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For other uses, see Mohamed Salah and Salah (disambiguation). Salah_sentence_0

For other uses of "Salat", see Salat (disambiguation). Salah_sentence_1

For prayers of supplication, see Dua. Salah_sentence_2

Salah or salat (Arabic: الصلاة‎ aṣ-ṣalāh, Arabic: الصلوات‎ aṣ-ṣalawāt, meaning "prayer", "supplication", "blessing" and "commendation"; also known as namāz (from Persian: نماز‎)) is the second of the five pillars in the Islamic faith as daily obligatory standardized prayers. Salah_sentence_3

It is a physical, mental, and spiritual act of worship that is observed five times every day at prescribed times. Salah_sentence_4

While facing towards the Kaaba in Mecca, Muslims pray first standing and later kneeling or sitting on the ground, reciting from the Qur'an and glorifying and praising Allah as they bow and prostrate themselves in between. Salah_sentence_5

Ritual purity is a precondition. Salah_sentence_6

Salah is composed of repetitive cycles of bows and prostrations, divided into prescribed units called a rakʿah. Salah_sentence_7

The number of rakaʿahs varies according to the time of day. Salah_sentence_8

Terminology Salah_section_0

Etymology Salah_section_1

Ṣalāh ([sˤɑˈlɑː صلاة) is an Arabic word that means to pray or bless. Salah_sentence_9

It also means "contact," "communication," or "connection". Salah_sentence_10

English usage Salah_section_2

The word salāh is used by English-speakers only to refer to the formal obligatory prayers of Islam. Salah_sentence_11

The word "prayer" may also be used to translate different elements of Muslim worship, such as duʿāʾ (دعاء "invocation, appeal, supplication") and dhikr (ذكر "remembrance, mention, litany"). Salah_sentence_12

Namaz Salah_section_3

In non-Arab Muslim countries the most widespread term is the Persian word namāz (). Salah_sentence_13

It is used by speakers of the Indo-Iranian languages (e.g., Persian, Kurdish, Bengali, Urdu, Balochi, Hindi), as well as by speakers of Turkish, Azerbaijani, Russian, Chinese, Bosnian and Albanian. Salah_sentence_14

In the North Caucasus, the term is lamaz (ламаз) in Chechen, chak (чак) in Lak and kak in Avar (как). Salah_sentence_15

In Malaysia and Indonesia, the term solat is used, as well as a local term sembahyang (meaning "communication", from the words sembah - worship, and hyang - god or deity). Salah_sentence_16

Salah in the Quran Salah_section_4

The noun ṣalāh (‏‎) is used 82 times in the Qur'an, with about 15 other derivatives of its triliteral root ṣ-l. Salah_sentence_17

Words connected to salah (such as mosque, wudu, dhikr, etc.) are used in approximately one-sixth of Qur'anic verses. Salah_sentence_18

"Surely my prayer, and my sacrifice and my life and my death are (all) for God", and "I am Allah, there is no god but I, therefore serve Me and keep up prayer for My remembrance" are both examples of this. Salah_sentence_19

Tafsir of the Qur'an can give four dimensions of salah. Salah_sentence_20

First, in order to commend God's servants, God, together with the angels, do salah ("blessing, salutations") Second, salah is done involuntarily by all beings in Creation, in the sense that they are always in contact with God by virtue of Him creating and sustaining them. Salah_sentence_21

Third, Muslims voluntarily offer salah to reveal that it is the particular form of worship that belongs to the prophets. Salah_sentence_22

Fourth, salah is described as the second pillar of Islam. Salah_sentence_23

Purpose and importance Salah_section_5

The primary purpose of Salah is to act as a person's communication with Allah. Salah_sentence_24

Purification of the heart is the ultimate religious objective of Salah. Salah_sentence_25

Via namaz, a believer can grow closer to Allah (swt) and in turn strengthen their faith. Salah_sentence_26

Just as a humans physically require food and supplement to stay healthy and alive, the soul requires prayer and closeness to God to stay sustained and healthy. Salah_sentence_27

In short, it spiritually sustains the human soul. Salah_sentence_28

Conditions Salah_section_6

Salah is an obligatory ritual for all Muslims, except for those who are prepubescent, menstruating and experiencing bleeding in the 40 days after childbirth, according to Sunnis. Salah_sentence_29

