Salsa music

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Not to be confused with Salsa (sauce). Salsa music_sentence_0

Salsa music_table_infobox_0

SalsaSalsa music_header_cell_0_0_0
Stylistic originsSalsa music_header_cell_0_1_0 Salsa music_cell_0_1_1
Cultural originsSalsa music_header_cell_0_2_0 1960s, Cuban and Puerto Rican communities in New York City, United StatesSalsa music_cell_0_2_1
SubgenresSalsa music_header_cell_0_3_0
Fusion genresSalsa music_header_cell_0_4_0
Regional scenesSalsa music_header_cell_0_5_0

Salsa music is a popular dance music genre that initially arose in New York City during the 1960s. Salsa music_sentence_1

Salsa is the product of various Cuban musical genres including the Afro-Cuban son montuno, guaracha, cha cha chá, mambo, and Puerto Rican plena and bomba. Salsa music_sentence_2

Latin jazz (which was also developed in New York City) has had a significant influence on salsa arrangers, piano guajeos, and instrumental soloists. Salsa music_sentence_3

Salsa is primarily Cuban son, itself a fusion of Spanish canción and guitar and Afro-Cuban percussion. Salsa music_sentence_4

Salsa also occasionally incorporates elements of Latin jazz, bomba and plena. Salsa music_sentence_5

All of these non-Cuban elements are grafted onto the basic Cuban son montuno template when performed within the context of salsa. Salsa music_sentence_6

The first salsa bands were predominantly Cubans and Puerto Ricans. Salsa music_sentence_7

The music eventually spread throughout Colombia and the rest of the Americas. Salsa music_sentence_8

Ultimately, it became a global phenomenon. Salsa music_sentence_9

Some of the founding salsa artists were Johnny Pacheco (the creator of the Fania All-Stars), Celia Cruz, Rubén Blades, Richie Ray, Bobby Cruz, Ray Barretto, Willie Colón, Larry Harlow, Roberto Roena, Bobby Valentín, Eddie Palmieri, and Héctor Lavoe. Salsa music_sentence_10

Salsa as a musical term Salsa music_section_0

Salsa means 'sauce' in the Spanish language, and carries connotations of the spiciness common in Latin and Caribbean cuisine. Salsa music_sentence_11

In the 20th century, salsa acquired a musical meaning in both English and Spanish. Salsa music_sentence_12

In this sense salsa has been described as a word with "vivid associations". Salsa music_sentence_13

Cubans and Puerto Ricans in New York have used the term analogously to swing or soul music. Salsa music_sentence_14

In this usage salsa connotes a frenzied, "hot" and wild musical experience that draws upon or reflects elements of Latin culture, regardless of the style. Salsa music_sentence_15

Various music writers and historians have traced the use of salsa to different periods of the 20th century. Salsa music_sentence_16

Max Salazar traces the word back to the early 1930s, when Ignacio Piñeiro composed "Échale salsita", a Cuban son protesting tasteless food. Salsa music_sentence_17

While Salazar describes this song as the origin of salsa meaning "danceable Latin music", Ed Morales describes the usage in the same song as a cry from Piñeiro to his band, telling them to increase the tempo to "put the dancers into high gear". Salsa music_sentence_18

Morales claims that later in the 1930s, vocalist Beny Moré would shout salsa during a performance "to acknowledge a musical moment's heat, to express a kind of cultural nationalist sloganeering [and to celebrate the] 'hotness' or 'spiciness' of Latin American cultures". Salsa music_sentence_19

World music author Sue Steward claims salsa was originally used in music as a "cry of appreciation for a particularly piquant or flashy solo". Salsa music_sentence_20

She cites the first use in this manner to a Venezuelan radio DJ named Phidias Danilo Escalona; In 1955 Cheo Marquetti created a new band called Conjunto Los Salseros and recorded some new songs (Sonero and Que no muera el son). Salsa music_sentence_21

In 1955 José Curbelo recorded some other salsa songs (La familia, La la la and Sun sun sun ba bae). Salsa music_sentence_22

The contemporary meaning of salsa as a musical genre can be traced back to New York City Latin music promoter Izzy Sanabria: Salsa music_sentence_23

Sanabria's Latin New York magazine was an English language publication. Salsa music_sentence_24

Consequently, his promoted events were covered in The New York Times, as well as Time and Newsweek magazines. Salsa music_sentence_25

They reported on this "new" phenomenon taking New York by storm—salsa. Salsa music_sentence_26

But promotion certainly wasn't the only factor in the music's success, as Sanabria makes clear: "Musicians were busy creating the music but played no role in promoting the name salsa." Salsa music_sentence_27

Johnny Pacheco, the creative director and producer of Fania Records, molded New York salsa into a tight, polished and commercially successful sound. Salsa music_sentence_28

The unprecedented appeal of New York salsa, particularly the "Fania sound", led to its adoption across Latin America and elsewhere. Salsa music_sentence_29

Globally, the term salsa has eclipsed the original names of the various Cuban musical genres it encompasses. Salsa music_sentence_30

Ironically, Cuban-based music was promoted more effectively worldwide in the 1970s and 1980s by the salsa industry, than by Cuba. Salsa music_sentence_31

For a brief time in the early 1990s a fair number of Cuban musicians embraced the term, calling their own music salsa Cubana. Salsa music_sentence_32

The practice did not catch on however. Salsa music_sentence_33

Issues of identity and ownership Salsa music_section_1

There is considerable controversy surrounding the term salsa and the idea that it is its own distinct genre. Salsa music_sentence_34

Several Cuban New York musicians who had already been performing Cuban dance music for decades when salsa was popularized initially scoffed at the term. Salsa music_sentence_35

For example, Cuban-born Machito declared: "There's nothing new about salsa, it is just the same old music that was played in Cuba for over fifty years." Salsa music_sentence_36

Similarly, New York native Tito Puente stated: "The only salsa I know is sold in a bottle called ketchup. Salsa music_sentence_37

I play Cuban music." Salsa music_sentence_38

Eventually though, both Machito and Puente embraced the term as a financial necessity. Salsa music_sentence_39

The salsa conflict can be summarized as a disagreement between those who do not recognize salsa as anything other than Cuban music with another name, and those who strongly identify with salsa as a music and culture distinct from its Cuban primogenitor. Salsa music_sentence_40

The concept of salsa music which began as a marketing ploy created by Izzy Sanabria was successfully exploited by Fania Records, then eventually took on a life of its own, organically evolving into an authentic pan-Latin American cultural identity. Salsa music_sentence_41

Music professor and salsa trombonist Christopher Washburne writes: Salsa music_sentence_42

The Cuban origins of the music do not conveniently fit into the pan-Latino narrative. Salsa music_sentence_43

Many leading salsa artists have described salsa in broad and inclusive, but vague terms, making no mention of the music's Cuban foundation. Salsa music_sentence_44

For example, Johnny Pacheco has consistently articulated a vision of salsa as a broad, multi-ethnic movement: "Salsa was, and still is, a Caribbean musical movement." Salsa music_sentence_45

Similarly, Willie Colón sees the scope of salsa's power to unite in the broadest terms: "Salsa was the force that united diverse Latino and other non-Latino racial and ethnic groups ... Salsa music_sentence_46

It is a concept. Salsa music_sentence_47

An open, ever-evolving musical, cultural, socio-political concept." Salsa music_sentence_48

