Salafi movement

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Not to be confused with Salaf or Sufism. Salafi movement_sentence_0

The Salafi movement, also called the Salafist movement, Salafiya and Salafism, is a reform branch movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to Western European imperialism. Salafi movement_sentence_1

It had roots in the 18th-century Wahhabi movement that originated in the Najd region of modern-day Saudi Arabia. Salafi movement_sentence_2

The name derives from advocating a return to the traditions of the salaf, the first three generations of Muslims, which they said was the unadulterated, pure form of Islam. Salafi movement_sentence_3

Theoretically, those generations include the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his companions (the Sahabah), their successors (the Tabi‘un) and the successors of the successors (the Taba Tabi‘in). Salafi movement_sentence_4

Practically, Salafis maintain that Muslims ought to rely on the Quran, the Sunnah and the consensus of the salafs alone, ignoring the rest of Islamic hermeneutic teachings. Salafi movement_sentence_5

The Salafist doctrine is based on looking back to the early years of the religion to understand how the contemporary Muslims should practise their faith. Salafi movement_sentence_6

They reject religious innovation or bid'ah and support the implementation of sharia (Islamic law). Salafi movement_sentence_7

The movement is sometimes divided into three categories: the largest group being the purists (or quietists), who avoid politics; the second largest group being the activists, who maintain regular involvement in politics; and the third group being the jihadists, who form a minority and advocate armed struggle to restore the early Islamic movement. Salafi movement_sentence_8

In legal matters, the Salafi are divided between those who, in the name of independent legal judgement (ijtihad), reject strict adherence (taqlid) to the four Sunni schools of law (madhahib) and others who remain faithful to these, especially to Hanbali Madhab, the parent school of Salafi doctrine. Salafi movement_sentence_9

In the Persian Gulf states, the majority of the Salafis reside in Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. Salafi movement_sentence_10

46.87 per cent of Qataris and 44.8 per cent of Emiratis are Salafis. Salafi movement_sentence_11

By contrast, Bahrain has 5.7 per cent Salafis, and Kuwait has a population that is 2.17 per cent Salafis. Salafi movement_sentence_12

The Salafi literalist or fundamentalist creed has also gained some acceptance in Turkey. Salafi movement_sentence_13

At times, Salafism has been deemed a hybrid of Wahhabism and other post-1960s movements. Salafi movement_sentence_14

Salafism has become associated with , and approaches to Islam. Salafi movement_sentence_15

Western observers and analysts often, incorrectly, equate the movement with Salafi jihadism, a hybrid ideology which espouses violent attacks against those it deems to be enemies of Islam as a legitimate expression of Islam. Salafi movement_sentence_16

Academics and historians have used the term "Salafism" to denote "a school of thought which surfaced in the second half of the 19th century as a reaction to the spread of European ideas" and "sought to expose the roots of modernity within Muslim civilization". Salafi movement_sentence_17

However, some contemporary Salafis follow "literal, traditional ... injunctions of the sacred texts", looking to Ibn Taymiyyah or his disciple Ibn Kathir rather than the modernistic approach of Salafism of 19th-century figures Muhammad Abduh, Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and Rashid Rida. Salafi movement_sentence_18

Major figures in the movement include Ibn Taymiyyah, Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen, Rabee al-Madkhali, Muqbil bin Hadi al-Wadi'i, Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani and Saleh Al-Fawzan. Salafi movement_sentence_19

Etymology Salafi movement_section_0

Salafis consider the hadith that quotes Muhammad saying, "The best of my community are my generation, the ones who follow them and the ones who follow them." Salafi movement_sentence_20

as a call to Muslims to follow the example of those first three generations, known collectively as the salaf, or "pious Predecessors" (السلف الصالح as-Salaf as-Ṣāliḥ). Salafi movement_sentence_21

The salaf are believed to include Muhammad himself, the "Companions" (Sahabah), the "Followers" (Tabi‘un), and the "Followers of the Followers" (Tabi‘ al-Tabi‘in). Salafi movement_sentence_22

Tenets Salafi movement_section_1

According to Bernard Haykel, "temporal proximity to the Prophet Muhammad is associated with the truest form of Islam" among many Sunni Muslims. Salafi movement_sentence_23

The Salafi da'wa is a methodology, but it is not a madh'hab in fiqh (jurisprudence) as is commonly misunderstood. Salafi movement_sentence_24

Salafis may be influenced by the Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali or the Hanafi schools of Sunni fiqh. Salafi movement_sentence_25

But for practical reasons, Salafis carry all the attributes of Hanbali Madhab. Salafi movement_sentence_26

Salafis place great emphasis on practicing actions in accordance with the known sunnah, not only in prayer but in every activity in daily life. Salafi movement_sentence_27

For instance, many are careful always to use three fingers when eating, to drink water in three pauses, and to hold it with the right hand while sitting. Salafi movement_sentence_28

Views on Taqlid (adherence to legal precedent) Salafi movement_section_2

In legal matters, Salafis are divided between those who, in the name of independent legal judgement (ijtihad), reject strict adherence (taqlid) to the four schools of law (madhahib) and others who remain faithful to these. Salafi movement_sentence_29

Salafi scholars from Saudi Arabia are generally bound by Hanbali fiqh and advocate following an Imam rather than having individuals try to interpret and understand scripture alone. Salafi movement_sentence_30

Other Salafi scholars, however, believe that taqlid is unlawful. Salafi movement_sentence_31

From their perspective, Muslims who follow a madhab without searching personally for direct evidence may be led astray. Salafi movement_sentence_32

The latter group of preachers include Nasir al-Din al-Albani. Salafi movement_sentence_33

At the far end of the spectrum of belief, some Salafis hold that adhering to taqlid is an act of polytheism. Salafi movement_sentence_34

Differences to Classical Sunnism Salafi movement_section_3

Modern-day proponents of the Athari school of theology largely come from the Salafi (or Wahhabi) movement; they uphold the athari works of Ibn Taymiyyah. Salafi movement_sentence_35

Ibn Taimiyya himself, a disputed and partly rejected scholar during his life time, became a major scholar among followers of the Salafi movement credited with the title Shaikh al-Islam. Salafi movement_sentence_36