There are some conditions that make salah invalid, and some that make salah correct. Salah_sentence_30

According to one view among many, if one ignores the following conditions, their salah is invalid: Salah_sentence_31


  • Facing the Qibla, with the chest facing the direction of the Kaaba. The ill and the old are allowed leniency with posture;Salah_item_0_0
  • Being in a state of Tahara, usually achieved by a short ritual washing called wudu;Salah_item_0_1
  • Being sane and able to distinguish between right and wrong;Salah_item_0_2
  • Not offering salah in the pathway of people (unless a stationary object is placed in front, obstructing the people's way), in a graveyard or disrespectful places, on land which has been taken by force;Salah_item_0_3
  • Covering one's nakedness (awrah).Salah_item_0_4
  • Laughing or speaking, or any unnecessary movements during the salah;Salah_item_0_5
  • Flatulence;Salah_item_0_6
  • Burping loudly in such a way that it disturbs other worshippersSalah_item_0_7
  • Reading the necessary surahs too loudly, in a way that disturbs other worshippersSalah_item_0_8

Other conditions for salah include: Salah_sentence_32


  • Women not praying during their menstruation and for a period of time after childbirth.Salah_item_1_9
  • Covering of the whole body; andSalah_item_1_10
  • Praying within the time determined for each salahSalah_item_1_11

Prostration of forgetfulness Salah_section_7

Main article: Sujud Sahwi Salah_sentence_33

Most mistakes in Salah can be compensated for by prostrating twice at the end of the prayer. Salah_sentence_34

Gestures and postures Salah_section_8

Main article: Rakat Salah_sentence_35

Each Salah is made up of repeating units or cycles called rakats (singular rakah). Salah_sentence_36

There may be two to four units. Salah_sentence_37

Each unit consists of specific movements and recitations. Salah_sentence_38

On the major elements there is consensus, but on minor details there may be different views. Salah_sentence_39

Between each position there is a very slight pause. Salah_sentence_40

Orthostasis (qiyām) Salah_section_9

Main article: Qiyam Salah_sentence_41

Salah is begun in a standing position (although people who find it physically difficult can offer salah in a way suitable for them). Salah_sentence_42

Intention (niyyah) Salah_section_10

Main article: Niyyah Salah_sentence_43

Intention is a prerequisite for salah, and what distinguishes real worship from 'going through the motions'. Salah_sentence_44

Some authorities hold that intention suffices in the heart, and some require that it be spoken, usually under the breath. Salah_sentence_45

But there is no evidence that the Islamic prophet Muhammad or any of his companions ever uttered a niyyah aloud before prayer. Salah_sentence_46

Consecratory magnification (takbīrat al-iḥrām) Salah_section_11

One says Allāhu akbar (اَللهُ أَكْبَرْ, "God is greater/greatest"), a formula known as takbīr (literally "magnification [of God]"). Salah_sentence_47

This opening takbīr is known as takbīrat al-iḥrām or takbīrat at-taḥrīmah. Salah_sentence_48

From this point forward one praying may not converse, eat, or do other worldly things: the aim is to be alone with God. Salah_sentence_49

For many Muslims, the consecration is said with the hands raised and thumbs placed behind the earlobes, as shown. Salah_sentence_50

One then lowers one's hands. Salah_sentence_51

Some Muslims afterwards add a supplication praising Allah, such as: Salah_sentence_52


  • سُبْحَاْنَكَ اَلْلّٰھُمَّ وَبِحَمدِكَ وَتَبَارَكَ اسْمُكَ وَتَعَالٰی جَدُّكَ وَلَا اِلٰهَ غَیْرُكَ‎Salah_item_2_12
  • subḥānaka allāhumma wa-bi-ḥamdika wa-tabāraka-smuka wa-taʿālā jadduka wa-lā ʾilāha ġayruk.Salah_item_2_13
  • "Glory be to You, O God, along with Your praise, and blessed is Your name, and high is Your majesty, and there is no god other than You."Salah_item_2_14

Readings/recitation (qiraʾat) Salah_section_12

Main article: Qira'at Salah_sentence_53

Still standing, the next principal act is to recite the first chapter of the Qur'an, the Fatiha. Salah_sentence_54

This chapter takes the form of a supplication, at the heart of which is a plea for guidance "to the straight path". Salah_sentence_55

