Salvador, Bahia

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Salvador, Bahia_table_infobox_0

SalvadorSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_0_0
CountrySalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_1_0 BrazilSalvador, Bahia_cell_0_1_1
RegionSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_2_0 NortheastSalvador, Bahia_cell_0_2_1
StateSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_3_0 BahiaSalvador, Bahia_cell_0_3_1
FoundedSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_4_0 29 March 1549Salvador, Bahia_cell_0_4_1
GovernmentSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_5_0
MayorSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_6_0 Antônio Carlos Magalhães Neto (DEM)Salvador, Bahia_cell_0_6_1
Deputy MayorSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_7_0 Bruno Reis (DEM)Salvador, Bahia_cell_0_7_1
AreaSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_8_0
MunicipalitySalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_9_0 693 km (268 sq mi)Salvador, Bahia_cell_0_9_1
WaterSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_10_0 66.91 km (25.83 sq mi)Salvador, Bahia_cell_0_10_1
MetroSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_11_0 4,375.123 km (1,689.244 sq mi)Salvador, Bahia_cell_0_11_1
ElevationSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_12_0 8 m (26 ft)Salvador, Bahia_cell_0_12_1
Population (2018)Salvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_13_0
MunicipalitySalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_14_0 2,857,329 (4th)Salvador, Bahia_cell_0_14_1
DensitySalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_15_0 4,187/km (10,840/sq mi)Salvador, Bahia_cell_0_15_1
MetroSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_16_0 3,919,864 (7th)Salvador, Bahia_cell_0_16_1
Metro densitySalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_17_0 891.3/km (2,308/sq mi)Salvador, Bahia_cell_0_17_1
Demonym(s)Salvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_18_0 Portuguese: Soteropolitano English: SoteropolitanSalvador, Bahia_cell_0_18_1
Time zoneSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_19_0 UTC-3 (BST)Salvador, Bahia_cell_0_19_1
Postal codeSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_20_0 40000-001 to 42599-999Salvador, Bahia_cell_0_20_1
Area codeSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_21_0 +55 71Salvador, Bahia_cell_0_21_1
WebsiteSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_22_0 (in Portuguese)Salvador, Bahia_cell_0_22_1
UNESCO World Heritage SiteOfficial nameHistoric Center of Salvador de BahiaCriteriaCultural: (iv)(vi)ReferenceInscription1985 (9th session)Salvador, Bahia_cell_0_23_0
UNESCO World Heritage SiteSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_24_0
Official nameSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_25_0 Historic Center of Salvador de BahiaSalvador, Bahia_cell_0_25_1
CriteriaSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_26_0 Cultural: (iv)(vi)Salvador, Bahia_cell_0_26_1
ReferenceSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_27_0 Salvador, Bahia_cell_0_27_1
InscriptionSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_0_28_0 1985 (9th session)Salvador, Bahia_cell_0_28_1

Salvador (English: Savior), also known as São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos (English: Holy Savior of the Bay of All Saints), is the capital of the Brazilian state of Bahia. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_0

With 2.9 million people (2017), it is the largest city proper in the Northeast Region and the 4th largest city proper in the country, after São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Brasília. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_1

Founded by the Portuguese in 1549 as the first capital of Brazil, Salvador is one of the oldest colonial cities in the Americas. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_2

A sharp escarpment divides its Lower Town (Cidade Baixa) from its Upper Town (Cidade Alta) by some 85 meters (279 ft). Salvador, Bahia_sentence_3

The Elevador Lacerda, Brazil's first urban elevator, has connected the two since 1873. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_4

The Pelourinho district of the upper town, still home to many examples of Portuguese colonial architecture and historical monuments, was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_5

The city's cathedral is the see of the primate of Brazil and its Carnival celebration has been reckoned as the largest party in the world. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_6

Salvador was one of the first slave ports in the Americas and the African influence of the slaves' descendants makes it a center of Afro-Brazilian (negro) culture. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_7

The city is noted for its cuisine, music, dance and architecture. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_8

Porto da Barra Beach in Barra has been named one of the best beaches in the world. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_9

Itaipava Arena Fonte Nova was the site of the city's games during the 2014 Brazilian World Cup and 2013 Confederations Cup. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_10

Salvador forms the heart of the Recôncavo, Bahia's rich agricultural and industrial maritime district, and continues to be a major Brazilian port. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_11

Its metropolitan area, housing 3,899,533 people (2018) forms the wealthiest one in Brazil's Northeast Region (2015). Salvador, Bahia_sentence_12

History Salvador, Bahia_section_0

See also: Timeline of Salvador, Bahia Salvador, Bahia_sentence_13

Salvador lies on a small, roughly triangular peninsula that separates the Bay of All Saints, the largest bay in Brazil, from the Atlantic Ocean. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_14

It was first reached by Gaspar de Lemos in 1501, just one year after Cabral's purported discovery of Brazil. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_15

During his second voyage for Portugal, the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci sighted the bay on All Saints' Day (1 November) 1502 and, in honor of the date and his parish church in Florence, he named it the Bay of the Holy Savior of All the Saints. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_16

The first European to settle nearby was Diogo Álvares Correia ("Caramuru"), who was shipwrecked off the end of the peninsula in 1509. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_17

He lived among the Tupinambá, marrying Guaibimpara and others. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_18

In 1531, Martim Afonso de Sousa led an expedition from Mount St Paul (Morro de São Paulo) and, in 1534, Francisco Pereira Coutinho, the first captain of Bahia, established the settlement of Pereira in modern Salvador's Ladeira da Barra neighborhood. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_19

Mistreatment of the Tupinambá by the settlers caused them to turn hostile and the Portuguese were forced to flee to Porto Seguro c. 1546. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_20

An attempted restoration of the colony the next year ended in shipwreck and cannibalism. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_21

The present city was established as the fortress of São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos ("Holy Savior of the Bay of All Saints") in 1549 by Portuguese settlers under Tomé de Sousa, Brazil's first governor-general. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_22

It is one of the oldest cities founded by Europeans in the Americas. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_23

From a cliff overlooking the Bay of All Saints, it served as Brazil's first capital and quickly became a major port for its slave trade and sugarcane industry. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_24

Salvador was long divided into an upper and a lower city, divided by a sharp escarpment some 85 meters (279 ft) high. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_25

The upper city formed the administrative, religious, and primary residential districts while the lower city was the commercial center, with a port and market. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_26

In the Roman Catholic Church, Brazil and the rest of the Portuguese Empire were initially administered as part of the Diocese of Funchal in Portugal but, in 1551, Salvador became the seat of the first Roman Catholic diocese erected in Brazil. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_27

