|Founded||29 March 1549|
|Mayor||Antônio Carlos Magalhães Neto (DEM)|
|Deputy Mayor||Bruno Reis (DEM)|
|Municipality||693 km (268 sq mi)|
|Water||66.91 km (25.83 sq mi)|
|Metro||4,375.123 km (1,689.244 sq mi)|
|Elevation||8 m (26 ft)|
|Density||4,187/km (10,840/sq mi)|
|Metro density||891.3/km (2,308/sq mi)|
|Demonym(s)||Portuguese: Soteropolitano English: Soteropolitan|
|Time zone||UTC-3 (BST)|
|Postal code||40000-001 to 42599-999|
|Area code||+55 71|
|UNESCO World Heritage SiteOfficial nameHistoric Center of Salvador de BahiaCriteriaCultural: (iv)(vi)ReferenceInscription1985 (9th session)|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Official name||Historic Center of Salvador de Bahia|
|Inscription||1985 (9th session)|
A sharp escarpment divides its Lower Town (Cidade Baixa) from its Upper Town (Cidade Alta) by some 85 meters (279 ft).
The Elevador Lacerda, Brazil's first urban elevator, has connected the two since 1873.
Salvador forms the heart of the Recôncavo, Bahia's rich agricultural and industrial maritime district, and continues to be a major Brazilian port.
Its metropolitan area, housing 3,899,533 people (2018) forms the wealthiest one in Brazil's Northeast Region (2015).
See also: Timeline of Salvador, Bahia
During his second voyage for Portugal, the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci sighted the bay on All Saints' Day (1 November) 1502 and, in honor of the date and his parish church in Florence, he named it the Bay of the Holy Savior of All the Saints.
In 1531, Martim Afonso de Sousa led an expedition from Mount St Paul (Morro de São Paulo) and, in 1534, Francisco Pereira Coutinho, the first captain of Bahia, established the settlement of Pereira in modern Salvador's Ladeira da Barra neighborhood.
Mistreatment of the Tupinambá by the settlers caused them to turn hostile and the Portuguese were forced to flee to Porto Seguro c. 1546.
An attempted restoration of the colony the next year ended in shipwreck and cannibalism.
The present city was established as the fortress of São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos ("Holy Savior of the Bay of All Saints") in 1549 by Portuguese settlers under Tomé de Sousa, Brazil's first governor-general.
Salvador was long divided into an upper and a lower city, divided by a sharp escarpment some 85 meters (279 ft) high.
The upper city formed the administrative, religious, and primary residential districts while the lower city was the commercial center, with a port and market.
In the Roman Catholic Church, Brazil and the rest of the Portuguese Empire were initially administered as part of the Diocese of Funchal in Portugal but, in 1551, Salvador became the seat of the first Roman Catholic diocese erected in Brazil.
The first parish church was the mud-and-thatch Church of Our Lady of Help (Igreja da Nossa Senhora da Ajuda) erected by the Jesuits (Society of Jesus), which served as the first cathedral of the diocese until the Jesuits finished construction of the original basilica on the Terreiro de Jesus in 1553.
Its bishop was made independent of the Archdiocese of Lisbon at the request of King Pedro II in 1676; he served as the primate of the Congo and Angola in central Africa until the elevation of the Diocese of Luanda on 13 January 1844 and its bishop still serves as the national primate and premier see (diocese) of Brazil.
These were reunited as Brazil six years later, then redivided from 1607 to 1613.
In 1621, King Philip III replaced the Governorate of Brazil with the states of Brazil, still based in Salvador and now controlling the south, and the Maranhão, which was centered on São Luís and controlled what is now northern Brazil.
Salvador remained the heart of the Recôncavo, Bahia's rich agricultural maritime district, but was largely outside Brazil's early modernization.
Its elites initially remained loyal to the Portuguese crown while rebels from Cachoeira besieged them for a year until finally receiving Portugal's surrender of the town on 2 July 1823, which is now celebrated as Bahia Independence Day.
Owing to whales' use of the Bay of All Saints as a mating ground, Salvador became a large whaling port in the Southern Hemisphere during the 19th century but the trade had already begun to fall off by the 1870s.
In 1873, Brazil's first elevator, the powerful hydraulic Elevador Lacerda, was constructed to connect the city's upper and lower towns.
