo_sentence_60

The summer is warm and rainy. São Paulo_sentence_61

Autumn and spring are transitional seasons. São Paulo_sentence_62

Winter is the most cold season, with cloudiness around town and frequently polar air masses. São Paulo_sentence_63

Frosts occur sporadically in regions further away from the center, in some winters throughout the city. São Paulo_sentence_64

Regions further away from the center and in cities in the metropolitan area, can reach temperatures next to 0 °C (32 °F), or even lower in the winter. São Paulo_sentence_65

Rainfall is abundant, annually averaging 1,454 millimetres (57.2 in). São Paulo_sentence_66

It is especially common in the warmer months averaging 219 millimetres (8.6 in) and decreases in winter, averaging 47 millimetres (1.9 in). São Paulo_sentence_67

Neither São Paulo nor the nearby coast has ever been hit by a tropical cyclone and tornadic activity is uncommon. São Paulo_sentence_68

During late winter, especially August, the city experiences the phenomenon known as "veranico" or "verãozinho" ("little summer"), which consists of hot and dry weather, sometimes reaching temperatures well above 28 °C (82 °F). São Paulo_sentence_69

On the other hand, relatively cool days during summer are fairly common when persistent winds blow from the ocean. São Paulo_sentence_70

On such occasions daily high temperatures may not surpass 20 °C (68 °F), accompanied by lows often below 15 °C (59 °F), however, summer can be extremely hot when a heat wave hits the city followed by temperatures around 34 °C (93 °F), but in places with greater skyscraper density and less tree cover, the temperature can feel like 39 °C (102 °F), as on Paulista Avenue for example. São Paulo_sentence_71

In the summer of 2014, São Paulo was affected by a heat wave that lasted for almost 4 weeks with highs above 30 °C (86 °F), peeking on 36 °C (97 °F). São Paulo_sentence_72

Secondary to deforestation, groundwater pollution, and climate change, São Paulo is increasingly susceptible to drought and water shortages. São Paulo_sentence_73

Due to the altitude of the city, there are only few hot nights in São Paulo even in the summer months, with minimum temperatures rarely exceeding 21 °C (70 °F). São Paulo_sentence_74

In winter, however, the strong inflow of cold fronts accompanied by excessive cloudiness and polar air cause very low temperatures, even in the afternoon. São Paulo_sentence_75

Afternoons with maximum temperatures ranging between 13 and 15 °C (55 and 59 °F) are common even during the fall and early spring. São Paulo_sentence_76

During the winter, there have been several recent records of cold afternoons, as on July 24, 2013 in which the maximum temperature was 8 °C (46 °F) and the wind chill hit 0 °C (32 °F) during the afternoon. São Paulo_sentence_77

São Paulo is known for its rapidly changing weather. São Paulo_sentence_78

Locals say that all four seasons can be experienced in one day, similar to Melbourne, Australia. São Paulo_sentence_79

In the morning, when winds blow from the ocean, the weather can be cool or sometimes even cold. São Paulo_sentence_80

When the sun hits its peak, the weather can be extremely dry and hot. São Paulo_sentence_81

When the sun sets, the cold wind comes back bringing cool temperatures. São Paulo_sentence_82

This phenomenon happens usually in the winter. São Paulo_sentence_83

Demographics São Paulo_section_5

Main articles: Demographics of São Paulo and Demographics of Brazil São Paulo_sentence_84

In 2013, São Paulo was the most populous city in Brazil and in South America. São Paulo_sentence_85

According to the 2010 IBGE Census, there were 11,244,369 people residing in the city of São Paulo. São Paulo_sentence_86

The census found 6,824,668 White people (60.6%), 3,433,218 Pardo (multiracial) people (30.5%), 736,083 Black people (6.5%), 246,244 Asian people (2.2%) and 21,318 Amerindian people (0.2%). São Paulo_sentence_87

In 2010, the city had 2,146,077 opposite-sex couples and 7,532 same-sex couples. São Paulo_sentence_88

The population of São Paulo was 52.6% female and 47.4% male. São Paulo_sentence_89

Immigration São Paulo_section_6

Main article: Immigration to Brazil São Paulo_sentence_90

São Paulo is considered the most multicultural city in Brazil. São Paulo_sentence_91

Since 1870 to 2010, approximately 2.3 million immigrants arrived in the state, from all parts of the world. São Paulo_sentence_92

The Italian community is one of the strongest, with a presence throughout the city. São Paulo_sentence_93

Of the 9 million inhabitants of São Paulo, 50% (4.5 million people) have full or partial Italian ancestry. São Paulo_sentence_94

São Paulo has more descendants of Italians than any Italian city (the largest city of Italy is Rome, with 2.5 million inhabitants). São Paulo_sentence_95

Even today, Italians are grouped in neighborhoods like Bixiga, Brás, and Mooca to promote celebrations and festivals. São Paulo_sentence_96

In the early twentieth century, the Italian and the dialects were spoken almost as much as the Portuguese in the city, which influenced the formation of the São Paulo dialect of today. São Paulo_sentence_97

Six thousand pizzerias are producing about a million pizzas a day. São Paulo_sentence_98

Brazil has the largest Italian population outside Italy, with São Paulo being the most populous city with Italian ancestry in the world. São Paulo_sentence_99

The Portuguese community is also large; it is estimated that three million paulistanos have some origin in Portugal. São Paulo_sentence_100

The Jewish colony is more than 60,000 people in São Paulo and is concentrated mainly in Higienópolis and Bom Retiro. São Paulo_sentence_101

From the nineteenth century through the first half of the twentieth century, São Paulo also received German immigrants (in the current neighborhood of Santo Amaro), Spanish and Lithuanian (in the neighborhood Vila Zelina). São Paulo_sentence_102

São Paulo is not only home to the largest Japanese diaspora – over 1.5 million Japanese descendants live in São Paulo – but it also has over 600 Japanese restaurants (20% more than "churrascarias" – Brazilian steakhouses) where more than 12 millions sushis are sold every month. São Paulo_sentence_103

São Paulo_table_general_1

São Paulo City in 1886São Paulo_table_caption_1
ImmigrantsSão Paulo_header_cell_1_0_0 Percentage of immigrants in foreign born populationSão Paulo_header_cell_1_0_1
ItaliansSão Paulo_cell_1_1_0 47.9%São Paulo_cell_1_1_1
PortugueseSão Paulo_cell_1_2_0 29.3%São Paulo_cell_1_2_1
GermansSão Paulo_cell_1_3_0 9.9%São Paulo_cell_1_3_1
SpaniardsSão Paulo_cell_1_4_0 3.2%São Paulo_cell_1_4_1

A French observer, travelling to São Paulo at the time, noted that there was a division of the capitalist class, by nationality (...) Germans, French and Italians shared the dry goods sector with Brazilians. São Paulo_sentence_104

Foodstuffs was generally the province of either Portuguese or Brazilians, except for bakery and pastry which was the domain of the French and Germans. São Paulo_sentence_105

Shoes and tinware were mostly controlled by Italians. São Paulo_sentence_106

However, the larger metallurgical plants were in the hands of the English and the Americans. São Paulo_sentence_107

(...) Italians outnumbered Brazilians two to one in São Paulo. São Paulo_sentence_108

Until 1920, 1,078,437 Italians entered in the State of São Paulo. São Paulo_sentence_109

Of the immigrants who arrived there between 1887 and 1902, 63.5% came from Italy. São Paulo_sentence_110

Between 1888 and 1919, 44.7% of the immigrants were Italians, 19.2% were Spaniards and 15.4% were Portuguese. São Paulo_sentence_111

In 1920, nearly 80% of São Paulo city's population was composed of immigrants and their descendants and Italians made up over half of its male population. São Paulo_sentence_112

At that time, the Governor of São Paulo said that "if the owner of each house in São Paulo display the flag of the country of origin on the roof, from above São Paulo would look like an Italian city". São Paulo_sentence_113

In 1900, a columnist who was absent from São Paulo for 20 years wrote "then São Paulo used to be a genuine Paulista city, today it is an Italian city." São Paulo_sentence_114

São Paulo_table_general_2

São Paulo CitySão Paulo_table_caption_2
YearSão Paulo_header_cell_2_0_0 ItaliansSão Paulo_header_cell_2_0_1 Percentage of the citySão Paulo_header_cell_2_0_2
1886São Paulo_cell_2_1_0 5,717São Paulo_cell_2_1_1 13%São Paulo_cell_2_1_2
1893São Paulo_cell_2_2_0 45,457São Paulo_cell_2_2_1 35%São Paulo_cell_2_2_2
1900São Paulo_cell_2_3_0 75,000São Paulo_cell_2_3_1 31%São Paulo_cell_2_3_2
1910São Paulo_cell_2_4_0 130,000São Paulo_cell_2_4_1 33%São Paulo_cell_2_4_2
1916São Paulo_cell_2_5_0 187,540São Paulo_cell_2_5_1 37%São Paulo_cell_2_5_2

Research conducted by the University of São Paulo (USP) shows the city's high ethnic diversity: when asked if they are "descendants of foreign immigrants", 81% of the students reported "yes". São Paulo_sentence_115

The main reported ancestries were: Italian (30.5%), Portuguese (23%), Spanish (14%), Japanese (8%), German (6%), Brazilian (4%), African (3%), Arab (2%) and Jewish (1%). São Paulo_sentence_116

The city once attracted numerous immigrants from all over Brazil and even from foreign countries, due to a strong economy and for being the hub of most Brazilian companies. São Paulo_sentence_117

Domestic migration São Paulo_section_7

Since the 19th century people began migrating from northeastern Brazil into São Paulo. São Paulo_sentence_118

This migration grew enormously in the 1930s and remained huge in the next decades. São Paulo_sentence_119

The concentration of land, modernization in rural areas, changes in work relationships and cycles of droughts stimulated migration. São Paulo_sentence_120