The first parish church was the mud-and-thatch Church of Our Lady of Help (Igreja da Nossa Senhora da Ajuda) erected by the Jesuits (Society of Jesus), which served as the first cathedral of the diocese until the Jesuits finished construction of the original basilica on the Terreiro de Jesus in 1553. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_28

Its bishop was made independent of the Archdiocese of Lisbon at the request of King Pedro II in 1676; he served as the primate of the Congo and Angola in central Africa until the elevation of the Diocese of Luanda on 13 January 1844 and its bishop still serves as the national primate and premier see (diocese) of Brazil. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_29

In 1572, the Governorate of Brazil was divided into the separate governorates of Bahia in the north and Rio de Janeiro in the south. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_30

These were reunited as Brazil six years later, then redivided from 1607 to 1613. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_31

By that time, Portugal had become temporarily united with Spain and was ruled from Madrid by its kings. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_32

In 1621, King Philip III replaced the Governorate of Brazil with the states of Brazil, still based in Salvador and now controlling the south, and the Maranhão, which was centered on São Luís and controlled what is now northern Brazil. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_33

As Spain was then prosecuting a war against the independence of the Dutch, the Dutch East and West India companies tried to conquer Brazil from them. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_34

Salvador played a strategically vital role against Dutch Brazil, but was captured and sacked by a West India Company fleet under Jacob Willekens and Piet Hein on 10 May 1624. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_35

Johan van Dorth administered the colony before his assassination, freeing its slaves. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_36

The city was recaptured by a Luso-Spanish fleet under Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo y Mendoza on 1 May 1625. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_37

John Maurice's two subsequent attempts to retake the town in April and May of 1638 were unsuccessful. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_38

In 1763, the colonial administration was removed to Rio de Janeiro and elevated to a viceroyalty. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_39

Salvador remained the heart of the Recôncavo, Bahia's rich agricultural maritime district, but was largely outside Brazil's early modernization. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_40

The area formed a center of royal Portuguese support against heir apparent Pedro I's declaration of independence from European Portugal on 7 September 1822. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_41

Its elites initially remained loyal to the Portuguese crown while rebels from Cachoeira besieged them for a year until finally receiving Portugal's surrender of the town on 2 July 1823, which is now celebrated as Bahia Independence Day. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_42

The local elite was similarly hesitant during Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca's later coup that established the republic in 1889. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_43

Owing to whales' use of the Bay of All Saints as a mating ground, Salvador became a large whaling port in the Southern Hemisphere during the 19th century but the trade had already begun to fall off by the 1870s. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_44

Under the empire and republic periods, however, the town slowly began to industrialize. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_45

In 1873, Brazil's first elevator, the powerful hydraulic Elevador Lacerda, was constructed to connect the city's upper and lower towns. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_46

Having undergone several upgrades, it continues in use. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_47

By the First World War, it was joined by a second elevator and Salvador was connected to four railroads: the Bahia & Alagoinhas to Joazeiro, the Bahia Central, the Nazareth Tramway, and a short line to Santo Amaro. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_48

Its central districts and the major suburbs of Bomsim and Victoria were served by four streetcar lines, which had begun to electrify. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_49

It also served as a port of call for most steamship lines trading between Europe and South America. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_50

In 1985, UNESCO listed the city's Pelourinho neighborhood as a World Heritage Site. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_51

In the 1990s, a major municipal project cleaned and restored the neighborhood in order to develop it as the cultural center and heart of the city's tourist trade. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_52

The development of the Historical Center, however, involved the forced removal of thousands of working-class residents and now necessitates local and municipal events in order to attract people to the area. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_53

The relocated workers, meanwhile, have encountered significant economic hardship in their new homes on the city's periphery, separated from access to work and civic amenities. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_54

In 2007, Porto da Barra Beach in Barra was named by the British Guardian newspaper as the 3rd-best beach in the world. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_55

In 2010, the city hosted the 12th UN Congress on Crime Prevention. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_56

The city hosted the 2013 Confederations Cup and was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil at its Arena Fonte Nova. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_57

As part of its preparations for the World Cup, the city reëstablished its public transportation lines as the Salvador Metro. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_58

Climate Salvador, Bahia_section_1

Salvador has a trade-wind tropical rainforest climate (Köppen: Af). Salvador, Bahia_sentence_59

Temperatures are relatively consistent, showing little variance throughout the course of the year. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_60

Salvador's driest months of the year are December and January, when the city receives on average less than 10 cm (4 in) of precipitation. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_61

Salvador's wettest months are April, May and June, when at least 20 cm (8 in) of rain falls during each of these three months. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_62

Demographics Salvador, Bahia_section_2

Main article: Largest Cities of Northeast Region, Brazil Salvador, Bahia_sentence_63

In 2010, the city of Salvador was the third-most populous city in Brazil, after São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_64

The city had 474,827 opposite-sex couples and 1,595 same-sex couples. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_65

The population of Salvador was 53.3% female and 46.7% male. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_66

According to the 2010 IBGE Census, there were 2,675,000 people residing in the city of Salvador. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_67

The census revealed the following self-identification: 1,382,543 persons identify as Pardo (Multiracial) (51.7%); 743,718 as Black (27.8%); 505,645 as White (18.9%); 35,785 as Asian (1.3%); and 7,563 as Amerindian (0.3%). Salvador, Bahia_sentence_68

Salvador's population is the result of 500 years of interracial marriage. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_69

The majority of the population has African, European and Native American roots. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_70

The African ancestry of the city is from Angola, Benin, Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Senegal and Mozambique. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_71

According to an autosomal DNA study from 2008, the ancestral heritage of the population of Salvador was estimated to be 49.2% African, 36.3% European and 14.5% Native American. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_72

The study also analyzed the genetic backgrounds of people by type of surname. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_73

Those with surnames with a religious connotation were 53.1% African in genetic ancestry and tended to be in lower economic classes. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_74

During the colonial era, it was typical practice for Portuguese priests and missionaries to baptize converted African slaves and Native Americans with surnames of religious connotations. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_75

These have been passed down to their descendants. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_76

A 2015 autosomal DNA study found out the following ancestral composition in Salvador: 50.5% of African ancestry, 42.4% of European ancestry and 5.8% of Native American ancestry. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_77

The researchers explained they oversampled individuals living in poor environments (page 4). Salvador, Bahia_sentence_78

Another 2015 autosomal DNA found out Salvador to be 50.8% African, 42.9% European and 6.4% Native American. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_79

And another autosomal DNA study, also in 2015, found out Salvador to be: 50.8% European, 40.5% African and 8.7% Native American. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_80