Rubén Blades' definition of salsa is also inclusive: "Salsa music is urban folklore at the international level." Salsa music_sentence_49

Journalist Scott Heller writes, "[Salsa music] circulates across national boundaries, becoming a useful example of the globalization of culture and of the ways that people build community in diaspora." Salsa music_sentence_50

As an example of this, ethnomusicologist Ed Morales notes that the interaction of Latino rhythms and Jazz music in mid-twentieth century New York was crucial to the innovation of both forms of music. Salsa music_sentence_51

Musicians who would become great innovators of Salsa, like Mario Bauza and Chano Pozo, began their careers in New York working in close conjunction with some of the biggest names in Jazz, like Cab Calloway, Ella Fitzgerald, and Dizzy Gillespie, among others, Morales noted that: "The interconnection between North American jazz and Afro-Cuban music was taken for granted, and the stage was set for the emergence of mambo music in New York, where music fans were becoming accustomed to innovation." Salsa music_sentence_52

He later notes that Mambo helped pave the way for the widespread acceptance of Salsa years later. Salsa music_sentence_53

In the pivotal documentary movie Salsa: Latin Pop Music in Cities (1979), the history of salsa is explained as a mixing of African, Caribbean, and New York cultures and musics, with no mention of Cuba. Salsa music_sentence_54

In one scene, the Afro-Cuban folkloric genres of batá and rumba are shown being performed in Puerto Rico, implying that they originated there. Salsa music_sentence_55

In advancing the concept of salsa as a musical "sauce", containing many different ingredients from various cultures mixed together, some point to the occasional use of non-Cuban forms in salsa, such as the Puerto Rican bomba. Salsa music_sentence_56

The percentage of salsa compositions based in non-Cuban genres is low though, and despite an openness to experimentation and a willingness to absorb non-Cuban influences, - such as Jazz and of Rock and Roll, with regards to formal structure, and many other informal influences from talented musicians of a broad range of musical and ethnic backgrounds; such as Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, Italians and Jews: anyone with talent and the will to experiment - salsa has remained consistently wedded to its Cuban templates. Salsa music_sentence_57

It was common practice for salsa bands to resurrect pre-salsa Cuban classics. Salsa music_sentence_58

For example, several of Arsenio Rodriguez's son montunos from the 1940s, such as "Fuego en el 23" (recorded by Sonora Ponceña) and "El divorcio" (recorded by Johnny Pacheco) were modernized by salsa arrangers. Salsa music_sentence_59

The pan-Latin Americanism of salsa is found in its cultural milieu, more than its musical structure. Salsa music_sentence_60

Today, competing nationalities claim ownership of the music, as there are musicians in New York City, Puerto Rico, Colombia, and Venezuela, who claim salsa was invented in their country. Salsa music_sentence_61

The salsa controversy is also closely tied to the decades-long estrangement between the governments of the United States and Cuba, and the United States embargo against Cuba. Salsa music_sentence_62

Radio stations in the United States would get bomb threats (presumably from Cuban exiles) for playing Cuban records over the air. Salsa music_sentence_63

Homegrown salsa on the other hand, was embraced. Salsa music_sentence_64

For a time the Cuban state media officially claimed that the term salsa music was a euphemism for authentic Cuban music stolen by American imperialists, though the media has since abandoned this theory. Salsa music_sentence_65

Mayra Martínez, a Cuban musicologist, writes that "the term salsa was used to obscure the Cuban base, the music's history or part of its history in Cuba. Salsa music_sentence_66

And salsa was a way to do this so that Jerry Masucci, Fania and other record companies, like CBS, could have a hegemony on the music and keep the Cuban musicians from spreading their music abroad." Salsa music_sentence_67

Izzy Sanabria responds that Martínez was likely giving an accurate Cuban viewpoint, "but salsa was not planned that way". Salsa music_sentence_68

Lyrics Salsa music_section_2

Salsa lyrics range from simple dance numbers, and sentimental romantic songs, to risque and politically radical subject matter. Salsa music_sentence_69

Music author Isabelle Leymarie notes that salsa performers often incorporate machoistic (guapería) in their lyrics, in a manner reminiscent of calypso and samba, a theme she ascribes to the performers' "humble backgrounds" and subsequent need to compensate for their origins. Salsa music_sentence_70

Leymarie claims that salsa is "essentially virile, an affirmation of the man's pride and identity". Salsa music_sentence_71

As an extension of salsa's macho stance, manly taunts and challenges (desafio) are also a traditional part of salsa. Salsa music_sentence_72

Salsa lyrics often quote from traditional Cuban sones and rumbas. Salsa music_sentence_73

Sometimes there are references to Afro-Cuban religions, such as Santeria, even by artists who are not themselves practitioners of the faith. Salsa music_sentence_74

Salsa lyrics also exhibit Puerto Rican influences. Salsa music_sentence_75

Hector LaVoe, who sang with Willie Colón for nearly a decade used typical Puerto Rican phrasing in his singing. Salsa music_sentence_76

It's not uncommon now to hear the Puerto Rican declamatory exclamation "le-lo-lai" in salsa. Salsa music_sentence_77

Politically and socially activist composers have long been an important part of salsa, and some of their works, like Eddie Palmieri's "La libertad - lógico", became Latin, and especially Puerto Rican anthems. Salsa music_sentence_78

The Panamanian-born singer Ruben Blades in particular is well known for his socially-conscious and incisive salsa lyrics about everything from imperialism to disarmament and environmentalism, which have resonated with audiences throughout Latin America. Salsa music_sentence_79

Many salsa songs contain a nationalist theme, centered around a sense of pride in black Latino identity, and may be in Spanish, English or a mixture of the two called Spanglish. Salsa music_sentence_80

Instrumentation Salsa music_section_3

Son Conjunto Salsa music_section_4

Salsa ensembles are typically based on one of two different Cuban instrument formats, either the horn-based son conjunto or the string-based charanga. Salsa music_sentence_81

In the 30's, Arsenio Rodríguez added a second, and then, third trumpet – the birth of the Latin horn section. Salsa music_sentence_82

He made the bold move of adding the conga drum, the quintessential Afro-Cuban instrument. Salsa music_sentence_83

Some bands are expanded to the size of a mambo big band, but they can be thought of as an enlarged conjunto. Salsa music_sentence_84

The traditional conjunto format consists of congas, bongos, bass, piano, tres, a horn section, and the smaller hand-held percussion instruments: claves, guíro, or maracas, played by the singers. Salsa music_sentence_85

The Cuban horn section traditionally consists of trumpets, but trombones are frequently used in salsa. Salsa music_sentence_86

The section can also use a combination of different horns. Salsa music_sentence_87

Most salsa bands are based on the conjunto model, but the tres is almost never used. Salsa music_sentence_88

String charanga Salsa music_section_5

The traditional charanga format consists of congas, timbales, bass, piano, flute, and a string section of violins, viola, and cello. Salsa music_sentence_89

The claves and güiro are played by the singers. Salsa music_sentence_90

Bongos are not typically used in charanga bands. Salsa music_sentence_91

Típica 73 and Orquesta Broadway were two popular New York salsa bands in the charanga format. Salsa music_sentence_92

Percussion Salsa music_section_6

New York based Machito's Afro-Cubans was the first band to make the triumvirate of congas, bongo, and timbales the standard battery of percussion in Cuban-based dance music. Salsa music_sentence_93

