Same-sex marriage in the United States

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In the United States, the availability of legally-recognized same-sex marriage expanded from one state in 2004 to all fifty states in 2015 through various state and federal court rulings, state legislation, and direct popular votes. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_0

The fifty states each have separate marriage laws, which must adhere to rulings by the Supreme Court of the United States that recognize marriage as a fundamental right that is guaranteed by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, as first established in the 1967 landmark civil rights case of Loving v. Virginia. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_1

Civil rights campaigning in support of marriage without distinction as to sex or sexual orientation began in the 1970s. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_2

In 1972, the now overturned Baker v. Nelson saw the Supreme Court of the United States decline to become involved. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_3

The issue became prominent from around 1993, when the Supreme Court of Hawaii ruled in Baehr v. Lewin that it was unconstitutional under the Constitution of Hawaii for the state to abridge marriage on the basis of sex. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_4

That ruling led to federal and state actions to explicitly abridge marriage on the basis of sex in order to prevent the marriages of same-sex couples from being recognized by law, the most prominent of which was the 1996 federal Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA). Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_5

In 2003, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health that it was unconstitutional under the Constitution of Massachusetts for the state to abridge marriage on the basis of sex. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_6

From 2004 through to 2015, as the tide of public opinion continued to move towards support of same-sex marriage, various state court rulings, state legislation, direct popular votes (referendums and initiatives), and federal court rulings established same-sex marriage in thirty-six of the fifty states. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_7

The first two decades of the 21st century saw same-sex marriage receive support from prominent figures in the civil rights movement, including Coretta Scott King, John Lewis, Julian Bond, and Mildred Loving. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_8

In May 2011, national public support for same-sex marriage rose above 50% for the first time. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_9

In May 2012, the NAACP, the leading African-American civil rights organization, declared its support for same-sex marriage and stated that it is a civil right. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_10

In June 2013, the Supreme Court of the United States struck down DOMA for violating the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution in the landmark civil rights case of United States v. Windsor, leading to federal recognition of same-sex marriage, with federal benefits for married couples connected to either the state of residence or the state in which the marriage was solemnized. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_11

In May 2015, national public support for same-sex marriage rose to 60% for the first time. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_12

In June 2015, the Supreme Court ruled in the landmark civil rights case of Obergefell v. Hodges that the fundamental right of same-sex couples to marry on the same terms and conditions as opposite-sex couples, with all the accompanying rights and responsibilities, is guaranteed by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_13

The most prominent supporters of same-sex marriage are human rights and civil rights organizations as well as the medical and scientific communities, while the most prominent opponents are religious groups. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_14

The ruling of the Supreme Court in Obergefell occurred following decades of consistently rising national public support for same-sex marriage in the United States, with support continuing to rise thereafter. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_15

A study of nationwide data from January 1999 to December 2015 revealed that the establishment of same-sex marriage is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children, with the effect being concentrated among children of a minority sexual orientation, resulting in approximately 134,000 fewer children attempting suicide each year in the United States. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_16

History Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_0

Main article: History of same-sex marriage in the United States Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_17

See also: Timeline of same-sex marriage in the United States Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_18

The history of same-sex marriage in the United States dates from the early 1970s, when the first lawsuits seeking legal recognition of same-sex relationships brought the question of civil marriage rights and benefits for same-sex couples to public attention, though they proved unsuccessful. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_19

The subject became increasingly prominent in U.S. politics following the 1993 Hawaii Supreme Court decision in Baehr v. Miike that suggested the possibility that the state's prohibition might be unconstitutional. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_20

That decision was met by actions at both the federal and state level to restrict marriage to male-female couples, notably the enactment at the federal level of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA). Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_21

On May 17, 2004, Massachusetts became the first U.S. state and the sixth jurisdiction in the world to legalize same-sex marriage following the Supreme Judicial Court's decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health six months earlier. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_22

Just as with the Hawaii decision, the legalization of same-sex marriage in Massachusetts provoked a reaction from opponents that resulted in further legal restrictions being written into state statutes and constitutions. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_23

The movement to obtain marriage rights for same-sex couples expanded steadily from that time until in late 2014 lawsuits had been brought in every state that still denied marriage licenses to same-sex couples. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_24

By late 2014, same-sex marriage had become legal in states that contained more than 70% of the United States population. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_25

In some jurisdictions, legalization came through the action of state courts or the enactment of state legislation. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_26