Having undergone several upgrades, it continues in use.
By the First World War, it was joined by a second elevator and Salvador was connected to four railroads: the Bahia & Alagoinhas to Joazeiro, the Bahia Central, the Nazareth Tramway, and a short line to Santo Amaro.
Its central districts and the major suburbs of Bomsim and Victoria were served by four streetcar lines, which had begun to electrify.
In the 1990s, a major municipal project cleaned and restored the neighborhood in order to develop it as the cultural center and heart of the city's tourist trade.
The development of the Historical Center, however, involved the forced removal of thousands of working-class residents and now necessitates local and municipal events in order to attract people to the area.
The relocated workers, meanwhile, have encountered significant economic hardship in their new homes on the city's periphery, separated from access to work and civic amenities.
As part of its preparations for the World Cup, the city reëstablished its public transportation lines as the Salvador Metro.
Temperatures are relatively consistent, showing little variance throughout the course of the year.
Salvador's driest months of the year are December and January, when the city receives on average less than 10 cm (4 in) of precipitation.
Salvador's wettest months are April, May and June, when at least 20 cm (8 in) of rain falls during each of these three months.
Main article: Largest Cities of Northeast Region, Brazil
The city had 474,827 opposite-sex couples and 1,595 same-sex couples.
According to the 2010 IBGE Census, there were 2,675,000 people residing in the city of Salvador.
The census revealed the following self-identification: 1,382,543 persons identify as Pardo (Multiracial) (51.7%); 743,718 as Black (27.8%); 505,645 as White (18.9%); 35,785 as Asian (1.3%); and 7,563 as Amerindian (0.3%).
Salvador's population is the result of 500 years of interracial marriage.
The majority of the population has African, European and Native American roots.
The study also analyzed the genetic backgrounds of people by type of surname.
Those with surnames with a religious connotation were 53.1% African in genetic ancestry and tended to be in lower economic classes.
During the colonial era, it was typical practice for Portuguese priests and missionaries to baptize converted African slaves and Native Americans with surnames of religious connotations.
These have been passed down to their descendants.
A 2015 autosomal DNA study found out the following ancestral composition in Salvador: 50.5% of African ancestry, 42.4% of European ancestry and 5.8% of Native American ancestry.
The researchers explained they oversampled individuals living in poor environments (page 4).
Another 2015 autosomal DNA found out Salvador to be 50.8% African, 42.9% European and 6.4% Native American.
And another autosomal DNA study, also in 2015, found out Salvador to be: 50.8% European, 40.5% African and 8.7% Native American.
Source: Planet Barsa Ltda.
In Salvador, religion is a major contact point between Portuguese and African influences and, in the last 20 years, Brazil's version of a North American-influenced Pentecostalism.
Salvador was the seat of the first bishopric in colonial Brazil (established 1551), and the first bishop, Pero Fernandes Sardinha, arrived already in 1552.
Subsequently, to them are created the Third Orders, the Brotherhoods, and Fraternities, which were composed mainly of professional and social groups.
The most prominent of these orders were the Terceira do Carmo Order and the de São Francisco Order, founded by white men, and the Nossa Senhora do Rosário and São Beneditino Brotherhoods, composed of black men.
In many churches maintained by religious men, were housed the Santíssimo Sacramento brotherhoods.
Besides these organizations, the expansion of Catholicism in the city was consolidated through social care work.
Santa Casa the Misericórdia was one of the institution that did this kind of work, maintaining hospitals, shelters for the poor and the elderly, as well providing assistance to convicts and to those who would face death penalties.
The convents, on their part, were cultural and religious formation centers, offering seminar coursed that often were attended by the lay.
Even with the present evolution, and the growth of Protestantism and other religions in the city, the Catholic faith remains as one of its most distinctive features, drawing a lot of people to its hundreds of churches.
In the Nossa Senhora do Rosário dos Pretos Church, Masses are held in the Yorubá language, making use of African chants and typical clothes, which attract many people from the African Brazilian communities.
The enslaved were forced to convert to Roman Catholicism, but their original religion Yorùbá was combined with Roman Catholicism to make the syncretic religion known as, Candomblé, which has survived in spite of prohibitions and persecutions.
The enslaved Africans managed to preserve their religion by attributing the names and characteristics of their Yorùbá deities to Catholic saints with similar qualities.