Northeastern migrants live mainly in hazardous and unhealthy areas of the city, in cortiços, in slums (favelas) of the metropolis, because they offer cheaper housing. São Paulo_sentence_121

The largest concentration of northeastern migrants was found in the area of Sé/Brás (districts of Brás, Bom Retiro, Cambuci, Pari and ). São Paulo_sentence_122

In this area they composed 41% of the population. São Paulo_sentence_123

The main groups, considering all the metropolitan area, are: 6 million people of Italian descent, 3 million people of Portuguese descent, 1.7 million people of African descent, 1 million people of Arab descent, 665,000 people of Japanese descent, 400,000 people of German descent, 250,000 people of French descent, 150,000 people of Greek descent, 120,000 people of Chinese descent, 120,000–300,000 Bolivian immigrants, 50,000 people of Korean descent, and 40,000 Jews. São Paulo_sentence_124

São Paulo is also receiving waves of immigration from Haiti and from many countries of Africa and the Caribbean. São Paulo_sentence_125

Those immigrants are mainly concentrated in Praca da Sé, Glicério and Vale do Anhangabaú in the Central Zone of São Paulo. São Paulo_sentence_126

Religion São Paulo_section_8

Main article: Religion in Brazil São Paulo_sentence_127

Like the cultural variety verifiable in São Paulo, there are several religious manifestations present in the city. São Paulo_sentence_128

Although it has developed on an eminently Catholic social matrix, both due to colonization and immigration – and even today most of the people of São Paulo declare themselves Roman Catholic – it is possible to find in the city dozens of different Protestant denominations, as well as the practice of Islam, Spiritism, among others. São Paulo_sentence_129

Buddhism and Eastern religions also have relevance among the beliefs most practiced by Paulistanos. São Paulo_sentence_130

It is estimated that there are more than one hundred thousand Buddhist followers and Hindu. São Paulo_sentence_131

Also considerable are Judaism, Mormonism and Afro-Brazilian religions. São Paulo_sentence_132

According to data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), in 2010 the population of São Paulo was 6,549,775 Roman Catholics (58.2%), 2,887,810 Protestants (22.1%), 531,822 Spiritists (4.7 percent), 101,493 Jehovah's Witnesses (0.9 percent), 75,075 Buddhists (0.7 percent), 50,794 Umbandists (0.5 percent), 43,610 Jews (0.4 percent), 28,673 Catholic Apostolic Brazilians (0.3%), 25,583 eastern religious (0.2%), 18,058 candomblecists (0.2%), 17,321 Mormons (0.2%), 14,894 Orthodox Catholics (0.1%), 9,119 spiritualists (0.1%), 8,277 Muslims (0.1%), 7,139 esoteric (0.1%), 1,829 practiced Indian traditions (<0.1%) and 1,008 were Hindu (<0.1%). São Paulo_sentence_133

Others 1,056 008 had no religion (9.4%), 149,628 followed other Christian religiosities (1.3%), 55,978 had an undetermined religion or multiple belonging (0.5%), 14,127 did not know (0.1%) And 1,896 reported following other religiosities (<0.1%). São Paulo_sentence_134

The Roman Catholic Church divides the territory of the municipality of São Paulo into four ecclesiastical circumscriptions: the Archdiocese of São Paulo, and the adjacent Diocese of Santo Amaro, the Diocese of São Miguel Paulista and the Diocese of Campo Limpo, the last three suffragans of the first. São Paulo_sentence_135

The archive of the archdiocese, called the Metropolitan Archival Dom Duarte Leopoldo e Silva, located in the Ipiranga neighborhood, holds one of the most important documentary heritage in Brazil. São Paulo_sentence_136

The archiepiscopal is the Metropolitan Cathedral of São Paulo (known as Sé Cathedral), located in Praça da Sé, considered one of the five largest Gothic temples in the world. São Paulo_sentence_137

The Roman Catholic Church recognizes as patron saints of the city Saint Paul of Tarsus and Our Lady of Penha of France. São Paulo_sentence_138

The city has the most diverse Protestant or Reformed creeds, such as the Evangelical Community of Our Land, Maranatha Christian Church, Lutheran Church, Presbyterian Church, Methodist Church, Anglican Episcopal Church, Baptist churches, Assembly Church of God, The Seventh-day Adventist Church, the World Church of God's Power, the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God, the Christian Congregation in Brazil, among others, as well as Christians of various denominations. São Paulo_sentence_139

Source: IBGE 2010. São Paulo_sentence_140

Public security São Paulo_section_9

According to the 2011 Global Homicide Survey released by the United Nations, in the period between 2004 and 2009 the homicide rate dropped from 20.8 to 10.8 murders per 100,000 inhabitants. São Paulo_sentence_141

The UN pointed to São Paulo as an example of how big cities can reduce crime. São Paulo_sentence_142

Crime rates, such as homicide, have been steadily declining for 8 years. São Paulo_sentence_143

The number of murders in 2007 was 63% lower than in 1999. São Paulo_sentence_144

Carandiru's 9th DP is considered one of the five best police stations in the world and the best in Latin America. São Paulo_sentence_145

In 2008, the city of São Paulo ranked 493rd in the list of the most violent cities in Brazil. São Paulo_sentence_146

Among the capitals, it was the fourth less violent, registering, in 2006, homicide rates higher than those of Boa Vista, Palmas and Natal. São Paulo_sentence_147

In a survey on the Adolescent Homicide Index (IHA), released in 2009, São Paulo ranked 151st among 267 cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. São Paulo_sentence_148

In November 2009, the Ministry of Justice and the Brazilian Forum of Public Security published a survey that pointed to São Paulo as the safest Brazilian capital for young people. São Paulo_sentence_149

Between 2000 and 2010, the city of São Paulo reduced its homicide rate by 78%. São Paulo_sentence_150

According to data from the Map of Violence 2011, published by the Sangari Institute and the Ministry of Justice, the city of São Paulo has the lowest homicide rate per 100,000 inhabitants among all Brazilian capitals. São Paulo_sentence_151

Social challenges São Paulo_section_10

Main article: Social issues in Brazil São Paulo_sentence_152

Since the beginning of the 20th century, São Paulo has been a major economic center in Latin America. São Paulo_sentence_153

During two World Wars and the Great Depression, coffee exports (from other regions of the state) were critically affected. São Paulo_sentence_154

This led wealthy coffee farmers to invest in industrial activities that turned São Paulo into Brazil's largest industrial hub. São Paulo_sentence_155

São Paulo_unordered_list_0

  • Crime rates consistently decreased in the 21st century. The citywide homicide rate was 6.56 in 2019, less than half the 27.38 national rate.São Paulo_item_0_0
  • Air quality has steadily increased during the modern era.São Paulo_item_0_1
  • The two major rivers crossing the city, Tietê and Pinheiros, are highly polluted. A major project to clean up these rivers is underway.São Paulo_item_0_2
  • The Clean City Law or antibillboard, approved in 2007, focused on two main targets: anti-publicity and anti-commerce. Advertisers estimate that they removed 15,000 billboards and that more than 1,600 signs and 1,300 towering metal panels were dismantled by authorities.São Paulo_item_0_3
  • São Paulo metropolitan region, adopted vehicle restrictions from 1996 to 1998 to reduce air pollution during wintertime. Since 1997, a similar project was implemented throughout the year in the central area of São Paulo to improve traffic.São Paulo_item_0_4

Languages São Paulo_section_11

Main article: Languages of Brazil São Paulo_sentence_156

The primary language is Portuguese. São Paulo_sentence_157

The general language from São Paulo General, or Tupi Austral (Southern Tupi), was the Tupi-based trade language of what is now São Vicente, São Paulo, and the upper Tietê River. São Paulo_sentence_158

In the 17th century it was widely spoken in São Paulo and spread to neighboring regions while in Brazil. São Paulo_sentence_159

From 1750 on, following orders from Marquess of Pombal, Portuguese language was introduced through immigration and consequently taught to children in schools. São Paulo_sentence_160

The original Tupi Austral language subsequently lost ground to Portuguese, and eventually became extinct. São Paulo_sentence_161

Due to the large influx of Japanese, German, Spanish, Italian and Arab immigrants etc., the Portuguese idiom spoken in the metropolitan area of São Paulo reflects influences from those languages. São Paulo_sentence_162

Due to globalization, English is now spoken by some residents as a foreign language. São Paulo_sentence_163

The Italian influence in São Paulo accents is evident in the Italian neighborhoods such as Bela Vista, Moóca, Brás and Lapa. São Paulo_sentence_164

Italian mingled with Portuguese and as an old influence, was assimilated or disappeared into spoken language. São Paulo_sentence_165

The local accent with Italian influences became notorious through the songs of Adoniran Barbosa, a Brazilian samba singer born to Italian parents who used to sing using the local accent. São Paulo_sentence_166

Other languages spoken in the city are mainly among the Asian community: São Paulo is home to the largest Japanese population outside Japan. São Paulo_sentence_167

Although today most Japanese-Brazilians speak only Portuguese, some of them are still fluent in Japanese. São Paulo_sentence_168

Some people of Chinese and Korean descent are still able to speak their ancestral languages. São Paulo_sentence_169

In some areas it is still possible to find descendants of immigrants who speak German (especially in the area of Brooklin paulista) and Russian or East European languages (especially in the area of Vila Zelina). São Paulo_sentence_170

In the west zone of São Paulo, specially at Vila Anastácio and Lapa region, there is a Hungarian colony, with three churches (Calvinist, Baptist and Catholic), so on Sundays it is possible to see Hungarians talking to each other on sidewalks. São Paulo_sentence_171

Sexual diversity São Paulo_section_12

Main articles: LGBT rights in Brazil, LGBT people in Brazil, LGBT history in Brazil, and Same-sex marriage in Brazil São Paulo_sentence_172

