This article is about the city.
For the state, see São Paulo (state).
For other uses, see São Paulo (disambiguation).
|Founded||January 25, 1554|
|Named for||Paul the Apostle|
|Mayor||Bruno Covas (PSDB)|
|Megacity||1,521.11 km (587.3039 sq mi)|
|Urban||11,698 km (4,517 sq mi)|
|Metro||7,946.96 km (3,068.338 sq mi)|
|Macrometropolis||53,369.61 km (20,606.12 sq mi)|
|Elevation||760 m (2,493.4 ft)|
|Rank||1st in Brazil|
|Density||8,005.25/km (20,733.5/sq mi)|
|Metro||21,571,281 (Greater São Paulo)|
|Metro density||2,714.45/km (7,030.4/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC−03:00 (BRT)|
|Postal Code (CEP)||01000-000|
|Area code(s)||+55 11|
|HDI (2016)||0.843 very high (2nd)|
|PPP 2018||US$687 billion (1st)|
|Per Capita||US$56,418 (1st)|
|Nominal 2018||US$274 billion (1st)|
|Per Capita||US$22,502 (1st)|
Additionally, São Paulo is the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world.
The municipality is also the world's 4th largest city proper by population.
It exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance, arts and entertainment.
The name of the city honors the Apostle, Saint Paul of Tarsus.
The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo (Campinas, Santos, Sorocaba and São José dos Campos) created the São Paulo Macrometropolis, a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.
Paulista Avenue is the economic core of São Paulo.
The city has the 11th largest GDP in the world, representing alone 10.7% of all Brazilian GDP and 36% of the production of goods and services in the state of São Paulo, being home to 63% of established multinationals in Brazil, and has been responsible for 28% of the national scientific production in 2005, as measured by the number of science papers published in journals.
The city has cultural, economic and political influence nationally and internationally.
The city holds events like the São Paulo Jazz Festival, São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix, São Paulo Fashion Week, the ATP Brasil Open, the Brasil Game Show and the Comic Con Experience.
São Paulo is a cosmopolitan, melting pot city, home to the largest Arab, Italian, Japanese, and Portuguese diasporas, with examples including ethnic neighborhoods of , Bixiga, and Liberdade respectively.
In 2016, inhabitants of the city were native to over 200 different countries.
People from the city are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the state, including the paulistanos.
The city, which is also colloquially known as Sampa or Terra da Garoa (Land of Drizzle), is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, gastronomy, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers.
The city is located on a plateau placed beyond the Serra do Mar (Portuguese for "Sea Range" or "Coastal Range"), itself a component of the vast region known as the Brazilian Highlands, with an average elevation of around 799 metres (2,621 ft) above sea level, although being at a distance of only about 70 kilometres (43 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean.
Rolling terrain prevails within the urbanized areas of São Paulo except in its northern area, where the Serra da Cantareira Range reaches a higher elevation and a sizable remnant of the Atlantic Rain Forest.
The region is seismically stable and no significant seismic activity has ever been recorded.
The nonspecific term "Grande São Paulo" ("Greater São Paulo") covers multiple definitions.
The legally defined Região Metropolitana de São Paulo consists of 39 municipalities in total and a population of 21.1 million inhabitants (as of the 2014 National Census).
The Metropolitan Region of São Paulo is known as the financial, economic, and cultural center of Brazil.
Among the largest municipalities, Guarulhos, with a population of more than 1 million people is the biggest one.
Several others count more than 100,000 inhabitants, such as São Bernardo do Campo (811,000 inh.)
and Santo André (707,000 inh.)
in the ABC Region.
The ABC Region, comprising Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo and São Caetano do Sul in the south of Grande São Paulo, is an important location for industrial corporations, such as Volkswagen and Ford Motors.
Analogous to the BosWash definition, it is one of the largest urban agglomerations in the world, with 32 million inhabitants, behind Tokyo, which includes 4 contiguous legally defined metropolitan regions and 3 micro-regions.
A substantial clean-up program for both rivers is underway, financed through a partnership between local government and international development banks such as the Japan Bank for International Cooperation.
Neither river is navigable in the stretch that flows through the city, although water transportation becomes increasingly important on the Tietê river further downstream (near river Paraná), as the river is part of the River Plate basin.
No large natural lakes exist in the region, but the Billings and Guarapiranga reservoirs in the city's southern outskirts are used for power generation, water storage and leisure activities, such as sailing.
The north of the municipality contains part of the 7,917 hectares (19,560 acres) Cantareira State Park, created in 1962, which protects a large part of the metropolitan São Paulo water supply.
In 2015, São Paulo experienced a major drought, which led several cities in the state to start a rationing system.
In summer (January through March), the mean low temperature is about 19 °C (66 °F) and the mean high temperatures is near 28 °C (82 °F).
In winter, temperatures tend to range between 12 and 22 °C (54 and 72 °F).
The record high temperature was 37.8 °C (100.0 °F) on October 17, 2014 and the lowest −3.2 °C (26.2 °F) on June 25, 1918.
Because of its elevation, however, São Paulo experiences a more temperate climate.
The city experiences four seasons.
The summer is warm and rainy.
Autumn and spring are transitional seasons.
Winter is the most cold season, with cloudiness around town and frequently polar air masses.
Frosts occur sporadically in regions further away from the center, in some winters throughout the city.
Regions further away from the center and in cities in the metropolitan area, can reach temperatures next to 0 °C (32 °F), or even lower in the winter.
Rainfall is abundant, annually averaging 1,454 millimetres (57.2 in).
It is especially common in the warmer months averaging 219 millimetres (8.6 in) and decreases in winter, averaging 47 millimetres (1.9 in).
During late winter, especially August, the city experiences the phenomenon known as "veranico" or "verãozinho" ("little summer"), which consists of hot and dry weather, sometimes reaching temperatures well above 28 °C (82 °F).
On the other hand, relatively cool days during summer are fairly common when persistent winds blow from the ocean.
On such occasions daily high temperatures may not surpass 20 °C (68 °F), accompanied by lows often below 15 °C (59 °F), however, summer can be extremely hot when a heat wave hits the city followed by temperatures around 34 °C (93 °F), but in places with greater skyscraper density and less tree cover, the temperature can feel like 39 °C (102 °F), as on Paulista Avenue for example.
In the summer of 2014, São Paulo was affected by a heat wave that lasted for almost 4 weeks with highs above 30 °C (86 °F), peeking on 36 °C (97 °F).
Due to the altitude of the city, there are only few hot nights in São Paulo even in the summer months, with minimum temperatures rarely exceeding 21 °C (70 °F).
In winter, however, the strong inflow of cold fronts accompanied by excessive cloudiness and polar air cause very low temperatures, even in the afternoon.
Afternoons with maximum temperatures ranging between 13 and 15 °C (55 and 59 °F) are common even during the fall and early spring.
During the winter, there have been several recent records of cold afternoons, as on July 24, 2013 in which the maximum temperature was 8 °C (46 °F) and the wind chill hit 0 °C (32 °F) during the afternoon.
São Paulo is known for its rapidly changing weather.