Population growth Salvador, Bahia_section_3

Salvador, Bahia_description_list_0

Source: Planet Barsa Ltda. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_81

Religion Salvador, Bahia_section_4

In Salvador, religion is a major contact point between Portuguese and African influences and, in the last 20 years, Brazil's version of a North American-influenced Pentecostalism. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_82

Salvador was the seat of the first bishopric in colonial Brazil (established 1551), and the first bishop, Pero Fernandes Sardinha, arrived already in 1552. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_83

The Jesuits, led by the Manuel da Nóbrega, also arrived in the 16th century and worked in converting the Indigenous peoples of the region to Roman Catholicism. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_84

Many religious orders came to the city, following its foundation: Franciscans, Benedictines and Carmelites. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_85

Subsequently, to them are created the Third Orders, the Brotherhoods, and Fraternities, which were composed mainly of professional and social groups. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_86

The most prominent of these orders were the Terceira do Carmo Order and the de São Francisco Order, founded by white men, and the Nossa Senhora do Rosário and São Beneditino Brotherhoods, composed of black men. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_87

In many churches maintained by religious men, were housed the Santíssimo Sacramento brotherhoods. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_88

Besides these organizations, the expansion of Catholicism in the city was consolidated through social care work. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_89

Santa Casa the Misericórdia was one of the institution that did this kind of work, maintaining hospitals, shelters for the poor and the elderly, as well providing assistance to convicts and to those who would face death penalties. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_90

The convents, on their part, were cultural and religious formation centers, offering seminar coursed that often were attended by the lay. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_91

Even with the present evolution, and the growth of Protestantism and other religions in the city, the Catholic faith remains as one of its most distinctive features, drawing a lot of people to its hundreds of churches. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_92

Some aspects, like the use of Portuguese in the Masses, the simplification of the liturgy, and the adoption of "pop" religious songs are key factors to the triumph of Catholicism. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_93

In the Nossa Senhora do Rosário dos Pretos Church, Masses are held in the Yorubá language, making use of African chants and typical clothes, which attract many people from the African Brazilian communities. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_94

Most enslaved Africans in Bahia were brought from Sub-Saharan Africa, especially the Yoruba-speaking nation (Iorubá or Nagô in Portuguese) from present-day Benin. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_95

The enslaved were forced to convert to Roman Catholicism, but their original religion Yorùbá was combined with Roman Catholicism to make the syncretic religion known as, Candomblé, which has survived in spite of prohibitions and persecutions. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_96

The enslaved Africans managed to preserve their religion by attributing the names and characteristics of their Yorùbá deities to Catholic saints with similar qualities. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_97

Still today all Candomble sessions are conducted in Yoruba, not Portuguese. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_98

These religious entities have been syncretised with some Catholic entities. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_99

For instance, Salvador's Feast of Bonfim, celebrated in January, is dedicated to both Our Lord of Bonfim (Jesus Christ) and Oxalá. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_100

Another important feast is the Feast de Yemanja every 2 February, on the shores of the borough of Rio Vermelho in Salvador, Bahia_sentence_101

Salvador, on the day the church celebrates Our Lady of the Navigators. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_102

8 December, Immaculate Conception Day for Catholics, is also commonly dedicated to Yemanja' with votive offerings made in the sea throughout the Brazilian coast. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_103

Salvador, Bahia_table_general_1

ReligionSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_1_0_0 PercentageSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_1_0_1 NumberSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_1_0_2
CatholicSalvador, Bahia_cell_1_1_0 51.55%Salvador, Bahia_cell_1_1_1 1,379,252Salvador, Bahia_cell_1_1_2
ProtestantSalvador, Bahia_cell_1_2_0 19.59%Salvador, Bahia_cell_1_2_1 524,286Salvador, Bahia_cell_1_2_2
No religionSalvador, Bahia_cell_1_3_0 17.64%Salvador, Bahia_cell_1_3_1 471,928Salvador, Bahia_cell_1_3_2
SpiritistSalvador, Bahia_cell_1_4_0 3.23%Salvador, Bahia_cell_1_4_1 86,484Salvador, Bahia_cell_1_4_2
Umbanda and CandombléSalvador, Bahia_cell_1_5_0 1.05%Salvador, Bahia_cell_1_5_1 28,019Salvador, Bahia_cell_1_5_2
JewishSalvador, Bahia_cell_1_6_0 0.04%Salvador, Bahia_cell_1_6_1 1,010Salvador, Bahia_cell_1_6_2

Source: IBGE 2010. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_104

Economy Salvador, Bahia_section_5

Main article: Economy of Salvador, Bahia Salvador, Bahia_sentence_105

Throughout Brazilian history Salvador has played an important role. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_106

Because of its location on Brazil's northeastern coast, the city served as an important link in the Portuguese empire throughout the colonial era, maintaining close commercial ties with Portugal and Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_107

Salvador remained the preeminent city in Brazil until 1763 when it was replaced as the national capital by Rio de Janeiro. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_108

In the last ten years many high-rise office and apartment buildings were constructed, sharing the same blocks with colonial-era housing or commercial buildings. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_109

With its beaches, humid tropical climate, numerous up-to-date shopping malls (The Shopping Iguatemi was the first shopping mall in Northeastern Brazil) and pleasant high-class residential areas, the city has much to offer its residents. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_110

Economically Salvador is one of Brazil's more important cities. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_111

Since its founding the city has been one of Brazil's most prominent ports and international trading centers. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_112

Boasting a large oil refinery, a petrochemical plant and other important industries, the city has made great strides in reducing its historical dependence on agriculture for its prosperity. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_113

Salvador is the second most popular tourism destination in Brazil, after Rio de Janeiro. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_114

Tourism and cultural activity are important generators of employment and income, boosting the arts and the preservation of artistic and cultural heritage. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_115

Chief among the points of interest are its famous Pelourinho (named after the colonial pillories that once stood there) district, its historic churches, and its beaches. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_116

Salvador's tourism infrastructure is considered one of the most modern in World, especially in terms of lodging. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_117

The city offers accommodation to suit all tastes and standards, from youth hostels to international hotels. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_118

Construction is one of the most important activities in the city, and many international (mainly from Spain, Portugal and England) and national developers are investing in the city and in the Bahian littoral zone. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_119

Ford Motor Company has a plant in the Metropolitan Region of Salvador, in the city of Camaçari, assembling the Ford EcoSport, Ford Fiesta, Ford Fiesta Sedan. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_120

It was the first Automotive industry in Northeastern Brazil. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_121

The industry employs 800 engineers. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_122