Many Muslims precede the Fatiha, as with any recitation from the Qur'an, by asking for refuge with God from "the accursed devil": Salah_sentence_56


  • أَعُوْذُ بِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّـيْطٰنِ الرَّجِيْمِ‎Salah_item_3_15
  • 'aʿūḏu bi-llāhi mina š-šayṭāni r-rajīm.Salah_item_3_16

In the first and second unit, another portion of the Qur'an is recited following the Fatiha. Salah_sentence_57

At the end of the recitations one moves to the next position, saying Allahu akbar as one does so. Salah_sentence_58

Bowing (rukūʿ) Salah_section_13

Main article: Ruku' Salah_sentence_59

Next is bowing from the waist, with palms placed on the knees (according to most schools, women should not bow so low). Salah_sentence_60

While bowing, the one praying generally utters formulas of praise under the breath, such as سبحان ربي العظيم (subḥāna rabbīya l-ʿaẓīm "Glory be to my Lord, the Most Magnificent"), thrice or more in odd number of times. Salah_sentence_61

Straightening up (iʿtidāl) Salah_section_14

As the worshipper straightens their back they say سمع الله لمن حمده (samiʿa-llāhu li-man ḥamidah, "God hears the one who praises him.") Salah_sentence_62

An additional formula of praise is usually uttered under the breath, such as ربنا لك الحمد (rabbanā laka l-ḥamd, "Our Lord, all praise be to you.") Salah_sentence_63

After a moment of standing, the worshipper moves to the prostration - again saying Allahu akbar. Salah_sentence_64

Low bowing/prostration (sujūd) Salah_section_15

Main article: Sujud Salah_sentence_65

Then the worshipper kneels and bows low to the ground or prostrates with the forehead, nose, knees, palms and toes touching the floor. Salah_sentence_66

The worshipper utters سبحان ربى الأعلى وبحمده (subḥāna rabbiya l-'aʿlā "Glory be to my Lord, the Most High"). Salah_sentence_67

After a short while in prostration the worshipper very briefly rises to a kneeling position, then returns to the ground a second time. Salah_sentence_68

As they rise from the second prostration, they say Allāhu akbar as before. Salah_sentence_69

Lifting the head from the second prostration completes the unit. Salah_sentence_70


  • If this is the second or last unit, the worshiper proceeds to sitting.Salah_item_4_17
  • If not, one returns to a standing position and begins another unit with the Fatiha.Salah_item_4_18

Kneeling/sitting Salah_section_16

Main article: Sitting in salah Salah_sentence_71

See also: Tashahhud and Taslim Salah_sentence_72

The worshipper kneels or sits on the ground with legs folded under the body (the precise posture differs between schools), and recites a prayer called the tashahhud. Salah_sentence_73

The tashahhud consists of the testimony of faith (the shahadah) and invoking peace and blessings on Muhammad (salawat). Salah_sentence_74

Many schools hold that the right index finger is raised for these prayers. Salah_sentence_75

After the tashahhud prayer, Salah_sentence_76


  • If there are further units to follow, a new unit is begun by returning to the standing position, uttering the Allahu akbar as before.Salah_item_5_19
  • If it is the last unit, the worshipper adds a short supplication called the Ibrahimiyya, which emphasies the relationship between Muhammad and Abraham (Ibrahim), then the salah is then brought to an end as below.Salah_item_5_20

Peace greeting/salutation (taslīm) Salah_section_17

The worshipper ends the prayer (and exits their state of consecration) by saying السلام عليڪم ورحمة الله (as-salāmu ʿalaykum wa raḥmatu llāh, "Peace and God's mercy be upon you", the taslīm). Salah_sentence_77

This is said twice, first to the right and then to the left. Salah_sentence_78

Takbir Salah_section_18

Every movement from one position to another is accompanied by the takbir except the straightening up from the ruku' and the conclusion. Salah_sentence_79

Differences in practice Salah_section_19

Muslims believe that Muhammad practiced, taught, and disseminated the worship ritual in the whole community of Muslims and made it part of their life. Salah_sentence_80

The practice has, therefore, been concurrently and perpetually practiced by the community in each of the generations. Salah_sentence_81

The authority for the basic forms of the salah is neither the hadiths nor the Qur'an, but rather the consensus of Muslims. Salah_sentence_82

