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For other uses, see Sacred (disambiguation). Sacred_sentence_0

"Sanctity" redirects here. Sacred_sentence_1

For other uses, see Sanctity (disambiguation). Sacred_sentence_2

Sacred describes something that is dedicated or set apart for the service or worship of a deity; considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspires awe or reverence among believers. Sacred_sentence_3

The property is often ascribed to objects (a "sacred artifact" that is venerated and blessed), or places ("sacred ground"). Sacred_sentence_4

French sociologist Émile Durkheim considered the dichotomy between the sacred and the profane to be the central characteristic of religion: "religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden." Sacred_sentence_5

In Durkheim's theory, the sacred represents the interests of the group, especially unity, which are embodied in sacred group symbols, or totems. Sacred_sentence_6

The profane, on the other hand, involve mundane individual concerns. Sacred_sentence_7

Etymology Sacred_section_0

The word sacred descends from the Latin , referring to that which is 'consecrated, dedicated' or 'purified' to the gods or anything in their power, as well as to sacerdotes. Sacred_sentence_8

Distinction from "Holy" Sacred_section_1

"Holy" and "Holiness" redirect here. Sacred_sentence_9

For other uses, see Holy (disambiguation). Sacred_sentence_10

Main article: Hallow Sacred_sentence_11

Although there are similarities between the terms sacred and holy, which are also sometimes used interchangeably, there are subtle differences. Sacred_sentence_12

Holiness is generally the term used in relation to persons and relationship, whereas sacredness is used in relation to objects, places, or happenings. Sacred_sentence_13

Thus, a saint may be considered as holy, but would not be viewed as sacred. Sacred_sentence_14

Conversely, some things can be both holy and sacred, such as the Holy Bible. Sacred_sentence_15

While both words denote something or someone set apart to the worship of God and therefore worthy of respect and in some cases veneration, holy (the stronger word) implies an inherent or essential character. Sacred_sentence_16

Holiness originates in God and is communicated to things, places, times, and persons engaged in His Service. Sacred_sentence_17

Thus Thomas Aquinas defines holiness as that virtue by which a man's mind applies itself and all its acts to God; he ranks it among the infused moral virtues, and identifies it with the virtue of religion, but with this difference that, whereas religion is the virtue whereby one offers God due service in the things which pertain to the Divine service, holiness is the virtue by which one makes all one's acts subservient to God. Sacred_sentence_18

Thus holiness or sanctity is the outcome of sanctification, that Divine act by which God freely justifies a person, and by which He has claimed them for His own. Sacred_sentence_19

Etymology of 'holy' Sacred_section_2

The English word holy dates back to at least the 11th century with the Old English word hālig, an adjective derived from hāl ('whole'), which was used to mean 'uninjured, sound, healthy, entire, complete'. Sacred_sentence_20

The Scottish hale ('health, happiness, wholeness') is the most complete modern form of this Old English root. Sacred_sentence_21

The word holy in its modern form appears in Wycliffe's Bible of 1382. Sacred_sentence_22

In non-specialist contexts, the term holy is used in a more general way, to refer to someone or something that is associated with a divine power, such as water used for baptism. Sacred_sentence_23

In academia Sacred_section_3

Hierology Sacred_section_4

See also: Hierotopy Sacred_sentence_24

Hierology (Greek: ιερος, hieros, 'sacred or 'holy', + -logy) is the study of sacred literature or lore. Sacred_sentence_25

History of religions Sacred_section_5

Main article: History of religions Sacred_sentence_26

Analysing the dialectic of the sacred, Mircea Eliade outlines that religion should not be interpreted only as "belief in deities," but as "experience of the sacred." Sacred_sentence_27

The sacred is presented in relation to the profane; the relation between the sacred and the profane is not of opposition, but of complementarity, as the profane is viewed as a hierophany. Sacred_sentence_28

Sociology Sacred_section_6

Main article: Sacred–profane dichotomy Sacred_sentence_29

French sociologist Émile Durkheim considered the dichotomy between the sacred and the profane to be the central characteristic of religion: "religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden." Sacred_sentence_30

In Durkheim's theory, the sacred represented the interests of the group, especially unity, which were embodied in sacred group symbols, or totems. Sacred_sentence_31

The profane, on the other hand, involved mundane individual concerns. Sacred_sentence_32

Durkheim explicitly stated that the dichotomy sacred/profane was not equivalent to good/evil. Sacred_sentence_33

The sacred could be good or evil, and the profane could be either as well. Sacred_sentence_34

In religion Sacred_section_7

Buddhism Sacred_section_8

Christianity Sacred_section_9

See also: Glorification Sacred_sentence_35

More traditional denominations, such as the Anglican, Catholic, Lutheran, and Methodist Churches, believe in Holy Sacraments that the clergy perform, such as Holy Communion and Holy Baptism, as well as strong belief in the Holy Catholic Church, Holy Scripture, Holy Trinity, and the Holy Covenant. Sacred_sentence_36

They also believe that angels and saints are called to holiness. Sacred_sentence_37

Wesleyan-Arminian Sacred_section_10

Further information: Works of Piety and Wesleyan-Arminian theology Sacred_sentence_38

In Methodism, holiness has acquired the secondary meaning of the reshaping of a person through Entire Sanctification. Sacred_sentence_39

It is understood as the purity of heart that occurs in a second definite instantaneous work. Sacred_sentence_40

