Safavid dynasty

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Not to be confused with Saffarid dynasty. Safavid dynasty_sentence_0

Safavid dynasty_table_infobox_0

Safavid dynastySafavid dynasty_header_cell_0_0_0
CountrySafavid dynasty_header_cell_0_1_0 Safavid IranSafavid dynasty_cell_0_1_1
FoundedSafavid dynasty_header_cell_0_2_0 1501Safavid dynasty_cell_0_2_1
FounderSafavid dynasty_header_cell_0_3_0 Ismail I (1501–1524)Safavid dynasty_cell_0_3_1
Final rulerSafavid dynasty_header_cell_0_4_0 Abbas III (1732–1736)Safavid dynasty_cell_0_4_1

The Safavid dynasty (/ˈsæfəvɪd, ˈsɑː-/; Persian: دودمان صفوی‎, romanized: Dudmâne Safavi, pronounced [d̪uːd̪ˈmɒːne sæfæˈviː) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran from 1501 to 1736. Safavid dynasty_sentence_1

The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safavid order of Sufism, which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Iranian Azerbaijan region. Safavid dynasty_sentence_2

It was an Iranian dynasty of Kurdish origin, but during their rule they intermarried with Turkoman, Georgian, Circassian, and Pontic Greek dignitaries. Safavid dynasty_sentence_3

From their base in Ardabil, the Safavids established control over parts of Greater Iran and reasserted the Iranian identity of the region, thus becoming the first native dynasty since the Sasanian Empire to establish a national state officially known as Iran. Safavid dynasty_sentence_4

The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736) and, at their height, they controlled all of what is now Iran, Azerbaijan Republic, Bahrain, Armenia, eastern Georgia, parts of the North Caucasus, Iraq, Kuwait, and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Turkey, Syria, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Safavid dynasty_sentence_5

Despite their demise in 1736, the legacy that they left behind was the revival of Iran as an economic stronghold between East and West, the establishment of an efficient state and bureaucracy based upon "checks and balances", their architectural innovations and their patronage for fine arts. Safavid dynasty_sentence_6

The Safavids have also left their mark down to the present era by spreading Twelver Islam in Iran, as well as major parts of the Caucasus, Anatolia, and Mesopotamia. Safavid dynasty_sentence_7

Genealogy—ancestors of the Safavids and its multi-cultural identity Safavid dynasty_section_0

See also: Safavid dynasty family tree, Safavid order, Safvat as-safa, Silsilat-al-nasab-i Safaviya, Firuz-Shah Zarrin-Kolah, and List of the mothers of the Safavid Shahs Safavid dynasty_sentence_8

The Safavid Kings themselves claimed to be sayyids, family descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, although many scholars have cast doubt on this claim. Safavid dynasty_sentence_9

There seems now to be a consensus among scholars that the Safavid family hailed from Iranian Kurdistan, and later moved to Iranian Azerbaijan, finally settling in the 11th century CE at Ardabil. Safavid dynasty_sentence_10

Traditional pre-1501 Safavid manuscripts trace the lineage of the Safavids to the Kurdish dignitary, Firuz-Shah Zarrin-Kolah. Safavid dynasty_sentence_11

According to historians, including Vladimir Minorsky and Roger Savory, the Safavids were of Turkicized Iranian origin: Safavid dynasty_sentence_12

By the time of the establishment of the Safavid empire, the members of the family were Turkicized and Turkish-speaking, and some of the Shahs composed poems in their then-native Turkish language. Safavid dynasty_sentence_13

Concurrently, the Shahs themselves also supported Persian literature, poetry and art projects including the grand Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp, while members of the family and some Shahs composed Persian poetry as well. Safavid dynasty_sentence_14

The authority of the Safavids was religiously based, and their claim to legitimacy was founded on being direct male descendants of Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, and regarded by the Shiʻa as the first Imam. Safavid dynasty_sentence_15

Furthermore, the dynasty was from the very start thoroughly intermarried with both Pontic Greek as well as Georgian lines. Safavid dynasty_sentence_16

In addition, from the official establishment of the dynasty in 1501, the dynasty would continue to have many intermarriages with both Circassian as well as again Georgian dignitaries, especially with the accession of Tahmasp I. Safavid dynasty_sentence_17

Safavid Shahs of Iran Safavid dynasty_section_1

See also: List of Safavid monarchs Safavid dynasty_sentence_18

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Mothers of Safavid Shahs Safavid dynasty_section_2

Main article: List of the mothers of the Safavid Shahs Safavid dynasty_sentence_19

Culture Safavid dynasty_section_3

The Safavid family was a literate family from its early origin. Safavid dynasty_sentence_20

There are extant Tati and Persian poetry from Shaykh Safi ad-din Ardabili as well as extant Persian poetry from Shaykh Sadr ad-din. Safavid dynasty_sentence_21

Most of the extant poetry of Shah Ismail I is in Azerbaijani pen-name of Khatai. Safavid dynasty_sentence_22

Sam Mirza, the son of Shah Ismail as well as some later authors assert that Ismail composed poems both in Turkish and Persian but only a few specimens of his Persian verse have survived. Safavid dynasty_sentence_23

A collection of his poems in Azeri were published as a Divan. Safavid dynasty_sentence_24

Shah Tahmasp who has composed poetry in Persian was also a painter, while Shah Abbas II was known as a poet, writing Azerbaijani verses. Safavid dynasty_sentence_25

Sam Mirza, the son of Ismail I was himself a poet and composed his poetry in Persian. Safavid dynasty_sentence_26

He also compiled an anthology of contemporary poetry. Safavid dynasty_sentence_27

Safavid dynasty_unordered_list_1

  • Savafid dynasty artSafavid dynasty_item_1_11

See also Safavid dynasty_section_4

Safavid dynasty_unordered_list_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: dynasty.