The Greater São Paulo is home to a prominent self-identifying gay, bisexual and transgender community, with 9.6% of the male population and 7% of the female population declaring themselves to be non-straight. São Paulo_sentence_173

Same-sex civil unions have been legal in the whole country since 5 May 2011, while same-sex marriage in São Paulo was legalized on 18 December 2012. São Paulo_sentence_174

Since 1997, the city has hosted the annual São Paulo Gay Pride Parade, considered the biggest pride parade in the world by the Guinness Book of World Records with over 5 million participants, and typically rivalling the New York City Pride March for the record. São Paulo_sentence_175

Strongly supported by the State and the City of São Paulo government authorities, in 2010, the city hall of São Paulo invested R$1 million reais in the parade and provided a solid security plan, with approximately 2,000 policemen, two mobile police stations for immediate reporting of occurrences, 30 equipped ambulances, 55 nurses, 46 medical physicians, three hospital camps with 80 beds. São Paulo_sentence_176

The parade, considered the city's second largest event after the Formula One, begins at the São Paulo Museum of Art, crosses Paulista Avenue, and follows Consolação Street to Praça Roosevelt in Downtown São Paulo. São Paulo_sentence_177

According to the LGBT app Grindr, the gay parade of the city was elected the best in the world. São Paulo_sentence_178

Government São Paulo_section_13

See also: List of mayors of São Paulo São Paulo_sentence_179

As the capital of the state of São Paulo, the city is home to the Bandeirantes Palace (state government) and the Legislative Assembly. São Paulo_sentence_180

The Executive Branch of the municipality of São Paulo is represented by the mayor and his cabinet of secretaries, following the model proposed by the Federal Constitution. São Paulo_sentence_181

The organic law of the municipality and the Master Plan of the city, however, determine that the public administration must guarantee to the population effective tools of manifestation of participatory democracy, which causes that the city is divided in regional prefectures, each one led by a Regional Mayor appointed by the Mayor. São Paulo_sentence_182

The legislative power is represented by the Municipal Chamber, composed of 55 aldermen elected to four-year posts (in compliance with the provisions of Article 29 of the Constitution, which dictates a minimum number of 42 and a maximum of 55 for municipalities with more than five million inhabitants). São Paulo_sentence_183

It is up to the house to draft and vote fundamental laws for the administration and the Executive, especially the municipal budget (known as the Law of Budgetary Guidelines). São Paulo_sentence_184

In addition to the legislative process and the work of the secretariats, there are also a number of municipal councils, each dealing with different topics, composed of representatives of the various sectors of organized civil society. São Paulo_sentence_185

The actual performance and representativeness of such councils, however, are sometimes questioned. São Paulo_sentence_186

The following municipal councils are active: Municipal Council for Children and Adolescents (CMDCA); of Informatics (WCC); of the Physically Disabled (CMDP); of Education (CME); of Housing (CMH); of Environment (CADES); of Health (CMS); of Tourism (COMTUR); of Human Rights (CMDH); of Culture (CMC); and of Social Assistance (COMAS) and Drugs and Alcohol (COMUDA). São Paulo_sentence_187

The Prefecture also owns (or is the majority partner in their social capital) a series of companies responsible for various aspects of public services and the economy of São Paulo: São Paulo_sentence_188

São Paulo_unordered_list_1

  • São Paulo Turismo S/A (SPTuris): company responsible for organizing large events and promoting the city's tourism.São Paulo_item_1_5
  • Companhia de Engenharia de Tráfego (CET): subordinated to the Municipal Transportation Department, is responsible for traffic supervision, fines (in cooperation with DETRAN) and maintenance of the city's road system.São Paulo_item_1_6
  • Companhia Metropolitana de Habitação de São Paulo (COHAB): subordinate to the Department of Housing, is responsible for the implementation of public housing policies, especially the construction of housing developments.São Paulo_item_1_7
  • Empresa Municipal de Urbanização de São Paulo (EMURB): subordinate to the Planning Department, is responsible for urban works and for the maintenance of public spaces and urban furniture.São Paulo_item_1_8
  • Companhia de Processamento de Dados de São Paulo (PRODAM): responsible for the electronic infrastructure and information technology of the city hall.São Paulo_item_1_9
  • São Paulo Transportes Sociedade Anônima (SPTrans): responsible for the operation of the public transport systems managed by the city hall, such as the municipal bus lines.São Paulo_item_1_10

Subdivisions São Paulo_section_14

São Paulo is divided into 32 sub-prefectures, each with an administration ("subprefeitura") divided into several districts ("distritos"). São Paulo_sentence_189

The city also has a radial division into nine zones for purpose of traffic control and bus lines, which don't fit into the administrative divisions. São Paulo_sentence_190

These zones are identified by colors in the street signs. São Paulo_sentence_191

The historical core of São Paulo, which includes the inner city and the area of Paulista Avenue, is in the Subprefecture of Sé. São Paulo_sentence_192

Most other economic and tourist facilities of the city are inside an area officially called Centro Expandido (Portuguese for "Broad Centre", or "Broad Downtown"), which includes Sé and several other subprefectures, and areas immediately located around it. São Paulo_sentence_193

Twin towns – sister cities São Paulo_section_15

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Brazil São Paulo_sentence_194

São Paulo is twinned with: São Paulo_sentence_195

Economy São Paulo_section_16

Main articles: Economy of São Paulo and Economy of Brazil São Paulo_sentence_196

São Paulo is considered the "financial capital of Brazil", as it is the location for the headquarters of major corporations and of banks and financial institutions. São Paulo_sentence_197

São Paulo is Brazil's highest GDP city and the 10th largest in the world, using Purchasing power parity. São Paulo_sentence_198

According to data from the IBGE, its gross domestic product (GDP) in 2010 was R$450 billion, approximately US$220 billion, 12.26% of Brazilian GDP and 36% of all production of goods and services of the State of São Paulo. São Paulo_sentence_199

According to PricewaterhouseCoopers average annual economic growth of the city is 4.2%. São Paulo_sentence_200

São Paulo also has a large "informal" economy. São Paulo_sentence_201

In 2005, the city of São Paulo collected R$90 billion in taxes and the city budget was R$15 billion. São Paulo_sentence_202

The city has 1,500 bank branches and 70 shopping malls. São Paulo_sentence_203

As of 2014, São Paulo is the third largest exporting municipality in Brazil after Parauapebas, PA and Rio de Janeiro, RJ. São Paulo_sentence_204

In that year São Paulo's exported goods totaled $7.32B (USD) or 3.02% of Brazil's total exports. São Paulo_sentence_205

The top five commodities exported by São Paulo are soybean (21%), raw sugar (19%), coffee (6.5%), sulfate chemical wood pulp (5.6%), and corn (4.4%). São Paulo_sentence_206

The São Paulo Stock Exchange (BM&F Bovespa) is Brazil's official stock and bond exchange. São Paulo_sentence_207

It is the largest stock exchange in Latin America, trading about R$6 billion (US$3.5 billion) every day. São Paulo_sentence_208

São Paulo's economy is going through a deep transformation. São Paulo_sentence_209

Once a city with a strong industrial character, São Paulo's economy has followed the global trend of shifting to the tertiary sector of the economy, focusing on services. São Paulo_sentence_210

The city is unique among Brazilian cities for its large number of foreign corporations. São Paulo_sentence_211

63% of all the international companies with business in Brazil have their head offices in São Paulo. São Paulo_sentence_212

São Paulo has one of the largest concentrations of German businesses worldwide and is the largest Swedish industrial hub alongside Gothenburg. São Paulo_sentence_213

São Paulo ranked second after New York in FDi magazine's bi-annual ranking of Cities of the Future 2013/14 in the Americas, and was named the Latin American City of the Future 2013/14, overtaking Santiago de Chile, the first city in the previous ranking. São Paulo_sentence_214

Santiago now ranks second, followed by Rio de Janeiro. São Paulo_sentence_215

The per capita income for the city was R$32,493 in 2008. São Paulo_sentence_216

According to Mercer's 2011 city rankings of cost of living for expatriate employees, São Paulo is now among the ten most expensive cities in the world, ranking 10th in 2011, up from 21st in 2010 and ahead of London, Paris, Milan and New York City. São Paulo_sentence_217

Science and technology São Paulo_section_17

Main article: Brazilian science and technology São Paulo_sentence_218

The city of São Paulo is home to research and development facilities and attracts companies due to the presence of regionally renowned universities. São Paulo_sentence_219

Science, technology and innovation is leveraged by the allocation of funds from the state government, mainly carried out by means of the Foundation to Research Support in the State of São Paulo (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo – FAPESP), one of the main agencies promoting scientific and technological research. São Paulo_sentence_220

Luxury goods São Paulo_section_18

Luxury brands tend to concentrate their business in São Paulo. São Paulo_sentence_221

Because of the lack of department stores and multi-brand boutiques, shopping malls as well as the Jardins district, which is more or less the Brazilian's Rodeo Drive version, attract most of the world's luxurious brands. São Paulo_sentence_222

Most of the international luxury brands can be found in the Iguatemi, Cidade Jardim or JK shopping malls or on the streets of Oscar Freire, Lorena or Haddock Lobo in the Jardins district. São Paulo_sentence_223

They are home of brands such as Cartier, Chanel, Dior, Giorgio Armani, Gucci, Louis Vuitton, Marc Jacobs, Tiffany & Co. São Paulo_sentence_224

Cidade Jardim was opened in São Paulo in 2008, it is a 45,000-square-metre (484,376-square-foot) mall, landscaped with trees and greenery scenario, with a focus on Brazilian brands but also home to international luxury brands such as Hermès, Jimmy Choo, Pucci and Carolina Herrera. São Paulo_sentence_225

Opened in 2012, JK shopping mall has brought to Brazil brands that were not present in the country before such as Goyard, Tory Burch, Llc., Prada, and Miu Miu. São Paulo_sentence_226