This is not inconsistent with another fact that Muslims have shown diversity in their practice since the earliest days of practice, so the salah practiced by one Muslim may differ from another's in minor details. Salah_sentence_83

In some cases the Hadith suggest some of this diversity of practice was known of and approved by the Prophet himself. Salah_sentence_84

Most differences arise because of different interpretations of the Islamic legal sources by the different schools of law (madhhabs) in Sunni Islam, and by different legal traditions within Shia Islam. Salah_sentence_85

In the case of ritual worship these differences are generally minor, and should rarely cause dispute. Salah_sentence_86

Specific differences Salah_section_20

Common differences, which may vary between schools and gender, include: Salah_sentence_87


  • Position of legs and feet.Salah_item_6_21
  • Position of hands, including fingersSalah_item_6_22
  • Place where eyes should focusSalah_item_6_23
  • The minimum amount of recitationSalah_item_6_24
  • Loudness of recitation: audible, or moving of lips, or just listeningSalah_item_6_25
  • Which of the principal elements of the prayer are indispensable, versus recommended, optional, etc.Salah_item_6_26

Shia Muslims, after the end of the prayer, raise their hands three times, reciting Allahu akbar whereas Sunnis look at the right and then left shoulder saying taslim. Salah_sentence_88

Also, Shias often read "Qunoot" in the second Rakat, while Sunnis usually do this after salah. Salah_sentence_89

A 2015 Pew Research Center study found that women are two percent more likely than men to pray on a daily basis. Salah_sentence_90

Categories Salah_section_21

Prayers in Islam are classified into categories based on degrees of obligation. Salah_sentence_91

One common classification is fard ("obligatory") & wajib ("compulsory"), and sunnah ("tradition") & nafl ("voluntary"). Salah_sentence_92

Mandatory prayers Salah_section_22

Five daily prayers Salah_section_23

The five daily prayers are obligatory on every Muslim who has reached the age of puberty, with the exception being those who are mentally ill, too physically ill for it to be possible, menstruating, or experiencing postnatal bleeding. Salah_sentence_93

Those who are sick or otherwise physically unable to offer their prayers in the traditional form are permitted to offer their prayers while sitting or lying, as they are able. Salah_sentence_94

Times of prayers Salah_section_24

Each of the five prayers has a prescribed time measured by the movement of the sun. Salah_sentence_95

They are: between dawn and sunrise (fajr), after the sun has passed its zenith (zuhr), when afternoon shadows lengthen (asr), just after sunset (maghrib) and around nightfall (isha). Salah_sentence_96

Salah must be prayed in its time unless there is a compelling reason preventing this. Salah_sentence_97

Sunni view Salah_section_25

Of the fard category are the five daily prayers, as well as the Friday prayer (Salat al-Jumu'ah), while the Eid prayers and Witr are of the wajib category. Salah_sentence_98

Negligence of any of the obligatory prayers renders one a non-Muslim according to the stricter Hanbali madhhab of Sunni Islam, while the other Sunni madhhabs consider doing so a major sin. Salah_sentence_99

However, all four madhhabs agree that denial of the mandatory status of these prayers invalidates the faith of those who do so, rendering them non-Muslim. Salah_sentence_100

Fard prayers (as with all fard actions) are further classed as either fard al-ayn (obligation of the self) and fard al-kifayah (obligation of sufficiency). Salah_sentence_101

Fard al-Ayn are actions considered obligatory on individuals, for which the individual will be held to account if the actions are neglected. Salah_sentence_102

Fard al-Kifayah are actions considered obligatory on the Muslim community at large, so that if some people within the community carry it out no Muslim is considered blameworthy, but if no one carries it out, all incur a collective punishment. Salah_sentence_103

Men are required to offer the mandatory salat in (jama'ah), behind an imam when they are able. Salah_sentence_104

According to most Islamic scholars, prayer in congregation is mustahabb (recommended) for men, when they are able. Salah_sentence_105

Qasr and jam' bayn as-salaatayn Salah_section_26

When travelling over long distances, one may shorten some prayers, a practice known as Qasr. Salah_sentence_106

Furthermore, several prayer times may be joined, which is referred to as Jam' bayn as-Salaatayn. Salah_sentence_107