JAC Motors will have a plant in the Metropolitan Region of Salvador, in the city of Camaçari, the new industry will result 3,500 direct jobs and 10,000 indirect jobs, the production of 100,000 vehicles by year. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_123

In December 2001, Monsanto Company inaugurated, at the Petrochemical Pole of Camaçari, in Metropolitan Region of Salvador, the first plant of the company designed to produce raw materials for the herbicide Roundup in South America. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_124

The investment is equivalent to US$500 million; US$350 million were spent in this initial phase. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_125

The Camaçari Plant, the largest unit of Monsanto outside of the United States, is also the only Monsanto plant manufacturing raw materials for the Roundup production line. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_126

The company started the civil works for the new plant in January 2000. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_127

Salvador, Bahia_table_general_2

EconomySalvador, Bahia_header_cell_2_0_0 GDP (in reais)Salvador, Bahia_header_cell_2_0_1 GDP per capita (in reais)Salvador, Bahia_header_cell_2_0_2
2016Salvador, Bahia_cell_2_1_0 58 bilhõesSalvador, Bahia_cell_2_1_1 19.505,84Salvador, Bahia_cell_2_1_2

Government and politics Salvador, Bahia_section_6

Salvador, Bahia_description_list_1

Tourism and recreation Salvador, Bahia_section_7

The Salvador coastline is one of the longest for cities in Brazil. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_128

There are 80 km (50 mi) of beaches distributed between the High City and the Low City, from Inema, in the railroad suburb to the Praia do Flamengo, on the other side of town. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_129

While the Low City beaches are bordered by the waters of the All Saints Bay (the country's most extensive bay), the High City beaches, from Farol da Barra to Flamengo, are bordered by the Atlantic Ocean. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_130

The exception is Porto da Barra Beach, the only High City beach located in the All Saints Bay. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_131

The capital's beaches range from calm inlets, ideal for swimming, sailing, diving and underwater fishing, as well as open sea inlets with strong waves, sought by surfers. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_132

There are also beaches surrounded by reefs, forming natural pools of stone, ideal for children. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_133

Interesting places to visit near Salvador include: Salvador, Bahia_sentence_134

Salvador, Bahia_unordered_list_2

  • According to the British newspaper The Guardian, in 2007, Porto da Barra Beach was the third best in the world.Salvador, Bahia_item_2_1
  • The large island of Itaparica in the Bay of All Saints can be visited either by a car-ferry, or a smaller foot-passenger ferry, which leaves from near the Mercado Modelo near the Lacerda Elevator.Salvador, Bahia_item_2_2
  • BA-099 Highway, or "Line of Coconut" and "Green Line" of towns and cities, with exquisite beaches, north of Salvador heading towards Sergipe state.Salvador, Bahia_item_2_3
  • Morro de São Paulo in the Valença region across the Bay of All Saints – an island that can be reached by ferry from Salvador (2 hours), by plane, or by bus to Valença and then by 'Rapido' ('fast') speedboat or smaller ferry. Morro de São Paulo is formed by five villages of the Tinharé Island.Salvador, Bahia_item_2_4

The city is served by many shopping malls, including Shopping Iguatemi, Salvador Shopping, Shopping Barra, and Shopping Paralela. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_135

Salvador has four parks, green areas protected, as Jardim dos Namorados Park, Costa Azul Park, Park of the city, Park of Pituaçu. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_136

Jardim dos Namorados is located right next to Costa Azul Park and occupies an area of 15 hectares in Pituba, where many families used to spend their vacations in the 1950s. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_137

It was inaugurated in 1969, initially as a leisure area. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_138

It underwent a complete renovation in the 1990s, with the construction of an amphitheater with room for 500 people, sports courts, playgrounds and parking for cars and tourist buses. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_139

Park of the city is an important preservation area of the Atlantic forest. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_140

It was completely renovated in 2001, becoming a modern social, cultural and leisure place. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_141

The new park has 720 square meter of green area right in the middle of the city. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_142

Among the attractions are Praça das Flores (Flowers square), with more than five thousand ornamental plants and flowers. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_143

Besides its environment, the park has an infrastructure for children, with a special schedule of events taking place every October. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_144

Created by state decree in 1973, Pituaçu Park occupies an area of 450 hectares and is one of the few Brazilian ecological parks located in an urban area. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_145

It is surrounded by Atlantic forest, with a good variety of plants and animals. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_146

There is also an artificial pond in the park, built in 1906 along with the Pituaçu Dam, whose purpose was to supply water to the city. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_147

There are a number of possible leisure activities, ranging from cycloboats rides on the pond, to a 38 km (24 mi) long cycloway circling the entire reserve. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_148

A museum is also located in the park. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_149

Espaço Cravo is an outdoor museum with 800 pieces created by Mario Cravo, comprising Totems, winged and three-dimensional figures, as well as drawings and paintings. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_150

Education Salvador, Bahia_section_8

Educational institutions Salvador, Bahia_section_9

The city has several universities: Salvador, Bahia_sentence_151

Salvador, Bahia_unordered_list_3

  • Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA) (Federal University of Bahia);Salvador, Bahia_item_3_5
  • Universidade Católica do Salvador (UCSal) (Catholic University of Salvador);Salvador, Bahia_item_3_6
  • Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB) (Bahia State University);Salvador, Bahia_item_3_7
  • Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS) (Salvador University);Salvador, Bahia_item_3_8
  • Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciências (FTC) (College of Technology and Science);Salvador, Bahia_item_3_9
  • Instituto Federal da Bahia (IFBA) (Federal Institute of Bahia);Salvador, Bahia_item_3_10
  • Faculdade Ruy Barbosa (FRB) (Ruy Barbosa College);Salvador, Bahia_item_3_11
  • (CIMATEC) (Integrated Campus of Manufacturing and Technology);Salvador, Bahia_item_3_12
  • (FCA) (Castro Alves College);Salvador, Bahia_item_3_13
  • (UNIJORGE) (Jorge Amado University Center);Salvador, Bahia_item_3_14
  • Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (EBMSP) (Bahian School of Medicine and Public Health);Salvador, Bahia_item_3_15

Primary and secondary schools Salvador, Bahia_section_10

Top high schools of the city according to Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio are: Salvador, Bahia_sentence_152

Public safety Salvador, Bahia_section_11

Salvador is one of the most crime-ridden cities in the country. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_153

The number of homicides increased 418% from 2000 to 2010. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_154

From 1998 to 2008, the number of homicides of youths between the ages of 15 and 24 increased 435.1%. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_155

Gun violence in the state of Bahia more than doubled in the period from 2004 to 2014, and the city is in the top ten for gun violence of the 26 state capitals of Brazil. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_156