Other important scholars include scholars important in Islamic history, such as Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Salafi movement_sentence_37

But Sunnis accuse Salafis of altering his actual teachings. Salafi movement_sentence_38

Followers of the Salafi movement, regard the primary sources Quran and Sunnah as self-explanatory, disregarding the use of interpretation and human reasoning. Salafi movement_sentence_39

Salafis favor practical implementation as opposed to disputes with regards to meanings, meaning may be considered either clear or something beyond human understanding. Salafi movement_sentence_40

They believe that to engage in speculative theology (kalam), even if one arrives at the truth, is absolutely forbidden. Salafi movement_sentence_41

Atharis engage in an amodal reading of the Qur'an, as opposed to one engaged in Ta'wil (metaphorical interpretation). Salafi movement_sentence_42

They do not attempt to conceptualize the meanings of the Qur'an rationally, and believe that the meaning should be consigned to God alone (tafwid). Salafi movement_sentence_43

Following the Salafi hermeneutic approach, Salafis differ from that of non-Salafis in some regards of permissibility. Salafi movement_sentence_44

Many Muslim practises related to the spiritual world are considered shirk by followers of Salafism. Salafi movement_sentence_45

Followers of the Salafi movement regard a number of practises related to jinn or spirits of saints as bid'ah and shirk. Salafi movement_sentence_46

The wide range of beliefs about spirits and angels commonly accepted in Classical Islam is reduced to a limited scope of quotes from Quran and hadith, without further exegetical material and missing any reference to anecdotal experiences. Salafi movement_sentence_47

History Salafi movement_section_4

Historians and academics date the emergence of Salafism to late 19th-century in Egypt. Salafi movement_sentence_48

Salafis believe that the label "Salafiyya" existed from the first few generations of Islam and that it is not a modern movement. Salafi movement_sentence_49

To justify this view, Salafis rely on a handful of quotes from medieval times where the term Salafi is used. Salafi movement_sentence_50

One of the quotes used as evidence and widely posted on Salafi websites is from the genealogical dictionary of al-Sam'ani (d. 1166), who wrote a short entry about the surname "al-Salafi" (the Salafi): "According to what I heard, this [surname indicates one's] ascription to the pious ancestors and [one's] adoption of their doctrine [madhhabihim]." Salafi movement_sentence_51

The scholar Henri Lauzière from Northwestern University comments that, "al-Sam'ani could only list two individuals—a father and his son—who were known by it. Salafi movement_sentence_52

Plus, the entry contains blank spaces in lieu of their full names, presumably because al-Sam'ani had forgotten them or did not know them." Salafi movement_sentence_53

Further, he states that "al-Sam'ani's dictionary suggests that the surname was marginal at best, and the lone quotation taken from al-Dhahabi, who wrote 200 years later, does little to prove Salafi claims." Salafi movement_sentence_54

In the modern era, however, many Salafis adopt the surname "al-Salafi" and refer to the label "Salafiyya" in various circumstances to evoke a specific understanding of Islam that is supposed to differ from that of other Sunnis in terms of creed, law, morals, and behavior. Salafi movement_sentence_55

Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab Salafi movement_section_5

Main article: Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Salafi movement_sentence_56

Modern Salafists consider the 18th-century scholar Muhammed bin 'Abd al-Wahhab and many of his students to have been Salafis. Salafi movement_sentence_57

He started a reform movement in the remote, sparsely populated region of Najd. Salafi movement_sentence_58

He advocated purging practices such as shrine and tomb visitation, which were widespread among Muslims. Salafi movement_sentence_59

'Abd al-Wahhab considered this practice to be idolatry, representative of impurities and inappropriate innovations in Islam. Salafi movement_sentence_60

He is also known as one of the most knowledgeable scholars of Islam for his exhaustive invitation to Tawhid (monotheism), which is the first and foremost condition to be considered a Muslim. Salafi movement_sentence_61

Trends within Salafism Salafi movement_section_6

Some who have observed trends in the Salafist movement have divided Salafis into three groups – purists, activists, and jihadis. Salafi movement_sentence_62

Purists focus on education and missionary work to solidify the tawhid; activists focus on political reform and re-establishing a caliphate through the means of evolution, but not violence (sometimes called Salafist activism); and jihadists share similar political goals as the politicians, but engage in violent Jihad (sometimes called Salafi jihadism and/or Qutbism). Salafi movement_sentence_63

Purists Salafi movement_section_7

"Purists" are Salafists who focus on non-violent da'wah (preaching of Islam), education, and "purification of religious beliefs and practices". Salafi movement_sentence_64

They dismiss politics as "a diversion or even innovation that leads people away from Islam". Salafi movement_sentence_65

They never oppose rulers. Salafi movement_sentence_66

Madkhalism, as an example, is a strain of Salafists viewed as supportive of authoritarian regimes in the Middle East. Salafi movement_sentence_67

Taking its name from the controversial Saudi Arabian cleric Rabee al-Madkhali, the movement lost its support in Saudi Arabia proper when several members of the Permanent Committee (the country's clerical body) denounced Madkhali personally. Salafi movement_sentence_68

Influence of both the movement and its figureheads have waned so much within the Muslim world that analysts have declared it to be a largely European phenomenon. Salafi movement_sentence_69

Salafi activists Salafi movement_section_8

Main article: Activism Salafi movement_sentence_70

Activists are another strain of the global Salafi movement, but different from the Salafi jihadists in that they eschew violence and different from Salafi purists in that they engage in modern political processes. Salafi movement_sentence_71

The movement has often been incorrectly referred to as the mainstream of the Salafist movement at times. Salafi movement_sentence_72

This trend, who some call "politicos", see politics as "yet another field in which the Salafi creed has to be applied" in order to safeguard justice and "guarantee that the political rule is based upon the Shari'a". Salafi movement_sentence_73

Al–Sahwa Al-Islamiyya (Islamic Awakening), as example, has been involved in peaceful political reform. Salafi movement_sentence_74

Safar Al-Hawali and Salman al-Ouda are representatives of this trend. Salafi movement_sentence_75

Because of being active on social media, they have earned some support among the more naive youth. Salafi movement_sentence_76