Still today all Candomble sessions are conducted in Yoruba, not Portuguese.
These religious entities have been syncretised with some Catholic entities.
Another important feast is the Feast de Yemanja every 2 February, on the shores of the borough of Rio Vermelho in
Salvador, on the day the church celebrates Our Lady of the Navigators.
8 December, Immaculate Conception Day for Catholics, is also commonly dedicated to Yemanja' with votive offerings made in the sea throughout the Brazilian coast.
|Umbanda and Candomblé||1.05%||28,019|
Source: IBGE 2010.
Main article: Economy of Salvador, Bahia
Throughout Brazilian history Salvador has played an important role.
Because of its location on Brazil's northeastern coast, the city served as an important link in the Portuguese empire throughout the colonial era, maintaining close commercial ties with Portugal and Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia.
Salvador remained the preeminent city in Brazil until 1763 when it was replaced as the national capital by Rio de Janeiro.
With its beaches, humid tropical climate, numerous up-to-date shopping malls (The Shopping Iguatemi was the first shopping mall in Northeastern Brazil) and pleasant high-class residential areas, the city has much to offer its residents.
Economically Salvador is one of Brazil's more important cities.
Since its founding the city has been one of Brazil's most prominent ports and international trading centers.
Boasting a large oil refinery, a petrochemical plant and other important industries, the city has made great strides in reducing its historical dependence on agriculture for its prosperity.
Salvador is the second most popular tourism destination in Brazil, after Rio de Janeiro.
Tourism and cultural activity are important generators of employment and income, boosting the arts and the preservation of artistic and cultural heritage.
Salvador's tourism infrastructure is considered one of the most modern in World, especially in terms of lodging.
The city offers accommodation to suit all tastes and standards, from youth hostels to international hotels.
Construction is one of the most important activities in the city, and many international (mainly from Spain, Portugal and England) and national developers are investing in the city and in the Bahian littoral zone.
The industry employs 800 engineers.
JAC Motors will have a plant in the Metropolitan Region of Salvador, in the city of Camaçari, the new industry will result 3,500 direct jobs and 10,000 indirect jobs, the production of 100,000 vehicles by year.
In December 2001, Monsanto Company inaugurated, at the Petrochemical Pole of Camaçari, in Metropolitan Region of Salvador, the first plant of the company designed to produce raw materials for the herbicide Roundup in South America.
The investment is equivalent to US$500 million; US$350 million were spent in this initial phase.
The Camaçari Plant, the largest unit of Monsanto outside of the United States, is also the only Monsanto plant manufacturing raw materials for the Roundup production line.
The company started the civil works for the new plant in January 2000.
|Economy||GDP (in reais)||GDP per capita (in reais)|
Government and politics
Tourism and recreation
The Salvador coastline is one of the longest for cities in Brazil.
There are 80 km (50 mi) of beaches distributed between the High City and the Low City, from Inema, in the railroad suburb to the Praia do Flamengo, on the other side of town.
While the Low City beaches are bordered by the waters of the All Saints Bay (the country's most extensive bay), the High City beaches, from Farol da Barra to Flamengo, are bordered by the Atlantic Ocean.
The exception is Porto da Barra Beach, the only High City beach located in the All Saints Bay.
The capital's beaches range from calm inlets, ideal for swimming, sailing, diving and underwater fishing, as well as open sea inlets with strong waves, sought by surfers.
There are also beaches surrounded by reefs, forming natural pools of stone, ideal for children.
Interesting places to visit near Salvador include:
- According to the British newspaper The Guardian, in 2007, Porto da Barra Beach was the third best in the world.
- The large island of Itaparica in the Bay of All Saints can be visited either by a car-ferry, or a smaller foot-passenger ferry, which leaves from near the Mercado Modelo near the Lacerda Elevator.
- BA-099 Highway, or "Line of Coconut" and "Green Line" of towns and cities, with exquisite beaches, north of Salvador heading towards Sergipe state.
- Morro de São Paulo in the Valença region across the Bay of All Saints – an island that can be reached by ferry from Salvador (2 hours), by plane, or by bus to Valença and then by 'Rapido' ('fast') speedboat or smaller ferry. Morro de São Paulo is formed by five villages of the Tinharé Island.