In 2014 the state of Bahia had the most murderers in the country. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_157

At the same time, Salvador has one of the lowest rates of suicide in the nation. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_158

Culture Salvador, Bahia_section_12

Salvador's historical and cultural aspects were inherited by the intermarriage of such ethnic groups as Native-Indian, African and European. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_159

This mixture can be seen in the religion, cuisine, cultural manifestations, and custom of Bahia's people. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_160

African cultural practices are particularly celebrated. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_161

Literature Salvador, Bahia_section_13

Gregório de Mattos, born in Salvador in 1636, was also educated by the Jesuits. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_162

He became the most important Baroque poet in colonial Brazil for his religious and satirical works. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_163

Father António Vieira was born in Lisbon in 1608, but was raised and educated in the Jesuit school of Salvador and died in the city in 1697. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_164

His erudite sermons have earned him the title of best writer of the Portuguese language in the Baroque era. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_165

After the Independence of Brazil (1822), Salvador continued to play an important role in Brazilian literature. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_166

Significant 19th century writers associated with the city include Romantic poet Castro Alves (1847–1871) and diplomat Ruy Barbosa (1849–1923). Salvador, Bahia_sentence_167

In the 20th century, Bahia-born Jorge Amado (1912–2001), although not born in Salvador, helped popularize the culture of the city around the world in novels such as Jubiabá, Dona Flor e Seus Dois Maridos, and Tenda dos Milagres, the settings of which are in Salvador. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_168

Cuisine Salvador, Bahia_section_14

The local cuisine, spicy and based on seafood (shrimp, fish), strongly relies on typically African ingredients and techniques, and is much appreciated throughout Brazil and internationally. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_169

The most typical ingredient is azeite-de-dendê, an oil extracted from a palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) brought from West Africa to Brazil during colonial times. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_170

Using the milky coconut juice, they prepared a variety of seafood based dishes, such as Ensopados, Moquecas and Escabeche. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_171

The sugar cane bagasse was mixed with molasses and Rapadura, in the creation of coconut desserts like Cocada Branca and Preta. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_172

The remaining of the Portuguese Stew sauce was mixed with manioc flour to make a mush, which is a traditional Indian dish. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_173

In the markets of Salvador, it is possible to find stands selling typical dishes of the colonial era. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_174

In the Sete Portas Market, customers eat Mocotó on Friday nights since the 1940s, when the market was inaugurated. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_175

In the restaurants of Mercado Modelo, Sarapatel, stews and several fried dishes are served regularly. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_176

In the São Joaquim, Santa Bárbara and São Miguel markets, there are stands selling typical food. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_177

They are also sold at stands located on the beaches, specially crab stews and oysters. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_178

The restaurants that sell typical dishes are located mostly along the coast and in Pelourinho. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_179

They prepare a wide variety of recipes that take palm tree oil. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_180

Traditional dishes include caruru, vatapá, acarajé, bobó-de-camarão, moqueca baiana, and abará. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_181

Some of these dishes, like the acarajé and abará, are also used as offerings in Candomblé rituals. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_182

But Salvador is not only typical food. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_183

Other recipes created by the slaves were the Haussá Rice (rice and jerked beef cooked together), the Munguzá, used as offering to the Candomblé deity Oxalá (who is the father of all deities, according to the religion) pleased the matrons very much. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_184

So did the Bolinhos the Fubá, the Cuscuz (cornmeal) and the Mingau (porridge). Salvador, Bahia_sentence_185

According to Arany Santana, the African Ipetê (used in the rituals to the deity Oxum) became the Shrimp bobó, and the Akará (honoring the deities Xangô and Iansã) became the world-famous Acarajé. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_186

The city has restaurants specialized on international cuisine also. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_187

There are also places that serve dishes from other states of Brazil, especially from Minas Gerais and the Northeast region. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_188

Capoeira Salvador, Bahia_section_15

Capoeira is a unique mix of dance and martial art of Afro-Brazilian origin, combining agile dance moves with unarmed combat techniques. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_189

Capoeira in Portuguese literally means "chicken coop". Salvador, Bahia_sentence_190

The capoeira appeared in Quilombo dos Palmares, located in the Captaincy of Pernambuco, and Salvador is considered the home of modern capoeira branches. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_191

In the first half of the 20th century, Salvador-born masters Mestre Bimba and Mestre Pastinha founded capoeira schools and helped standardize and popularize the art in Brazil and the world. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_192

The practice of Capoeira was banned in 1892, though in 1937 it was made legal. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_193

In recent years, Capoeira has become more international and accessible even in Salvador. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_194

Museums Salvador, Bahia_section_16

The artistic, cultural and social heritage of Salvador is preserved in museums. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_195

From Museu de Arte da Bahia (MAB), which is the oldest in the State, to Museu Náutico, the newest, the first capital of Brazil displays unique elements of history. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_196

Museu de Arte da Bahia has paintings, Chinese porcelain, furniture and sacred images from the 17th and 18th centuries. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_197

Museu Costa Pinto has privately owned items such as, pieces of art, crystal objects, and furniture from the 18th and 19th centuries. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_198

Museu da Cidade, where many items that help to preserve the heritage of old Salvador are kept. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_199

The Museum of Modern Art of Bahia, established in 1960, is located at a historic site on the Bay of All Saints, Solar da União. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_200

Some churches and monasteries also have museums located in their premises. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_201

Examples of this are the Carmo da Misericórdia and São Bento museums. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_202

After the forts were renovated, Museu Náutico was established in the Forte de Santo Antonio da Barra (Farol da Barra) and the Museum of Communication in Forte São Diogo. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_203

Other important museums located in Salvador are: Museu do Cacau, State Museum of Geology, Museu tempostal, Solar do Ferrão, Museu de Arte Antiga e Popular Henriqueta M Catharino, Museu Eugênio Teixeira Leal, Museu Rodin Bahia, and Museu das Portas do Carmo. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_204

Public art Salvador, Bahia_section_17

The streets of Salvador are decorated with numerous murals and sculptures, many of which have been produced by the resident artist Bel Borba, a native of the city. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_205

Carnival Salvador, Bahia_section_18

Main articles: Bahian Carnival and Brazilian Carnival Salvador, Bahia_sentence_206

The Bahian Carnival (Portuguese: Carnaval) is the largest party on the planet. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_207

Its dimensions are gigantic. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_208

For an entire week, almost 4 million people celebrate throughout 25 kilometers (16 mi) of streets, avenues, and squares. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_209

The direct organization of the party involves the participation of over 100,000 people and Salvador receives an average of over 800,000 visitors. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_210