Locals say that all four seasons can be experienced in one day, similar to Melbourne, Australia.
In the morning, when winds blow from the ocean, the weather can be cool or sometimes even cold.
When the sun hits its peak, the weather can be extremely dry and hot.
When the sun sets, the cold wind comes back bringing cool temperatures.
This phenomenon happens usually in the winter.
In 2013, São Paulo was the most populous city in Brazil and in South America.
According to the 2010 IBGE Census, there were 11,244,369 people residing in the city of São Paulo.
In 2010, the city had 2,146,077 opposite-sex couples and 7,532 same-sex couples.
The population of São Paulo was 52.6% female and 47.4% male.
Main article: Immigration to Brazil
São Paulo is considered the most multicultural city in Brazil.
Since 1870 to 2010, approximately 2.3 million immigrants arrived in the state, from all parts of the world.
The Italian community is one of the strongest, with a presence throughout the city.
Of the 9 million inhabitants of São Paulo, 50% (4.5 million people) have full or partial Italian ancestry.
In the early twentieth century, the Italian and the dialects were spoken almost as much as the Portuguese in the city, which influenced the formation of the São Paulo dialect of today.
Six thousand pizzerias are producing about a million pizzas a day.
The Portuguese community is also large; it is estimated that three million paulistanos have some origin in Portugal.
From the nineteenth century through the first half of the twentieth century, São Paulo also received German immigrants (in the current neighborhood of Santo Amaro), Spanish and Lithuanian (in the neighborhood Vila Zelina).
São Paulo is not only home to the largest Japanese diaspora – over 1.5 million Japanese descendants live in São Paulo – but it also has over 600 Japanese restaurants (20% more than "churrascarias" – Brazilian steakhouses) where more than 12 millions sushis are sold every month.
|Immigrants||Percentage of immigrants in foreign born population|
A French observer, travelling to São Paulo at the time, noted that there was a division of the capitalist class, by nationality (...) Germans, French and Italians shared the dry goods sector with Brazilians.
Foodstuffs was generally the province of either Portuguese or Brazilians, except for bakery and pastry which was the domain of the French and Germans.
Shoes and tinware were mostly controlled by Italians.
However, the larger metallurgical plants were in the hands of the English and the Americans.
(...) Italians outnumbered Brazilians two to one in São Paulo.
Of the immigrants who arrived there between 1887 and 1902, 63.5% came from Italy.
In 1920, nearly 80% of São Paulo city's population was composed of immigrants and their descendants and Italians made up over half of its male population.
At that time, the Governor of São Paulo said that "if the owner of each house in São Paulo display the flag of the country of origin on the roof, from above São Paulo would look like an Italian city".
In 1900, a columnist who was absent from São Paulo for 20 years wrote "then São Paulo used to be a genuine Paulista city, today it is an Italian city."
|Year||Italians||Percentage of the city|
Research conducted by the University of São Paulo (USP) shows the city's high ethnic diversity: when asked if they are "descendants of foreign immigrants", 81% of the students reported "yes".
The main reported ancestries were: Italian (30.5%), Portuguese (23%), Spanish (14%), Japanese (8%), German (6%), Brazilian (4%), African (3%), Arab (2%) and Jewish (1%).
The city once attracted numerous immigrants from all over Brazil and even from foreign countries, due to a strong economy and for being the hub of most Brazilian companies.
Since the 19th century people began migrating from northeastern Brazil into São Paulo.
This migration grew enormously in the 1930s and remained huge in the next decades.
The concentration of land, modernization in rural areas, changes in work relationships and cycles of droughts stimulated migration.
In this area they composed 41% of the population.
The main groups, considering all the metropolitan area, are: 6 million people of Italian descent, 3 million people of Portuguese descent, 1.7 million people of African descent, 1 million people of Arab descent, 665,000 people of Japanese descent, 400,000 people of German descent, 250,000 people of French descent, 150,000 people of Greek descent, 120,000 people of Chinese descent, 120,000–300,000 Bolivian immigrants, 50,000 people of Korean descent, and 40,000 Jews.
São Paulo is also receiving waves of immigration from Haiti and from many countries of Africa and the Caribbean.
Those immigrants are mainly concentrated in Praca da Sé, Glicério and Vale do Anhangabaú in the Central Zone of São Paulo.
Main article: Religion in Brazil
Like the cultural variety verifiable in São Paulo, there are several religious manifestations present in the city.
Although it has developed on an eminently Catholic social matrix, both due to colonization and immigration – and even today most of the people of São Paulo declare themselves Roman Catholic – it is possible to find in the city dozens of different Protestant denominations, as well as the practice of Islam, Spiritism, among others.
Buddhism and Eastern religions also have relevance among the beliefs most practiced by Paulistanos.
It is estimated that there are more than one hundred thousand Buddhist followers and Hindu.
According to data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), in 2010 the population of São Paulo was 6,549,775 Roman Catholics (58.2%), 2,887,810 Protestants (22.1%), 531,822 Spiritists (4.7 percent), 101,493 Jehovah's Witnesses (0.9 percent), 75,075 Buddhists (0.7 percent), 50,794 Umbandists (0.5 percent), 43,610 Jews (0.4 percent), 28,673 Catholic Apostolic Brazilians (0.3%), 25,583 eastern religious (0.2%), 18,058 candomblecists (0.2%), 17,321 Mormons (0.2%), 14,894 Orthodox Catholics (0.1%), 9,119 spiritualists (0.1%), 8,277 Muslims (0.1%), 7,139 esoteric (0.1%), 1,829 practiced Indian traditions (<0.1%) and 1,008 were Hindu (<0.1%).
Others 1,056 008 had no religion (9.4%), 149,628 followed other Christian religiosities (1.3%), 55,978 had an undetermined religion or multiple belonging (0.5%), 14,127 did not know (0.1%) And 1,896 reported following other religiosities (<0.1%).
The Roman Catholic Church divides the territory of the municipality of São Paulo into four ecclesiastical circumscriptions: the Archdiocese of São Paulo, and the adjacent Diocese of Santo Amaro, the Diocese of São Miguel Paulista and the Diocese of Campo Limpo, the last three suffragans of the first.
The archive of the archdiocese, called the Metropolitan Archival Dom Duarte Leopoldo e Silva, located in the Ipiranga neighborhood, holds one of the most important documentary heritage in Brazil.
The city has the most diverse Protestant or Reformed creeds, such as the Evangelical Community of Our Land, Maranatha Christian Church, Lutheran Church, Presbyterian Church, Methodist Church, Anglican Episcopal Church, Baptist churches, Assembly Church of God, The Seventh-day Adventist Church, the World Church of God's Power, the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God, the Christian Congregation in Brazil, among others, as well as Christians of various denominations.
Source: IBGE 2010.
According to the 2011 Global Homicide Survey released by the United Nations, in the period between 2004 and 2009 the homicide rate dropped from 20.8 to 10.8 murders per 100,000 inhabitants.
The UN pointed to São Paulo as an example of how big cities can reduce crime.
The number of murders in 2007 was 63% lower than in 1999.