The three drums are used together in most salsa bands and function in ways similar to a traditional folkloric drum ensemble. Salsa music_sentence_94

The timbales play the bell pattern, the congas play the supportive drum part, and the bongos improvise, simulating a lead drum. Salsa music_sentence_95

The improvised variations of the bongos are executed within the context of a repetitive marcha, known as the martillo ('hammer'), and do not constitute a solo. Salsa music_sentence_96

The bongos play primarily during the verses and the piano solos. Salsa music_sentence_97

When the song transitions into the montuno section, the bongo player picks up a large hand held cowbell called the bongo bell. Salsa music_sentence_98

Often the bongocero plays the bell more during a piece, than the actual bongos. Salsa music_sentence_99

The interlocking counterpoint of the timbale bell and bongo bell provides a propelling force during the montuno. Salsa music_sentence_100

The maracas and guíro sound a steady flow of regular pulses (subdivisions) and are ordinarily clave-neutral. Salsa music_sentence_101

Music structure Salsa music_section_7

Verse and chorus sections Salsa music_section_8

Most salsa compositions follow the basic son montuno model of a verse section, followed by a coro-pregón (call-and-response) chorus section known as the montuno. Salsa music_sentence_102

The verse section can be short, or expanded to feature the lead vocalist and/or carefully crafted melodies with clever rhythmic devices. Salsa music_sentence_103

Once the montuno section begins, it usually continues until the end of the song. Salsa music_sentence_104

The tempo may gradually increase during the montuno in order to build excitement. Salsa music_sentence_105

The montuno section can be divided into various sub-sections sometimes referred to as mambo, diablo, moña, and especial. Salsa music_sentence_106

Clave Salsa music_section_9

The most fundamental rhythmic element in salsa music is a pattern and concept known as clave. Salsa music_sentence_107

Clave is a Spanish word meaning 'code,' 'key,' as in key to a mystery or puzzle, or 'keystone,' the wedge-shaped stone in the center of an arch that ties the other stones together. Salsa music_sentence_108

Clave is also the name of the patterns played on claves; two hardwood sticks used in Afro-Cuban music ensembles. Salsa music_sentence_109

The five-stroke clave represents the structural core of many Afro-Cuban rhythms, both popular and folkloric. Salsa music_sentence_110

Just as a keystone holds an arch in place, the clave pattern holds the rhythm together. Salsa music_sentence_111

The clave patterns originated in sub-Saharan African music traditions, where they serve the same function as they do in salsa. Salsa music_sentence_112

The two most common five-stroke African bell parts, which are also the two main clave patterns used in Afro-Cuban music, are known to salsa musicians as son clave and rumba clave. Salsa music_sentence_113

Son and rumba clave can be played in either a triple-pulse ( 8 or 8) or duple-pulse ( 4, 4 or 2) structure. Salsa music_sentence_114

Salsa uses duple-pulse son clave almost exclusively. Salsa music_sentence_115

The contemporary Cuban practice is to write clave in a single measure of 4. Salsa music_sentence_116

Clave is written in this way in the following example in order to illustrate the underlying metric structure of four main beats, which is fundamental to the dynamism of the pattern. Salsa music_sentence_117

Concerning the role of clave in salsa music, Charley Gerard states: "The clave feeling is in the music whether or not the claves are actually being played." Salsa music_sentence_118

Every ostinato part which spans a cycle of four main beats, has a specific alignment with clave, and expresses the rhythmic qualities of clave either explicitly or implicitly. Salsa music_sentence_119

Every salsa musician must know how their particular part fits with clave, and with the other parts of the ensemble. Salsa music_sentence_120

The basic conga tumbao, or marcha sounds slaps (triangle noteheads) and open tones (regular noteheads) on the "and" offbeats. Salsa music_sentence_121

The single tone coinciding with the third stroke of clave is known as ponche, an important syncopated accent. Salsa music_sentence_122

The specific alignment between clave and the conga is critical. Salsa music_sentence_123

The concept of clave as a form of music theory with its accompanying terminology, was fully developed during the big band era of the 1940s, when dance bands in Havana and New York City were enlarged. Salsa music_sentence_124

By the time salsa emerged in the 1970s, there was already a second generation of clave savvy composers and arrangers working in New York. Salsa music_sentence_125

John Santos stresses the importance of this skill: Salsa music_sentence_126

Salsa is a potent expression of clave, and clave became a rhythmic symbol of the musical movement, as its popularity spread. Salsa music_sentence_127

Clave awareness within the salsa community has served as a cultural "boundary marker", creating an insider/outsider dichotomy, between Cuban and non-Cuban, and between Latino and non-Latino. Salsa music_sentence_128

At the same time though, clave serves its ancient function of providing a means of profound inclusion. Salsa music_sentence_129

As Washburne observes: Salsa music_sentence_130

Before salsa pianist Eddie Palmieri takes his first solo at a live concert, he will often stand up, and start clapping clave. Salsa music_sentence_131

Once the audience is clapping clave along with him, Palmieri will sit back down at the piano and proceed to take his solo. Salsa music_sentence_132

Palmieri's solos tend to be rhythmically complex, with avant-garde elements such as harmonic dissonance. Salsa music_sentence_133

By clapping clave along with Palmieri's solo, the audience is able to both "de-code" its rather esoteric musical "message", and participate in its creation at a fundamental level. Salsa music_sentence_134

Clave is the basic period, composed of two rhythmically opposed cells, one antecedent and the other consequent. Salsa music_sentence_135

Clave was initially written in two measures of 4 (below). Salsa music_sentence_136

When clave is written in two measures, each cell or clave half is represented within a single measure. Salsa music_sentence_137

The antecedent half has three strokes and is referred to as the three-side of clave in the parlance of salsa. Salsa music_sentence_138

In Cuban popular music, the first three strokes of son clave are also known collectively as tresillo, a Spanish word meaning 'triplet' (three equal beats in the same time as two main beats). Salsa music_sentence_139

However, in the Cuban vernacular, the term refers to the figure shown below in the first measure. Salsa music_sentence_140

The consequent half (second measure) of clave has two strokes and is called the two-side by salsa musicians. Salsa music_sentence_141

The first measure of clave is considered "strong", contradicting the meter with three cross beats and generating a sense of forward momentum. Salsa music_sentence_142

The second measure is considered "weak". Salsa music_sentence_143

Clave resolves in the second measure when the last stroke coincides with the last main beat of the cycle. Salsa music_sentence_144

John Amria describes the rhythmic sequence of clave: Salsa music_sentence_145

Percussion and clave alignment Salsa music_section_10

Since a chord progression can begin on either side of clave, percussionists have to be able to initiate their parts in either half (a single measure in 2 or 4). Salsa music_sentence_146

The following examples show clave with the bongo bell and timbale bell parts in both a 3-2 and a 2-3 sequence. Salsa music_sentence_147

The timbale bell comes from a stick pattern (cáscara) used in the Afro-Cuban folkloric rhythm guaguancó. Salsa music_sentence_148

The following example shows the most common conga (two drums), timbale bell, and bongo bell pattern combination used in salsa music. Salsa music_sentence_149

According to Bobby Sanabria, the 3-2, 2-3 concept and terminology was developed in New York City during the 1940s by Cuban-born Mario Bauzá, when he was music director of Machito's Afro-Cubans. Salsa music_sentence_150