The Iguatemi Faria Lima, in Faria Lima Avenue, is Brazil's oldest mall, opened in 1966. São Paulo_sentence_227

The Jardins neighborhood is regarded among the most sophisticated places in town, with upscale restaurants and hotels. São Paulo_sentence_228

The New York Times once compared Oscar Freire Street to Rodeo Drive. São Paulo_sentence_229

In Jardins there are luxury car dealers. São Paulo_sentence_230

One of the world's best restaurants as elected by The World's 50 Best Restaurants Award, D.O.M., is located there. São Paulo_sentence_231

Tourism São Paulo_section_19

Main article: Tourism in Brazil São Paulo_sentence_232

Large hotel chains whose target audience is the corporate traveler are in the city. São Paulo_sentence_233

São Paulo is home to 75% of the country's leading business fairs. São Paulo_sentence_234

The city also promotes one of the most important fashion weeks in the world, São Paulo Fashion Week, established in 1996 under the name Morumbi Fashion Brasil, is the largest and most important fashion event in Latin America. São Paulo_sentence_235

Besides, the São Paulo Gay Pride Parade, held since 1997 on Paulista Avenue is the event that attracts more tourists to the city. São Paulo_sentence_236

The annual March For Jesus is a large gathering of Christians from Protestant churches throughout Brazil, with Sao Paulo police reporting participation in the range of 350,000 in 2015. São Paulo_sentence_237

In addition, São Paulo hosts the annual São Paulo Pancake Cook-Off in which chefs from across Brazil and the world participate in competitions based on the cooking of pancakes. São Paulo_sentence_238

Cultural tourism also has relevance to the city, especially when considering the international events in the metropolis, such as the São Paulo Art Biennial, that attracted almost 1 million people in 2004. São Paulo_sentence_239

The city has a nightlife that is considered one of the best in the country. São Paulo_sentence_240

There are cinemas, theaters, museums, and cultural centers. São Paulo_sentence_241

The Rua Oscar Freire was named one of the eight most luxurious streets in the world, according to the Mystery Shopping International, and São Paulo the 25th "most expensive city" of the planet. São Paulo_sentence_242

According to the International Congress & Convention Association, São Paulo ranks first among the cities that host international events in Americas and the 12th in the world, after Vienna, Paris, Barcelona, Singapore, Berlin, Budapest, Amsterdam, Stockholm, Seoul, Lisbon, and Copenhague. São Paulo_sentence_243

According to a study by MasterCard in 130 cities around the world, São Paulo was the third most visited destination in Latin America (behind Mexico City and Buenos Aires) with 2.4 million foreign travelers, who spent US$2.9 billion in 2013 (the highest among the cities in the region). São Paulo_sentence_244

In 2014, CNN ranked nightlife São Paulo as the fourth best in the world, behind New York City, Berlin and Ibiza, in Spain. São Paulo_sentence_245

The cuisine of the region is a tourist attraction. São Paulo_sentence_246

The city has 62 cuisines across 12,000 restaurants. São Paulo_sentence_247

During the 10th International Congress of Gastronomy, Hospitality and Tourism (Cihat) conducted in 1997, the city received the title of "World Gastronomy Capital" from a commission formed by 43 nations' representatives. São Paulo_sentence_248

Urban infrastructure São Paulo_section_20

Since the beginning of the 20th century, São Paulo has been one of the main economic center of Latin America. São Paulo_sentence_249

With the First and Second World Wars and the Great Depression, coffee exports to the United States and Europe were heavily affected, forcing the rich coffee growers to invest in the industrial activities that would make São Paulo the largest industrial center in Brazil. São Paulo_sentence_250

The new job vacancies contributed to attract a significant number of immigrants (mainly from Italy) and migrants, especially from the Northeastern states. São Paulo_sentence_251

From a population of only 32.000 people in 1880, São Paulo now has 8.5 million inhabitants in 1980. São Paulo_sentence_252

The rapid population growth has brought many problems for the city. São Paulo_sentence_253

São Paulo is practically all served by the water supply network. São Paulo_sentence_254

The city consumes an average of 221 liters of water/inhabitant/day while the UN recommends the consumption of 110 liters/day. São Paulo_sentence_255

The water loss is 30.8%. São Paulo_sentence_256

However, between 11 and 12.8% of households do not have a sewage system, depositing waste in pits and ditches. São Paulo_sentence_257

Sixty percent of the sewage collected is treated. São Paulo_sentence_258

According to data from IBGE and Eletropaulo, the electricity grid serves almost 100% of households. São Paulo_sentence_259

The fixed telephony network is still precarious, with coverage of 67.2%. São Paulo_sentence_260

Household garbage collection covers all regions of the municipality but is still insufficient, reaching around 94% of the demand in districts such as Parelheiros and Perus. São Paulo_sentence_261

About 80% of the garbage produced daily by Paulistas is exported to other cities, such as Caieiras and Guarulhos. São Paulo_sentence_262

Recycling accounts for about 1% of the 15,000 tonnes of waste produced daily. São Paulo_sentence_263

Urban fabrics São Paulo_section_21

São Paulo has a myriad of urban fabrics. São Paulo_sentence_264

The original nuclei of the city are vertical, characterized by the presence of commercial buildings and services; And the peripheries are generally developed with two to four-story buildings – although such generalization certainly meets with exceptions in the fabric of the metropolis. São Paulo_sentence_265

Compared to other global cities (such as the island cities of New York City and Hong Kong), however, São Paulo is considered a "low-rise building" city. São Paulo_sentence_266

Its tallest buildings rarely reach forty stories, and the average residential building is twenty. São Paulo_sentence_267

Nevertheless, it is the fourth city in the world in quantity of buildings, according to the page specialized in research of data on buildings Emporis Buildings, besides possessing what was considered until 2014 the tallest skyscraper of the country, the Mirante do Vale, also known as Palácio Zarzur Kogan, with 170 meters of height and 51 floors. São Paulo_sentence_268

Such tissue heterogeneity, however, is not as predictable as the generic model can make us imagine. São Paulo_sentence_269

Some central regions of the city began to concentrate indigents, drug trafficking, street vending and prostitution, which encouraged the creation of new socio-economic centralities. São Paulo_sentence_270

The characterization of each region of the city also underwent several changes throughout the 20th century. São Paulo_sentence_271

With the relocation of industries to other cities or states, several areas that once housed factory sheds have become commercial or even residential areas. São Paulo_sentence_272

The constant change of the landscape of São Paulo due to the technological changes of its buildings has been a striking feature of the city, pointed out by scholars. São Paulo_sentence_273

In a period of a century, between the middle of 1870 and 1970 the city of São Paulo was "practically demolished and rebuilt at least three times". São Paulo_sentence_274

These three periods are characterized by the typical constructive processes of their times. São Paulo_sentence_275

Urban planning São Paulo_section_22

São Paulo has a history of actions, projects and plans related to urban planning that can be traced to the governments of Antonio da Silva Prado, Baron Duprat, Washington and Luis Francisco Prestes Maia. São Paulo_sentence_276

However, in general, the city was formed during the 20th century, growing from village to metropolis through a series of informal processes and irregular urban sprawl. São Paulo_sentence_277

Urban growth in São Paulo has followed three patterns since the beginning of the 20th century, according to urban historians: since the late 19th Century and until the 1940s, São Paulo was a condensed city in which different social groups lived in a small urban zone separated by type of housing; from the 1940s to the 1980s, São Paulo followed a model of center-periphery social segregation, in which the upper and middle-classes occupied central and modern areas while the poor moved towards precarious, self-built housing in the periphery; and from the 1980s onward, new transformations have brought the social classes closer together in spatial terms, but separated by walls and security technologies that seek to isolate the richer classes in the name of security. São Paulo_sentence_278

Thus, São Paulo differs considerably from other Brazilian cities such as Belo Horizonte and Goiânia, whose initial expansion followed determinations by a plan, or a city like Brasília, whose master plan had been fully developed prior to construction. São Paulo_sentence_279

The effectiveness of these plans has been seen by some planners and historians as questionable. São Paulo_sentence_280

Some of these scholars argue that such plans were produced exclusively for the benefit of the wealthier strata of the population while the working classes would be relegated to the traditional informal processes. São Paulo_sentence_281

In São Paulo until the mid-1950s, the plans were based on the idea of "demolish and rebuild", including former Mayor Prestes Maia São Paulo's road plan (known as the Avenues Plan) or Saturnino de Brito's plan for the Tietê River. São Paulo_sentence_282

The Plan of the Avenues was implemented during the 1920s and sought to build large avenues connecting the city center with the outskirts. São Paulo_sentence_283

This plan included renewing the commercial city center, leading to real estate speculation and gentrification of several downtown neighborhoods . São Paulo_sentence_284

The plan also led to the expansion of bus services, which would soon replace the trolley as the preliminary transportation system. São Paulo_sentence_285

This contributed to the outwards expansion of São Paulo and the peripherization of poorer residents. São Paulo_sentence_286

Peripheral neighborhoods were usually unregulated and consisted mainly of self-built single-family houses. São Paulo_sentence_287

In 1968 the Urban Development Plan proposed the Basic Plan for Integrated Development of São Paulo, under the administration of Figueiredo Ferraz. São Paulo_sentence_288

The main result was zoning laws. São Paulo_sentence_289

It lasted until 2004 when the Basic Plan was replaced by the current Master Plan. São Paulo_sentence_290

That zoning, adopted in 1972, designated "Z1" areas (residential areas designed for elites) and "Z3" (a "mixed zone" lacking clear definitions about their characteristics). São Paulo_sentence_291

Zoning encouraged the growth of suburbs with minimal control and major speculation. São Paulo_sentence_292

After the 1970s peripheral lot regulation increased and infrastructure in the periphery improved, driving land prices up. São Paulo_sentence_293