Salafi jihadists Salafi movement_section_9

Main article: Salafi jihadism Salafi movement_sentence_77

"Salafi Jihadism" was a term invented by Gilles Kepel to describe those self-claiming Salafi groups who began developing an interest in (armed) jihad during the mid-1990s. Salafi movement_sentence_78

Practitioners are often referred to as "Salafi jihadis" or "Salafi jihadists". Salafi movement_sentence_79

Journalist Bruce Livesey estimates Salafi jihadists constitute less than 1.0 percent of the world's 1.2 billion Muslims (i.e., less than 10 million). Salafi movement_sentence_80

Another definition of Salafi jihadism, offered by Mohammed M. Hafez, is an "extreme form of Sunni Islamism that rejects democracy and Shia rule". Salafi movement_sentence_81

Hafez distinguished them from apolitical and conservative Salafi scholars (such as Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani, Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen, Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd Allah ibn Baaz and Abdul-Azeez ibn Abdullaah Aal ash-Shaikh), but also from the sahwa movement associated with Salman al-Ouda or Safar Al-Hawali. Salafi movement_sentence_82

Jihadi Salafi groups include Al-Qaeda, ISIS, Boko Haram, and the Al-Shabaab. Salafi movement_sentence_83

An analysis of the Caucasus Emirate, a Salafi jihadist group, was made in 2014 by Darion Rhodes. Salafi movement_sentence_84

It analyzes the group's strict observance of tawhid and its rejection of shirk, taqlid, ijtihad and bid‘ah, while believing that jihad is the only way to advance the cause of Allah on the earth. Salafi movement_sentence_85

However, the purist Salafis often strongly disapprove of the activists and jihadists and deny the other's Islamic character. Salafi movement_sentence_86

Views on violence Salafi movement_section_10

In recent years, the Salafi methodology has come to be associated with the jihad of extremist groups that advocate the killing of innocent civilians even though it states in the Qur'an that killing of innocents is wrong. Salafi movement_sentence_87

The European Parliament, in a report commissioned in 2013 claimed that Wahhabi and Salafi groups are involved, mainly via Saudi charities, in the support and supply of arms to rebel groups around the world. Salafi movement_sentence_88

Some Salafi scholars appear to support violent extremism. Salafi movement_sentence_89

The Egyptian Salafi cleric Mahmoud Shaaban "appeared on a religious television channel calling for the deaths of main opposition figures Mohammed ElBaradei – a Nobel Peace Prize laureate – and former presidential candidate Hamdeen Sabahi". Salafi movement_sentence_90

Other salafis have rejected the use of violence. Salafi movement_sentence_91

The Saudi scholar, Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen considered suicide bombing to be unlawful and the scholar Abdul Muhsin al-Abbad wrote a treatise entitled: According to which intellect and Religion is Suicide bombings and destruction considered Jihad?. Salafi movement_sentence_92

Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani stated that "History repeats itself. Salafi movement_sentence_93

Everybody claims that the Prophet is their role model. Salafi movement_sentence_94

Our Prophet spent the first half of his message making dawah, and he did not start it with jihad". Salafi movement_sentence_95

Some other Islamic groups, particularly some Sufis, have also complained about extremism among some Salafi. Salafi movement_sentence_96

It has been noted that the Western association of Salafi ideology with violence stems from writings "through the prism of security studies" that were published in the late 20th century and that continue to persist. Salafi movement_sentence_97

Regional groups and movements Salafi movement_section_11

Saudi Arabia (Wahhabism) Salafi movement_section_12

Main article: Wahhabism Salafi movement_sentence_98

Wahhabism is a more strict, Saudi form of Salafism, according to Mark Durie, who states that Saudi leaders "are active and diligent" using their considerable financial resources "in funding and promoting Salafism all around the world". Salafi movement_sentence_99

Ahmad Moussalli tends to agree with the view that Wahhabism is a subset of Salafism, saying "As a rule, all Wahhabis are salafists, but not all salafists are Wahhabis". Salafi movement_sentence_100

However, many scholars and critics distinguish between the old form of Saudi Salafism (termed as Wahhabism) and the new Salafism in Saudi Arabia. Salafi movement_sentence_101

Stéphane Lacroix, a fellow and lecturer at Sciences Po in Paris, also affirmed a distinction between the two: "As opposed to Wahhabism, Salafism refers […] to all the hybridations that have taken place since the 1960s between the teachings of Muhammad bin ‘Abd al-Wahhab and other Islamic schools of thought". Salafi movement_sentence_102

Hamid Algar and Khaled Abou El Fadl believe, during the 1960s and 70s, Wahhabism rebranded itself as Salafism knowing it could not "spread in the modern Muslim world" as Wahhabism. Salafi movement_sentence_103

Its largesse funded an estimated "90% of the expenses of the entire faith", throughout the Muslim World, according to journalist Dawood al-Shirian. Salafi movement_sentence_104

It extended to young and old, from children's madrasas to high-level scholarship. Salafi movement_sentence_105

"Books, scholarships, fellowships, mosques" (for example, "more than 1,500 mosques were built from Saudi public funds over the last 50 years") were paid for. Salafi movement_sentence_106

It rewarded journalists and academics, who followed it and built satellite campuses around Egypt for Al Azhar, the oldest and most influential Islamic university. Salafi movement_sentence_107

Yahya Birt counts spending on "1,500 mosques, 210 Islamic centres and dozens of Muslim academies and schools" at a cost of around $2–3bn annually since 1975. Salafi movement_sentence_108

To put the number into perspective, the propaganda budget of the Soviet Union was about $1bn per annum. Salafi movement_sentence_109

This spending has done much to overwhelm less strict local interpretations of Islam, according to observers like Dawood al-Shirian and Lee Kuan Yew, and has caused the Saudi interpretation (sometimes called "petro-Islam") to be perceived as the correct interpretation – or the "gold standard" of Islam – in many Muslims' minds. Salafi movement_sentence_110

Salafis are often called Wahhabis, which they consider a derogatory term. Salafi movement_sentence_111

Indian subcontinent (Ahl-i Hadith movement) Salafi movement_section_13

Main article: Ahl-i Hadith Salafi movement_sentence_112

Ahl-i Hadith is a religious movement that emerged in Northern India in the mid-nineteenth century. Salafi movement_sentence_113