The city is served by many shopping malls, including Shopping Iguatemi, Salvador Shopping, Shopping Barra, and Shopping Paralela.
Salvador has four parks, green areas protected, as Jardim dos Namorados Park, Costa Azul Park, Park of the city, Park of Pituaçu.
Jardim dos Namorados is located right next to Costa Azul Park and occupies an area of 15 hectares in Pituba, where many families used to spend their vacations in the 1950s.
It was inaugurated in 1969, initially as a leisure area.
It underwent a complete renovation in the 1990s, with the construction of an amphitheater with room for 500 people, sports courts, playgrounds and parking for cars and tourist buses.
Park of the city is an important preservation area of the Atlantic forest.
It was completely renovated in 2001, becoming a modern social, cultural and leisure place.
The new park has 720 square meter of green area right in the middle of the city.
Among the attractions are Praça das Flores (Flowers square), with more than five thousand ornamental plants and flowers.
Created by state decree in 1973, Pituaçu Park occupies an area of 450 hectares and is one of the few Brazilian ecological parks located in an urban area.
There is also an artificial pond in the park, built in 1906 along with the Pituaçu Dam, whose purpose was to supply water to the city.
There are a number of possible leisure activities, ranging from cycloboats rides on the pond, to a 38 km (24 mi) long cycloway circling the entire reserve.
A museum is also located in the park.
The city has several universities:
- Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA) (Federal University of Bahia);
- Universidade Católica do Salvador (UCSal) (Catholic University of Salvador);
- Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB) (Bahia State University);
- Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS) (Salvador University);
- Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciências (FTC) (College of Technology and Science);
- Instituto Federal da Bahia (IFBA) (Federal Institute of Bahia);
- Faculdade Ruy Barbosa (FRB) (Ruy Barbosa College);
- (CIMATEC) (Integrated Campus of Manufacturing and Technology);
- (FCA) (Castro Alves College);
- (UNIJORGE) (Jorge Amado University Center);
- Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (EBMSP) (Bahian School of Medicine and Public Health);
Primary and secondary schools
Salvador is one of the most crime-ridden cities in the country.
The number of homicides increased 418% from 2000 to 2010.
From 1998 to 2008, the number of homicides of youths between the ages of 15 and 24 increased 435.1%.
Gun violence in the state of Bahia more than doubled in the period from 2004 to 2014, and the city is in the top ten for gun violence of the 26 state capitals of Brazil.
In 2014 the state of Bahia had the most murderers in the country.
At the same time, Salvador has one of the lowest rates of suicide in the nation.
Salvador's historical and cultural aspects were inherited by the intermarriage of such ethnic groups as Native-Indian, African and European.
African cultural practices are particularly celebrated.
Gregório de Mattos, born in Salvador in 1636, was also educated by the Jesuits.
He became the most important Baroque poet in colonial Brazil for his religious and satirical works.
Father António Vieira was born in Lisbon in 1608, but was raised and educated in the Jesuit school of Salvador and died in the city in 1697.
After the Independence of Brazil (1822), Salvador continued to play an important role in Brazilian literature.
In the 20th century, Bahia-born Jorge Amado (1912–2001), although not born in Salvador, helped popularize the culture of the city around the world in novels such as Jubiabá, Dona Flor e Seus Dois Maridos, and Tenda dos Milagres, the settings of which are in Salvador.
The local cuisine, spicy and based on seafood (shrimp, fish), strongly relies on typically African ingredients and techniques, and is much appreciated throughout Brazil and internationally.
The sugar cane bagasse was mixed with molasses and Rapadura, in the creation of coconut desserts like Cocada Branca and Preta.
The remaining of the Portuguese Stew sauce was mixed with manioc flour to make a mush, which is a traditional Indian dish.
In the markets of Salvador, it is possible to find stands selling typical dishes of the colonial era.
In the Sete Portas Market, customers eat Mocotó on Friday nights since the 1940s, when the market was inaugurated.
In the São Joaquim, Santa Bárbara and São Miguel markets, there are stands selling typical food.
They are also sold at stands located on the beaches, specially crab stews and oysters.
The restaurants that sell typical dishes are located mostly along the coast and in Pelourinho.
They prepare a wide variety of recipes that take palm tree oil.