Carandiru's 9th DP is considered one of the five best police stations in the world and the best in Latin America.
In 2008, the city of São Paulo ranked 493rd in the list of the most violent cities in Brazil.
In a survey on the Adolescent Homicide Index (IHA), released in 2009, São Paulo ranked 151st among 267 cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants.
In November 2009, the Ministry of Justice and the Brazilian Forum of Public Security published a survey that pointed to São Paulo as the safest Brazilian capital for young people.
Between 2000 and 2010, the city of São Paulo reduced its homicide rate by 78%.
According to data from the Map of Violence 2011, published by the Sangari Institute and the Ministry of Justice, the city of São Paulo has the lowest homicide rate per 100,000 inhabitants among all Brazilian capitals.
Main article: Social issues in Brazil
Since the beginning of the 20th century, São Paulo has been a major economic center in Latin America.
This led wealthy coffee farmers to invest in industrial activities that turned São Paulo into Brazil's largest industrial hub.
- Crime rates consistently decreased in the 21st century. The citywide homicide rate was 6.56 in 2019, less than half the 27.38 national rate.
- Air quality has steadily increased during the modern era.
- The two major rivers crossing the city, Tietê and Pinheiros, are highly polluted. A major project to clean up these rivers is underway.
- The Clean City Law or antibillboard, approved in 2007, focused on two main targets: anti-publicity and anti-commerce. Advertisers estimate that they removed 15,000 billboards and that more than 1,600 signs and 1,300 towering metal panels were dismantled by authorities.
- São Paulo metropolitan region, adopted vehicle restrictions from 1996 to 1998 to reduce air pollution during wintertime. Since 1997, a similar project was implemented throughout the year in the central area of São Paulo to improve traffic.
Main article: Languages of Brazil
The primary language is Portuguese.
The general language from São Paulo General, or Tupi Austral (Southern Tupi), was the Tupi-based trade language of what is now São Vicente, São Paulo, and the upper Tietê River.
In the 17th century it was widely spoken in São Paulo and spread to neighboring regions while in Brazil.
From 1750 on, following orders from Marquess of Pombal, Portuguese language was introduced through immigration and consequently taught to children in schools.
Due to globalization, English is now spoken by some residents as a foreign language.
Italian mingled with Portuguese and as an old influence, was assimilated or disappeared into spoken language.
Other languages spoken in the city are mainly among the Asian community: São Paulo is home to the largest Japanese population outside Japan.
Although today most Japanese-Brazilians speak only Portuguese, some of them are still fluent in Japanese.
Some people of Chinese and Korean descent are still able to speak their ancestral languages.
In some areas it is still possible to find descendants of immigrants who speak German (especially in the area of Brooklin paulista) and Russian or East European languages (especially in the area of Vila Zelina).
In the west zone of São Paulo, specially at Vila Anastácio and Lapa region, there is a Hungarian colony, with three churches (Calvinist, Baptist and Catholic), so on Sundays it is possible to see Hungarians talking to each other on sidewalks.
The Greater São Paulo is home to a prominent self-identifying gay, bisexual and transgender community, with 9.6% of the male population and 7% of the female population declaring themselves to be non-straight.
Since 1997, the city has hosted the annual São Paulo Gay Pride Parade, considered the biggest pride parade in the world by the Guinness Book of World Records with over 5 million participants, and typically rivalling the New York City Pride March for the record.
Strongly supported by the State and the City of São Paulo government authorities, in 2010, the city hall of São Paulo invested R$1 million reais in the parade and provided a solid security plan, with approximately 2,000 policemen, two mobile police stations for immediate reporting of occurrences, 30 equipped ambulances, 55 nurses, 46 medical physicians, three hospital camps with 80 beds.
The parade, considered the city's second largest event after the Formula One, begins at the São Paulo Museum of Art, crosses Paulista Avenue, and follows Consolação Street to Praça Roosevelt in Downtown São Paulo.
According to the LGBT app Grindr, the gay parade of the city was elected the best in the world.
See also: List of mayors of São Paulo
As the capital of the state of São Paulo, the city is home to the Bandeirantes Palace (state government) and the Legislative Assembly.
The organic law of the municipality and the Master Plan of the city, however, determine that the public administration must guarantee to the population effective tools of manifestation of participatory democracy, which causes that the city is divided in regional prefectures, each one led by a Regional Mayor appointed by the Mayor.
The legislative power is represented by the Municipal Chamber, composed of 55 aldermen elected to four-year posts (in compliance with the provisions of Article 29 of the Constitution, which dictates a minimum number of 42 and a maximum of 55 for municipalities with more than five million inhabitants).
It is up to the house to draft and vote fundamental laws for the administration and the Executive, especially the municipal budget (known as the Law of Budgetary Guidelines).
In addition to the legislative process and the work of the secretariats, there are also a number of municipal councils, each dealing with different topics, composed of representatives of the various sectors of organized civil society.
The actual performance and representativeness of such councils, however, are sometimes questioned.
The following municipal councils are active: Municipal Council for Children and Adolescents (CMDCA); of Informatics (WCC); of the Physically Disabled (CMDP); of Education (CME); of Housing (CMH); of Environment (CADES); of Health (CMS); of Tourism (COMTUR); of Human Rights (CMDH); of Culture (CMC); and of Social Assistance (COMAS) and Drugs and Alcohol (COMUDA).
The Prefecture also owns (or is the majority partner in their social capital) a series of companies responsible for various aspects of public services and the economy of São Paulo:
- São Paulo Turismo S/A (SPTuris): company responsible for organizing large events and promoting the city's tourism.
- Companhia de Engenharia de Tráfego (CET): subordinated to the Municipal Transportation Department, is responsible for traffic supervision, fines (in cooperation with DETRAN) and maintenance of the city's road system.
- Companhia Metropolitana de Habitação de São Paulo (COHAB): subordinate to the Department of Housing, is responsible for the implementation of public housing policies, especially the construction of housing developments.
- Empresa Municipal de Urbanização de São Paulo (EMURB): subordinate to the Planning Department, is responsible for urban works and for the maintenance of public spaces and urban furniture.
- Companhia de Processamento de Dados de São Paulo (PRODAM): responsible for the electronic infrastructure and information technology of the city hall.
- São Paulo Transportes Sociedade Anônima (SPTrans): responsible for the operation of the public transport systems managed by the city hall, such as the municipal bus lines.
São Paulo is divided into 32 sub-prefectures, each with an administration ("subprefeitura") divided into several districts ("distritos").
The city also has a radial division into nine zones for purpose of traffic control and bus lines, which don't fit into the administrative divisions.
These zones are identified by colors in the street signs.
Most other economic and tourist facilities of the city are inside an area officially called Centro Expandido (Portuguese for "Broad Centre", or "Broad Downtown"), which includes Sé and several other subprefectures, and areas immediately located around it.
Twin towns – sister cities
São Paulo is twinned with:
São Paulo is considered the "financial capital of Brazil", as it is the location for the headquarters of major corporations and of banks and financial institutions.
According to data from the IBGE, its gross domestic product (GDP) in 2010 was R$450 billion, approximately US$220 billion, 12.26% of Brazilian GDP and 36% of all production of goods and services of the State of São Paulo.