The affair is heavily policed and covered. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_211

Streets are patrolled by lines of police in single file and guarded by seated teams of five or six officers. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_212

In 2010, coverage was provided by 4,446 journalists from the local, national, and international press and broadcast to 135 countries through 65 radio stations, 75 magazines, 139 video productions, 97 newspapers (including 21 international papers), 14 tv stations, and 168 websites. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_213

The party official begins when Rei Momo ("King Momo", the King of Carnival) is handed the key to the city in the morning of the Thursday before Mardi Gras. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_214

In the Campo Grande, streets are lined with grandstands (camarotes). Salvador, Bahia_sentence_215

60-foot-long trucks known as Trios Eléctricos carry a kick line of scantily-clad dancers along with the city's best-loved performers, such as Ivete Sangalo, Daniela Mercury, Cláudia Leitte, Chiclete com Banana, and Carlinhos Brown. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_216

Much of the music played is axé or samba-reggae. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_217

Groups known as blocos participate, with the most famous being the blocos afros such as Malé Debalé, Olodum, and Filhos de Gandhi. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_218

The parades are organized into separate circuits. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_219

The Osmar Circuit, the oldest, goes from Campo Grande to Castro Alves Square. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_220

The Downtown Circuit runs through downtown and Pelourinho. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_221

The Dodô Circuit goes from Farol da Barra to Ondina along the coast. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_222

Since the Osmar Circuit is the oldest, it is where the event's most traditional groups parade. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_223

In Dodô, where the artist box seats are located, the party becomes lively toward the end of the afternoon and continues until morning. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_224

Music Salvador, Bahia_section_19

Black Bahia Funk Balls play more American music—including English music—than their counterparts in Rio, while Rio's music is considered inferior and less played. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_225

The local dancehalls which host the balls are also distinct. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_226

Libraries Salvador, Bahia_section_20

The first books that arrived in Salvador, were brought by the Jesuits, who came with Tomé de Souza. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_227

The first libraries or bookstores that appeared were under the control of the religious missionaries and were mostly composed of books on religion. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_228

Handcrafts Salvador, Bahia_section_21

The handcraft legacy of Bahia using only raw materials (straw, leather, clay, wood, seashells and beads), the most rudimentary crafts are reasonably inexpensive. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_229

Other pieces are created with the use of metals like gold, silver, copper and brass. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_230

The most sophisticated ones are ornamented with precious and semi-precious gems. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_231

The craftsmen and women generally choose religion as the main theme of their work. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_232

They portray the images of Catholic saints and Candomble deities on their pieces. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_233

The good luck charms such as the clenched fist, the four-leaf clover, the garlic and the famous Bonfim ribbons express the city's religious syncretism. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_234

Nature is also portrayed on these pieces, reflecting the local wildlife. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_235

Music appears in the atabaque drums, the rain sticks, the water drums and the famous berimbau, along with other typical instruments. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_236

Salvador holds an international reputation as a city where musical instruments that produce unique sounds are made. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_237

These instruments are frequently used by world-famous artists in their recording sessions. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_238

The main handcrafts production in Salvador is located in Mercado Modelo, which is the biggest handcraft center in Latin America. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_239

Pieces can also be purchased at Instituto de Artesanato de Mauá and at Instituto do Patrimônio Artístico e Cultural (IPAC). Salvador, Bahia_sentence_240

These are organizations that promote typical art in Bahia. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_241

Transportation Salvador, Bahia_section_22

Airport Salvador, Bahia_section_23

Deputado Luís Eduardo Magalhães International Airport has an area of 6,900 square metres (74,271 sq ft) between sand dunes and native vegetation. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_242

It is 28 km (17 mi) north of Central Salvador, and the road to the airport has already become one of the city's main scenic attractions. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_243

Port Salvador, Bahia_section_24

Main article: Port of Salvador Salvador, Bahia_sentence_244

With cargo volume that grows every year with the economic growth of the state, the Port of Salvador, located in the Bahia de Todos os Santos, is the port with the most movement of containers of the North/Northeast and the second-leading fruit exporter in Brazil. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_245

Metro Salvador, Bahia_section_25

Main article: Salvador Metro Salvador, Bahia_sentence_246

Salvador Metro System is in operation since 2014, and its first stage was ready since March 2008, between Lapa and Aceso Norte Stations, and in 2009, it was ready the metro stations between Estação Accesso Norte and Pirajá. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_247

In December 2014, it opened as far as Retiro. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_248

In 2018, the system had 32 km (20 mi) and 20 stations and linked with the bus system. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_249

The main shareholders in Metro Salvador are the Spanish companies Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles, Dimetronic, and ICF. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_250

It is expected that Metro Salvador will invest US$150 million in rolling stock and signalling and telecommunications equipment. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_251

The contract covers the first 11.9 km (7.4 mi) line from Pirajá to Lapa, which is due to open in 2003. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_252

The project is also financed by a US$150 million World Bank loan and contributions from the federal, Bahia state, and Salvador city governments. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_253

The system was one of the actions for urban mobility in preparation for the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_254

The connection of Line 2 with Line 1 of Salvador Metro helps to connect the International Airport to Downtown Salvador and the Fonte Nova Stadium. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_255

The new Line 2 of Salvador Metro integrates the metro stations of the Rótula do Abacaxi and the beach city of Lauro de Freitas in the metropolitan area, passing through the airport at the Airport metro station. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_256

Monorail Salvador, Bahia_section_26

The two line SkyRail Bahia monorail network is due to open in 2022. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_257

Highways Salvador, Bahia_section_27

The BR-101 and BR-116 federal highways cross Bahia from north to south, connecting Salvador to the rest of the country. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_258

At the Feira de Santana junction, take the BR-324 state highway. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_259

The capital of Bahia is served by several coach companies from almost every Brazilian state. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_260

BR-242, starting at São Roque do Paraguaçu (transversal direction), is linked to BR-116, bound to the middle–west region. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_261

Among the state highways stands BA-099, which makes connection to the north coast and BA-001, which makes connection to the south of Bahia. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_262

Buses provide direct service to most major Brazilian cities, including Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Brasília, as well as regional destinations. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_263

In 2007, the city had 586,951 vehicles, the largest number of the Northern and Northeastern Brazil. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_264

Salvador has 2,500 public buses, and 2 million people are transported every day. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_265

The bus station (rodoviária) is in Iguatemi, with direct buses to larger cities in the country and to many other destinations in the state. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_266

On the second floor are the counters for the different bus companies, and on the first floor is a small supermarket and a 24 h left luggage. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_267