The poorest and the newcomers were now unable to purchase their lot and build their house, and were forced to look for a housing alternative. São Paulo_sentence_294

As a result, favelas and precarious tenements (cortiços) appeared. São Paulo_sentence_295

These housing types were often located closer to the center of the city: favelas could sprawl in any terrain that had not previously been utilized (often dangerous or unsanitary) and decaying or abandoned buildings for tenements were abundant inside the city. São Paulo_sentence_296

Favelas went back into the urban perimeter, occupying the small lots that had not yet been occupied by urbanization – alongside polluted rivers, railways, or between bridges. São Paulo_sentence_297

By 1993, 19.8% of São Paulo's population lived in favelas, compared to 5.2% in 1980. São Paulo_sentence_298

Today, it is estimated that 2.1 million Paulistas live in favelas, which represents about 11% of the total population of the metropolitan area. São Paulo_sentence_299

Education São Paulo_section_23

Main article: Education in Brazil São Paulo_sentence_300

São Paulo has public and private primary and secondary schools and vocational-technical schools. São Paulo_sentence_301

More than nine-tenths of the population are literate and roughly the same proportion of those age 7 to 14 are enrolled in school. São Paulo_sentence_302

There are 578 universities in the state of São Paulo. São Paulo_sentence_303

Educational institutions São Paulo_section_24

The universities and colleges include: São Paulo_sentence_304

Health care São Paulo_section_25

Main articles: Health in Brazil and Rede São Paulo Saudável São Paulo_sentence_305

São Paulo is one of the largest health care hubs in Latin America. São Paulo_sentence_306

Among its hospitals are the Albert Einstein Israelites Hospital, ranked among the best in Latin America and the Hospital das Clínicas, the largest in the region. São Paulo_sentence_307

The private health care sector is very large and most of Brazil's best hospitals are located in the city. São Paulo_sentence_308

As of September 2009, the city of São Paulo had: São Paulo_sentence_309

São Paulo_unordered_list_2

  • 32,553 ambulatory clinics, centers and professional offices (physicians, dentists and others);São Paulo_item_2_11
  • 217 hospitals, with 32,554 beds;São Paulo_item_2_12
  • 137,745 health care professionals, including 28,316 physicians.São Paulo_item_2_13

Municipal health São Paulo_section_26

The municipal government operates public health facilities across the city's territory, with 770 primary health care units (UBS), ambulatory and emergency clinics and 17 hospitals. São Paulo_sentence_310

The Municipal Secretary of Health has 59,000 employees, including 8,000 physicians and 12,000 nurses. São Paulo_sentence_311

6,000,000 citizens uses the facilities, which provide drugs at no cost and manage an extensive family health program (PSF – Programa de Saúde da Família). São Paulo_sentence_312

The Rede São Paulo Saudável (Healthy São Paulo Network) is a satellite-based digital TV corporate channel, developed by the Municipal Health Secretary of São Paulo, bringing programs focused on health promotion and health education, which may be watched by citizens seeking health care in its units in the city. São Paulo_sentence_313

The network consists of two studios and a system for transmission of closed digital video in high definition via satellite, with about 1,400 points of reception in all health care units of the municipality of São Paulo. São Paulo_sentence_314

Transport São Paulo_section_27

Main articles: Transport in São Paulo and Transport in Brazil São Paulo_sentence_315

Highways São Paulo_section_28

Automobiles are the main means to get into the city. São Paulo_sentence_316

In March 2011, more than 7 million vehicles were registered. São Paulo_sentence_317

Heavy traffic is common on the city's main avenues and traffic jams are relatively common on its highways. São Paulo_sentence_318

The city is crossed by 10 major motorways: São Paulo_sentence_319

São Paulo_unordered_list_3

Rodoanel São Paulo_section_29

Main article: Rodoanel Mário Covas São Paulo_sentence_320

Rodoanel Mário Covas (official designation SP-021) is the beltway of the Greater São Paulo, Brazil. São Paulo_sentence_321

Upon its completion, it will have a length of 177 km (110 mi), with a radius of approximately 23 km (14 mi) from the geographical center of the city. São Paulo_sentence_322

It was named after Mário Covas, who was mayor of the city of São Paulo (1983–1985) and a state governor (1994-1998/1998-2001) until his death from cancer. São Paulo_sentence_323

It is a controlled access highway with a speed limit of 100 km/h (62 mph) under normal weather and traffic circumstances. São Paulo_sentence_324

The west, south and east parts are completed, and the north part, which will close the beltway, is due to 2018. and is being built by DERSA. São Paulo_sentence_325

Airports São Paulo_section_30

São Paulo has two main airports, São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport (IATA: GRU) for international flights and national hub, and Congonhas-São Paulo Airport (IATA: CGH) for domestic and regional flights. São Paulo_sentence_326

Another airport, the Campo de Marte Airport, serves private jets and light aircraft. São Paulo_sentence_327

The three airports together moved more than 58.000.000 passengers in 2015, making São Paulo one of the top 15 busiest in the world, by number of air passenger movements. São Paulo_sentence_328

The region of Greater São Paulo is also served by Viracopos-Campinas International Airport, São José dos Campos Airport and Jundiaí Airport. São Paulo_sentence_329

Congonhas Airport operates flights mainly to Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Belo Horizonte and Brasília. São Paulo_sentence_330

In the latest upgrade, twelve boarding bridges were installed to provide more comfort to passengers by eliminating the need to walk in the open to their flights. São Paulo_sentence_331

The terminal area was expanded from 37.3 thousand square metres (0.4 million square feet) to over 70 thousand square metres (0.75 million square feet). São Paulo_sentence_332

This expansion raised capacity to almost 18 million users. São Paulo_sentence_333

Built in the 1930s, it was designed to handle the increasing demand for flights, in the fastest growing city in the world. São Paulo_sentence_334

Located in Campo Belo District, Congonhas Airport is close to the three main city's financial districts: Paulista Avenue, Brigadeiro Faria Lima Avenue and Engenheiro Luís Carlos Berrini Avenue. São Paulo_sentence_335

São Paulo–Guarulhos International, also known as "Cumbica" is 25 km (16 mi) north-east of the city center, in the neighbouring city of Guarulhos. São Paulo_sentence_336

Every day nearly 110.000 people pass through the airport, which connects Brazil to 36 countries around the world. São Paulo_sentence_337

370 companies operate there, generating more than 53.000 jobs. São Paulo_sentence_338

With capacity to serve 42 million passengers a year, in three terminals, the airport handles 40 million users. São Paulo_sentence_339

Construction of a third passenger terminal was completed in time to the 2014 World Cup, and raised yearly capacity to 42 million passengers. São Paulo_sentence_340

The project is part of the airport's master plan, which will raise, by the end of 2032, the airport capacity to nearly 60 million passengers. São Paulo_sentence_341

is also the main air cargo hubs in Brazil. São Paulo_sentence_342

The roughly 150 flights a day carry everything from fruits grown in the São Francisco Valley to locally manufactured medicine and electronics devices. São Paulo_sentence_343

The airport's cargo terminal is South America's largest. São Paulo_sentence_344

In 2015, over 503.675 tons were transported from the airport. São Paulo_sentence_345

Both São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport and Congonhas-São Paulo Airport will be connected to the metropolitan rail system by the end of 2018, with lines Line 13 (CPTM) and Line 17 (São Paulo Metro), respectively. São Paulo_sentence_346

Campo de Marte is located in Santana district, the northern zone of São Paulo. São Paulo_sentence_347

The airport handles private flights and air shuttles, including air taxi firms. São Paulo_sentence_348

Opened in 1935, Campo de Marte is the base for the largest helicopter fleet in Brazil and the world's, ahead of New York and Tokyo, with a fleet of more than 3.500 helicopters. São Paulo_sentence_349

This airport is the home base of the State Civil Police Air Tactical Unit, the State Military Police Radio Patrol Unit and the São Paulo Flying Club. São Paulo_sentence_350

From this airport, passengers can take advantage of some 350 remote helipads and heliports to bypass heavy road traffic. São Paulo_sentence_351

Campo de Marte also hosts the Ventura Goodyear Blimp. São Paulo_sentence_352

São Paulo Catarina Executive Airport located in São Roque handles general aviation traffic. São Paulo_sentence_353

Urban rail transit São Paulo_section_31

Main articles: São Paulo Metro and Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos São Paulo_sentence_354

São Paulo has three urban rail transit systems: the São Paulo Metro (locally known as the Metrô), an underground system with six lines, which includes the monorail of the Line 15 (Silver), and the commuter rail system of the Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos (CPTM), with seven lines that serve cities in the metropolitan region. São Paulo_sentence_355

The underground and railway lines carry some 7 million people on an average weekday together. São Paulo_sentence_356

The systems combined form a 370 km (230 mi) long network of urban rail transit. São Paulo_sentence_357

The São Paulo Metro operates 101 kilometres (63 mi) of rapid transit system, with six lines in operation, serving 89 stations. São Paulo_sentence_358

In 2015, the metro reached the mark of 11.5 million passengers per mile of line, 15% higher than in 2008, when 10 million users were taken per mile. São Paulo_sentence_359

It is the largest concentration of people in a single transport system in the world, according to the company. São Paulo_sentence_360

The company ViaQuatro, a private concessionaire, operates the Line 4 of the system. São Paulo_sentence_361

In 2014, the São Paulo Metro was elected the best metro system in the Americas. São Paulo_sentence_362

The Line 15 (Silver) of the São Paulo Metro is the first mass-transit monorail of the South America and the first system in the world to use the Bombardier Innovia Monorail 300. São Paulo_sentence_363

When fully completed will be the largest and highest capacity monorail system in the Americas and second worldwide, only behind to the Chongqing Monorail. São Paulo_sentence_364

The Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos (CPTM, or "Paulista Company of Metropolitan Trains") railway add 273.0 km (169.6 mi) of commuter rail, with seven lines and 94 stations. São Paulo_sentence_365

The system carries about 2.8 million passengers a day. São Paulo_sentence_366

On June 8, 2018, CPTM set a weekday ridership record with 3,096,035 trips. São Paulo_sentence_367

The Line 13 (Jade) of the CPTM connects São Paulo to the São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport, in the municipality of Guarulhos, the first major international airport in South America to be directly served by train. São Paulo_sentence_368

The two major São Paulo railway stations are Luz and Julio Prestes in the Luz/Campos Eliseos region. São Paulo_sentence_369

Julio Prestes Station connected Southwest São Paulo State and Northern Paraná State to São Paulo City. São Paulo_sentence_370

Agricultural products were transferred to Luz Station from which they headed to the Atlantic Ocean and overseas. São Paulo_sentence_371

Julio Prestes stopped transporting passengers through the Sorocabana or FEPASA lines and now only has metro service. São Paulo_sentence_372

Due to its acoustics and interior beauty, surrounded by Greek revival columns, part of the rebuilt station was transformed into the São Paulo Hall. São Paulo_sentence_373

Luz Station was built in Britain and assembled in Brazil. São Paulo_sentence_374

It has an underground station and is still active with metro lines that link São Paulo to the Greater São Paulo region to the East and the Campinas Metropolitan region in Jundiaí in the western part of the State. São Paulo_sentence_375

Luz Station is surrounded by important cultural institutions such as the Pinacoteca do Estado, The Museu de Arte Sacra on Tiradentes Avenue and Jardim da Luz, among others. São Paulo_sentence_376

It is the seat of the Santos-Jundiaí line which historically transported international immigrants from the Port of Santos to São Paulo and the coffee plantation lands in the Western region of Campinas. São Paulo_sentence_377

São Paulo has no tram lines, although trams were common in the first half of the 20th century. São Paulo_sentence_378

A high-speed railway service is proposed to link São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. São Paulo_sentence_379

The trains are projected to reach 280 kilometres per hour (170 mph), taking about 90 minutes. São Paulo_sentence_380

Another important project is the "Expresso Bandeirantes", a medium-speed rail service (about 160 km/h or 99 mph) from São Paulo to Campinas, which would reduce the journey time from 90 minutes by car to about 50 minutes, linking São Paulo, Jundiaí, Campinas Airport and Campinas city center. São Paulo_sentence_381

This service is also to connect to the railway service between São Paulo city center and Guarulhos Airport. São Paulo_sentence_382

Work on an express railway service between São Paulo city center and Guarulhos International Airport were announced by the São Paulo state government in 2007. São Paulo_sentence_383

Buses São Paulo_section_32

Main articles: Empresa Metropolitana de Transportes Urbanos de São Paulo and Trolleybuses in São Paulo São Paulo_sentence_384

Bus transport (government and private) is composed of 17,000 buses (including about 290 trolley buses). São Paulo_sentence_385

The traditional system of informal transport (dab vans) was later reorganized and legalized. São Paulo_sentence_386

São Paulo Tietê Bus Terminal is the second largest bus terminal in the world. São Paulo_sentence_387

It serves localities across the nation, with the exception of the states of Amazonas, Roraima and Amapá. São Paulo_sentence_388

Routes to 1,010 cities in five countries (Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay) are available. São Paulo_sentence_389

It connects to all regional airports and a ride sharing automobile service to Santos. São Paulo_sentence_390

The Palmeiras-Barra Funda Intermodal Terminal is much smaller and is connected to the Palmeiras-Barra Funda metro and Palmeiras-Barra Funda CPTM stations. São Paulo_sentence_391

It serves the southwestern cities of Sorocaba, Itapetininga, Itu, Botucatu, Bauru, Marília, Jaú, Avaré, Piraju, Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, Ipaussu, Chavantes and Ourinhos (on the border with Paraná State). São Paulo_sentence_392

It also serves São José do Rio Preto, Araçatuba and other small towns located on the northwest of São Paulo State. São Paulo_sentence_393

Buses to São Paulo coast are available at the Jabaquara metro station, which is the final southbound stop on Line 1 (Blue) of the São Paulo Metro. São Paulo_sentence_394

A large network of bus rapid transit lines, called "Passa Rápido", connect metro and CPTM stations with the rest of the city, examples include São Mateus–Jabaquara Metropolitan Corridor and Expresso Tiradentes. São Paulo_sentence_395

The Litoral bus terminal serves Mongaguá, Praia Grande, São Vicente and Santos on the South Shore and Guarujá and Bertioga on the North Shore. São Paulo_sentence_396

Buses to North Shore cities such as Maresias, Riviera de São Lourenço, Caraguatatuba, Ubatuba and Paraty, in Rio de Janeiro State must be taken at the Tietê Bus Terminal, at Portuguesa-Tietê metro station on Line 1 (Blue). São Paulo_sentence_397

On October 26, 2013, hundreds of people attacked the bus station in São Paulo, setting fire to a bus and destroying cash and ticket machines. São Paulo_sentence_398

At least six people were arrested in the protests. São Paulo_sentence_399

Helicopters São Paulo_section_33

São Paulo has the largest number of helicopters in the world. São Paulo_sentence_400

The second and third positions are of New York City and Tokyo. São Paulo_sentence_401

With 420 helicopters in 2012 and around 2,000 flights per day within the central area, the city is, according to The Guardian, turning into a "real life South-American episode of The Jetsons". São Paulo_sentence_402

In 2016, Uber offered a helicopter service on a test basis for one month, using three existing operators in the city. São Paulo_sentence_403

Helicopters enable business executives and employees to sharply reduce the time spent commuting. São Paulo_sentence_404

Some companies own their helicopters, others lease them and still others use helicopter taxi services. São Paulo_sentence_405

One suburban helicopter shuttle service, located about 15 miles (24 km) from the center of the city in Tamboré, is operated totally by women, including its pilots. São Paulo_sentence_406

Culture São Paulo_section_34

Music São Paulo_section_35

Main article: Music of Brazil São Paulo_sentence_407

Adoniran Barbosa was a samba singer and composer who became successful during São Paulo's early radio era. São Paulo_sentence_408

Born in 1912 in the town of Valinhos, Barbosa was known as the "composer to the masses", particularly Italian immigrants living in the quarters of Bela Vista, also known as "Bexiga" and Brás, as well as those who lived in the city's many 'cortiços' or tenements. São Paulo_sentence_409

His songs drew from the life of urban workers, the unemployed and those who lived on the edge. São Paulo_sentence_410

His first big hit was "Saudosa Maloca" ("Shanty of Fond Memories" – 1951), wherein three homeless friends recall with nostalgia their improvised shanty home, which was torn down by the landowner to make room for a building. São Paulo_sentence_411

His 1964 Trem das Onze ("The 11 pm Train"), became one of the five best samba songs ever, the protagonist explains to his lover that he cannot stay any longer because he has to catch the last train to the Jaçanã suburb, for his mother will not sleep before he arrives home. São Paulo_sentence_412

Another important musician with a similar style is Paulo Vanzolini. São Paulo_sentence_413

Vanzolini is a PhD in Biology and a part-time professional musician. São Paulo_sentence_414

He composed a song depicting a love murder scene in São Paulo called "Ronda". São Paulo_sentence_415

In the late 1960s, a psychedelic rock band called Os Mutantes became popular. São Paulo_sentence_416

Their success is related to that of other tropicalia musicians. São Paulo_sentence_417

The group was known as very paulistanos in its behaviour and clothing. São Paulo_sentence_418

Os Mutantes released five albums before lead singer Rita Lee departed in 1972 to join another group called Tutti Frutti. São Paulo_sentence_419

Although initially known only in Brazil, Os Mutantes became successful abroad after the 1990s. São Paulo_sentence_420

In 2000, Tecnicolor, an album recorded in the early 1970s in English by the band, was released with artwork designed by Sean Lennon. São Paulo_sentence_421

In the early 1980s, a band called Ultraje a Rigor (Elegant Outrage) emerged. São Paulo_sentence_422

They played a simple and irreverent style of rock. São Paulo_sentence_423

The lyrics depicted the changes in society and culture that Brazilian society was experiencing. São Paulo_sentence_424

A late punk and garage scene became strong in the 1980s, perhaps associated with the gloomy scenario of unemployment during an extended recession. São Paulo_sentence_425

Bands originating from this movement include Ira! São Paulo_sentence_426 , Titãs, Ratos de Porão and Inocentes. São Paulo_sentence_427

In the 1990s, drum and bass arose as another musical movement in São Paulo, with artists such as DJ Marky, DJ Patife, XRS, Drumagick and Fernanda Porto. São Paulo_sentence_428

Many heavy metal bands also originated in São Paulo, such as Angra, Project46, Torture Squad, Korzus and Dr. São Paulo_sentence_429 Sin. São Paulo_sentence_430

Famous electro-pop band Cansei de Ser Sexy, or CSS (Portuguese for "tired of being sexy") also has its origins in the city. São Paulo_sentence_431

Many of the most important classical Brazilian living composers, such as Amaral Vieira, Osvaldo Lacerda and Edson Zampronha, were born and live in São Paulo. São Paulo_sentence_432

Local baritone Paulo Szot has won international acclaim performing for six consecutive seasons at The Metropolitan Opera, La Scala and Opera de Paris, among others; and The Tony Award for best actor in a musical for his performance in a 2008 revival of South Pacific. São Paulo_sentence_433

The São Paulo State Symphony is one of the world's outstanding orchestras; their artistic director beginning in 2012 is the noted American conductor Marin Alsop. São Paulo_sentence_434

In 1952, Heitor Villa-Lobos wrote his Symphony Number 10 ('Ameríndia') for the 400th anniversary of São Paulo: an allegorical, historical and religious account of the city told through the eyes of its founder José de Anchieta. São Paulo_sentence_435