The 3-2, 2-3 concept is a basic tenet of salsa, but it is not widely used in Cuba. Salsa music_sentence_151

Guajeo Salsa music_section_11

A guajeo is a typical Cuban ostinato melody, most often consisting of arpeggiated chords in syncopated patterns. Salsa music_sentence_152

Guajeos are a seamless blend of European harmonic and African rhythmic structures. Salsa music_sentence_153

A piano guajeo may be played during the verse section of a song, but it is at the center of the montuno section. Salsa music_sentence_154

That is why some salsa musicians refer to piano guajeos as montunos. Salsa music_sentence_155

Piano guajeos are one of the most recognizable elements in salsa music. Salsa music_sentence_156

As Sonny Bravo explains: "In salsa, the piano is more of a percussion instrument than a melodic one, especially in ensemble playing. Salsa music_sentence_157

When you're backing a soloist, you play a riff over and over again. Salsa music_sentence_158

This is what we call guajeo. Salsa music_sentence_159

The pianist uses this guajeo to provide the rhythm section with its drive." Salsa music_sentence_160

Clave and guajeos are commonly written in two measures of cut time ( 2) in salsa charts. Salsa music_sentence_161

This is most likely an influence of jazz conventions. Salsa music_sentence_162

Most guajeos have a binary structure that expresses clave. Salsa music_sentence_163

Kevin Moore states: "There are two common ways that the three-side is expressed in Cuban popular music. Salsa music_sentence_164

The first to come into regular use, which David Peñalosa calls 'clave motif,' is based on the decorated version of the three-side of the clave rhythm." Salsa music_sentence_165

The following guajeo example is based on a clave motif. Salsa music_sentence_166

The three-side (first measure) consists of the tresillo variant known as cinquillo. Salsa music_sentence_167

A chord progression can begin on either side of clave. Salsa music_sentence_168

In salsa "one" can be on either side of clave, because the harmonic progression, rather than the rhythmic progression is the primary referent. Salsa music_sentence_169

When a chord progression begins on the two-side of clave, the music is said to be in two-three clave. Salsa music_sentence_170

The following guajeo is based on the clave motif in a two-three sequence. Salsa music_sentence_171

The cinquillo rhythm is now in the second measure. Salsa music_sentence_172

Moore: "By the 1940s [there was] a trend toward the use of what Peñalosa calls the 'offbeat/onbeat motif.' Salsa music_sentence_173

Today, the offbeat/onbeat motif method is much more common." Salsa music_sentence_174

With this type of guajeo motif, the three-side of clave is expressed with all offbeats. Salsa music_sentence_175

The following I IV V IV progression is in a three-two clave sequence. Salsa music_sentence_176

It begins with an offbeat pick-up on the pulse immediately before beat 1. Salsa music_sentence_177

With some guajeos, offbeats at the end of the two-side, or onbeats at the end of the three-side serve as pick-ups leading into the next measure (when clave is written in two measures). Salsa music_sentence_178

This guajeo is in two-three clave because it begins on the downbeat, emphasizing the onbeat quality of the two-side. Salsa music_sentence_179

The figure has the same exact harmonic sequence as the previous example, but rhythmically, the attack-point sequence of the two measures is reversed. Salsa music_sentence_180

Most salsa is in two-three clave, and most salsa piano guajeos are based on the two-three onbeat/offbeat motif. Salsa music_sentence_181

When salsa uses non-Cuban rhythms, such as a Puerto Rican plena, guajeos are essential to tie that genre in with the salsa format. Salsa music_sentence_182

The expression of the 2-3 onbeat/offbeat motif is more abstract in this guajeo than in others previous mentioned. Salsa music_sentence_183

The offbeat and onbeat pick ups begin at their extreme limit in the preceding measures. Salsa music_sentence_184

The third measure outlines a G7 chord. Salsa music_sentence_185

The other measures outline C. Salsa music_sentence_186

Bass tumbao Salsa music_section_12

Most salsa bass tumbaos are based on the tresillo pattern. Salsa music_sentence_187

Often the last note of the measure (ponche) is held over the downbeat of the next measure. Salsa music_sentence_188

In this way, only the two offbeats of tresillo are sounded. Salsa music_sentence_189

This tumbao is clave-neutral. Salsa music_sentence_190

Some salsa tumbaos that have a specific alignment with clave. Salsa music_sentence_191

The following 2-3 bass line coincides with three of the clave's five strokes. Salsa music_sentence_192

Moñas Salsa music_section_13

A moña is a horn guajeo, which can be written or improvised. Salsa music_sentence_193

What's known as the Cuban típico style of soloing on trombone draws upon the technique of stringing together moña variations. Salsa music_sentence_194

The following example shows five different variants of a 2-3 trombone moña improvised by José Rodríguez on "Bilongo" (c. 1969), performed by Eddie Palmieri. Salsa music_sentence_195

Moña 1 sounds every stroke of 2-3 clave except the first stroke of the three-side. Salsa music_sentence_196

Melodic variety is created by transposing the module in accordance to the harmonic sequence, as Rick Davies observes in his detailed analysis of the first moña: Salsa music_sentence_197

A section of layered, contrapuntal horn guajeos is also referred to sometimes as a moña. Salsa music_sentence_198

Moñas differ from typical rhythm section guajeos in that they often will rest for a beat or two within their cycle. Salsa music_sentence_199

Those beats within a measure not sounded by the moña are often "filled" by a chorus, or counter moña. Salsa music_sentence_200

The trumpet and trombone moñas shown below ("Bilongo") can be repeated verbatim, or altered. Salsa music_sentence_201

Improvisation is within a framework of repetition and the melodic contour of the moñas. Salsa music_sentence_202

In this way, multiple instrumentalists can improvise simultaneously while reinforcing the rhythmic/melodic momentum of the rhythm section. Salsa music_sentence_203

The next moña layers are from the descarga "Guatacando" by the Fania All-Stars (1968). Salsa music_sentence_204

The trumpet figure is one clave in length, while the trombone figure is two claves. Salsa music_sentence_205

This is a classic example of how moñas are layered. Salsa music_sentence_206

The trombone Moña consists of two parts, a call-and-response structure. Salsa music_sentence_207

The trumpet moña begins on the last note of first half of the trombone moña. Salsa music_sentence_208

The second half of the trombone moña begins on the pulse (subdivision) immediately following the last note of the trumpet moña. Salsa music_sentence_209

History Salsa music_section_14

Pre-salsa: Cuban dance music in New York City 1930-1940 Salsa music_section_15

Salsa emerged from New York City in the mid-1970s, then spread throughout Latin America and the Western Hemisphere. Salsa music_sentence_210

However, the music had already been going strong in the city for several decades prior to the use of the label salsa. Salsa music_sentence_211

New York had been a center of Cuban-style dance music since the 1940s, when landmark innovations by Machito's Afro-Cubans helped usher in the mambo era. Salsa music_sentence_212

Tito Puente worked for a time in the Afro-Cubans before starting up his own successful band. Salsa music_sentence_213

By the early 1950s, there were three very popular mambo big bands in New York: Machito and his Afro-Cubans, Tito Puente, and Tito Rodríguez. Salsa music_sentence_214

There were many other working bands as well. Salsa music_sentence_215

The Palladium Ballroom was the epicenter of mambo in New York. Salsa music_sentence_216