Across the street is a large shopping center, Iguatemi, with a food court, connected by a pedestrian crossing. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_268

Four paved highways connect the city to the national highway system. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_269

Running north from the Farol (lighthouse) de Itapoã are hundreds of kilometres of beaches. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_270

The beaches are accessible by the BA-099 highway or (Line of Coconut and Green Line), a (toll) road, which is kept in excellent condition, running parallel to the coast, with access roads leading off to the coast itself. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_271

The road runs along dunes of snow-white sand, and the coast itself is an almost unbroken line of coconut palms. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_272

The communities along the coast range from fishing villages to Praia do Forte. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_273

Public transportation statistics Salvador, Bahia_section_28

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Salvador, such as to and from work, on a weekday is 94 min, and 33% of public transit riders ride for more than 2 h every day. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_274

The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 33 min, and 70% of riders wait for over 20 mib on average every day. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_275

The average distance that people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 8 km, and 18% travel for over 12 km in a single trip. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_276

Neighborhoods Salvador, Bahia_section_29

Although the creation of Salvador was masterminded by the Kingdom of Portugal and its project conducted by the Portuguese engineer Luís Dias (who was responsible for the city's original design), the continuous growth of the capital through the decades was completely spontaneous. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_277

The walls of the city-fortress could not hold the expansion of the city, towards the Carmo and the area where now stands Castro Alves Square. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_278

At the time of its foundation, Salvador had only two squares and the first neighborhood ever built here was the Historic City Center. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_279

Pelourinho and Carmo came subsequently, created as a consequence of the growing need of space that the religious orders had. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_280

With the rapid expansion, the neighborhoods grew and many of them were clustered in the same area, so today there are not accurate records as to their exact number. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_281

For urban management purposes, the city is currently divided on 17 political-administrative zones. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_282

However, due to their very cultural relevance and to postal conveniences, the importance of the neighborhoods of Salvador remains intact. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_283

Salvador is divided into a number of distinct neighborhoods, with the most well known districts being Pelourinho, Comércio, and Old Downtown, all located in West Zone. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_284

Barra, with its Farol da Barra, beaches and which is where one of the Carnival circuits begins, Barra is home of the Portuguese Hospital and Spanish Hospital, the neighborhood is located in South Zone. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_285

Vitória, a neighborhood with many high rise buildings, is located in South Zone. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_286

Campo Grande, with its Dois de Julho Square and the monument to Bahia's independence, is also located in South Zone, as is Graça, an important residential area. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_287

Ondina, with Salvador's Zoobotanical Garden and the site where the Barra-Ondina Carnival circuit ends, the neighborhood is home of the Spanish Club, is also a neighborhood in the South Zone. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_288

Itaigara, Pituba, Horto Florestal, Caminho das Árvores, Loteamento Aquárius, Brotas, Stiep, Costa Azul, Armação, Jaguaribe and Stella Maris are the wealthiest and the New Downtown neighborhoods in the East Zone and the city. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_289

Rio Vermelho, a neighborhood with a rich architectural history and numerous restaurants and bars, is located in the South Zone. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_290

Itapoã, known throughout Brazil as the home of Vinicius de Moraes and for being the setting of the song "Tarde em Itapoã", is located in East Zone. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_291

The Northwest area of the city in along the Bay of All Saints, also known as Cidade Baixa ("Lower city"), contains the impoverished suburban neighborhoods of Periperi, Paripe, Lobato, Liberdade, Nova Esperança, and Calçada. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_292

The neighborhood of Liberdade (Liberty) has the largest proportion of Afro-Brazilians of Salvador and Brazil. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_293

Pelourinho Salvador, Bahia_section_30

Main article: Historic Center (Salvador) Salvador, Bahia_sentence_294

The Historic Center of Salvador was designated in 1985 a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_295

The city represents a fine example the Portuguese urbanism from the middle of the 16th century with its higher administrative town and its lower commercial town, and a large portion of the city has retained the old character of its streets and colourful houses. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_296

As the first capital of Portuguese America, Salvador cultivated slave labor and had its pillories ("pelourinhos") installed in open places like the Terreiro de Jesus and the squares know today as Tomé de Sousa and Castro Alves. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_297

The pillories were a symbol of authority and justice for some and of lashings and injustice for the majority. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_298

The one erected for a short time in what is now the Historical Center, and later moved to what is now the Praça da Piedade (Square of Piety), ended up lending its name to the historical and architectural complex of Pelourinho, part of the city's upper town. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_299

Since 1992, the Pelourinho neighborhood has been subject to a nearly US$100 million "restoration" that has led to the rebuilding of hundreds of buildings' façades and the expulsion of the vast majority of the neighborhood's Afro-descendent population. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_300

This process has given rise to substantial political debate in the State of Bahia, since the Pelourinho's former residents have been for the most part excluded from the renovation's economic benefits (reaped by a few). Salvador, Bahia_sentence_301

A major restoration effort resulted in making the area a tourist attraction. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_302

Salvador's considerable wealth and status during colonial times (as capital of the colony during 250 years and which gave rise to the Pelourinho) is reflected in the magnificence of its colonial palaces, churches and convents, most of them dating from the 17th and 18th centuries. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_303

These include: Salvador, Bahia_sentence_304

Salvador, Bahia_unordered_list_4

  • Cathedral of Salvador: Former Jesuit church of the city, built in the second half of the 17th century. Fine example of Mannerist architecture and decoration.Salvador, Bahia_item_4_16
  • Convent and Church of São Francisco: Franciscan convent and church dating from the first half of the 18th century is another fine example of the Portuguese colonial architecture. The Baroque decoration of the church is among the finest in Brazil.Salvador, Bahia_item_4_17
  • Church of Nosso Senhor do Bonfim: Rococo church with Neoclassical inner decoration. The image of Nosso Senhor do Bonfim is the most venerated in the city, and the Feast of Our Lord of Good Ending (Festa de Nosso Senhor do Bonfim) in January is the most important in the city after Carnival.Salvador, Bahia_item_4_18
  • Mercado Modelo (Model Market): In 1861, at the Cayrú Square, the Customs Building was constructed, with a rotunda (large circular room with a domed ceiling) at the back end, where ships anchored to unload their merchandise.Salvador, Bahia_item_4_19
  • Lacerda Elevator (Elevador Lacerda): Inaugurated in 1873, this elevator was planned and built by the businessman Antônio Francisco de Lacerda, The four elevator cages connect the 72 metres (236 ft) between the Thomé de Souza Square in the upper city, and the Cayru Square in the lower city. In each run, which lasts for 22 seconds, the elevator transports 128 persons, 24 hours a day.Salvador, Bahia_item_4_20