According to PricewaterhouseCoopers average annual economic growth of the city is 4.2%.
São Paulo also has a large "informal" economy.
In 2005, the city of São Paulo collected R$90 billion in taxes and the city budget was R$15 billion.
The city has 1,500 bank branches and 70 shopping malls.
In that year São Paulo's exported goods totaled $7.32B (USD) or 3.02% of Brazil's total exports.
The São Paulo Stock Exchange (BM&F Bovespa) is Brazil's official stock and bond exchange.
It is the largest stock exchange in Latin America, trading about R$6 billion (US$3.5 billion) every day.
São Paulo's economy is going through a deep transformation.
The city is unique among Brazilian cities for its large number of foreign corporations.
63% of all the international companies with business in Brazil have their head offices in São Paulo.
São Paulo has one of the largest concentrations of German businesses worldwide and is the largest Swedish industrial hub alongside Gothenburg.
São Paulo ranked second after New York in FDi magazine's bi-annual ranking of Cities of the Future 2013/14 in the Americas, and was named the Latin American City of the Future 2013/14, overtaking Santiago de Chile, the first city in the previous ranking.
Santiago now ranks second, followed by Rio de Janeiro.
The per capita income for the city was R$32,493 in 2008.
According to Mercer's 2011 city rankings of cost of living for expatriate employees, São Paulo is now among the ten most expensive cities in the world, ranking 10th in 2011, up from 21st in 2010 and ahead of London, Paris, Milan and New York City.
Science and technology
Main article: Brazilian science and technology
The city of São Paulo is home to research and development facilities and attracts companies due to the presence of regionally renowned universities.
Science, technology and innovation is leveraged by the allocation of funds from the state government, mainly carried out by means of the Foundation to Research Support in the State of São Paulo (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo – FAPESP), one of the main agencies promoting scientific and technological research.
Luxury brands tend to concentrate their business in São Paulo.
Because of the lack of department stores and multi-brand boutiques, shopping malls as well as the Jardins district, which is more or less the Brazilian's Rodeo Drive version, attract most of the world's luxurious brands.
Cidade Jardim was opened in São Paulo in 2008, it is a 45,000-square-metre (484,376-square-foot) mall, landscaped with trees and greenery scenario, with a focus on Brazilian brands but also home to international luxury brands such as Hermès, Jimmy Choo, Pucci and Carolina Herrera.
Opened in 2012, JK shopping mall has brought to Brazil brands that were not present in the country before such as Goyard, Tory Burch, Llc., Prada, and Miu Miu.
The Jardins neighborhood is regarded among the most sophisticated places in town, with upscale restaurants and hotels.
The New York Times once compared Oscar Freire Street to Rodeo Drive.
In Jardins there are luxury car dealers.
One of the world's best restaurants as elected by The World's 50 Best Restaurants Award, D.O.M., is located there.
Main article: Tourism in Brazil
Large hotel chains whose target audience is the corporate traveler are in the city.
São Paulo is home to 75% of the country's leading business fairs.
The city also promotes one of the most important fashion weeks in the world, São Paulo Fashion Week, established in 1996 under the name Morumbi Fashion Brasil, is the largest and most important fashion event in Latin America.
The annual March For Jesus is a large gathering of Christians from Protestant churches throughout Brazil, with Sao Paulo police reporting participation in the range of 350,000 in 2015.
In addition, São Paulo hosts the annual São Paulo Pancake Cook-Off in which chefs from across Brazil and the world participate in competitions based on the cooking of pancakes.
Cultural tourism also has relevance to the city, especially when considering the international events in the metropolis, such as the São Paulo Art Biennial, that attracted almost 1 million people in 2004.
The city has a nightlife that is considered one of the best in the country.
There are cinemas, theaters, museums, and cultural centers.
The Rua Oscar Freire was named one of the eight most luxurious streets in the world, according to the Mystery Shopping International, and São Paulo the 25th "most expensive city" of the planet.
According to the International Congress & Convention Association, São Paulo ranks first among the cities that host international events in Americas and the 12th in the world, after Vienna, Paris, Barcelona, Singapore, Berlin, Budapest, Amsterdam, Stockholm, Seoul, Lisbon, and Copenhague.
According to a study by MasterCard in 130 cities around the world, São Paulo was the third most visited destination in Latin America (behind Mexico City and Buenos Aires) with 2.4 million foreign travelers, who spent US$2.9 billion in 2013 (the highest among the cities in the region).
The cuisine of the region is a tourist attraction.
The city has 62 cuisines across 12,000 restaurants.
During the 10th International Congress of Gastronomy, Hospitality and Tourism (Cihat) conducted in 1997, the city received the title of "World Gastronomy Capital" from a commission formed by 43 nations' representatives.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, São Paulo has been one of the main economic center of Latin America.
With the First and Second World Wars and the Great Depression, coffee exports to the United States and Europe were heavily affected, forcing the rich coffee growers to invest in the industrial activities that would make São Paulo the largest industrial center in Brazil.
The new job vacancies contributed to attract a significant number of immigrants (mainly from Italy) and migrants, especially from the Northeastern states.
From a population of only 32.000 people in 1880, São Paulo now has 8.5 million inhabitants in 1980.
The rapid population growth has brought many problems for the city.
São Paulo is practically all served by the water supply network.
The city consumes an average of 221 liters of water/inhabitant/day while the UN recommends the consumption of 110 liters/day.
The water loss is 30.8%.
However, between 11 and 12.8% of households do not have a sewage system, depositing waste in pits and ditches.
Sixty percent of the sewage collected is treated.
According to data from IBGE and Eletropaulo, the electricity grid serves almost 100% of households.
The fixed telephony network is still precarious, with coverage of 67.2%.
Household garbage collection covers all regions of the municipality but is still insufficient, reaching around 94% of the demand in districts such as Parelheiros and Perus.
Recycling accounts for about 1% of the 15,000 tonnes of waste produced daily.
São Paulo has a myriad of urban fabrics.
The original nuclei of the city are vertical, characterized by the presence of commercial buildings and services; And the peripheries are generally developed with two to four-story buildings – although such generalization certainly meets with exceptions in the fabric of the metropolis.
Its tallest buildings rarely reach forty stories, and the average residential building is twenty.
Nevertheless, it is the fourth city in the world in quantity of buildings, according to the page specialized in research of data on buildings Emporis Buildings, besides possessing what was considered until 2014 the tallest skyscraper of the country, the Mirante do Vale, also known as Palácio Zarzur Kogan, with 170 meters of height and 51 floors.
Such tissue heterogeneity, however, is not as predictable as the generic model can make us imagine.
The characterization of each region of the city also underwent several changes throughout the 20th century.
With the relocation of industries to other cities or states, several areas that once housed factory sheds have become commercial or even residential areas.
The constant change of the landscape of São Paulo due to the technological changes of its buildings has been a striking feature of the city, pointed out by scholars.
In a period of a century, between the middle of 1870 and 1970 the city of São Paulo was "practically demolished and rebuilt at least three times".