Adherents of Ahl-i-Hadith regard the Quran, sunnah, and hadith as the sole sources of religious authority and oppose everything introduced in Islam after the earliest times. Salafi movement_sentence_114

In particular, they reject taqlid (following legal precedent) and favor ijtihad (independent legal reasoning) based on the scriptures. Salafi movement_sentence_115

The movement's followers call themselves Salafi, while others refer to them as Wahhabi, or consider them a variation on the Wahhabi movement. Salafi movement_sentence_116

In recent decades the movement has expanded its presence in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan. Salafi movement_sentence_117

Syed Nazeer Husain from Delhi and Siddiq Hasan Khan of Bhopal are regarded as the founder of the movement. Salafi movement_sentence_118

Folk Islam and Sufism, commonly popular with the poor and working class in the region, are anathema to Ahl-i Hadith beliefs and practices. Salafi movement_sentence_119

This attitude toward Sufism has brought the movement into conflict with the rival Barelvi movement even more so than the Barelvis' rivals, the Deobandis. Salafi movement_sentence_120

Ahl-i Hadith followers identify with the Zahiri madhhab. Salafi movement_sentence_121

The movement draws both inspiration and financial support from Saudi Arabia. Salafi movement_sentence_122

Jamia Salafia is their largest institution in India. Salafi movement_sentence_123

Egypt Salafi movement_section_14

There are 5 to 6 million Salafis in Egypt. Salafi movement_sentence_124

Salafis in Egypt are not united under a single banner or unified leadership. Salafi movement_sentence_125

The main Salafi trends in Egypt are Al-Sunna Al-Muhammadeyya Society, The Salafist Calling, al-Madkhaliyya Salafism, Activist Salafism, and al-Gam’eyya Al-Shar’eyya. Salafi movement_sentence_126

Since 2015 the Egyptian government has banned books associated with the Salafi movement. Salafi movement_sentence_127

Al-Sunna Al-Muhammadeyya Society, also known as Ansar Al-Sunna, was founded in 1926 by Sheikh Mohamed Hamed El-Fiqi (d.), a 1916 graduate of Al-Azhar and a student of the famed Muslim reformer Muhammed Abduh. Salafi movement_sentence_128

It is considered the main Salafi group in Egypt. Salafi movement_sentence_129

El-Fiqi's ideas were resentful of Sufism. Salafi movement_sentence_130

But unlike Muhammed Abduh, Ansar Al-Sunna follows the tawhid as preached by Ibn Taymiyyah. Salafi movement_sentence_131

Salafist Call is another influential Salafist organisation. Salafi movement_sentence_132

It is the outcome of student activism during the 1970s. Salafi movement_sentence_133

While many of the activists joined the Muslim Brotherhood, a faction led by Mohammad Ismail al-Muqaddim, influenced by Salafists of Saudi Arabia established the Salafist Calling between 1972 and 1977. Salafi movement_sentence_134

Salafist Call created the Al-Nour Party after the 2011 Egyptian Revolution. Salafi movement_sentence_135

It has an ultra-conservative Islamist ideology, which believes in implementing strict Sharia law. Salafi movement_sentence_136

In the 2011–12 Egypt parliamentary elections, the Islamist Bloc led by Al‑Nour party received 7,534,266 votes out of a total 27,065,135 correct votes (28%). Salafi movement_sentence_137

The Islamist Bloc gained 127 of the 498 parliamentary seats contested, second-place after the Muslim Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party. Salafi movement_sentence_138

Al‑Nour Party itself won 111 of the 127 seats. Salafi movement_sentence_139

From January 2013 onward, the party gradually distanced itself from Mohamed Morsi's Brotherhood regime, and was involved in the large-scale protests in late June against Morsi's rule that subsequently led to a military coup removing him from office in July that year. Salafi movement_sentence_140

A lawsuit against the party was dismissed on 22 September 2014 because the court indicated it had no jurisdiction. Salafi movement_sentence_141

A case on the dissolution of the party was adjourned until 17 January 2015. Salafi movement_sentence_142

Another court case that was brought forth to dissolve the party was dismissed after the Alexandria Urgent Matters Court ruled on 26 November 2014 that it lacked jurisdiction. Salafi movement_sentence_143

According to Ammar Ali Hassan of Al-Ahram, while Salafis and the Muslim Brotherhood agree on many issues such as the need to "Islamize" society and restricting private property rights by legally requiring all Muslims to give alms, the former has nevertheless rejected the flexibility of the latter on the issue of whether women and Christians should be entitled to serve in high office, as well as its relatively tolerant attitude towards Iran. Salafi movement_sentence_144

Tunisia Salafi movement_section_15

Salafism has been dismissively labeled as "ultra-conservative", in the context of Tunisia after the 2011 revolution. Salafi movement_sentence_145

Turkey Salafi movement_section_16

Turkey has been largely absent from the growing literature on the phenomenon of transnational Salafism. Salafi movement_sentence_146

Salafism is a fringe strand of Turkish Islam that evolved in the context of the state's effort in the 1980s to recalibrate religion as a complement to Turkish nationalism. Salafi movement_sentence_147

Although Salafism became a topic of discussion in media and scholarly writing in Turkish religious studies faculties, a continued lack of orthographic stability (variously, Selfye, Selefiyye, Selfyyecilik, Selefizm)" gives an indication both of the denial of its relevance to Turkey and the success of republican secularism in clearing religion from public discourse. Salafi movement_sentence_148

Yet since the 1980s Salafi preachers trained in Saudi Arabia have been able to find a niche through publishing houses that have endeavoured to translate Arabic texts from the Saudi Salafi scene in an attempt to change the discursive landscape of Turkish Islam. Salafi movement_sentence_149

In 1999, the Turkish Directorate of Religious Affairs Diyanet, recognized Salafism as a Sunni school of thought. Salafi movement_sentence_150

Salafist preachers then started to make inroads into the Turkish society. Salafi movement_sentence_151

With the implication of Turkish citizens and the Justice and Development Party (AKP) government in Syrian civil war, public discussion began to question the narrative of Salafism as a phenomenon alien to Turkey. Salafi movement_sentence_152

