Not to be confused with Saffarid dynasty.
|Founder||Ismail I (1501–1524)|
|Final ruler||Abbas III (1732–1736)|
The Safavid dynasty (/ˈsæfəvɪd, ˈsɑː-/; Persian: دودمان صفوی, romanized: Dudmâne Safavi, pronounced [d̪uːd̪ˈmɒːne sæfæˈviː) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran from 1501 to 1736.
From their base in Ardabil, the Safavids established control over parts of Greater Iran and reasserted the Iranian identity of the region, thus becoming the first native dynasty since the Sasanian Empire to establish a national state officially known as Iran.
The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736) and, at their height, they controlled all of what is now Iran, Azerbaijan Republic, Bahrain, Armenia, eastern Georgia, parts of the North Caucasus, Iraq, Kuwait, and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Turkey, Syria, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
Despite their demise in 1736, the legacy that they left behind was the revival of Iran as an economic stronghold between East and West, the establishment of an efficient state and bureaucracy based upon "checks and balances", their architectural innovations and their patronage for fine arts.
Genealogy—ancestors of the Safavids and its multi-cultural identity
By the time of the establishment of the Safavid empire, the members of the family were Turkicized and Turkish-speaking, and some of the Shahs composed poems in their then-native Turkish language.
Concurrently, the Shahs themselves also supported Persian literature, poetry and art projects including the grand Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp, while members of the family and some Shahs composed Persian poetry as well.
The authority of the Safavids was religiously based, and their claim to legitimacy was founded on being direct male descendants of Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, and regarded by the Shiʻa as the first Imam.
In addition, from the official establishment of the dynasty in 1501, the dynasty would continue to have many intermarriages with both Circassian as well as again Georgian dignitaries, especially with the accession of Tahmasp I.
Safavid Shahs of Iran
See also: List of Safavid monarchs
- Ismail I 1501–1524
- Tahmasp I 1524–1576
- Ismail II 1576–1578
- Mohammad Khodabanda 1578–1587
- Abbas I 1587–1629
- Safi 1629–1642
- Abbas II 1642–1666
- Suleiman I 1666–1694
- Sultan Husayn I 1694–1722
- Tahmasp II 1722–1732
- Abbas III 1732–1736
Mothers of Safavid Shahs
Main article: List of the mothers of the Safavid Shahs
The Safavid family was a literate family from its early origin.
There are extant Tati and Persian poetry from Shaykh Safi ad-din Ardabili as well as extant Persian poetry from Shaykh Sadr ad-din.
Most of the extant poetry of Shah Ismail I is in Azerbaijani pen-name of Khatai.
Sam Mirza, the son of Shah Ismail as well as some later authors assert that Ismail composed poems both in Turkish and Persian but only a few specimens of his Persian verse have survived.
A collection of his poems in Azeri were published as a Divan.
Shah Tahmasp who has composed poetry in Persian was also a painter, while Shah Abbas II was known as a poet, writing Azerbaijani verses.
Sam Mirza, the son of Ismail I was himself a poet and composed his poetry in Persian.
He also compiled an anthology of contemporary poetry.
- Savafid dynasty art
- Khanates of the Caucasus
- List of Shi'a Muslim dynasties
- Persianate states
- Safavid art
- Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam
- Trade in Iran's Safavid era
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Safavid dynasty.