Some of these dishes, like the acarajé and abará, are also used as offerings in Candomblé rituals.
But Salvador is not only typical food.
Other recipes created by the slaves were the Haussá Rice (rice and jerked beef cooked together), the Munguzá, used as offering to the Candomblé deity Oxalá (who is the father of all deities, according to the religion) pleased the matrons very much.
So did the Bolinhos the Fubá, the Cuscuz (cornmeal) and the Mingau (porridge).
The city has restaurants specialized on international cuisine also.
Capoeira in Portuguese literally means "chicken coop".
In recent years, Capoeira has become more international and accessible even in Salvador.
The artistic, cultural and social heritage of Salvador is preserved in museums.
From Museu de Arte da Bahia (MAB), which is the oldest in the State, to Museu Náutico, the newest, the first capital of Brazil displays unique elements of history.
Museu de Arte da Bahia has paintings, Chinese porcelain, furniture and sacred images from the 17th and 18th centuries.
Museu Costa Pinto has privately owned items such as, pieces of art, crystal objects, and furniture from the 18th and 19th centuries.
Museu da Cidade, where many items that help to preserve the heritage of old Salvador are kept.
Examples of this are the Carmo da Misericórdia and São Bento museums.
After the forts were renovated, Museu Náutico was established in the Forte de Santo Antonio da Barra (Farol da Barra) and the Museum of Communication in Forte São Diogo.
Other important museums located in Salvador are: Museu do Cacau, State Museum of Geology, Museu tempostal, Solar do Ferrão, Museu de Arte Antiga e Popular Henriqueta M Catharino, Museu Eugênio Teixeira Leal, Museu Rodin Bahia, and Museu das Portas do Carmo.
The streets of Salvador are decorated with numerous murals and sculptures, many of which have been produced by the resident artist Bel Borba, a native of the city.
Its dimensions are gigantic.
For an entire week, almost 4 million people celebrate throughout 25 kilometers (16 mi) of streets, avenues, and squares.
The direct organization of the party involves the participation of over 100,000 people and Salvador receives an average of over 800,000 visitors.
The affair is heavily policed and covered.
Streets are patrolled by lines of police in single file and guarded by seated teams of five or six officers.
In 2010, coverage was provided by 4,446 journalists from the local, national, and international press and broadcast to 135 countries through 65 radio stations, 75 magazines, 139 video productions, 97 newspapers (including 21 international papers), 14 tv stations, and 168 websites.
In the Campo Grande, streets are lined with grandstands (camarotes).
60-foot-long trucks known as Trios Eléctricos carry a kick line of scantily-clad dancers along with the city's best-loved performers, such as Ivete Sangalo, Daniela Mercury, Cláudia Leitte, Chiclete com Banana, and Carlinhos Brown.
Groups known as blocos participate, with the most famous being the blocos afros such as Malé Debalé, Olodum, and Filhos de Gandhi.
The parades are organized into separate circuits.
The Osmar Circuit, the oldest, goes from Campo Grande to Castro Alves Square.
The Downtown Circuit runs through downtown and Pelourinho.
Since the Osmar Circuit is the oldest, it is where the event's most traditional groups parade.
Black Bahia Funk Balls play more American music—including English music—than their counterparts in Rio, while Rio's music is considered inferior and less played.
The local dancehalls which host the balls are also distinct.
The first books that arrived in Salvador, were brought by the Jesuits, who came with Tomé de Souza.
The most sophisticated ones are ornamented with precious and semi-precious gems.
The craftsmen and women generally choose religion as the main theme of their work.
They portray the images of Catholic saints and Candomble deities on their pieces.
The good luck charms such as the clenched fist, the four-leaf clover, the garlic and the famous Bonfim ribbons express the city's religious syncretism.
Nature is also portrayed on these pieces, reflecting the local wildlife.
Music appears in the atabaque drums, the rain sticks, the water drums and the famous berimbau, along with other typical instruments.
Salvador holds an international reputation as a city where musical instruments that produce unique sounds are made.
These instruments are frequently used by world-famous artists in their recording sessions.
Pieces can also be purchased at Instituto de Artesanato de Mauá and at Instituto do Patrimônio Artístico e Cultural (IPAC).
Deputado Luís Eduardo Magalhães International Airport has an area of 6,900 square metres (74,271 sq ft) between sand dunes and native vegetation.