These three periods are characterized by the typical constructive processes of their times.
São Paulo has a history of actions, projects and plans related to urban planning that can be traced to the governments of Antonio da Silva Prado, Baron Duprat, Washington and Luis Francisco Prestes Maia.
However, in general, the city was formed during the 20th century, growing from village to metropolis through a series of informal processes and irregular urban sprawl.
Urban growth in São Paulo has followed three patterns since the beginning of the 20th century, according to urban historians: since the late 19th Century and until the 1940s, São Paulo was a condensed city in which different social groups lived in a small urban zone separated by type of housing; from the 1940s to the 1980s, São Paulo followed a model of center-periphery social segregation, in which the upper and middle-classes occupied central and modern areas while the poor moved towards precarious, self-built housing in the periphery; and from the 1980s onward, new transformations have brought the social classes closer together in spatial terms, but separated by walls and security technologies that seek to isolate the richer classes in the name of security.
Thus, São Paulo differs considerably from other Brazilian cities such as Belo Horizonte and Goiânia, whose initial expansion followed determinations by a plan, or a city like Brasília, whose master plan had been fully developed prior to construction.
The effectiveness of these plans has been seen by some planners and historians as questionable.
Some of these scholars argue that such plans were produced exclusively for the benefit of the wealthier strata of the population while the working classes would be relegated to the traditional informal processes.
In São Paulo until the mid-1950s, the plans were based on the idea of "demolish and rebuild", including former Mayor Prestes Maia São Paulo's road plan (known as the Avenues Plan) or Saturnino de Brito's plan for the Tietê River.
The Plan of the Avenues was implemented during the 1920s and sought to build large avenues connecting the city center with the outskirts.
This plan included renewing the commercial city center, leading to real estate speculation and gentrification of several downtown neighborhoods .
The plan also led to the expansion of bus services, which would soon replace the trolley as the preliminary transportation system.
This contributed to the outwards expansion of São Paulo and the peripherization of poorer residents.
Peripheral neighborhoods were usually unregulated and consisted mainly of self-built single-family houses.
In 1968 the Urban Development Plan proposed the Basic Plan for Integrated Development of São Paulo, under the administration of Figueiredo Ferraz.
The main result was zoning laws.
It lasted until 2004 when the Basic Plan was replaced by the current Master Plan.
That zoning, adopted in 1972, designated "Z1" areas (residential areas designed for elites) and "Z3" (a "mixed zone" lacking clear definitions about their characteristics).
Zoning encouraged the growth of suburbs with minimal control and major speculation.
After the 1970s peripheral lot regulation increased and infrastructure in the periphery improved, driving land prices up.
The poorest and the newcomers were now unable to purchase their lot and build their house, and were forced to look for a housing alternative.
As a result, favelas and precarious tenements (cortiços) appeared.
These housing types were often located closer to the center of the city: favelas could sprawl in any terrain that had not previously been utilized (often dangerous or unsanitary) and decaying or abandoned buildings for tenements were abundant inside the city.
Favelas went back into the urban perimeter, occupying the small lots that had not yet been occupied by urbanization – alongside polluted rivers, railways, or between bridges.
By 1993, 19.8% of São Paulo's population lived in favelas, compared to 5.2% in 1980.
Today, it is estimated that 2.1 million Paulistas live in favelas, which represents about 11% of the total population of the metropolitan area.
Main article: Education in Brazil
São Paulo has public and private primary and secondary schools and vocational-technical schools.
More than nine-tenths of the population are literate and roughly the same proportion of those age 7 to 14 are enrolled in school.
There are 578 universities in the state of São Paulo.
The universities and colleges include:
São Paulo is one of the largest health care hubs in Latin America.
Among its hospitals are the Albert Einstein Israelites Hospital, ranked among the best in Latin America and the Hospital das Clínicas, the largest in the region.
The private health care sector is very large and most of Brazil's best hospitals are located in the city.
As of September 2009, the city of São Paulo had:
- 32,553 ambulatory clinics, centers and professional offices (physicians, dentists and others);
- 217 hospitals, with 32,554 beds;
- 137,745 health care professionals, including 28,316 physicians.
The municipal government operates public health facilities across the city's territory, with 770 primary health care units (UBS), ambulatory and emergency clinics and 17 hospitals.
The Municipal Secretary of Health has 59,000 employees, including 8,000 physicians and 12,000 nurses.
6,000,000 citizens uses the facilities, which provide drugs at no cost and manage an extensive family health program (PSF – Programa de Saúde da Família).
The Rede São Paulo Saudável (Healthy São Paulo Network) is a satellite-based digital TV corporate channel, developed by the Municipal Health Secretary of São Paulo, bringing programs focused on health promotion and health education, which may be watched by citizens seeking health care in its units in the city.
The network consists of two studios and a system for transmission of closed digital video in high definition via satellite, with about 1,400 points of reception in all health care units of the municipality of São Paulo.
Automobiles are the main means to get into the city.
In March 2011, more than 7 million vehicles were registered.
Heavy traffic is common on the city's main avenues and traffic jams are relatively common on its highways.
The city is crossed by 10 major motorways:
- Rodovia Presidente Dutra/BR-116 (President Dutra Highway) – connects São Paulo to the east and north-east of the country. Most important connection: Rio de Janeiro.
- Rodovia Régis Bittencourt/BR-116 (Régis Bittencourt Highway) – connects São Paulo to the south of the country. Most important connections: Curitiba and Porto Alegre.
- Rodovia Fernão Dias/BR-381 (Fernão Dias Highway) – Connects São Paulo to the north of the country. Most important connection: Belo Horizonte.
- Rodovia Anchieta/SP-150 (Anchieta Highway) – connects São Paulo to the ocean coast. Mainly used for cargo transportation to Santos Port. Most important connection: Santos.
- Rodovia dos Imigrantes/SP-150 (Immigrants Highway) – connects São Paulo to the ocean coast. Mainly used for tourism. Most important connections: Santos, São Vicente, Guarujá and Praia Grande.
- Rodovia Castelo Branco/SP-280 (President Castelo Branco Highway) – connects São Paulo to the west and north-west of the country. Most important connections: Osasco, Sorocaba, Bauru, Jaú, Araçatuba and Campo Grande.
- Rodovia Raposo Tavares/SP-270 (Raposo Tavares Highway) – connects São Paulo to the west of the country. Most important connections: Cotia, Sorocaba, Presidente Prudente.
- Rodovia Anhangüera/SP-330 (Anhanguera Highway) – connects São Paulo to the north-west of the country, including its capital city. Most important connections: Campinas, Ribeirão Preto and Brasília.
- Rodovia dos Bandeirantes/SP-348 (Bandeirantes Highway) – connects São Paulo to the north-west of the country. It is considered the best motorway of Brazil. Most important connections: Campinas, Ribeirão Preto, Piracicaba and São José do Rio Preto.
- Rodovia Ayrton Senna/SP-70 (Ayrton Senna Highway) – named after Brazilian legendary Formula One driver Ayrton Senna, the motorway connects São Paulo to east locations of the state, as well as the north coast of the state. Most important connections: São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport, São José dos Campos and Caraguatatuba.