Salafism becomes an observable element of religious discourse in Turkey in the context of the military regime's attempt to outmanoeuvre movements emerging as a challenge to the Kemalist secular order, namely the left, Necmettin Erbakan's Islamism, Kurdish nationalism, and Iran. Salafi movement_sentence_153

Through the Turkish—Islamic Synthesis (Turk islam Sentezi), the scientific positivism that had been the guiding principle of the republic since 1923 was modified to make room for Islam as a central element of Turkish national culture. Salafi movement_sentence_154

The military authorities oversaw an increase of more than 50 percent in the budget of the religious affairs administration (known as Diyanet), expanding it from 50,000 employees in 1979 to 85,000 in 1989. Salafi movement_sentence_155

Pursuing closer ties with Saudi Arabia, Turkey involved itself in a more meaningful manner in the pan-Islamic institutions under Saudi tutelage, and Diyanet received Muslim World League funding to send officials to Europe to develop outreach activities in Turkish immigrant communities." Salafi movement_sentence_156

A network of commercial and cultural links was established with Saudi businesses and institutions in banking and financial services, publishing houses, newspapers, magazines, and children's books. Salafi movement_sentence_157

Preachers who had studied at the Islamic University of Madinah, and applied the Salafi designation, also established publishing houses and charity organizations (dernek). Salafi movement_sentence_158

Subject to periodic harassment and arrest by security forces, they adopted markedly more public profiles with AKP ascendancy over the military following a resounding electoral victory in 2002. Salafi movement_sentence_159

The Turkish Salafis became active on YouTube, Twitter, and Facebook, complementing websites for their publishing enterprises. Salafi movement_sentence_160

Saudi-based scholars such as Bin Baz, al-Albani, Saleh Al-Fawzan (b. Salafi movement_sentence_161

1933), and Muhammad ibn al-Uthaymeen (1925-2001) form the core of their references, while they avoid contemporary 'ulama' associated with the Muslim Brotherhood such as Yusuf al-Qaradawi (b. Salafi movement_sentence_162

1926), an Egyptian scholar based in Qatar. Salafi movement_sentence_163

Turkish is their prime language of communication, but Arabic is prominent in special sections on websites, Arabic-language Salafi texts in their bookshops, and heavy use of Arabic terminology in their Turkish texts. Salafi movement_sentence_164

The most well-established among them is Ablullah Yolcu, who is said to do "production of Turkish Salafism from Arabic texts". Salafi movement_sentence_165

While Turkey has been outside the discussion on transnational Salafism, Meijer's observation that Salafism may succeed `when its quietist current can find a niche or the nationalist movement has failed' seems to speak surprisingly well to the Turkish case." Salafi movement_sentence_166

France Salafi movement_section_17

Main article: Islam in France Salafi movement_sentence_167

In France, in 2015 police say that salafism is represented in 90 out of 2500 investigated religious communities, which is double the number compared to five years earlier. Salafi movement_sentence_168

In November and December 2016, authorities closed four salafist mosque in Ecquevilly, the El Islah mosque in Villiers-sur-Marne and two in Seine-Saint-Denis (Clichy-sous-Bois and Stains). Salafi movement_sentence_169

In December 2017, a salafist mosque in Marseille was closed by authorities for preaching about violent jihad. Salafi movement_sentence_170

In August 2018, after the European Court of Human Rights approved the decision, French authorities deported salafist Elhadi Doudi to his home country Algeria because of his radical message he preached in Marseille. Salafi movement_sentence_171

Germany Salafi movement_section_18

See also: Islam in Germany § Salafism Salafi movement_sentence_172

Salafism is a growing movement in Germany whose aim of a Caliphate is incompatible with a Western democracy. Salafi movement_sentence_173

According to the German Federal Agency for Civic Education, nearly all Islamist terrorists are Salafists, but not all Salafists are terrorists. Salafi movement_sentence_174

Therefore, the agency evaluated the Salafist movement beyond the actions by Salafists and analysed the ideological framework of Salafism which is in conflict with the minimal foundations of a democratic and open society. Salafi movement_sentence_175

Salafists calling for the death penalty for apostasy is in conflict with freedom of religion. Salafi movement_sentence_176

The dualistic view on "true believers" and "false believers" in practice means people being treated unequally on religious grounds. Salafi movement_sentence_177

The call for a religious state in the form of a caliphate means that Salafists reject the rule of law and the sovereignty of the people's rule. Salafi movement_sentence_178

The Salafist view on gender and society leads to discrimination and the subjugation of women. Salafi movement_sentence_179

Estimates by German interior intelligence service show that it grew from 3,800 members in 2011 to 7,500 members in 2015. Salafi movement_sentence_180

In Germany, most of the recruitment to the movement is done on the Internet and also on the streets, a propaganda drive which mostly attracts youth. Salafi movement_sentence_181

There are two ideological camps, one advocates political Salafism and directs its recruitment efforts towards non-Muslims and non-Salafist Muslims to gain influence in society. Salafi movement_sentence_182

The other and minority movement, the jihadist Salafism, advocates gaining influence by the use of violence and nearly all identified terrorist cells in Germany came from Salafist circles. Salafi movement_sentence_183

In 2015, Sigmar Gabriel, Vice-Chancellor of Germany, spoke out, saying "We need Saudi Arabia to solve the regional conflicts, but we must at the same time make clear that the time to look away is past. Salafi movement_sentence_184

Wahhabi mosques are financed all over the world by Saudi Arabia. Salafi movement_sentence_185

In Germany, many dangerous Islamists come from these communities." Salafi movement_sentence_186

In November 2016, nationwide raids were conducted on the Salafist True Religion organization. Salafi movement_sentence_187

According to the German Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution in Cologne, the number of Salafists in Germany grew from 9,700 in December 2016 to 10,800 in December 2017. Salafi movement_sentence_188

In addition to the rise, the Salafist movement in Germany was increasingly fractured which made them harder to monitor by authorities. Salafi movement_sentence_189

According to the office, street distributions of Quran took place less frequently which was described as a success for the authorities. Salafi movement_sentence_190

Radicalisation changed character, from taking place in mosques and interregional Salafist organisations to more often happening in small circles, which increasingly formed on the internet. Salafi movement_sentence_191