It is 28 km (17 mi) north of Central Salvador, and the road to the airport has already become one of the city's main scenic attractions.
Main article: Port of Salvador
With cargo volume that grows every year with the economic growth of the state, the Port of Salvador, located in the Bahia de Todos os Santos, is the port with the most movement of containers of the North/Northeast and the second-leading fruit exporter in Brazil.
Main article: Salvador Metro
Salvador Metro System is in operation since 2014, and its first stage was ready since March 2008, between Lapa and Aceso Norte Stations, and in 2009, it was ready the metro stations between Estação Accesso Norte and Pirajá.
In December 2014, it opened as far as Retiro.
In 2018, the system had 32 km (20 mi) and 20 stations and linked with the bus system.
It is expected that Metro Salvador will invest US$150 million in rolling stock and signalling and telecommunications equipment.
The contract covers the first 11.9 km (7.4 mi) line from Pirajá to Lapa, which is due to open in 2003.
The system was one of the actions for urban mobility in preparation for the 2014 FIFA World Cup.
The connection of Line 2 with Line 1 of Salvador Metro helps to connect the International Airport to Downtown Salvador and the Fonte Nova Stadium.
The new Line 2 of Salvador Metro integrates the metro stations of the Rótula do Abacaxi and the beach city of Lauro de Freitas in the metropolitan area, passing through the airport at the Airport metro station.
The capital of Bahia is served by several coach companies from almost every Brazilian state.
BR-242, starting at São Roque do Paraguaçu (transversal direction), is linked to BR-116, bound to the middle–west region.
Among the state highways stands BA-099, which makes connection to the north coast and BA-001, which makes connection to the south of Bahia.
Salvador has 2,500 public buses, and 2 million people are transported every day.
The bus station (rodoviária) is in Iguatemi, with direct buses to larger cities in the country and to many other destinations in the state.
On the second floor are the counters for the different bus companies, and on the first floor is a small supermarket and a 24 h left luggage.
Across the street is a large shopping center, Iguatemi, with a food court, connected by a pedestrian crossing.
Four paved highways connect the city to the national highway system.
Running north from the Farol (lighthouse) de Itapoã are hundreds of kilometres of beaches.
The beaches are accessible by the BA-099 highway or (Line of Coconut and Green Line), a (toll) road, which is kept in excellent condition, running parallel to the coast, with access roads leading off to the coast itself.
Public transportation statistics
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Salvador, such as to and from work, on a weekday is 94 min, and 33% of public transit riders ride for more than 2 h every day.
The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 33 min, and 70% of riders wait for over 20 mib on average every day.
The average distance that people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 8 km, and 18% travel for over 12 km in a single trip.
Although the creation of Salvador was masterminded by the Kingdom of Portugal and its project conducted by the Portuguese engineer Luís Dias (who was responsible for the city's original design), the continuous growth of the capital through the decades was completely spontaneous.
The walls of the city-fortress could not hold the expansion of the city, towards the Carmo and the area where now stands Castro Alves Square.
At the time of its foundation, Salvador had only two squares and the first neighborhood ever built here was the Historic City Center.
With the rapid expansion, the neighborhoods grew and many of them were clustered in the same area, so today there are not accurate records as to their exact number.
For urban management purposes, the city is currently divided on 17 political-administrative zones.
However, due to their very cultural relevance and to postal conveniences, the importance of the neighborhoods of Salvador remains intact.
Barra, with its Farol da Barra, beaches and which is where one of the Carnival circuits begins, Barra is home of the Portuguese Hospital and Spanish Hospital, the neighborhood is located in South Zone.
Vitória, a neighborhood with many high rise buildings, is located in South Zone.
Itaigara, Pituba, Horto Florestal, Caminho das Árvores, Loteamento Aquárius, Brotas, Stiep, Costa Azul, Armação, Jaguaribe and Stella Maris are the wealthiest and the New Downtown neighborhoods in the East Zone and the city.
Rio Vermelho, a neighborhood with a rich architectural history and numerous restaurants and bars, is located in the South Zone.
The Northwest area of the city in along the Bay of All Saints, also known as Cidade Baixa ("Lower city"), contains the impoverished suburban neighborhoods of Periperi, Paripe, Lobato, Liberdade, Nova Esperança, and Calçada.