At the height of its popularity, the Palladium attracted Hollywood and Broadway stars, especially on Wednesday nights, when a free dance lesson was offered. Salsa music_sentence_217

The mambo and its "temple", the Palladium, were racially and ethnically integrated phenomena. Salsa music_sentence_218

The next Cuban "dance craze" to hit the United States was the chachachá. Salsa music_sentence_219

The chachachá originated in the Cuban charanga bands, but was adopted by the horn-based groups in New York. Salsa music_sentence_220

By the early 1960s, there were several charanga bands in New York, led by future salsa icons Johnny Pacheco, Charlie Palmieri, and Ray Barretto. Salsa music_sentence_221

Mongo Santamaría also had a charanga during this period. Salsa music_sentence_222

The pachanga was popularized by Orquesta Sublime and other Cuban charangas. Salsa music_sentence_223

The pachanga was the last Cuban popular dance to take ahold in New York's Latin community. Salsa music_sentence_224

The U.S. embargo against Cuba (1962) halted the two-way flow of music and musicians between Cuba and the United States. Salsa music_sentence_225

The first post-Revolution Cuban dance music genre was the short-lived, but highly influential mozambique (1963). Salsa music_sentence_226

Neither the dance, nor the music caught on outside of Cuba. Salsa music_sentence_227

In spite of this, members of Eddie Palmieri's Conjunto la Perfecta did hear this new music over shortwave radio, inspiring them to create a similar rhythm which they also called mozambique. Salsa music_sentence_228

Although the two rhythms share no parts in common, the band received death threats because some right wing Cuban exiles thought Palmieri's band was playing contemporary Cuban music. Salsa music_sentence_229

There was one final distinct Latin music era in New York before salsa emerged, and it was an original, home-grown hybrid: the Latin boogaloo (or boogalú). Salsa music_sentence_230

By the mid-1960s, a hybrid Nuyorican cultural identity emerged, primarily Puerto Rican but influenced by many Latin cultures as well as the close contact with African Americans. Salsa music_sentence_231

The boogaloo was a true Nuyorican music, a bi-lingual mix of R&B and Cuban rhythms. Salsa music_sentence_232

It had two Top 20 hits in 1963: Mongo Santamaría's performance of the Herbie Hancock piece "Watermelon Man" and Ray Barretto's "El Watusi", which in a sense, established the basic boogaloo formula. Salsa music_sentence_233

The term boogaloo was probably coined in about 1966 by Richie Ray and Bobby Cruz. Salsa music_sentence_234

The biggest boogaloo hit of the 60s was "Bang Bang" by the Joe Cuba Sextet, which achieved unprecedented success for Latin music in the United States in 1966 when it sold over one million copies. Salsa music_sentence_235

"El Pito" was another hit by this popular combo. Salsa music_sentence_236

Hits by other groups included Johnny Colón's "Boogaloo Blues", Pete Rodríguez's "I Like It like That", and Hector Rivera's "At the Party". Salsa music_sentence_237

Joe Bataan and the Lebron Brothers are two other important boogaloo bands. Salsa music_sentence_238

In 1966, the same year as Joe Cuba's pop success, the Palladium closed because it lost its liquor license. Salsa music_sentence_239

The mambo faded away, and a new generation came into their own with the boogaloo, the jala-jala and the shing-a-ling. Salsa music_sentence_240

Some of the older, established band leaders took a stab at recording boogaloos—Tito Puente, Eddie Palmieri, and even Machito and Arsenio Rodríguez. Salsa music_sentence_241

But the establishment didn't have their hearts in it. Salsa music_sentence_242

As Puente later recounted: "It stunk ... Salsa music_sentence_243

I recorded it to keep up with the times. Salsa music_sentence_244

The young boogaloo upstarts were outselling their older counterparts. Salsa music_sentence_245

Johnny Colón claims that "Boogaloo Blues" sold over four million copies domestically. Salsa music_sentence_246

By the end of the 1960s though, the Latin music establishment shut down boogaloo airplay and the movement fizzled out. Salsa music_sentence_247

Some of the young boogaloo artists, like Willie Colón, were able to transition into the next phase—salsa. Salsa music_sentence_248

The late 1960s also saw white youth joining a counterculture heavily associated with political activism, while black youth formed radical organizations like the Black Panthers. Salsa music_sentence_249

Inspired by these movements, Latinos in New York formed the Young Lords, rejected assimilation and "made the barrio a cauldron of militant assertiveness and artistic creativity". Salsa music_sentence_250

The musical aspect of this social change was based on the Cuban son, which had long been the favored musical form for urbanites in both Puerto Rico and New York. Salsa music_sentence_251

The Manhattan-based recording company Fania Records introduced many of the first-generation salsa singers and musicians to the world. Salsa music_sentence_252

Founded by Dominican flautist and band-leader Johnny Pacheco and impresario Jerry Masucci, Fania was launched with Willie Colón and Héctor Lavoe's El Malo in 1967. Salsa music_sentence_253

This was followed by a series of updated son montuno and plena tunes that evolved into modern salsa by 1973. Salsa music_sentence_254

Pacheco put together a team that included percussionist Louie Ramirez, bassist Bobby Valentín and arranger Larry Harlow. Salsa music_sentence_255

The Fania team released a string of successful singles, mostly son and plena, performing live after forming the Fania All-Stars Salsa music_sentence_256

1970s Salsa music_section_16

In 1971 the Fania All-Stars sold out Yankee Stadium. Salsa music_sentence_257

By the early 1970s, the music's center moved to Manhattan and the Cheetah, where promoter Ralph Mercado introduced many future Puerto Rican salsa stars to an ever-growing and diverse crowd of Latino audiences. Salsa music_sentence_258

The 1970s also brought new semi-known Salsa Bands from New York City, Bands like Angel Canales, Andy Harlow (Larry Harlow's brother), Chino Rodriguez y su Consagracion (Chino Rodriguez was one of the first Chinese Puerto Rican artist that cued the eye of Fania Record's owner Jerry Masucci and later became the Booking Agent for many of the Fania Artists. Salsa music_sentence_259

), Wayne Gorbea, Ernie Agusto y la Conspiracion, Orchestra Ray Jay, Orchestra Fuego, and Orchestra Cimarron, amongst other bands that were performing in the Salsa market in the East Coast of the USA. Salsa music_sentence_260

In 1975 New York, DJ and conga drummer, Roger Dawson created the "Sunday Salsa Show" over WRVR FM which became one of the highest-rated radio shows in the New York market with a reported audience of over a quarter of a million listeners every Sunday (per Arbitron Radio Ratings). Salsa music_sentence_261

Ironically, although New York's Hispanic population at that time was over two million, there had been no commercial Hispanic FM. Salsa music_sentence_262

Given his jazz and salsa conga playing experience and knowledge (working as a sideman with such bands as salsa's Frankie Dante's Orquesta Flamboyan and jazz saxophonist Archie Shepp), Dawson also created the long-running "Salsa Meets Jazz" weekly concert series at the Village Gate jazz club where jazz musicians would sit in with an established salsa band, for example Dexter Gordon jamming with the Machito band. Salsa music_sentence_263

Dawson helped to broaden New York's salsa audience and introduced new artists such as the bi-lingual Angel Canales who were not given play on the Hispanic AM stations of that time. Salsa music_sentence_264