A further development was a rise in participation of women. Salafi movement_sentence_192

According to the FFGI at Goethe University Frankfurt, wahhabist ideology is spread in Germany as in other European country mostly by an array of informal, personal and organisational networks, where organisations closely associated with the government of Saudi Arabia such as the Muslim World League (WML) and the World Association of Muslim Youth are actively participating. Salafi movement_sentence_193

In February 2017, the German Salafist mosque organisation Berliner Fussilet-Moscheeverein was banned by authorities. Salafi movement_sentence_194

Anis Amri, the perpetrator of the 2016 Berlin truck attack, was said to be among its visitors. Salafi movement_sentence_195

In March 2017, the German Muslim community organisation Deutschsprachige Islamkreis Hildesheim was also banned after investigators found that its members were preparing to travel to the conflict zone in Syria to fight for the Islamic State. Salafi movement_sentence_196

According to the Federal Agency for Civic Education, these examples show that Salafist mosques not only concern themselves with religious matters, but also prepare serious crimes and terrorist activities. Salafi movement_sentence_197

China Salafi movement_section_19

Main article: Sailaifengye Salafi movement_sentence_198

Salafism is opposed by a number of Hui Muslims Sects in China such as by the Gedimu, Sufi Khafiya and Jahriyya, to the extent that even the fundamentalist Yihewani (Ikhwan) Chinese sect, founded by Ma Wanfu after Salafi inspiration, condemned Ma Debao and Ma Zhengqing as heretics when they attempted to introduce Salafism as the main form of Islam. Salafi movement_sentence_199

Ma Debao established a Salafi school, called the Sailaifengye (Salafi), in Lanzhou and Linxia. Salafi movement_sentence_200

It is completely separate from other Muslim sects in China. Salafi movement_sentence_201

Muslim Hui avoid Salafis, even if they are family members. Salafi movement_sentence_202

The number of Salafis in China are not included on percentage lists of Muslim sects in China. Salafi movement_sentence_203

The Kuomintang Sufi Muslim General Ma Bufang, who backed the Yihewani (Ikhwan) Muslims, persecuted the Salafis and forced them into hiding. Salafi movement_sentence_204

They were not allowed to move or worship openly. Salafi movement_sentence_205

The Yihewani had become secular and Chinese nationalists; they considered the Salafiyya to be "heterodox" (xie jiao) and people who followed foreigners' teachings (waidao). Salafi movement_sentence_206

After the Communists took power, Salafis were allowed to worship openly again. Salafi movement_sentence_207

Bosnia and Herzegovina Salafi movement_section_20

Vietnam Salafi movement_section_21

An attempt at Salafist expansion among the Muslim Chams in Vietnam has been halted by Vietnamese government controls, however, the loss of the Salafis among Chams has been to be benefit of Tablighi Jamaat. Salafi movement_sentence_208

Sweden Salafi movement_section_22

Main article: Islam in Sweden § Salafism Salafi movement_sentence_209

Representatives from the mosque in Gävle are promoting this variant of Islam, which in Sweden is considered extreme. Salafi movement_sentence_210

According to researcher Aje Carlbom at Malmö University the organisation behind the missionary work is Swedish United Dawah Center, abbreviated SUDC. Salafi movement_sentence_211

SUDC is characterised as a salafist group by a researcher of religious history at Stockholm University and it has many links to British Muslim Abdur Raheem Green. Salafi movement_sentence_212

According to professor Mohammed Fazlhashemi, salafists are opposed to rational theology and hate shia Muslims above all. Salafi movement_sentence_213

Three Muslim community organisations in Malmö invited reportedly antisemitic and homophobic salafist lecturers such as Salman al-Ouda. Salafi movement_sentence_214

One of the organisations, Alhambra is a student society at Malmö University. Salafi movement_sentence_215

In Hässleholm the Ljusets moské (translated: "mosque of the light") is spreading salafi ideology and portray shia Muslims as apostates and traitors in social media while the atrocities of the Islamic state are never mentioned. Salafi movement_sentence_216

In 2009 the imam Abu al-Hareth at the mosque was sentenced to six years in jail for the attempted murder of a local shia Muslim from Iraq and another member set fire to a shia mosque in Malmö. Salafi movement_sentence_217

In 2017 Swedish Security Police reported that the number of jihadists in Sweden had risen to thousands from about 200 in 2010. Salafi movement_sentence_218

Based on social media analysis, an increase was noted in 2013. Salafi movement_sentence_219

Salafists in Sweden are supported financially by Saudi Arabia and Qatar. Salafi movement_sentence_220

According to police in Sweden, salafists affect the communities where they are active. Salafi movement_sentence_221

According to Swedish researcher Magnus Ranstorp, salafism is antidemocratic, homophobic and aims to subjugate women and is therefore opposed to a societal order founded on democracy. Salafi movement_sentence_222

Qatar Salafi movement_section_23

Similar to Saudi Arabia, most citizens of Qatar adhere to a strict sect of Salafism referred to as Wahhabism. Salafi movement_sentence_223

The national mosque of Qatar is the Imam Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Mosque named after the founder of Wahhabism. Salafi movement_sentence_224

Similar to Saudi Arabian sponsorship of Salafism, Qatar has also funded the construction of mosques that promote the Wahhabi Salafism. Salafi movement_sentence_225

Unlike the strict practice of Wahhabi Salafism in Saudi Arabia, Qatar has demonstrated an alternative view of Wahhabism. Salafi movement_sentence_226

In Qatar, women are allowed by law to drive, non-Muslims have access to pork and liquor through a state-owned distribution center, and religious police do not force businesses to close during prayer times. Salafi movement_sentence_227

Also, Qatar hosts branches of several American universities and a "Church City" in which migrant workers may practice their religion. Salafi movement_sentence_228

The adoption of a more liberal interpretation of Wahhabism is largely credited to Qatar's young Emir, Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani. Salafi movement_sentence_229

Yet, Qatar's more tolerant interpretation of Wahhabism compared to Saudi Arabia has drawn backlash from Qatari citizens and foreigners. Salafi movement_sentence_230

The Economist reported that a Qatari cleric criticized the state's acceptance of un-Islamic practices away from the public sphere and complained that Qatari citizens are oppressed. Salafi movement_sentence_231