Main article: Historic Center (Salvador)
The city represents a fine example the Portuguese urbanism from the middle of the 16th century with its higher administrative town and its lower commercial town, and a large portion of the city has retained the old character of its streets and colourful houses.
As the first capital of Portuguese America, Salvador cultivated slave labor and had its pillories ("pelourinhos") installed in open places like the Terreiro de Jesus and the squares know today as Tomé de Sousa and Castro Alves.
The one erected for a short time in what is now the Historical Center, and later moved to what is now the Praça da Piedade (Square of Piety), ended up lending its name to the historical and architectural complex of Pelourinho, part of the city's upper town.
Since 1992, the Pelourinho neighborhood has been subject to a nearly US$100 million "restoration" that has led to the rebuilding of hundreds of buildings' façades and the expulsion of the vast majority of the neighborhood's Afro-descendent population.
This process has given rise to substantial political debate in the State of Bahia, since the Pelourinho's former residents have been for the most part excluded from the renovation's economic benefits (reaped by a few).
Salvador's considerable wealth and status during colonial times (as capital of the colony during 250 years and which gave rise to the Pelourinho) is reflected in the magnificence of its colonial palaces, churches and convents, most of them dating from the 17th and 18th centuries.
- Cathedral of Salvador: Former Jesuit church of the city, built in the second half of the 17th century. Fine example of Mannerist architecture and decoration.
- Convent and Church of São Francisco: Franciscan convent and church dating from the first half of the 18th century is another fine example of the Portuguese colonial architecture. The Baroque decoration of the church is among the finest in Brazil.
- Church of Nosso Senhor do Bonfim: Rococo church with Neoclassical inner decoration. The image of Nosso Senhor do Bonfim is the most venerated in the city, and the Feast of Our Lord of Good Ending (Festa de Nosso Senhor do Bonfim) in January is the most important in the city after Carnival.
- Mercado Modelo (Model Market): In 1861, at the Cayrú Square, the Customs Building was constructed, with a rotunda (large circular room with a domed ceiling) at the back end, where ships anchored to unload their merchandise.
- Lacerda Elevator (Elevador Lacerda): Inaugurated in 1873, this elevator was planned and built by the businessman Antônio Francisco de Lacerda, The four elevator cages connect the 72 metres (236 ft) between the Thomé de Souza Square in the upper city, and the Cayru Square in the lower city. In each run, which lasts for 22 seconds, the elevator transports 128 persons, 24 hours a day.
Salvador provides visitors and residents with various sport activities.
The stadium has now been replaced with a new stadium named Itaipava Arena Fonte Nova with a capacity of 56,000 people.
The stadium is owned by the Bahia government, and is the home ground of Esporte Clube Bahia.
Its formal name honors Octávio Cavalcanti Mangabeira, a civil engineer, journalist, and former Bahia state governor from 1947 to 1954.
The stadium is nicknamed Fonte Nova, because it is located at Ladeira das Fontes das Pedras.
The stadium was in 2007 closed due to an accident, and the E.C.
Bahia home matches now happen in another stadium, in Pituaçu.
Salvador has two large green areas for the practice of golf.
Cajazeiras Golf and Country Club has an 18-hole course, instructors, caddies and equipment for rent.
Itapuã Golf club, located in the area of the Sofitel Hotel, has a 9-hole course, equipment store, caddies and clubs for rent.
Tennis is very popular among Salvador's elites, with a great number of players and tournaments in the city's private clubs.
Brasil Open, the country's most important tournament happens every year in Bahia.
The most important tournaments in Bahia are the State Championship, the State League tournament and the Primavera Games, and the main teams are Associação Atlética da Bahia, Bahiano de Tênis, and Clube the Regatas Itapagipe.
There are also beach volleyball events.
Salvador has housed many international tournaments.
Federação Bahina de Voleibol (the state league) can inform the schedule of tournaments.
Boliche do Aeroclube and Space Bowling are equipped with automatic lanes as well as a complete bar infrastructure.
The sport is very popular in the city of Salvador, especially among students.
There are several courts scattered across the city, where is possible to play for free, like the one located at Bahia Sol square, where people play.
There are also several gymnasiums, in clubs like Bahiano de Tênis and Associação Atlética and the Antonio Balbino Gymnasiums (popularly known as "Balbininho"), which is an arena that can hold up to 7,000 people.