Main article: Rodoanel Mário Covas
Rodoanel Mário Covas (official designation SP-021) is the beltway of the Greater São Paulo, Brazil.
Upon its completion, it will have a length of 177 km (110 mi), with a radius of approximately 23 km (14 mi) from the geographical center of the city.
It was named after Mário Covas, who was mayor of the city of São Paulo (1983–1985) and a state governor (1994-1998/1998-2001) until his death from cancer.
It is a controlled access highway with a speed limit of 100 km/h (62 mph) under normal weather and traffic circumstances.
The west, south and east parts are completed, and the north part, which will close the beltway, is due to 2018. and is being built by DERSA.
São Paulo has two main airports, São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport (IATA: GRU) for international flights and national hub, and Congonhas-São Paulo Airport (IATA: CGH) for domestic and regional flights.
Another airport, the Campo de Marte Airport, serves private jets and light aircraft.
The three airports together moved more than 58.000.000 passengers in 2015, making São Paulo one of the top 15 busiest in the world, by number of air passenger movements.
Congonhas Airport operates flights mainly to Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Belo Horizonte and Brasília.
In the latest upgrade, twelve boarding bridges were installed to provide more comfort to passengers by eliminating the need to walk in the open to their flights.
The terminal area was expanded from 37.3 thousand square metres (0.4 million square feet) to over 70 thousand square metres (0.75 million square feet).
This expansion raised capacity to almost 18 million users.
Built in the 1930s, it was designed to handle the increasing demand for flights, in the fastest growing city in the world.
São Paulo–Guarulhos International, also known as "Cumbica" is 25 km (16 mi) north-east of the city center, in the neighbouring city of Guarulhos.
Every day nearly 110.000 people pass through the airport, which connects Brazil to 36 countries around the world.
370 companies operate there, generating more than 53.000 jobs.
With capacity to serve 42 million passengers a year, in three terminals, the airport handles 40 million users.
Construction of a third passenger terminal was completed in time to the 2014 World Cup, and raised yearly capacity to 42 million passengers.
The project is part of the airport's master plan, which will raise, by the end of 2032, the airport capacity to nearly 60 million passengers.
is also the main air cargo hubs in Brazil.
The roughly 150 flights a day carry everything from fruits grown in the São Francisco Valley to locally manufactured medicine and electronics devices.
The airport's cargo terminal is South America's largest.
In 2015, over 503.675 tons were transported from the airport.
Both São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport and Congonhas-São Paulo Airport will be connected to the metropolitan rail system by the end of 2018, with lines Line 13 (CPTM) and Line 17 (São Paulo Metro), respectively.
The airport handles private flights and air shuttles, including air taxi firms.
Opened in 1935, Campo de Marte is the base for the largest helicopter fleet in Brazil and the world's, ahead of New York and Tokyo, with a fleet of more than 3.500 helicopters.
This airport is the home base of the State Civil Police Air Tactical Unit, the State Military Police Radio Patrol Unit and the São Paulo Flying Club.
From this airport, passengers can take advantage of some 350 remote helipads and heliports to bypass heavy road traffic.
Campo de Marte also hosts the Ventura Goodyear Blimp.
Urban rail transit
São Paulo has three urban rail transit systems: the São Paulo Metro (locally known as the Metrô), an underground system with six lines, which includes the monorail of the Line 15 (Silver), and the commuter rail system of the Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos (CPTM), with seven lines that serve cities in the metropolitan region.
The underground and railway lines carry some 7 million people on an average weekday together.
The systems combined form a 370 km (230 mi) long network of urban rail transit.
In 2015, the metro reached the mark of 11.5 million passengers per mile of line, 15% higher than in 2008, when 10 million users were taken per mile.
It is the largest concentration of people in a single transport system in the world, according to the company.
In 2014, the São Paulo Metro was elected the best metro system in the Americas.
When fully completed will be the largest and highest capacity monorail system in the Americas and second worldwide, only behind to the Chongqing Monorail.
The system carries about 2.8 million passengers a day.
On June 8, 2018, CPTM set a weekday ridership record with 3,096,035 trips.
The Line 13 (Jade) of the CPTM connects São Paulo to the São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport, in the municipality of Guarulhos, the first major international airport in South America to be directly served by train.
The two major São Paulo railway stations are Luz and Julio Prestes in the Luz/Campos Eliseos region.
Agricultural products were transferred to Luz Station from which they headed to the Atlantic Ocean and overseas.
Julio Prestes stopped transporting passengers through the Sorocabana or FEPASA lines and now only has metro service.
Due to its acoustics and interior beauty, surrounded by Greek revival columns, part of the rebuilt station was transformed into the São Paulo Hall.
Luz Station was built in Britain and assembled in Brazil.
It has an underground station and is still active with metro lines that link São Paulo to the Greater São Paulo region to the East and the Campinas Metropolitan region in Jundiaí in the western part of the State.
It is the seat of the Santos-Jundiaí line which historically transported international immigrants from the Port of Santos to São Paulo and the coffee plantation lands in the Western region of Campinas.
São Paulo has no tram lines, although trams were common in the first half of the 20th century.
A high-speed railway service is proposed to link São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
The trains are projected to reach 280 kilometres per hour (170 mph), taking about 90 minutes.
Another important project is the "Expresso Bandeirantes", a medium-speed rail service (about 160 km/h or 99 mph) from São Paulo to Campinas, which would reduce the journey time from 90 minutes by car to about 50 minutes, linking São Paulo, Jundiaí, Campinas Airport and Campinas city center.
This service is also to connect to the railway service between São Paulo city center and Guarulhos Airport.
Work on an express railway service between São Paulo city center and Guarulhos International Airport were announced by the São Paulo state government in 2007.
Bus transport (government and private) is composed of 17,000 buses (including about 290 trolley buses).
The traditional system of informal transport (dab vans) was later reorganized and legalized.
São Paulo Tietê Bus Terminal is the second largest bus terminal in the world.
Routes to 1,010 cities in five countries (Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay) are available.
The Palmeiras-Barra Funda Intermodal Terminal is much smaller and is connected to the Palmeiras-Barra Funda metro and Palmeiras-Barra Funda CPTM stations.
It serves the southwestern cities of Sorocaba, Itapetininga, Itu, Botucatu, Bauru, Marília, Jaú, Avaré, Piraju, Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, Ipaussu, Chavantes and Ourinhos (on the border with Paraná State).
A large network of bus rapid transit lines, called "Passa Rápido", connect metro and CPTM stations with the rest of the city, examples include São Mateus–Jabaquara Metropolitan Corridor and Expresso Tiradentes.
Buses to North Shore cities such as Maresias, Riviera de São Lourenço, Caraguatatuba, Ubatuba and Paraty, in Rio de Janeiro State must be taken at the Tietê Bus Terminal, at Portuguesa-Tietê metro station on Line 1 (Blue).
On October 26, 2013, hundreds of people attacked the bus station in São Paulo, setting fire to a bus and destroying cash and ticket machines.
At least six people were arrested in the protests.