Although Qatari gender separation is less strict than that found in Saudi Arabia, plans to offer co-ed lectures were put aside after threats to boycott Qatar's segregated public university. Salafi movement_sentence_232

Meanwhile, there have been reports of local discontent with the sale of alcohol in Qatar. Salafi movement_sentence_233

Qatar has also drawn widespread criticism for attempting to spread its fundamental religious interpretation both through military and non-military channels. Salafi movement_sentence_234

Militarily, Qatar has been criticized for funding rebel Islamist extremist fighters in the Libyan Crisis and the Syrian Civil War. Salafi movement_sentence_235

In Libya, Qatar funded allies of Ansar al-Sharia, the jihadist group thought to be behind the killing of former U.S. ambassador Christopher Stevens, while channeling weapons and money to the Islamist Ahrar al-Sham group in Syria. Salafi movement_sentence_236

In addition, Qatar-based charities and online campaigns, such as Eid Charity and Madid Ahl al-Sham, have a history of financing terrorist groups in Syria. Salafi movement_sentence_237

Qatar has also repeatedly provided financial support to the Gaza government led by the militant Hamas organisation while senior Hamas officials have visited Doha and hosted Qatari leaders in Gaza. Salafi movement_sentence_238

Qatar also gave approximately $10 billion to the government of Egypt during Mohamed Morsi's time in office. Salafi movement_sentence_239

Non-militarily, Qatar state-funded broadcaster Al Jazeera has come under criticism for selective reporting in coordination with Qatar's foreign policy objectives. Salafi movement_sentence_240

In addition, reports have condemned Qatar's financing of the construction of mosques and Islamic centers in Europe as attempts to exert the state's Salafist interpretation of Islam. Salafi movement_sentence_241

Reports of Qatar attempting to impact the curriculum of U.S. schools and buy influence in universities have also spread. Salafi movement_sentence_242

The nearby Persian Gulf States of Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates have been among the countries that have condemned Qatar's actions. Salafi movement_sentence_243

In 2014, the three Persian Gulf countries withdrew their ambassadors from Qatar referencing Qatar's failure to commit to non-interference in the affairs of other Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Salafi movement_sentence_244

Saudi Arabia has also threatened to block land and sea borders with Qatar. Salafi movement_sentence_245

United Kingdom Salafi movement_section_24

Main article: Islam in the United Kingdom Salafi movement_sentence_246

A 2017 report found the number of Salafi and Wahhabi mosques in Britain had increased from 68 in 2007 to 110 in 2014. Salafi movement_sentence_247

The report found that Middle Eastern nations are providing financial support to mosques and Islamic educational institutions, which have been linked to the spread of extremist material with "an illiberal, bigoted Wahhabi ideology". Salafi movement_sentence_248

Statistics Salafi movement_section_25

Worldwide there are roughly 50 million Salafi Sunnis, including roughly 6 million Salafis in Saudi Arabia, 7 to 8 million Salafis in India, 5 to 6 million Salafis in Egypt, and 1.6 million Salafis in Sudan. Salafi movement_sentence_249

Salafi communities are smaller elsewhere, including roughly 10,000 in Tunisia, 17,000 in Morocco, 7,000 in Jordan, 17,000 in France and 5,000 in Germany. Salafi movement_sentence_250

It is often reported from various sources, including the German domestic intelligence service (Bundesnachrichtendienst), that Salafism is the fastest-growing Islamic movement in the world. Salafi movement_sentence_251

Other usage Salafi movement_section_26

Modernist Salafism Salafi movement_section_27

Main article: Islamic Modernism Salafi movement_sentence_252

As opposed to the traditionalist Salafism discussed throughout this article, academics and historians have used the term "Salafism" to denote modernists, "a school of thought which surfaced in the second half of the 19th century as a reaction to the spread of European ideas" and "sought to expose the roots of modernity within Muslim civilization". Salafi movement_sentence_253

They are also known as Modernist Salafis. Salafi movement_sentence_254

However contemporary Salafis follow "literal, traditional […] injunctions of the sacred texts", looking to Ibn Taymiyyah rather than the "somewhat adulterated interpretation" of 19th-century figures Muhammad Abduh, Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, and Rashid Rida, who many of the Salafi scholars vehemently warn against. Salafi movement_sentence_255

The origins of contemporary Salafism in the modernist "Salafi Movement" of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and Muhammad Abduh is noted by some, while others say Islamic Modernism only influenced contemporary Salafism. Salafi movement_sentence_256

However, the former notion has been rejected by majority. Salafi movement_sentence_257

According to Quintan Wiktorowicz: Salafi movement_sentence_258

Groups like Muslim Brotherhood, Jamaat-e-Islami etc. are inspired by Modernist Salafis. Salafi movement_sentence_259

Muslim Brotherhood include the term salafi in the "About Us" section of its website. Salafi movement_sentence_260

Influence on Contemporary Salafism Salafi movement_section_28

In terms of their respective formation, Wahhabism and Salafism were quite distinct. Salafi movement_sentence_261

Wahhabism was a pared-down Islam that rejected modern influences, while Salafism sought to reconcile Islam with modernism. Salafi movement_sentence_262

What they had in common is that both rejected traditional teachings on Islam in favor of direct, ‘fundamentalist’ reinterpretation. Salafi movement_sentence_263

Although Salafism and Wahhabism began as two distinct movements, Faisal's embrace of Salafi (Muslim Brotherhood) pan-Islamism resulted in cross-pollination between ibn Abd al-Wahhab's teachings on tawhid, shirk and bid‘ah and Salafi interpretations of ahadith (the sayings of Muhammad). Salafi movement_sentence_264

Some Salafis nominated ibn Abd al-Wahhab as one of the Salaf (retrospectively bringing Wahhabism into the fold of Salafism), and the Muwahideen began calling themselves Salafis. Salafi movement_sentence_265

In the broadest sense Salafi movement_section_29

In a broad sense, Salafism is similar to Non-denominational Islam (NDM), in the sense some of its adherents do not follow a particular creed. Salafi movement_sentence_266

Salafi (follower of Salaf) means any reform movement that calls for resurrection of Islam by going back to its origin. Salafi movement_sentence_267