His show won several awards from the readers of Latin New York magazine, Izzy Sanabria's Salsa Magazine at that time and ran until late 1980 when Viacom changed the format of WRVR to country music. Salsa music_sentence_265

From New York, salsa quickly expanded to Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Colombia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, and other Latin American countries. Salsa music_sentence_266

The number of salsa bands, both in New York and elsewhere, increased dramatically, as did salsa-oriented radio stations and record labels. Salsa music_sentence_267

The 1970s saw a number of musical innovations among salsa musicians. Salsa music_sentence_268

Willie Colón introduced the cuatro, a rural Puerto Rican plucked string instrument, as well as some songs with jazz, rock, and Panamanian and Brazilian music influences. Salsa music_sentence_269

Celia Cruz, who had a successful career in Cuba, was able to transition well to salsa in the United States. Salsa music_sentence_270

She became known as the Queen of Salsa. Salsa music_sentence_271

Larry Harlow, a bandleader, and arranger for Fania Records, modernized salsa by adding an electric piano. Salsa music_sentence_272

Harlow also stretched out from the typical salsa formula with his ambitious opera Hommy (1973), inspired by the Who's Tommy, and integral to Celia Cruz's comeback from early retirement. Salsa music_sentence_273

In 1979 Harlow released his critically acclaimed La Raza Latina, a Salsa Suite. Salsa music_sentence_274

The slick, highly produced Fania sound was too predictably formulaic for some tastes. Salsa music_sentence_275

There was a niche for more adventurous Puerto Rican bands, such as Eddie Palmieri, and Manny Oquendo's Libre. Salsa music_sentence_276

The two bands were the main proponents of NY-style Mozambique, drew inspiration from the classic Cuban composers, and Afro-Cuban folkloric rhythms, while pushing the limits of salsa, and incorporating jazz elements. Salsa music_sentence_277

They also featured some of the best trombone soloists in the business, several of whom were "Anglo" jazz musicians who had mastered the típico style. Salsa music_sentence_278

Most famous of these was Barry Rogers. Salsa music_sentence_279

The Gonzalez brothers, Jerry and Andy, played congas and bass respectively, in Libre. Salsa music_sentence_280

Prior to the founding of Libre, they had played in one of Palmieri's most experimental salsa bands. Salsa music_sentence_281

Andy Gonzalez recounts: "We were into improvising ... doing that thing Miles Davis was doing—playing themes and just improvising on the themes of songs, and we never stopped playing through the whole set." Salsa music_sentence_282

While in Palmieri's band (1974-1976), the Gonzalez brothers started showing up in the DownBeat Reader's Poll. Salsa music_sentence_283

Palmieri and Libre caught the attention of jazz critics and reached listening to audiences who were not necessarily a part of the salsa culture. Salsa music_sentence_284

By the end of the decade, Fania Records' longtime leadership of salsa was weakened by the arrival of the labels TH-Rodven and RMM. Salsa music_sentence_285

Divergence of salsa and Cuban popular music Salsa music_section_17

Ironically, Cuban popular music during the 1970s incorporated North American jazz, rock, and funk in much more significant ways than did salsa. Salsa music_sentence_286

Whereas salsa occasionally superimposes elements of another genre, or incorporates a non-salsa style in the bridge of a song, Cuban popular music since the 1970s has fully integrated North American jazz and funk to the point of true hybrid. Salsa music_sentence_287

It began with Juan Formell, the former director for Orquesta Revé (1968), and the founder and current director of Los Van Van. Salsa music_sentence_288

Formell fused American pop with clave-based Cuban elements. Salsa music_sentence_289

Moore states: "The harmonies, never before heard in Cuban music, were clearly borrowed from North American pop [and] shattered the formulaic limitations on harmony to which Cuban popular music had faithfully adhered for so long." Salsa music_sentence_290

The Cuban super group Irakere fused bebop and funk with batá drums and other Afro-Cuban folkloric elements. Salsa music_sentence_291

The 1970s was the songo era in Cuba, with groups like Los Van Van and Orquesta Ritmo Oriental playing a highly syncopated, rumba-influenced form of charanga. Salsa music_sentence_292

For the most part, salsa music was not influenced by developments in Cuban popular music during the 1970s. Salsa music_sentence_293

One notable exception was Sonny Bravo of Típica '73, who arranged songs by contemporary Cuban charangas. Salsa music_sentence_294

In 1979 Típica '73 travelled to Havana to record Típica '73 en Cuba, a collaboration between the band and Cuban musicians. Salsa music_sentence_295

1980s Salsa music_section_18

In 1980 the Mariel boatlift brought thousands of Cuban refugees to the United States. Salsa music_sentence_296

Many of these refugees were musicians, who were astonished to hear what sounded to them like Cuban music from the 1950s. Salsa music_sentence_297

It was as if the 60s never happened. Salsa music_sentence_298

Cuban conguero Daniel Ponce summarized this sentiment: "When the Cubans arrived in New York, they all said 'Yuk! Salsa music_sentence_299

This is old music.' Salsa music_sentence_300

The music and the feelings and arrangements [haven't] changed." Salsa music_sentence_301

In fundamental ways, salsa is the preservation of the late 1950s Cuban sound. Salsa music_sentence_302

The influx of Cuban musicians had more of an impact on jazz than salsa. Salsa music_sentence_303

After the boatlift though, there was obviously more awareness of the modern Cuban styles. Salsa music_sentence_304

Tito Puente recorded the Irakere composition "Bacalao con pan" (1980), and Rubén Blades covered Los Van Van's "Muevete" (1985). Salsa music_sentence_305

The bands Batacumbele and Zaperoko of Puerto Rico fully embraced songo. Salsa music_sentence_306

Led by Angel "Cachete" Maldonado and featuring a young Giovanni Hidalgo, Batacumbele interpreted songo in a horn-based format, with a strong jazz influence. Salsa music_sentence_307

By the early 1980s a generation of New York City musicians had come of age playing both salsa dance music and jazz. Salsa music_sentence_308

The time had come for a new level of integration of jazz and Cuban rhythms. Salsa music_sentence_309

This era of creativity and vitality is best represented by the Gonzalez brothers of Conjunto Libre (as the band was originally called). Salsa music_sentence_310

Jerry Gonzalez founded the jazz group the Fort Apache Band, which included his brother Andy and established a new standard for Latin jazz. Salsa music_sentence_311

During this same period, Tito Puente changed to performing and recording primarily Latin jazz for the remainder of his career. Salsa music_sentence_312

By 1989 Eddie Palmieri had also switched to playing mostly Latin jazz. Salsa music_sentence_313

The 1980s saw salsa expand to Nicaragua, Argentina, Peru, Europe and Japan, and diversify into new stylistic interpretations. Salsa music_sentence_314

Oscar D'León from Venezuela is a huge salsa star. Salsa music_sentence_315

In Colombia, a new generation of musicians began to combine salsa with elements of cumbia and vallenato; this fusion tradition can be traced back to the 1960s work of Peregoyo y su Combo Vacana. Salsa music_sentence_316

However, it was Joe Arroyo and La Verdad, his band, that popularized Colombian salsa beginning in the 1980s. Salsa music_sentence_317

The Colombian singer Joe Arroyo first rose to fame in the 1970s, but became a renowned exponent of Colombian salsa in the 1980s. Salsa music_sentence_318