São Paulo has the largest number of helicopters in the world.
In 2016, Uber offered a helicopter service on a test basis for one month, using three existing operators in the city.
Helicopters enable business executives and employees to sharply reduce the time spent commuting.
Some companies own their helicopters, others lease them and still others use helicopter taxi services.
One suburban helicopter shuttle service, located about 15 miles (24 km) from the center of the city in Tamboré, is operated totally by women, including its pilots.
Main article: Music of Brazil
Born in 1912 in the town of Valinhos, Barbosa was known as the "composer to the masses", particularly Italian immigrants living in the quarters of Bela Vista, also known as "Bexiga" and Brás, as well as those who lived in the city's many 'cortiços' or tenements.
His songs drew from the life of urban workers, the unemployed and those who lived on the edge.
His first big hit was "Saudosa Maloca" ("Shanty of Fond Memories" – 1951), wherein three homeless friends recall with nostalgia their improvised shanty home, which was torn down by the landowner to make room for a building.
His 1964 Trem das Onze ("The 11 pm Train"), became one of the five best samba songs ever, the protagonist explains to his lover that he cannot stay any longer because he has to catch the last train to the Jaçanã suburb, for his mother will not sleep before he arrives home.
Another important musician with a similar style is Paulo Vanzolini.
Vanzolini is a PhD in Biology and a part-time professional musician.
He composed a song depicting a love murder scene in São Paulo called "Ronda".
In the late 1960s, a psychedelic rock band called Os Mutantes became popular.
Their success is related to that of other tropicalia musicians.
The group was known as very paulistanos in its behaviour and clothing.
Although initially known only in Brazil, Os Mutantes became successful abroad after the 1990s.
In the early 1980s, a band called Ultraje a Rigor (Elegant Outrage) emerged.
They played a simple and irreverent style of rock.
The lyrics depicted the changes in society and culture that Brazilian society was experiencing.
A late punk and garage scene became strong in the 1980s, perhaps associated with the gloomy scenario of unemployment during an extended recession.
Famous electro-pop band Cansei de Ser Sexy, or CSS (Portuguese for "tired of being sexy") also has its origins in the city.
Local baritone Paulo Szot has won international acclaim performing for six consecutive seasons at The Metropolitan Opera, La Scala and Opera de Paris, among others; and The Tony Award for best actor in a musical for his performance in a 2008 revival of South Pacific.
In 1952, Heitor Villa-Lobos wrote his Symphony Number 10 ('Ameríndia') for the 400th anniversary of São Paulo: an allegorical, historical and religious account of the city told through the eyes of its founder José de Anchieta.
Music halls and concert halls
São Paulo's opera houses are: São Paulo Municipal Theater, Theatro São Pedro and Alfa Theater, for the symphonic concerts there is the Sala São Paulo, the latter being the headquarters of OSESP, an orchestra.
The city hosts several music halls.
The main ones are: Citibank Hall, HSBC Music Hall, Olympia, Via Funchal, Villa Country, Arena Anhembi and Espaco das Américas.
Other facilities include the new Praça das Artes, with the Municipal Conservatory of Music Chamber Hall and others venues, like, Cultura Artistica, Teatro Sérgio Cardoso with a venue for only dance performances and Herzog & DeMeron's Centro Cultural Luz, for Ballet, Opera, theater and concerts, with three huge halls.
The auditorium of the Latin-American Cultural Center, The Mozarteum, holds concerts through the year.
Free music festivals
Festivals as the Virada Cultural "Cultural Overnight" happen once a year and holds hundreds of attractions spread throughout the city.
Main article: Literature of Brazil
São Paulo was home to the first Jesuit missionaries in Brazil, in the early 16th century.
They also helped to register the Old Tupi language, lexicon and its grammar.
In 1922, the Brazilian Modernist Movement, launched in São Paulo, began to achieve cultural independence.
Brazil had gone through the same stages of development as the rest of Latin America, but its political and cultural independence came more gradually.
Brazilian elite culture was originally strongly tied to Portugal.
Gradually writers developed a multi-ethnic body of work that was distinctively Brazilian.
Subsequent infusions of immigrants of non-Portuguese origin broadened the range of influences.
With the urban poems of "Paulicéia Desvairada" and "Carefree Paulistan land" (1922), Mário de Andrade established the movement in Brazil.
Oswald de Andrade's experimental poetry, avant-garde prose, particularly the novel Serafim Ponte Grande (1933) and provocative manifestos exemplify the movement's break with tradition.
Modernist artists and writers chose the Municipal Theatre of São Paulo to launch their Modernist manifesto.
The site happened to be a bastion of European culture with opera and classical music presentations from Germany, France, Austria and Italy.
They defied the high society that frequented the venue and who insisted on speaking only foreign languages such as French, behaving as if Brazilian culture did not matter.
Many historians believe that the first theatrical performance in Brazil was held in São Paulo.
In the second half of the 19th century a cultural, musical and theatrical life emerged.
European ethnic groups began holding performances in some of the state's rural cities.
The most important period for the art in São Paulo was the 1940s.
São Paulo had had a professional company, Teatro Brasileiro de Comédia, (Brazilian Theater of Comedy), along with others.
During the 1960s, major theater productions in São Paulo and Brazil were presented by two groups.
Teatro de Arena began with a group of students from Escola de Arte Dramática (Drama Art School), founded by Alfredo Mesquita, in 1948.
After the military coup of 1964, plays started focusing on Brazilian history (Zumbi, Tiradentes).
Teatro de Arena and Teatro Oficina supported the democratic resistance during the military dictatorship period, marked by its censorship.
The Tropicalist movement began there.
A number of plays represented historic moments, notably "O Rei da Vela", "Galileu Galilei" (1968), "Na Sela das Cidades" (1969) and "Gracias Señor" (1972).
The district of Bixiga concentrates the greatest number of theaters, around 40 including the theaters that are closed for refurbishing or for other reasons, and small alternatives companies venues.
Some of the most important are Renault, Brigadeiro, Zaccaro, Bibi Ferreira, Maria della Costa, Ruth Escobar, Opera, TBC, Imprensa, Oficina, Àgora, Cacilda Becker, Sérgio Cardoso, do Bixiga, and Bandeirantes.
São Paulo has many neighborhoods and buildings of historical value.
The city has a large number of museums and art galleries.
Among the museums in the city are São Paulo Museum of Art (MASP), the Ipiranga Museum, the Museum of Sacred Art, the Museum of the Portuguese Language, the Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo, among other renowned institutions.
It also houses one of the top five zoos in the world, the São Paulo Zoo.
Popularly known as "Ipiranga Museum", the first monument built to preserve the memory of the Independence of Brazil, opened on September 7, 1895, with the name of Museu de Ciências Naturais (Natural Science Museum).
In 1919, it became a history museum.
Reflecting the architectural influence of the Versailles Palace in France, the Ipiranga's collection, with approximately 100,000 pieces, comprises works of art, furniture, clothing and appliances that belonged to those who took part in Brazilian history, such as explorers, rulers and freedom fighters.