Sports Salvador, Bahia_section_31

Salvador provides visitors and residents with various sport activities. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_305

The Fonte Nova Arena, also known as Estádio Octávio Mangabeira is a football stadium inaugurated on 28 January 1951 in Salvador, Bahia, with a maximum capacity of 66,080 people. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_306

The stadium has now been replaced with a new stadium named Itaipava Arena Fonte Nova with a capacity of 56,000 people. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_307

This stadium hosted matches of 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup and the subsequent 2014 FIFA World Cup, as well as the football competition in the 2016 Summer Olympics. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_308

The stadium is owned by the Bahia government, and is the home ground of Esporte Clube Bahia. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_309

Its formal name honors Octávio Cavalcanti Mangabeira, a civil engineer, journalist, and former Bahia state governor from 1947 to 1954. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_310

The stadium is nicknamed Fonte Nova, because it is located at Ladeira das Fontes das Pedras. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_311

The stadium was in 2007 closed due to an accident, and the E.C. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_312

Bahia home matches now happen in another stadium, in Pituaçu. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_313

Esporte Clube Bahia and Esporte Clube Vitória are Salvador's main football teams. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_314

Bahia has won 2 national titles, the Taça Brasil in 1959 and the Brazilian League in 1988, while Vitória was a runner up in the Brazilian league in 1993 and the Copa do Brasil in 2010. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_315

EC Ypiranga is the city's third team with 10 titles of the Campeonato Baiano. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_316

Salvador has two large green areas for the practice of golf. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_317

Cajazeiras Golf and Country Club has an 18-hole course, instructors, caddies and equipment for rent. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_318

Itapuã Golf club, located in the area of the Sofitel Hotel, has a 9-hole course, equipment store, caddies and clubs for rent. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_319

Tennis is very popular among Salvador's elites, with a great number of players and tournaments in the city's private clubs. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_320

Brasil Open, the country's most important tournament happens every year in Bahia. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_321

During the last decades, volleyball has grown steadily in Salvador, especially after the gold medal won by Brazil in the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_322

The most important tournaments in Bahia are the State Championship, the State League tournament and the Primavera Games, and the main teams are Associação Atlética da Bahia, Bahiano de Tênis, and Clube the Regatas Itapagipe. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_323

There are also beach volleyball events. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_324

Salvador has housed many international tournaments. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_325

Federação Bahina de Voleibol (the state league) can inform the schedule of tournaments. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_326

Bowling is practiced both by teenagers and adults in Salvador. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_327

Boliche do Aeroclube and Space Bowling are equipped with automatic lanes as well as a complete bar infrastructure. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_328

Bahia's basketball league exists since 1993 and has 57 teams. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_329

The sport is very popular in the city of Salvador, especially among students. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_330

There are several courts scattered across the city, where is possible to play for free, like the one located at Bahia Sol square, where people play. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_331

There are also several gymnasiums, in clubs like Bahiano de Tênis and Associação Atlética and the Antonio Balbino Gymnasiums (popularly known as "Balbininho"), which is an arena that can hold up to 7,000 people. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_332

Todos os Santos Bay and Salvador's climatic conditions are ideal for competition and recreational sailing. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_333

The city is equipped with good infrastructure for practice of sailing, such as rental and sale of dock space, boat maintenance, restaurants, snack bar, convenience stores, nautical products stores, boat rental agencies, VHF and SSB communication systems, events, and total assistance to crews. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_334

The large number of sailing events organized by clubs and syndicates, like oceanic races and typical boats (wooden fishing boats and canoes) races, demonstrates the sport's growing force. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_335

Currently, Salvador has a national racing schedule with dozens of events, also receiving the Mini Transat 6.50 and Les Illes du Soleil races. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_336

Rowing boat races started in the city more than a hundred years ago. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_337

It was originally practiced by young men from traditional families, who spent their summer vacations there. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_338

The sport is a leisure option in Cidade Baixa (the lower part of the city). Salvador, Bahia_sentence_339

Esporte Clube Vitória and Clube São Salvador were the pioneers in the sport. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_340

Nowadays, these two entities and also Clube de Regatas Itapagipe lead the competitions that take place in the city. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_341

With the recent renovation of the Dique do Tororó area, Salvador received new lanes for the practice of the sport. Salvador, Bahia_sentence_342

Notable people Salvador, Bahia_section_32

Salvador, Bahia_unordered_list_5

International relations Salvador, Bahia_section_33

Salvador's Twin towns and sister cities are: Salvador, Bahia_sentence_343

Salvador, Bahia_table_general_3

CountrySalvador, Bahia_header_cell_3_0_0 CitySalvador, Bahia_header_cell_3_0_1 State / RegionSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_3_0_2 SinceSalvador, Bahia_header_cell_3_0_3
United_States United StatesSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_1_0 Los AngelesSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_1_1 CaliforniaSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_1_2 1962Salvador, Bahia_cell_3_1_3
Portugal PortugalSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_2_0 LisbonSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_2_1 Lisboa RegionSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_2_2 1985Salvador, Bahia_cell_3_2_3
Portugal PortugalSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_3_0 Angra do HeroísmoSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_3_1 AzoresSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_3_2 1985Salvador, Bahia_cell_3_3_3
Portugal PortugalSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_4_0 CascaisSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_4_1 Lisbon RegionSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_4_2 1985Salvador, Bahia_cell_3_4_3
Benin BeninSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_5_0 CotonouSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_5_1 Littoral DepartmentSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_5_2 1987Salvador, Bahia_cell_3_5_3
Spain SpainSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_6_0 PontevedraSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_6_1 GaliciaSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_6_2 1992Salvador, Bahia_cell_3_6_3
Cuba CubaSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_7_0 HavanaSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_7_1 La HavanaSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_7_2 1993Salvador, Bahia_cell_3_7_3
Italy ItalySalvador, Bahia_cell_3_8_0 SciaccaSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_8_1 SicilySalvador, Bahia_cell_3_8_2 2001Salvador, Bahia_cell_3_8_3
China ChinaSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_9_0 HarbinSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_9_1 HeilongjiangSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_9_2 2003Salvador, Bahia_cell_3_9_3
United_States United StatesSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_10_0 MiamiSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_10_1 FloridaSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_10_2 2006Salvador, Bahia_cell_3_10_3
China ChinaSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_11_0 China ChongqingSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_11_1 China Government of ChinaSalvador, Bahia_cell_3_11_2 2011Salvador, Bahia_cell_3_11_3

See also Salvador, Bahia_section_34

Salvador, Bahia_unordered_list_6


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvador, Bahia.