Arroyo worked for many years with the Colombian arranger Fruko y sus Tesos (Fruko and his band Los Tesos). Salsa music_sentence_319

Grupo Niche is based in Cali, Colombia, and enjoys great popularity throughout Latin America. Salsa music_sentence_320

One of their biggest hits, "Cali Pachanguero" (1984), was seemingly arranged oblivious to clave. Salsa music_sentence_321

As salsa grew and flourished in other countries, removed by both time and space from the New York epicenter, it adopted local sensibilities and drifted away from its Afro-Cuban moorings. Salsa music_sentence_322

The 1980s was a time of diversification, as popular salsa evolved into sweet and smooth Puerto Rican salsa romantica, with lyrics dwelling on love and romance, and its more explicit cousin, salsa erotica. Salsa music_sentence_323

Salsa romantica can be traced back to Noches Calientes, a 1984 album by singer José Alberto "El Canario" with producer Louie Ramirez. Salsa music_sentence_324

A wave of romantica singers, found wide audiences with a new style characterized by romantic lyrics, an emphasis on the melody over rhythm, and use of percussion breaks and chord changes. Salsa music_sentence_325

Some viewed salsa romantica as a rhythmically watered-down version of the genre. Salsa music_sentence_326

Critics of salsa romántica, especially in the late 80s and early 90s, called it a commercialized, diluted form of Latin pop, in which formulaic, sentimental love ballads were simply put to Afro-Cuban rhythms—leaving no room for classic salsa's brilliant musical improvisation, or for classic salsa lyrics that tell stories of daily life or provide social and political commentary. Salsa music_sentence_327

The marketing of salsa romántica singers has often been based more on their youthful sex appeal than on the quality of their music. Salsa music_sentence_328

For these reasons, the form sometimes has been derided as salsa monga (limp or flaccid salsa), as opposed to salsa gorda or salsa dura (fat or 'hard salsa').Omar Alfanno is probably the most prolific songwriter in the salsa romántica genre he was hand held into the business by Salsa Dura songwriter Johnny Ortiz. Salsa music_sentence_329

Other notable composers include Palmer Hernandez and Jorge Luis Piloto. Salsa music_sentence_330

Antonio "Tony" Moreno, Chino Rodriguez, Sergio George and Julio "Gunda" Merced are some of the most notable producers in the salsa romántica genre. Salsa music_sentence_331

Salsa lost popularity among many Latino youth, who were drawn to American rock in large numbers, while the popularization of Dominican merengue further sapped the audience among Latinos in both New York and Puerto Rico. Salsa music_sentence_332

Along with the salsa-pop fusion of salsa romántica, the 1980s saw the combining elements of salsa with soul, R&B, and hip hop music. Salsa music_sentence_333

The dilution of Afro-Cuban rhythmic principles created problems for some. Salsa music_sentence_334

Washburne recounts: "As arrangers struggled to 'fit' these music styles into a salsa format, a variety of 'clave discrepancies,' or clashes, like in 'Cali Pachanguero,' often resulted. Salsa music_sentence_335

As the salsa style became more culturally diverse, Nuyorican and Puerto Rican traditionalists often reacted by emphatically positing clave as a representative of, or essential to, Puerto Rican cultural identity." Salsa music_sentence_336

"Salsa cubana" and the birth of timba Salsa music_section_19

In the mid-1980s salsa finally caught on in Cuba. Salsa music_sentence_337

However, the development of Salsa Cubana is drastically different. Salsa music_sentence_338

Moore: Salsa music_sentence_339

Prior to D'León's performance, Cuban musicians had for the most part, rejected salsa, considering it bad imitation Cuban music. Salsa music_sentence_340

Something changed after d'León's performance. Salsa music_sentence_341

By that time, Cuban popular music had moved way beyond the old Cuban templates used in salsa. Salsa music_sentence_342

Cuba's momentary "salsa craze" brought back some of those older templates. Salsa music_sentence_343

For example, Orquesta Ritmo Oriental started using the most common salsa timbale bell and bongo bell combination. Salsa music_sentence_344

That bell arrangement became the standard for timba, which emerged at the end of the 1980s. Salsa music_sentence_345

The release of En la calle (1989) by NG La Banda, marked the beginning of the post-songo era. Salsa music_sentence_346

This new music shared more with salsa than the Cuban music of the previous decade. Salsa music_sentence_347

Departing from the rumba-inspired percussion parts of the previous songo era, "La expresiva" uses typical salsa bell patterns creatively incorporated into a Cuban-style timbales/drum kit hybrid. Salsa music_sentence_348

The tumbadora ('conga') plays elaborate variations on the son montuno-based tumbao, rather than in the songo style. Salsa music_sentence_349

In contrast to salsa though, NG's bass tumbaos are busier, and rhythmically and harmonically more complex than typically heard in salsa. Salsa music_sentence_350

The breakdown sections in En la calle have more in common with both the folkloric guaguancó of that time, and hip-hop, than with salsa. Salsa music_sentence_351

Some Cuban musicians referred to this late-80s sound as salsa cubana, a term which for the first time, included Cuban music as a part of salsa. Salsa music_sentence_352

In the mid-1990s California-based Bembe Records released CDs by several Cuban bands, as part of their salsa cubana series. Salsa music_sentence_353

Those bands included Manolito y su Trabuco, Orquesta Sublime, and Irakere which was nominated for a Grammy. Salsa music_sentence_354

Other North American labels such as Qbadic and Xenophile also released CDs by contemporary Cuban bands. Salsa music_sentence_355

It would seem at last that Cuban popular music could be marketed as salsa. Salsa music_sentence_356

In 1997, the film and CD Buena Vista Social Club, produced by Ry Cooder, was a big hit in the United States. Salsa music_sentence_357

America "discovered" Cuban music once again. Salsa music_sentence_358

However, for the most part, the music of the BVSC and its spin-offs was from the pre-mambo era. Salsa music_sentence_359

They do not play salsa. Salsa music_sentence_360

One exception was the BVSC spin-off, the Afro-Cuban All Stars. Salsa music_sentence_361

When touring the United States the All Stars performed arrangements that began very much like salsa tunes, but they would also employ breakdowns about halfway through the pieces. Salsa music_sentence_362

The Buena Vista Social Club and its spin-off groups did not exist in Cuba as working bands. Salsa music_sentence_363

They were put together for touring outside of Cuba. Salsa music_sentence_364

The bands that were playing in Havana had meanwhile been steadily evolving into something quite distinctly Cuban, and less like salsa. Salsa music_sentence_365

The Cuban jazz pianist Gonzalo Rubalcaba developed a technique of pattern and harmonic displacement in the 1980s, which was adopted into timba guajeos in the 1990s. Salsa music_sentence_366

The guajeo (shown above) for Issac Delgado's "La temática" (1997) demonstrates some of the innovations of timba piano. Salsa music_sentence_367

A series of repeated octaves invoke a characteristic metric ambiguity. Salsa music_sentence_368

Techniques like guajeo pattern displacement often make the music difficult for non-Cubans to dance to. Salsa music_sentence_369

The term salsa cubana which had barely taken hold, eventually fell out of favor, and was replaced with timba. Salsa music_sentence_370

Some of the other important timba bands include Azúcar Negra, Bamboleo, Manolín "El Médico de la salsa". Salsa music_sentence_371