Music halls and concert halls São Paulo_section_36

São Paulo's opera houses are: São Paulo Municipal Theater, Theatro São Pedro and Alfa Theater, for the symphonic concerts there is the Sala São Paulo, the latter being the headquarters of OSESP, an orchestra. São Paulo_sentence_436

The city hosts several music halls. São Paulo_sentence_437

The main ones are: Citibank Hall, HSBC Music Hall, Olympia, Via Funchal, Villa Country, Arena Anhembi and Espaco das Américas. São Paulo_sentence_438

The Anhembi Sambadrome hosts musical presentations as well, in addition to the Carnival of São Paulo. São Paulo_sentence_439

Other facilities include the new Praça das Artes, with the Municipal Conservatory of Music Chamber Hall and others venues, like, Cultura Artistica, Teatro Sérgio Cardoso with a venue for only dance performances and Herzog & DeMeron's Centro Cultural Luz, for Ballet, Opera, theater and concerts, with three huge halls. São Paulo_sentence_440

The auditorium of the Latin-American Cultural Center, The Mozarteum, holds concerts through the year. São Paulo_sentence_441

Free music festivals São Paulo_section_37

Festivals as the Virada Cultural "Cultural Overnight" happen once a year and holds hundreds of attractions spread throughout the city. São Paulo_sentence_442

Literature São Paulo_section_38

Main article: Literature of Brazil São Paulo_sentence_443

São Paulo was home to the first Jesuit missionaries in Brazil, in the early 16th century. São Paulo_sentence_444

They wrote reports to the Portuguese crown about the newly found land, the native peoples and composed poetry and music for the catechism, creating the first written works from the area. São Paulo_sentence_445

The literary priests included Manuel da Nóbrega and José de Anchieta, living in or near the colony then called Piratininga. São Paulo_sentence_446

They also helped to register the Old Tupi language, lexicon and its grammar. São Paulo_sentence_447

In 1922, the Brazilian Modernist Movement, launched in São Paulo, began to achieve cultural independence. São Paulo_sentence_448

Brazil had gone through the same stages of development as the rest of Latin America, but its political and cultural independence came more gradually. São Paulo_sentence_449

Brazilian elite culture was originally strongly tied to Portugal. São Paulo_sentence_450

Gradually writers developed a multi-ethnic body of work that was distinctively Brazilian. São Paulo_sentence_451

The presence of large numbers of former slaves added a distinctive African character to the culture. São Paulo_sentence_452

Subsequent infusions of immigrants of non-Portuguese origin broadened the range of influences. São Paulo_sentence_453

Mário de Andrade and Oswald de Andrade were the prototypical modernists. São Paulo_sentence_454

With the urban poems of "Paulicéia Desvairada" and "Carefree Paulistan land" (1922), Mário de Andrade established the movement in Brazil. São Paulo_sentence_455

His rhapsodic novel Macunaíma (1928), with its abundance of Brazilian folklore, represents the apex of modernism's nationalist prose through its creation of an offbeat native national hero. São Paulo_sentence_456

Oswald de Andrade's experimental poetry, avant-garde prose, particularly the novel Serafim Ponte Grande (1933) and provocative manifestos exemplify the movement's break with tradition. São Paulo_sentence_457

Modernist artists and writers chose the Municipal Theatre of São Paulo to launch their Modernist manifesto. São Paulo_sentence_458

The site happened to be a bastion of European culture with opera and classical music presentations from Germany, France, Austria and Italy. São Paulo_sentence_459

They defied the high society that frequented the venue and who insisted on speaking only foreign languages such as French, behaving as if Brazilian culture did not matter. São Paulo_sentence_460

Theaters São Paulo_section_39

Many historians believe that the first theatrical performance in Brazil was held in São Paulo. São Paulo_sentence_461

The Portuguese Jesuit missionary José de Anchieta (1534–1597) wrote short plays that were performed and watched by the Tupi–Guarani natives. São Paulo_sentence_462

In the second half of the 19th century a cultural, musical and theatrical life emerged. São Paulo_sentence_463

European ethnic groups began holding performances in some of the state's rural cities. São Paulo_sentence_464

The most important period for the art in São Paulo was the 1940s. São Paulo_sentence_465

São Paulo had had a professional company, Teatro Brasileiro de Comédia, (Brazilian Theater of Comedy), along with others. São Paulo_sentence_466

During the 1960s, major theater productions in São Paulo and Brazil were presented by two groups. São Paulo_sentence_467

Teatro de Arena began with a group of students from Escola de Arte Dramática (Drama Art School), founded by Alfredo Mesquita, in 1948. São Paulo_sentence_468

In 1958, the group excelled with the play "Eles não usam black tie" by Gianfrancesco Guarnieri which was the first in the history of the Brazilian drama to feature labor workers as protagonists. São Paulo_sentence_469

After the military coup of 1964, plays started focusing on Brazilian history (Zumbi, Tiradentes). São Paulo_sentence_470

Teatro de Arena and Teatro Oficina supported the democratic resistance during the military dictatorship period, marked by its censorship. São Paulo_sentence_471

The Tropicalist movement began there. São Paulo_sentence_472

A number of plays represented historic moments, notably "O Rei da Vela", "Galileu Galilei" (1968), "Na Sela das Cidades" (1969) and "Gracias Señor" (1972). São Paulo_sentence_473

The district of Bixiga concentrates the greatest number of theaters, around 40 including the theaters that are closed for refurbishing or for other reasons, and small alternatives companies venues. São Paulo_sentence_474

Some of the most important are Renault, Brigadeiro, Zaccaro, Bibi Ferreira, Maria della Costa, Ruth Escobar, Opera, TBC, Imprensa, Oficina, Àgora, Cacilda Becker, Sérgio Cardoso, do Bixiga, and Bandeirantes. São Paulo_sentence_475

Museums São Paulo_section_40

São Paulo has many neighborhoods and buildings of historical value. São Paulo_sentence_476

The city has a large number of museums and art galleries. São Paulo_sentence_477

Among the museums in the city are São Paulo Museum of Art (MASP), the Ipiranga Museum, the Museum of Sacred Art, the Museum of the Portuguese Language, the Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo, among other renowned institutions. São Paulo_sentence_478

It also houses one of the top five zoos in the world, the São Paulo Zoo. São Paulo_sentence_479

Popularly known as "Ipiranga Museum", the first monument built to preserve the memory of the Independence of Brazil, opened on September 7, 1895, with the name of Museu de Ciências Naturais (Natural Science Museum). São Paulo_sentence_480

In 1919, it became a history museum. São Paulo_sentence_481

Reflecting the architectural influence of the Versailles Palace in France, the Ipiranga's collection, with approximately 100,000 pieces, comprises works of art, furniture, clothing and appliances that belonged to those who took part in Brazilian history, such as explorers, rulers and freedom fighters. São Paulo_sentence_482

Its facilities house a library with 100,000 books and the "Centro de Documentação Histórica", Historic Documentation Center, with 40,000 manuscripts. São Paulo_sentence_483

The Ema Gordon Klabin Cultural Foundation opened to the public in March 2007. São Paulo_sentence_484

Its headquarters is a 1920s mansion. São Paulo_sentence_485

It houses 1545 works, including paintings by Marc Chagall, Pompeo Batoni, Pierre Gobert and Frans Post, Brazilian modernists Tarsila do Amaral, Di Cavalcanti and Portinari, period furniture, decorative and archaeological pieces. São Paulo_sentence_486

Stretching over 78 thousand square metres (0.84 million square feet), Memorial da América Latina (Latin America's Memorial) was conceived to showcase Latin American countries and their roots and cultures. São Paulo_sentence_487

It is home to the headquarters of Parlamento Latino-Americano – Parlatino (Latin American Parliament). São Paulo_sentence_488

Designed by Oscar Niemeyer, Memorial has an exhibition pavilion with permanent exhibition of the continent's craftwork production; a library with books, newspapers, magazines, videos, films and records about the history of Latin America; and a 1,679-seat auditorium. São Paulo_sentence_489

Hospedaria do Imigrante (Immigrant's Hostel) was built in 1886 and opened in 1887. São Paulo_sentence_490

Immigrant's Hostel was built in Brás to welcome the immigrants who arrived in Brazil through the Port of Santos, quarantining those who were sick and helping new arrivals to find work in coffee plantations in Western, Northern and Southwestern São Paulo State and Northern Paraná State. São Paulo_sentence_491

From 1882 to 1978, 2.5 million immigrants of more than 60 nationalities and ethnicities were guests there, all of them duly registered in the museum's books and lists. São Paulo_sentence_492

The hostel hosted approximately 3,000 people on average, but occasionally reached 8,000. São Paulo_sentence_493

The hostel received the last immigrants in 1978. São Paulo_sentence_494

In 1998 the hostel became a museum, where it preserves the immigrants' documentation, memory and objects. São Paulo_sentence_495

Located in one of the few remaining centenarian buildings, the museum occupies part of the former hostel. São Paulo_sentence_496

The museum also restores wooden train wagons from the former São Paulo Railway. São Paulo_sentence_497

Two restored wagons inhabit the museum. São Paulo_sentence_498

One dates from 1914, while a second class passenger car dates from 1931. São Paulo_sentence_499

The museum records the names of all immigrants who were hosted there from 1888 to 1978. São Paulo_sentence_500

Occupying an area of 700 square metres (7,535 square feet), the animals shown in the museum are samples of the country's tropical fauna and were prepared (embalmed) more than 50 years ago. São Paulo_sentence_501

The animals are grouped according to their classification: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and some invertebrates such as corals, crustaceans and mollusks. São Paulo_sentence_502

The library specializes in zoology. São Paulo_sentence_503

It has 73,850 works, of which 8,473 are books and 2,364 are newspapers, in addition to theses and maps. São Paulo_sentence_504

