Companions of the Prophet

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"Sahabi" redirects here. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_0

For the surname, see Sahabi (name). Companions of the Prophet_sentence_1

Companions of the Prophet_table_infobox_0

SahabahCompanions of the Prophet_header_cell_0_0_0
Known forCompanions of the Prophet_header_cell_0_1_0 Companions of MuhammadCompanions of the Prophet_cell_0_1_1

Companions of the Prophet or aṣ-ṣaḥābah (Arabic: اَلصَّحَابَةُ‎ meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") were the disciples and followers of Muhammad who "saw or met the prophet during his lifetime and were physically in his presence". Companions of the Prophet_sentence_2

"Al-ṣaḥābah" is definite plural; the indefinite singular is masculine صَحَابِيٌّ (ṣaḥābiyy), feminine صَحَابِيَّةٌ (ṣaḥābiyyah). Companions of the Prophet_sentence_3

Later scholars accepted their testimony of the words and deeds of Muhammad, the occasions on which the Quran was revealed and other various important matters of Islamic history and practice. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_4

The testimony of the companions, as it was passed down through trusted chains of narrators (isnads), was the basis of the developing Islamic tradition. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_5

From the traditions (hadith) of the life of Muhammad and his companions are drawn the Muslim way of life (sunnah), the code of conduct (sharia) it requires, and the jurisprudence (fiqh) by which Muslim communities should be regulated. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_6

The two largest Islamic denominations, the Sunni and Shia, take different approaches in weighing the value of the companions' testimonies, have different hadith collections and, as a result, have different views about the ṣaḥābah. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_7

The next generation of Muslims after the ṣaḥābah, who were born after Muhammad died but knew personally at least one ṣaḥābah, are called Tābi‘ūn, and the generation after them, who knew at least one Tābi‘, are called tābi‘ al-tābi‘īn. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_8

The three generations make up the salaf of Islam. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_9

Types of ṣaḥābah Companions of the Prophet_section_0

In Islām, companions of Muḥammad are classified into categories including the Muhajirūn who accompanied Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, the Anṣār who lived in Medina, and the Badriyyūn who fought at the Battle of Badr. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_10

Two important groups among the Companions are the Muhajirūn "migrants", those who had faith in Muhammad when he began to preach in Mecca and who fled with him when he was persecuted there, and the Anṣār, the people of Medina who welcomed Muhammad and his companions and stood as their protectors. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_11

Lists of prominent companions usually run to 50 or 60 names, the people most closely associated with Muhammad. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_12

However, there were clearly many others who had some contact with Muhammad and their names and biographies were recorded in religious reference texts such as ibn Sa'd's early Book of the Major Classes. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_13

Al-Qurtubi's Istīʻāb fī maʻrifat al-Aṣhāb, who died in 1071, consists of 2770 biographies of male and 381 biographies of female ṣaḥābah. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_14

According to an observation in al-Qastallani's Al-Muwahib al-Ladunniyyah, an untold number of persons had already converted to Islam by the time Muhammad died. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_15

There were 10,000 by the time of the Conquest of Mecca and 70,000 during the Expedition of Tabuk in 630. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_16

Some Muslims assert that they were more than 200,000 in number: it is believed that 124,000 witnessed the Farewell Sermon Muhammad delivered after making Farewell Pilgrimage to Mecca. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_17

Differing views Companions of the Prophet_section_1

Sunni Muslim Companions of the Prophet_section_2

The most widespread definition of a companion is someone who met Muhammad, believed in him, and died a Muslim. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_18

The Sunni scholar ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (d.852 H) said, Companions of the Prophet_sentence_19

Anyone who died after rejecting Islam and becoming an apostate is not considered as a companion. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_20

Those who saw him but held off believing in him until after his passing are not considered ṣahābah but tābiʻūn. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_21

. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_22

According to Sunni scholars, Muslims of the past should be considered companions if they had any contact with Muhammad, and they were not liars or opposed to him and his teachings. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_23