Charanga Habanera, Havana d'Primera, Klimax, Paulito FG, Pupy y Los Que Son, Salsa Mayor, and Tiempo Libre. Salsa music_sentence_372

Cuban timba musicians and New York salsa musicians have had positive and creative exchanges over the years, but the two genres remain somewhat separated, appealing to different audiences. Salsa music_sentence_373

Nevertheless, some people today include Cuban groups in the salsa category. Salsa music_sentence_374

African salsa Salsa music_section_20

Cuban music has been popular in sub-Saharan Africa since the mid twentieth century. Salsa music_sentence_375

To the Africans, clave-based Cuban popular music sounded both familiar and exotic. Salsa music_sentence_376

The Encyclopedia of Africa v. 1. states: Salsa music_sentence_377

Congolese bands started doing Cuban covers and singing the lyrics phonetically. Salsa music_sentence_378

Soon, they were creating their own original Cuban-like compositions, with lyrics sung in French or Lingala, a lingua franca of the western Congo region. Salsa music_sentence_379

The Congolese called this new music rumba, although it was really based on the son. Salsa music_sentence_380

The Africans adapted guajeos to electric guitars, and gave them their own regional flavor. Salsa music_sentence_381

The guitar-based music gradually spread out from the Congo, increasingly taking on local sensibilities. Salsa music_sentence_382

This process eventually resulted in the establishment of several different distinct regional genres, such as soukous. Salsa music_sentence_383

Cuban popular music played a major role in the development of many contemporary genres of African popular music. Salsa music_sentence_384

John Storm Roberts states: "It was the Cuban connection, but increasingly also New York salsa, that provided the major and enduring influences—the ones that went deeper than earlier imitation or passing fashion. Salsa music_sentence_385

The Cuban connection began very early and was to last at least twenty years, being gradually absorbed and re-Africanized." Salsa music_sentence_386

The re-working of Afro-Cuban rhythmic patterns by Africans brings the rhythms full circle. Salsa music_sentence_387

The re-working of the harmonic patterns reveals a striking difference in perception. Salsa music_sentence_388

The I IV V IV harmonic progression, so common in Cuban music, is heard in pop music all across the African continent, thanks to the influence of Cuban music. Salsa music_sentence_389

Those chords move in accordance with the basic tenets of Western music theory. Salsa music_sentence_390

However, as Gerhard Kubik points out, performers of African popular music do not necessarily perceive these progressions in the same way: "The harmonic cycle of C-F-G-F [I-IV-V-IV] prominent in Congo/Zaire popular music simply cannot be defined as a progression from tonic to subdominant to dominant and back to subdominant (on which it ends) because in the performer's appreciation they are of equal status, and not in any hierarchical order as in Western music." Salsa music_sentence_391

The largest wave of Cuban-based music to hit Africa was in the form of salsa. Salsa music_sentence_392

In 1974 the Fania All Stars performed in Zaire (known today as the Democratic Republic of the Congo), Africa, at the 80,000-seat Stadu du Hai in Kinshasa. Salsa music_sentence_393

This was captured on film and released as Live In Africa (Salsa Madness in the UK). Salsa music_sentence_394

The Zairean appearance occurred at a music festival held in conjunction with the Muhammad Ali/George Foreman heavyweight title fight. Salsa music_sentence_395

Local genres were already well established by this time. Salsa music_sentence_396

Even so, salsa caught on in many African countries, especially in the Senegambia and Mali. Salsa music_sentence_397

Cuban music had been the favorite of Senegal's nightspot in the 1950s to 1960s. Salsa music_sentence_398

The Senegalese band Orchestra Baobab plays in a basic salsa style with congas and timbales, but with the addition of Wolof and Mandinka instruments and lyrics. Salsa music_sentence_399

According to Lise Waxer, "African salsa points not so much to a return of salsa to African soil (Steward 1999: 157) but to a complex process of cultural appropriation between two regions of the so-called Third World." Salsa music_sentence_400

Since the mid-1990s African artists have also been very active through the super-group Africando, where African and New York musicians mix with leading African singers such as Bambino Diabate, Ricardo Lemvo, Ismael Lo and Salif Keita. Salsa music_sentence_401

It is still common today for an African artist to record a salsa tune, and add their own particular regional touch to it. Salsa music_sentence_402

1990s to the present Salsa music_section_21

Producer and pianist Sergio George helped to revive salsa's commercial success in the 1990s by mixing salsa with contemporary pop styles with Puerto Rican artists like Tito Nieves, La India, and Marc Anthony. Salsa music_sentence_403

George also produced the Japanese salsa band Orquesta de la Luz. Salsa music_sentence_404

Brenda K. Starr, Son By Four, Víctor Manuelle, and the Cuban-American singer Gloria Estefan enjoyed crossover success within the Anglo-American pop market with their Latin-influenced hits, usually sung in English. Salsa music_sentence_405

More often than not, clave was not a major consideration in the composing or arranging of these hits. Salsa music_sentence_406

Sergio George is up front and unapologetic about his attitude towards clave: "Though clave is considered, it is not always the most important thing in my music. Salsa music_sentence_407

The foremost issue in my mind is marketability. Salsa music_sentence_408

If the song hits, that's what matters. Salsa music_sentence_409

When I stopped trying to impress musicians and started getting in touch with what the people on the street were listening to, I started writing hits. Salsa music_sentence_410

Some songs, especially English ones originating in the United States, are at times impossible to place in clave." Salsa music_sentence_411

As Washburne points out however, a lack of clave awareness does not always get a pass: Salsa music_sentence_412

Salsa remained a major part of Colombian music through the 1990s, producing popular bands like Sonora Carruseles, while the singer Carlos Vives created his own style that blends salsa with vallenato and rock. Salsa music_sentence_413

Vives' popularization of vallenato-salsa led to the accordion-led vallenato style being used by mainstream pop stars such as Gloria Estefan. Salsa music_sentence_414

The city of Cali, is known as Colombia's "capital of salsa", having produced such groups as Orquesta Guayacan, Grupo Niche, songwriter Kike Santander, and Julian Collazos, the producer of the Marco Barrientos Band. Salsa music_sentence_415

Cabijazz from Venezuela plays a unique blend of timba-like salsa with a strong jazz influence. Salsa music_sentence_416

The most recent innovations in salsa genre include hybrids like Latin house, salsa-merengue and salsaton, alongside salsa gorda. Salsa music_sentence_417

Films Salsa music_section_22

Salsa music_unordered_list_0

  • 1979 - Salsa: Latin Music in the Cities. Directed by Jeremy Marre.Salsa music_item_0_0
  • 1988 - Salsa. Former Menudo member Robi Draco Rosa plays a teenager who wants to win a dance contest. Celia Cruz, Wilkins and Tito Puente also appear.Salsa music_item_0_1
  • 2007 - El Cantante. El Cantante is a biographical film which stars singers Marc Anthony and Jennifer Lopez. The film is based on the life of the late salsa singer Héctor Lavoe, who is portrayed by Anthony.Salsa music_item_0_2
  • 2014 - Sex, Love & Salsa. Directed by Adrian Manzano. Choreographer: Julie L Tuttlebee. Legendary Salsa dancer Julie Tuttlebee also features in several scenes.Salsa music_item_0_3

See also Salsa music_section_23

Salsa music_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: music.