MASP has one of world's most important collections of European art. São Paulo_sentence_505

The most important collections cover Italian and French painting schools. São Paulo_sentence_506

The museum was founded by Assis Châteaubriand and is directed by Pietro Maria Bardi. São Paulo_sentence_507

Its headquarters, opened in 1968, were designed by Lina Bo Bardi. São Paulo_sentence_508

MASP organizes temporary exhibitions in special areas. São Paulo_sentence_509

Brazilian and international exhibitions of contemporary arts, photography, design and architecture take turn during the whole year. São Paulo_sentence_510

The headquarters of the state government has a collection of works by Brazilian artists, such as Portinari, Aldo Bonadei, Djanira, Almeida Júnior, Victor Brecheret, Ernesto de Fiori and Aleijadinho. São Paulo_sentence_511

It also gathers colonial furniture, leather and silver artefacts and European tapestry. São Paulo_sentence_512

In eclectic style, its walls are covered with panels describing the history of São Paulo. São Paulo_sentence_513

Located next to the Luz metro station, the building was projected by architect Ramos de Azevedo in 1895. São Paulo_sentence_514

It was constructed to house an Arts Lyceum. São Paulo_sentence_515

In 1911, it became the Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo, where it hosts a number of art exhibitions. São Paulo_sentence_516

A major exhibition on the bronze statues of French sculptor Auguste Rodin took place in 2001. São Paulo_sentence_517

There is also a permanent exhibition on the "Resistance" movement that took place during military dictatorship in the Republican period, including a reconstructed prison cell where political prisoners were kept. São Paulo_sentence_518

Also called Oca do Ibirapuera, oca means thatched house in Native Brazilian Tupi-Guarani. São Paulo_sentence_519

A white, spaceship-like building sitting in the greens of Ibirapuera Park, Oca is an exhibition place with more than 10 thousand square metres (0.11 million square feet). São Paulo_sentence_520

Modern art, Native Brazilian art, and photographies are some of the topics of past thematic exhibitions. São Paulo_sentence_521

Museu da Imagem e do Som (Image and Sound Museum) preserves music, cinema, photography and graphical arts. São Paulo_sentence_522

MIS has a collection of more than 200,000 images. São Paulo_sentence_523

It has more than 1,600 fiction videotapes, documentaries and music and 12,750 titles recorded in Super 8 and 16 mm film. São Paulo_sentence_524

MIS organizes concerts, cinema and video festivals and photography and graphical arts exhibitions. São Paulo_sentence_525

The Museum of Art of the Parliament of São Paulo is a contemporary art museum housed in the Palácio 9 de Julho, the Legislative Assembly of São Paulo house. São Paulo_sentence_526

The museum is run by the Department of Artistic Heritage of the Legislative Assembly and has paintings, sculpture, prints, ceramics and photographs, exploring the Brazilian contemporary art. São Paulo_sentence_527

The is located at the famous soccer stadium Paulo Machado de Carvalho, which was built in 1940 during Getúlio Vargas presidency. São Paulo_sentence_528

The museum shows the history of soccer with a special attention to the memories, emotions and cultural values promoted by the sport during the 20th and 21st centuries in Brazil. São Paulo_sentence_529

The visit also includes fun and interactive activities, 16 rooms from the permanent collection, plus a temporary exposition. São Paulo_sentence_530

Media São Paulo_section_41

São Paulo is home to the two most important daily newspapers in Brazil, Folha de S.Paulo and O Estado de S. Paulo. São Paulo_sentence_531

Also, the top three weekly news magazines of the country are based in the city, Veja, Época and ISTOÉ. São Paulo_sentence_532

Two of the five major television networks are based in the city, Band and RecordTV, while SBT and RedeTV! São Paulo_sentence_533

are based in Osasco, a city in the São Paulo metropolitan area, while Globo, the country's most watched TV channel, has a major news bureau and entertainment production center in the city. São Paulo_sentence_534

In addition, Gazeta is located at Paulista Avenue and the city is used for its station idents since 2014. São Paulo_sentence_535

Many of the major AM and FM radio networks of Brazil are headquartered in São Paulo, such as Jovem Pan, Rádio Mix, Transamérica, BandNews FM, CBN and Band FM. São Paulo_sentence_536

The telephone area code for the city of São Paulo is 11. São Paulo_sentence_537

Sports São Paulo_section_42

See also: Sport in Brazil São Paulo_sentence_538

Football São Paulo_section_43

Main article: Football in São Paulo São Paulo_sentence_539

See also: Football in Brazil, Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, and Campeonato Paulista São Paulo_sentence_540

As in the rest of Brazil, football is the most popular sport. São Paulo_sentence_541

The city's major teams are Corinthians, Palmeiras and São Paulo. São Paulo_sentence_542

Portuguesa is a medium club and Juventus, Nacional and Barcelona EC are three small clubs. São Paulo_sentence_543

São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, for which Brazil was the host nation. São Paulo_sentence_544

The Arena Corinthians was built for the event and hosted six matches, including the opening. São Paulo_sentence_545

São Paulo_table_general_3

Football/soccer teamsSão Paulo_table_caption_3
ClubSão Paulo_header_cell_3_0_0 LeagueSão Paulo_header_cell_3_0_1 VenueSão Paulo_header_cell_3_0_2 Established (team)São Paulo_header_cell_3_0_3
CorinthiansSão Paulo_header_cell_3_1_0 Série ASão Paulo_cell_3_1_1 Arena Corinthians

48,234 (63,267 record)São Paulo_cell_3_1_2

1910São Paulo_cell_3_1_3
PalmeirasSão Paulo_header_cell_3_2_0 Série ASão Paulo_cell_3_2_1 Allianz Parque

43,600 (39,660 record)São Paulo_cell_3_2_2

1914São Paulo_cell_3_2_3
São PauloSão Paulo_header_cell_3_3_0 Série ASão Paulo_cell_3_3_1 Morumbi Stadium

67,428 (138,032 record)São Paulo_cell_3_3_2

1930São Paulo_cell_3_3_3
PortuguesaSão Paulo_header_cell_3_4_0 Campeonato Paulista Série A2São Paulo_cell_3_4_1 Canindé Stadium

19,717 (25,000 record)São Paulo_cell_3_4_2

1920São Paulo_cell_3_4_3
JuventusSão Paulo_header_cell_3_5_0 Campeonato Paulista Série A2São Paulo_cell_3_5_1 Rua Javari Stadium

7,200 (9,000 record)São Paulo_cell_3_5_2

1924São Paulo_cell_3_5_3
NacionalSão Paulo_header_cell_3_6_0 Campeonato Paulista Série A3São Paulo_cell_3_6_1 Nicolau Alayon Stadium

9,500 (22,000 record)São Paulo_cell_3_6_2

1919São Paulo_cell_3_6_3
Barcelona CapelaSão Paulo_header_cell_3_7_0 Campeonato Paulista Série BSão Paulo_cell_3_7_1 Nicolau Alayon Stadium

9,500 (22,000 record)São Paulo_cell_3_7_2

2004São Paulo_cell_3_7_3

Other sports São Paulo_section_44

The São Silvestre Race takes place every New Year's Eve. São Paulo_sentence_546

It was first held in 1925, when the competitors ran about 8,000 metres (26,000 feet). São Paulo_sentence_547

Since then, the distance raced varied, but is now set at 15 km (9.3 mi). São Paulo_sentence_548

The São Paulo Indy 300 was an IndyCar Series race in Santana that ran annually from 2010 to 2013. São Paulo_sentence_549

The event was removed from the 2014 season calendar. São Paulo_sentence_550

Volleyball, basketball, skateboard and tennis are other major sports. São Paulo_sentence_551

There are several traditional sports clubs in São Paulo that are home for teams in many championships. São Paulo_sentence_552

The most important are Esporte Clube Pinheiros (waterpolo, women's volleyball, swimming, men's basketball and handball), Clube Athletico Paulistano (basketball), Esporte Clube Banespa (volleyball, handball and futsal), Esporte Clube Sírio (basketball), Associação Atlética Hebraica (basketball), Clube Atlético Monte Líbano (basketball), Clube de Campo Associação Atlética Guapira (amateur football) and Clube Atlético Ipiranga (multi-sports and former professional football). São Paulo_sentence_553

In Bom Retiro district, there is a public baseball stadium, Estádio Mie Nishi, while Santo Amaro district is the seat of the Núcleo de Alto Rendimento (NAR) is a high perfomance sports center focused on Olympic athletes. São Paulo_sentence_554

São Paulo is also rugby union's stronghold in Brazil, with the main rugby field in the city being located at the São Paulo Athletic Club, São Paulo's oldest club, founded by the British community. São Paulo_sentence_555

Brazilian Grand Prix São Paulo_section_45

Main article: Brazilian Grand Prix São Paulo_sentence_556

Formula One is also one of the most popular sports in Brazil. São Paulo_sentence_557

One of Brazil's most famous sportsmen is three-time Formula One world champion and São Paulo native Ayrton Senna. São Paulo_sentence_558

The Formula One Brazilian Grand Prix is held at the Autódromo José Carlos Pace in Interlagos, Socorro. São Paulo_sentence_559

The Grand Prix has been held there from the inaugural in 1973 until 1977, 1979–1980 and continuously since 1990. São Paulo_sentence_560

Four Brazilians have won the Brazilian Grand Prix in Interlagos (all of whom were/are Sāo Paulo natives): Emerson Fittipaldi (1973 and 1974), José Carlos Pace (1975), Ayrton Senna (1991 and 1993) and Felipe Massa (2006 and 2008). São Paulo_sentence_561

In 2007, a new local railway station Autódromo of the Line C (Line 9) of CPTM, was constructed near the circuit to improve access. São Paulo_sentence_562

See also São Paulo_section_46

São Paulo_unordered_list_4

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/São Paulo.