In line with Wahhabism they promote a literal understanding of the sacred texts of Islam and reject other more liberal reformist movements such as those inspired for example by Muhammad Abduh or by Muhammad Iqbal. Salafi movement_sentence_268

Criticism Salafi movement_section_30

Islamic opposition Salafi movement_section_31

Scholars from Al-Azhar University of Cairo produced a work of religious opinions entitled al-Radd (The Response) to refute the views of the Salafi movement. Salafi movement_sentence_269

Al-Radd singles out numerous Salafi aberrations – in terms of ritual prayer alone it targets for criticism the following Salafi claims: Salafi movement_sentence_270

Salafi movement_unordered_list_0

  • The claim that it is prohibited to recite God's name during the minor ablution [Fatwa 50]Salafi movement_item_0_0
  • The claim that it is obligatory for men and women to perform the major ablution on Friday [Fatwa 63]Salafi movement_item_0_1
  • The claim that it is prohibited to own a dog for reasons other than hunting [Fatwa 134]Salafi movement_item_0_2
  • The claim that it is prohibited to use alcohol for perfumes [Fatwa 85].Salafi movement_item_0_3

One of the authors of al-Radd, the Professor of Law Anas Abu Shady states that, "they [the Salafis] want to be everything to everyone. Salafi movement_sentence_271

They're interested not only in the evident (al-zahir), although most of their law goes back to the Muhalla [of the Ẓāhirī scholar Ibn Hazm, but they also are convinced that they alone understand the hidden (al-batin)!" Salafi movement_sentence_272

The Syrian scholar Mohamed Said Ramadan Al-Bouti wrote a number of works refuting Salafism including Al-La Madhhabiyya (Abandoning the Madhhabs) is the most dangerous Bid‘ah Threatening the Islamic Shari'a (Damascus: Dar al-Farabi 2010) and Al-Salafiyya was a blessed epoch, not a school of thought (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 1990). Salafi movement_sentence_273

The latter is perhaps the most famous refutation of Salafism in the twentieth century. Salafi movement_sentence_274

Numerous academic rebuttals of Salafism have been produced in the English language by Khaled Abou El Fadl of the UCLA School of Law, Timothy Winter of Cambridge University and G.F. Haddad. Salafi movement_sentence_275

El Fadl argues that fanatical groups such as al-Qaeda "derive their theological premises from the intolerant Puritanism of the Wahhabi and Salafi creeds". Salafi movement_sentence_276

He also suggests that the extreme intolerance and even endorsement of terrorism manifest in Wahhabism and Salafism represents a deviation from Muslim historical traditions. Salafi movement_sentence_277

El-Fadl also argues that the Salafi methodology "drifted into stifling apologetics" by the mid-20th century, a reaction against "anxiety" to "render Islam compatible with modernity," by its leaders earlier in the century. Salafi movement_sentence_278

According to the As-Sunnah Foundation of America, the Salafi and Wahhabi movements are strongly opposed by a long list of Sunni scholars. Salafi movement_sentence_279

The Saudi government has been criticised for damaging Islamic heritage of thousands of years in Saudi Arabia. Salafi movement_sentence_280

For example, there has been some controversy that the expansion projects of the mosque and Mecca itself are causing harm to early Islamic heritage. Salafi movement_sentence_281

Many ancient buildings, some more than a thousand years old, have been demolished to make room not only for the expansion of the Masjid al-Haram, but for new malls and hotels. Salafi movement_sentence_282

Though some Salafis who attended a lecture by The City Circle in the UK, were equally as opposed to it as other Muslims. Salafi movement_sentence_283

The Salafi movement has been linked by Marc Sageman to some terrorist groups around the world, like Al-Qaeda. Salafi movement_sentence_284

Sociological criticism Salafi movement_section_32

Although Salafist claim to re-establish Islamic values and protects Islamic culture, sociological observations show that they often interpret it in a manner which does not match with Islamic traditions, with some members of the movement regarding inherit elements of Islamic culture, such as music, poetry, literature and philosophy as works of the devil. Salafi movement_sentence_285

Generally, Salafis do not adhere to traditional Islamic communities, and those who do, often oppose the traditional Islamic values. Salafi movement_sentence_286

Innovation Salafi movement_section_33

Salafis are accused of having a double-standard on their views on innovation, rejecting some innovations and accepting others. Salafi movement_sentence_287

Classical scholars (including imam Nawawi, who is widely praised by Salafis) categorized innovation into 5 types, yet Salafis consider all innovation to be sinful. Salafi movement_sentence_288

This creates a strange paradox where they unwittingly accept some innovations and reject others. Salafi movement_sentence_289

Salafis say that the compilation of the Qur'an under Abu Bakr's caliphate was not an innovation because bidah in religion is different from the linguistic meaning of bidah, one is forbidden the other is not, hence is accepted by Orthodox Muslims as an obligatory innovation to preserve the Qur'an. Salafi movement_sentence_290

The Salafi creed which divides tawhid into three types is said by critics to be an innovation which leads to excommunication, accusations of shirk, and violence against other Muslims. Salafi movement_sentence_291

German government's statement on Salafism Salafi movement_section_34

German government officials have stated that Salafism has a strong link to terrorism but have clarified that not all Salafists are terrorists. Salafi movement_sentence_292

The statements by German government officials criticizing Salafism were televised by Deutsche Welle during April 2012. Salafi movement_sentence_293

Prominent Salafis Salafi movement_section_35

Salafi movement_unordered_list_1

Ex-Salafis Salafi movement_section_36

Salafi movement_unordered_list_2

  • Yasir Qadhi, American Muslim cleric, professor at Rhodes College, and author; also Dean of Academic Studies at international al-Maghrib Institute Dr. Yasir Qadhi has stated in several interviews that he is no longer a Salafi and he disagrees with the Salafi movement. Some of the reasons he gave for leaving the movement is the violence and hostility of the movement against non-Salafi Muslims as well as it not being "intellectually stimulating". He believes the movement to be violent, flawed, and not very faithful to the actual Salaf. He claims that he advocates for "following the actions of the Salaf instead of following the Salafi movement."Salafi movement_item_2_30

See also Salafi movement_section_37

Salafi movement_unordered_list_3

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: movement.