Qasr involves shortening the obligatory components of the Zuhr, Asr, and Isha prayers to two rakats. Salah_sentence_108

Jam' bayn as-Salaatayn combines the Zuhr and Asr prayers into one prayer offered between noon and sunset, and the Maghrib and Isha prayers into one between sunset and Fajr. Salah_sentence_109

Neither Qasr nor Jam' bayn as-Salaatayn can be applied to the Fajr prayer. Salah_sentence_110

Qada Salah_section_27

In certain circumstances, one may be unable to offer one's prayer within the prescribed time period (waqt). Salah_sentence_111

In this case, the prayer must be offered as soon as one can do so. Salah_sentence_112

Several Ahadith narrates that Muhammad stated that permissible reasons to pray Qada Salah are forgetfulness and accidentally sleeping through the prescribed time. Salah_sentence_113

However, knowingly sleeping through the prescribed time for Salah is deemed impermissible. Salah_sentence_114

Quranist view Salah_section_28

Muslims who reject the Hadith and Quranists, some pray five times and some thrice a day. Salah_sentence_115

Quranists in Algeria for example "pray with unlike their usual postures, and do not bow, but believe that prostration is the next posture on completion of recitation (of the Quran)." Salah_sentence_116

Supererogatory prayers Salah_section_29

Voluntary prayers Salah_section_30

Main article: Nafl salah Salah_sentence_117

Nafl salah (supererogatory prayers) are voluntary, and one may offer as many as he or she likes almost any time. Salah_sentence_118

There are many specific conditions or situations when one may wish to offer nafl prayers. Salah_sentence_119

They cannot be offered at sunrise, true noon, or sunset. Salah_sentence_120

The prohibition against salah at these times is to prevent the practice of sun worship. Salah_sentence_121

Some Muslims offer voluntary prayers immediately before and after the five prescribed prayers. Salah_sentence_122

Sunni Muslims classify these prayers as sunnah, while Shi'ah considers them nafil. Salah_sentence_123

One schema of the number of rakats for each of the five obligatory prayers as well as the voluntary prayers (before and after) are listed below - once again there are minor differences between schools. Salah_sentence_124


NameSalah_header_cell_0_0_0 Prescribed time period (waqt)Salah_header_cell_0_0_1 Voluntary before fardSalah_header_cell_0_0_2 ObligatorySalah_header_cell_0_0_4 Voluntary after fardSalah_header_cell_0_0_5
SunniSalah_header_cell_0_1_0 Shi'aSalah_header_cell_0_1_1 SunniSalah_header_cell_0_1_2 Shi'aSalah_header_cell_0_1_3


Dawn to sunrise, should be read at least 10–15 minutes before sunriseSalah_cell_0_2_1 2 Rakats Sunnat-Mu'akkadahSalah_cell_0_2_2 2 RakatsSalah_cell_0_2_3 2 RakatsSalah_cell_0_2_4 Salah_cell_0_2_5 2 RakatsSalah_cell_0_2_6


After true noon until AsrSalah_cell_0_3_1 4 Rakats Sunnat-Mu'akkadahSalah_cell_0_3_2 4 RakatsSalah_cell_0_3_3 4 RakatsSalah_cell_0_3_4 2 Rakats Sunnat-Mu'akkadahSalah_cell_0_3_5 8 RakatsSalah_cell_0_3_6


AfternoonSalah_cell_0_4_1 4 Rakats Sunnat-Ghair-Mu'akkdahSalah_cell_0_4_2 4 RakatsSalah_cell_0_4_3 4 RakatsSalah_cell_0_4_4 -Salah_cell_0_4_5 8 RakatsSalah_cell_0_4_6


After sunset until duskSalah_cell_0_5_1 2 Rakats NafilSalah_cell_0_5_2 3 RakatsSalah_cell_0_5_3 3 RakatsSalah_cell_0_5_4 2 Rakats Sunnat-Mu'akkadahSalah_cell_0_5_5 2 RakatsSalah_cell_0_5_6
Isha (عشاء)Salah_cell_0_6_0 Dusk until dawnSalah_cell_0_6_1 4 Rakats Sunnat-Ghair-Mu'akkadahSalah_cell_0_6_2 4 RakatsSalah_cell_0_6_3 4 RakatsSalah_cell_0_6_4 2 Rakats Sunnat-Mu'akkadah,