Todos os Santos Bay and Salvador's climatic conditions are ideal for competition and recreational sailing.
The city is equipped with good infrastructure for practice of sailing, such as rental and sale of dock space, boat maintenance, restaurants, snack bar, convenience stores, nautical products stores, boat rental agencies, VHF and SSB communication systems, events, and total assistance to crews.
Currently, Salvador has a national racing schedule with dozens of events, also receiving the Mini Transat 6.50 and Les Illes du Soleil races.
Rowing boat races started in the city more than a hundred years ago.
It was originally practiced by young men from traditional families, who spent their summer vacations there.
The sport is a leisure option in Cidade Baixa (the lower part of the city).
Esporte Clube Vitória and Clube São Salvador were the pioneers in the sport.
Nowadays, these two entities and also Clube de Regatas Itapagipe lead the competitions that take place in the city.
With the recent renovation of the Dique do Tororó area, Salvador received new lanes for the practice of the sport.
- Joselia Aguiar, writer
- Castro Alves, poet.
- Jorge Amado, writer.
- Ruy Barbosa de Oliveira, writer, jurist and politician.
- Maria Bethânia, singer.
- Simone Bittencourt, singer.
- Carlinhos Brown, singer.
- Dorival Caymmi, singer.
- Elsimar M. Coutinho, scientist and professor.
- Gal Costa, singer.
- Irmã Dulce, Catholic nun.
- Priscila Fantin, actress
- Adriana Ferreyr, actress.
- Adélia Josefina de Castro Fonseca, writer
- , physician and professor.
- Acelino Freitas, boxer.
- Bebeto Gama, football forward.
- Gilberto Gil, singer.
- João Gilberto, musician.
- Dias Gomes, playwright.
- Klementina Kalašová, Czech opera singer who died at Salvador
- Tony Kanaan, race car driver.
- Adriana Lima, supermodel.
- Manuel dos Reis Machado (Bimba), capoeira master.
- Lyoto Machida, mixed martial artist.
- Antônio Carlos Magalhães, politician.
- Gregório de Mattos, poet.
- Margareth Menezes, singer.
- Maria José de Castro Rebello Mendes, Brazilian diplomat.
- Daniela Mercury, musician.
- Wagner Moura, actor.
- Antônio Rodrigo Nogueira, (Minotauro), MMA fighter.
- Amanda Nunes, mixed martial artist in UFC.
- Paquito, musician.
- Vicente Ferreira Pastinha, capoeira master.
- Pitty, musician.
- Lázaro Ramos, actor.
- João Ubaldo Ribeiro, writer.
- Glauber Rocha, movie director.
- Ivete Sangalo, singer.
- Luisa Ciuffo, internal medicine physician and well-published researcher.
- Dante Bonfim Costa Santos, professional soccer player.
- Junior dos Santos, mixed martial artist.
- Lateef Crowder Dos Santos, Capoeira practitioner
- Marcos Andre Batista Santos (Vampeta), soccer player.
- Milton Santos, geographer.
- Ricardo Santos, beach volleyball player.
- Raul Seixas, musician.
- Nelson de Jesus Silva (Dida), soccer goalkeeper.
- Hugo Viana (fighter) mixed martial artist in UFC
- Edvaldo Valério, swimmer.
- Martha Vasconcellos, Miss Bahia 1968, Miss Brazil 1968 and Miss Universe 1968.
- Caetano Veloso, musician.
- Antônio Carlos Vovô, leader of Ilê Aiyê Afro Bloco.
- Tom Zé, musician.
- Robson Conceicao 2016 Olympic gold medalist boxer
Salvador's Twin towns and sister cities are:
|Country||City||State / Region||Since|
|United_States United States||Los Angeles||California||1962|
|Portugal Portugal||Lisbon||Lisboa Region||1985|
|Portugal Portugal||Angra do Heroísmo||Azores||1985|
|Portugal Portugal||Cascais||Lisbon Region||1985|
|Benin Benin||Cotonou||Littoral Department||1987|
|Cuba Cuba||Havana||La Havana||1993|
|United_States United States||Miami||Florida||2006|
|China China||China Chongqing||China Government of China||2011|
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvador, Bahia.