The term owes its origin to John Wesley, who stressed "scriptural holiness," as well as Christian perfection. Sacred_sentence_41

John Wesley stated in The Plain Account of Christian Perfection that: Sacred_sentence_42

The Holiness movement began within Methodism in the United States, among those who thought the church had lost the zeal and emphasis on personal holiness of Wesley's day. Sacred_sentence_43

In the latter part of the 19th century, revival meetings were held, attended by thousands. Sacred_sentence_44

In Vineland, New Jersey, in 1867 a camp meeting was begun, and the National Holiness Camp Meeting Association went on to establish many holiness camp meetings across the nation. Sacred_sentence_45

Some adherents to the movement remained within their denominations; others founded new denominations, such as the Free Methodist Church, the Church of the Nazarene, and the Church of God (Anderson). Sacred_sentence_46

Within a generation another movement, the Pentecostal movement, was born, drawing heavily from the Holiness movement. Sacred_sentence_47

Around the middle of the 20th century, the Conservative Holiness Movement, a conservative offshoot of the Holiness movement, was born. Sacred_sentence_48

The Higher Life movement appeared in the British Isles during the mid-19th century. Sacred_sentence_49

In the contemporary Holiness movement, the idea that holiness is relational is growing. Sacred_sentence_50

In this thought, the core notion of holiness is love. Sacred_sentence_51

Other notions of holiness, such as purity, being set apart, perfection, keeping rules, and total commitment, are seen as contributory notions of holiness. Sacred_sentence_52

These contributory notions find their ultimate legitimacy when love is at their core (Thomas Jay Oord and Michael Lodahl). Sacred_sentence_53

Commonly recognized outward expressions or "standards" of holiness among more fundamental adherents frequently include applications relative to dress, hair, and appearance: e.g., short hair on men, uncut hair on women, and prohibitions against shorts, pants on women, make-up and jewelry. Sacred_sentence_54

Other common injunctions are against places of worldly amusement, mixed swimming, smoking, minced oaths, as well as the eschewing of television and radio. Sacred_sentence_55

Islam Sacred_section_11

Among the names of God in the Quran is Al-Quddus (القدوس‎): found in and , the closest English translation is 'holy' or 'sacred'. Sacred_sentence_56

(It shares the same triliteral Semitic root as the Hebrew kodesh.) Sacred_sentence_57

Another use of the same root is found in the Arabic name for Jerusalem: al-Quds, 'the Holy'. Sacred_sentence_58

The word ħarām (حرام‎), often translated as 'prohibited' or 'forbidden', is better understood as 'sacred' or 'sanctuary' in the context of places considered sacred in Islam. Sacred_sentence_59

For example: Sacred_sentence_60


Judaism Sacred_section_12

Main article: Kedushah Sacred_sentence_61

See also: Q-D-Š, Tzadik, and Holy of Holies Sacred_sentence_62

The Hebrew word kodesh (קֹדֶשׁ‎) is used in the Torah to mean 'set-apartness' and 'distinct' like is found in the Jewish marriage ceremony where it is stated by the husband to his prospective wife, "You are made holy to me according to the law of Moses and Israel." Sacred_sentence_63

(את מקדשת לי כדת משה וישראל‎). Sacred_sentence_64

In Hebrew, holiness has a connotation of oneness and transparency like in the Jewish marriage example, where husband and wife are seen as one in keeping with Genesis 2:24. Sacred_sentence_65

Kodesh is also commonly translated as 'holiness' and 'sacredness'. Sacred_sentence_66

The Torah describes the Aaronite priests and the Levites as being selected by God to perform the Temple services; they, as well, are called "holy." Sacred_sentence_67

Holiness is not a single state, but contains a broad spectrum. Sacred_sentence_68

The Mishnah lists concentric circles of holiness surrounding the Temple in Jerusalem: Holy of Holies, Temple Sanctuary, Temple Vestibule, Court of Priests, Court of Israelites, Court of Women, Temple Mount, the walled city of Jerusalem, all the walled cities of Israel, and the borders of the Land of Israel. Sacred_sentence_69

Distinctions are made as to who and what are permitted in each area. Sacred_sentence_70

Likewise, the Jewish holidays and the Shabbat are considered to be holy in time; the Torah calls them "holy [days of] gathering." Sacred_sentence_71

Work is not allowed on those days, and rabbinic tradition lists 39 categories of activity that are specifically prohibited. Sacred_sentence_72

Beyond the intrinsically holy, objects can become sacred through consecration. Sacred_sentence_73

Any personal possession may be dedicated to the Temple of God, after which its misappropriation is considered among the gravest of sins. Sacred_sentence_74

The various sacrifices are holy. Sacred_sentence_75

Those that may be eaten have very specific rules concerning who may eat which of their parts, and time limits on when the consumption must be completed. Sacred_sentence_76

Most sacrifices contain a part to be consumed by the priests—a portion of the holy to be consumed by God's holy devotees. Sacred_sentence_77

The encounter with the holy is seen as eminently desirable, and at the same time fearful and awesome. Sacred_sentence_78

For the strongest penalties are applied to one who transgresses in this area—one could in theory receive either the death penalty or the heavenly punishment of kareth, spiritual excision, for mis-stepping in his close approach to God's domain. Sacred_sentence_79

See also Sacred_section_13

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