3 Rakats WitrSalah_cell_0_6_5

2 RakatsSalah_cell_0_6_6

Many Sunni Muslims also offer two rakats of nafl salah (supererogatory prayer) after the Zuhr and Maghrib prayers. Salah_sentence_125

During the 'Isha prayer, they pray the two rakats of nafl after the two Sunnat-Mu'aqqadah and after the Witr. Salah_sentence_126

Prayers of the tradition Salah_section_31

Main article: Sunnah salah Salah_sentence_127

Sun'nah salah are optional and were additional voluntary prayers said by Muhammad. Salah_sentence_128

They are of two types (optional or supererogatory), the sunnat mu'aqqaddah (""), practiced on a regular basis, which if abandoned causes the abandoner to be regarded as sinful by the Hanafi School; and the sunnat ghayr mu'aqqaddah (""), practiced on a semi-regular practice by Muhammad, of which abandonment is not considered to be sinful. Salah_sentence_129

Certain sunnah prayers have prescribed waqts associated with them. Salah_sentence_130

Those ordained for before each of the fard prayers must be said between the first call to prayer (adhan) and the second call (iqama), which signifies the start of the fard prayer. Salah_sentence_131

Those sunnah ordained for after the fard prayers can be said any time between the end of the fard prayers and the end of the current prayer's waqt. Salah_sentence_132

Any amount of extra rakats may be offered, but most madha'ib prescribe a certain number of rakats for each sunnah salah. Salah_sentence_133

Friday prayer (Jumu'ah) Salah_section_32

Main article: Jumu'ah Salah_sentence_134

Salat al-Jumu'ah is a congregational prayer on Friday, which replaces the Zuhr prayer. Salah_sentence_135

It is compulsory upon men to pray this in congregation, while women may pray it so or offer Zuhr salat instead. Salah_sentence_136

Salat al-Jumu'ah consists of a sermon (khutba) given by the sermoner (khatib), after which two rakats are prayed. Salah_sentence_137

There is no Salat al-Jumu'ah without a khutba. Salah_sentence_138

Khutba is supposed to be carefully listened to as it replaces Sawaab of two Rakats. Salah_sentence_139


NameSalah_header_cell_1_0_0 Prescribed time period (waqt)Salah_header_cell_1_0_1 Voluntary before fardSalah_header_cell_1_0_2 ObligatorySalah_header_cell_1_0_4 Voluntary after fardSalah_header_cell_1_0_5
SunniSalah_header_cell_1_1_0 Shi'aSalah_header_cell_1_1_1 SunniSalah_header_cell_1_1_2 Shi'aSalah_header_cell_1_1_3


After true noon until AsrSalah_cell_1_2_1 4 Rakats Sunnat-e-Mu'akkadahSalah_cell_1_2_2 2 Rakats Sunnat/ MustahabSalah_cell_1_2_3 2 Rakats FurzSalah_cell_1_2_4 4 Rakats Sunnat Mu'akkadah

2 Rakats Sunnat Mu'akkadah 2 Rakats NafilSalah_cell_1_2_5

2 Rakats Sunnat Mu'akkadahSalah_cell_1_2_6

Nightly prayers Salah_section_33

The time for nightly prayers (Salat al-Layl) starts after midnight until the time for Fajr prayer. Salah_sentence_140

It is considered highly meritorious by all Shia Muslims, and is said to bring numerous benefits to the believer, mainly gaining proximity to Allah. Salah_sentence_141

Layl prayer includes eleven Rakat: Salah_sentence_142


  • Tahajjud Prayer (Nafilah of Layl): 8 Rakat consist of 4 prayers 2 Rakat.Salah_item_7_27
  • al-Shafa prayer (Salat al-Shafa): 2 Rakat.Salah_item_7_28
  • Witr prayer (Salat-al-Witr): 1 Rakat.Salah_item_7_29

Tahajjud Salah_section_34

Main article: Tahajjud Salah_sentence_143

The word tahajjud is derived from the root H-J-D (هجد) meaning "spending the night awake or asleep". Salah_sentence_144

This prayer is not obligatory. Salah_sentence_145

The time for tahajjud (nightly prayers) is started from the late hours of the night and is finished when the time for Fajr prayer entered. Salah_sentence_146