Its facilities house a library with 100,000 books and the "Centro de Documentação Histórica", Historic Documentation Center, with 40,000 manuscripts.
The Ema Gordon Klabin Cultural Foundation opened to the public in March 2007.
Its headquarters is a 1920s mansion.
It houses 1545 works, including paintings by Marc Chagall, Pompeo Batoni, Pierre Gobert and Frans Post, Brazilian modernists Tarsila do Amaral, Di Cavalcanti and Portinari, period furniture, decorative and archaeological pieces.
Stretching over 78 thousand square metres (0.84 million square feet), Memorial da América Latina (Latin America's Memorial) was conceived to showcase Latin American countries and their roots and cultures.
It is home to the headquarters of Parlamento Latino-Americano – Parlatino (Latin American Parliament).
Designed by Oscar Niemeyer, Memorial has an exhibition pavilion with permanent exhibition of the continent's craftwork production; a library with books, newspapers, magazines, videos, films and records about the history of Latin America; and a 1,679-seat auditorium.
Hospedaria do Imigrante (Immigrant's Hostel) was built in 1886 and opened in 1887.
Immigrant's Hostel was built in Brás to welcome the immigrants who arrived in Brazil through the Port of Santos, quarantining those who were sick and helping new arrivals to find work in coffee plantations in Western, Northern and Southwestern São Paulo State and Northern Paraná State.
From 1882 to 1978, 2.5 million immigrants of more than 60 nationalities and ethnicities were guests there, all of them duly registered in the museum's books and lists.
The hostel hosted approximately 3,000 people on average, but occasionally reached 8,000.
The hostel received the last immigrants in 1978.
In 1998 the hostel became a museum, where it preserves the immigrants' documentation, memory and objects.
Located in one of the few remaining centenarian buildings, the museum occupies part of the former hostel.
The museum also restores wooden train wagons from the former São Paulo Railway.
Two restored wagons inhabit the museum.
One dates from 1914, while a second class passenger car dates from 1931.
The museum records the names of all immigrants who were hosted there from 1888 to 1978.
Occupying an area of 700 square metres (7,535 square feet), the animals shown in the museum are samples of the country's tropical fauna and were prepared (embalmed) more than 50 years ago.
The library specializes in zoology.
It has 73,850 works, of which 8,473 are books and 2,364 are newspapers, in addition to theses and maps.
The most important collections cover Italian and French painting schools.
Its headquarters, opened in 1968, were designed by Lina Bo Bardi.
MASP organizes temporary exhibitions in special areas.
It also gathers colonial furniture, leather and silver artefacts and European tapestry.
In eclectic style, its walls are covered with panels describing the history of São Paulo.
Located next to the Luz metro station, the building was projected by architect Ramos de Azevedo in 1895.
It was constructed to house an Arts Lyceum.
In 1911, it became the Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo, where it hosts a number of art exhibitions.
A major exhibition on the bronze statues of French sculptor Auguste Rodin took place in 2001.
There is also a permanent exhibition on the "Resistance" movement that took place during military dictatorship in the Republican period, including a reconstructed prison cell where political prisoners were kept.
Also called Oca do Ibirapuera, oca means thatched house in Native Brazilian Tupi-Guarani.
A white, spaceship-like building sitting in the greens of Ibirapuera Park, Oca is an exhibition place with more than 10 thousand square metres (0.11 million square feet).
Modern art, Native Brazilian art, and photographies are some of the topics of past thematic exhibitions.
MIS has a collection of more than 200,000 images.
It has more than 1,600 fiction videotapes, documentaries and music and 12,750 titles recorded in Super 8 and 16 mm film.
MIS organizes concerts, cinema and video festivals and photography and graphical arts exhibitions.
The Museum of Art of the Parliament of São Paulo is a contemporary art museum housed in the Palácio 9 de Julho, the Legislative Assembly of São Paulo house.
The museum is run by the Department of Artistic Heritage of the Legislative Assembly and has paintings, sculpture, prints, ceramics and photographs, exploring the Brazilian contemporary art.
The is located at the famous soccer stadium Paulo Machado de Carvalho, which was built in 1940 during Getúlio Vargas presidency.
The museum shows the history of soccer with a special attention to the memories, emotions and cultural values promoted by the sport during the 20th and 21st centuries in Brazil.
The visit also includes fun and interactive activities, 16 rooms from the permanent collection, plus a temporary exposition.
The telephone area code for the city of São Paulo is 11.
See also: Sport in Brazil
Main article: Football in São Paulo
As in the rest of Brazil, football is the most popular sport.
São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, for which Brazil was the host nation.
The Arena Corinthians was built for the event and hosted six matches, including the opening.
|Corinthians||Série A||Arena Corinthians
48,234 (63,267 record)
|Palmeiras||Série A||Allianz Parque
43,600 (39,660 record)
|São Paulo||Série A||Morumbi Stadium
67,428 (138,032 record)
|Portuguesa||Campeonato Paulista Série A2||Canindé Stadium
19,717 (25,000 record)
|Juventus||Campeonato Paulista Série A2||Rua Javari Stadium
7,200 (9,000 record)
|Nacional||Campeonato Paulista Série A3||Nicolau Alayon Stadium
9,500 (22,000 record)
|Barcelona Capela||Campeonato Paulista Série B||Nicolau Alayon Stadium
9,500 (22,000 record)
The São Silvestre Race takes place every New Year's Eve.
It was first held in 1925, when the competitors ran about 8,000 metres (26,000 feet).
Since then, the distance raced varied, but is now set at 15 km (9.3 mi).
The event was removed from the 2014 season calendar.
Volleyball, basketball, skateboard and tennis are other major sports.
There are several traditional sports clubs in São Paulo that are home for teams in many championships.
The most important are Esporte Clube Pinheiros (waterpolo, women's volleyball, swimming, men's basketball and handball), Clube Athletico Paulistano (basketball), Esporte Clube Banespa (volleyball, handball and futsal), Esporte Clube Sírio (basketball), Associação Atlética Hebraica (basketball), Clube Atlético Monte Líbano (basketball), Clube de Campo Associação Atlética Guapira (amateur football) and Clube Atlético Ipiranga (multi-sports and former professional football).
In Bom Retiro district, there is a public baseball stadium, Estádio Mie Nishi, while Santo Amaro district is the seat of the Núcleo de Alto Rendimento (NAR) is a high perfomance sports center focused on Olympic athletes.
Brazilian Grand Prix
Main article: Brazilian Grand Prix
Formula One is also one of the most popular sports in Brazil.
One of Brazil's most famous sportsmen is three-time Formula One world champion and São Paulo native Ayrton Senna.
Four Brazilians have won the Brazilian Grand Prix in Interlagos (all of whom were/are Sāo Paulo natives): Emerson Fittipaldi (1973 and 1974), José Carlos Pace (1975), Ayrton Senna (1991 and 1993) and Felipe Massa (2006 and 2008).
- ABCD Region
- Japanese cuisine in São Paulo
- Large Cities Climate Leadership Group
- Largest cities in the Americas
- List of municipalities in the state of São Paulo by population
- Caminhada Noturna (night walk)
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/São Paulo.