If they saw him, heard him, or were in his presence even briefly, they are companions. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_24

All companions are assumed to be just (ʻudul) unless they are proven otherwise; that is, Sunni scholars do not believe that companions would lie or fabricate hadith unless they are proven liars, untrustworthy or opposed to Islam. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_25

Some Quranic references are important to Sunni Muslim views of the reverence due to all companions; It sometimes admonishes them, as when Aisha, daughter of the first Sunni caliph Abu Bakr and the wife of Muhammad, was accused of infidelity. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_26

Differing views on the definition of a Companion were also influenced by the debate between the Traditionalists and the Muʿtazila with the traditionalists preferring to extend the definition to as many people as possible and the Mu'tazilites preferring to restrict it. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_27

Shia Islam Companions of the Prophet_section_3

The Shia as well as some Sunni scholars like Javed Ahmad Ghamidi and Amin Ahsan Islahi state that not every individual who met or had accidentally seen Muhammad can be considered a Companion. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_28

In their view, the Qurʻan has outlined a high level of faith as one of the distinctive qualities of the ṣaḥābah. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_29

Hence, they admit to this list only those individuals who had substantial contact with Muhammad, lived with him, and took part in his campaigns and efforts at proselytizing. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_30

In other words, Companion is called to sahaba of prophet who be in a long-term relationship with him and support him in essential event up to their death. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_31

In view of such admonitions, the Shia have different views on each ṣaḥābiyy, depending on what they accomplished. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_32

They do not accept that the testimony of nearly all ṣaḥābah is an authenticated part of the chain of narrators in a hadith and that not all the ṣaḥābah were righteous just because they saw or were with Muhammad. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_33

The Shia further argue that the righteousness of ṣaḥābah can be assessed by their loyalty towards Muhammad's family after his death and they accept hadith from the Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt, believing them to be cleansed from sin through their interpretation of the Qurʻan and the hadith of the Cloak. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_34

Shia Muslims believe that some companions are accountable for the loss of caliphate by the Ali's family. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_35

As verses 30-33 from Al-Aḥzāb, Shias believe their argument that one must discriminate between the virtues of the companions by verses relating to Muhammad's wives. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_36

Baháʼí Faith Companions of the Prophet_section_4

The Baháʼí Faith recognises the companions of Muhammad. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_37

They are mentioned in the Kitáb-i-Íqán, the primary theological work of the Baháʼí religion. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_38

Hadith Companions of the Prophet_section_5

Sunni views Companions of the Prophet_section_6

According to the History of the Prophets and Kings, after the death of Muhammad, Abu Bakr, Umar and Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah and the Anṣār of Medina held consultations and selected Abu Bakr as the first caliph. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_39

Then 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf and Uthman, companion and son-in-law of Muhammad and also essential chief of the Banu Umayyah, selected Umar as the second caliph after the death of Abū Bakr and the other Anṣar and Muhajirun accepted him. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_40

Sunni Muslim scholars classified companions into many categories, based on a number of criteria. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_41

The hadith quoted above shows ranks of ṣaḥābah, tābi‘īn, and tābi‘ at-tābi‘īn. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_42

Al-Suyuti recognized eleven levels of companionship. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_43

Shia views Companions of the Prophet_section_7

Following the consultation of companions about the successor of Muhammad, Shi'i scholars, therefore, deprecate hadith believed to have been transmitted from alleged unjust companions and place much more reliance on hadith believed to have been related by Muhammad's family members and companions who supported Ali. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_44

The Shia claim that Muhammad announced his successor during his lifetime at Dawat Zul Asheera then many times during his prophethood and finally at the event of Ghadir Khumm. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_45

Shias consider that any hadith where Muhammad is claimed to have absolved all ṣaḥābah from sin is a false report by those who opposed the Ahl al-Bayt. Companions of the Prophet_sentence_46

See also Companions of the Prophet_section_8

Companions of the Prophet_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: of the Prophet.