The prayer includes eight rakat, followed by three rakat of Witr prayer. Salah_sentence_147

Witr Salah_section_35

Main article: Witr Salah_sentence_148

The word witr () means "odd number" as an adjective and "string" or "chord" as a noun. Salah_sentence_149

Witr is offered after the salah of 'Isha. Salah_sentence_150

Some Muslims consider witr compulsory while others consider it supererogatory. Salah_sentence_151

It may contain an odd number of rakats from one to five according to the different schools of jurisprudence. Salah_sentence_152

Witr is most commonly offered in three rakats, actually one raka'ah added to two rakat of Tahajjud or Tarawih prayer at the end. Salah_sentence_153

The prayer usually includes the qunut. Salah_sentence_154

Prayers of Eid Salah_section_36

Main article: Salat al Eid Salah_sentence_155

The salah of the 'Idayn is said on the mornings of 'Id al-Fitr and 'Id an-Nahr. Salah_sentence_156

The Eid prayer is classified by some as fard, likely an individual obligation (fard al-ayn) though some Islamic scholars argue it is only a collective obligation (fard al-kifayah). Salah_sentence_157

It consists of two rakats, with seven (or three for the followers Imam Hanafi) takbirs offered before the start of the first rakat and five (or three for the followers of Imam Hanafi) before the second. Salah_sentence_158

After the salah is completed, a sermon (khutbah) is offered. Salah_sentence_159

However, the khutbah is not an integral part of the Eid salah. Salah_sentence_160

The Eid salah must be offered between sunrise and true noon i.e. between the time periods for Fajr and Zuhr. Salah_sentence_161

Prayer of Istikhaarah Salah_section_37

Main article: Salat al-Istikharah Salah_sentence_162

The word istikharah is derived from the root ḵ-y-r (خير) "well-being, goodness, choice, selection". Salah_sentence_163

Salat al-Istikhaarah is a prayer offered when a Muslim needs guidance on a particular matter. Salah_sentence_164

To say this salah one should pray two rakats of non-obligatory salah to completion. Salah_sentence_165

After completion one should request God that which on is better. Salah_sentence_166

The intention for the salah should be in one's heart to pray two rakats of salah followed by Istikhaarah. Salah_sentence_167

The salah can be offered at any of the times where salah is not forbidden. Salah_sentence_168

Tahiyyat al-Masjid Salah_section_38

Upon entering the mosque, Tahiyyat al-Masjid ("mosque greeting" prayer) may be offered; this is to pay respects to the mosque. Salah_sentence_169

Every Muslim entering the mosque is encouraged to offer these two rakats. Salah_sentence_170

Prayer in congregation Salah_section_39

Main article: Salah al jama'ah Salah_sentence_171

Prayer in the (jama'ah) is considered to have more social and spiritual benefits than praying by oneself. Salah_sentence_172

When praying in congregation, the people stand in straight parallel rows behind one person who conducts the prayer, called imam, also called the ‘leader’. Salah_sentence_173

The imam must be above the rest in knowledge, action, piety, and justness and possess faith and commitment the people trust, Balanced Perception of Religion and the best knowledge of the Qur'an. Salah_sentence_174

The prayer is offered as normal, with the congregation following the imam in order as he/she offers the salah. Salah_sentence_175

Standing arrangement Salah_section_40

For two people of the same gender, the imam would stand on the left, and the other person is on the right. Salah_sentence_176

For more than two people, the imam stands one row ahead of the rest. Salah_sentence_177

When the Worshippers consist of men and women combined, a man is chosen as the imam. Salah_sentence_178

In this situation, women are typically forbidden from assuming this role. Salah_sentence_179

This point, though unanimously agreed on by the major schools of Islam, is disputed by some groups, based partly on a hadith whose interpretation is controversial. Salah_sentence_180

When the congregation consists entirely of women and pre-pubescent children, one woman is chosen as imam. Salah_sentence_181

When men, women, and children are praying, the children's rows are usually between the men's and women's rows, with the men at the front and women at the back. Salah_sentence_182

Another configuration is where the men's and women's rows are side by side, separated by a curtain or other barrier, with the primary intention being for there to be no direct line of sight between male and female Worshippers, following a Qur'anic injunction toward men and women each lowering their gazes (Qur'an 24:30–31). Salah_sentence_183

See also Salah_section_41


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