More frequently it came as the result of the decisions of federal courts. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_27

On November 6, 2012, Maine, Maryland, and Washington became the first states to legalize same-sex marriage through popular vote. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_28

Same-sex marriage had been legalized in the District of Columbia and 21 Native American tribal nations as well. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_29

The June 2013 decision of the U.S. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_30 Supreme Court in United States v. Windsor striking down the law barring federal recognition of same-sex marriage gave significant impetus to the progress of lawsuits that challenged state bans on same-sex marriage in federal court. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_31

Since that decision, with only a few exceptions, U.S. District Courts and Courts of Appeals have found state bans on same-sex marriage unconstitutional, as have several state courts. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_32

The exceptions have been a state court in Tennessee, U.S. district courts in Louisiana and Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_33

The U.S. Supreme Court agreed to hear appeals from that circuit's decision. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_34

On June 26, 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down all state bans on same-sex marriage, legalized it in all fifty states, and required states to honor out-of-state same-sex marriage licenses in the case Obergefell v. Hodges. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_35

Legal issues Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_1

See also: Same-sex marriage legislation in the United States Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_36

The legal issues surrounding same-sex marriage in the United States are determined by the nation's federal system of government, in which the status of a person, including marital status, is determined in large measure by the individual states. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_37

Prior to 1996, the federal government did not define marriage; any marriage recognized by a state was recognized, even if that marriage was not recognized by one or more states, as was the case until 1967 with interracial marriage, which some states banned by statute. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_38

Prior to 2004, same-sex marriage was not performed or recognized in any U.S. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_39 jurisdiction, but subsequently began to be performed and recognized by law in different jurisdictions through legislation, court rulings, tribal council rulings, and popular referenda. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_40

The Supreme Court's ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges ended all inter-state legal complications surrounding same-sex marriage, as it orders states to both perform the marriages of same-sex couples and to recognize the marriages of same-sex couples performed in other states. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_41

Federal law Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_2

According to the Government Accountability Office (GAO) in 2004, more than 1,138 federal rights and protections are conferred to U.S. citizens upon marriage; areas affected include Social Security benefits, veterans' benefits, health insurance, Medicaid, hospital visitation, estate taxes, retirement savings, pensions, family leave, and immigration law. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_42

Since July 9, 2015, married same-sex couples throughout the United States have had equal access to all the federal benefits that married opposite-sex couples have. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_43

The Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) was enacted in 1996. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_44

DOMA's Section 2 says that no state needs to recognize the legal validity of a same-sex relationship even if recognized as marriage by another state. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_45

It purports to relieve a state of its reciprocal obligation to honor the laws of other states as required by the Constitution's Full Faith and Credit Clause. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_46

Even before DOMA, however, states sometimes refused to recognize a marriage from another jurisdiction if it was counter to its "strongly held public policies". Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_47

Most lawsuits that sought to require a state to recognize a marriage established in another jurisdiction argue on the basis of equal protection and due process, not the Full Faith and Credit Clause. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_48

DOMA's Section 3 defined marriage for the purposes of federal law as a union of one man and one woman. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_49

It was challenged in the federal courts. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_50

On July 8, 2010, Judge Joseph Tauro of the District Court of Massachusetts held that the denial of federal rights and benefits to lawfully married Massachusetts same-sex couples is unconstitutional under the Equal Protection Clause of the U.S. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_51 Constitution. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_52

Beginning in 2010, eight federal courts found DOMA Section 3 unconstitutional in cases involving bankruptcy, public employee benefits, estate taxes, and immigration. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_53

On October 18, 2012, the Second Circuit Court of Appeals became the first court to hold sexual orientation to be a quasi-suspect classification and applied intermediate scrutiny to strike down Section 3 of DOMA as unconstitutional in Windsor v. United States. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_54

The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Windsor on June 26, 2013, that Section 3 violated the Fifth Amendment. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_55

As a result of the Windsor decision, married same-sex couples—regardless of domicile—have federal tax benefits (including the ability to file joint federal income tax returns), military benefits, federal employment benefits, and immigration benefits. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_56

In February 2014, the Justice Department expanded federal recognition of same-sex marriages to include bankruptcies, prison visits, survivor benefits and refusing to testify against a spouse. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_57

Likewise in June 2014, family medical leave benefits under the Family Medical Leave Act 1975 were extended to married same-sex couples. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_58

With respect to social security and veterans benefits, same-sex married couples are eligible for full benefits from the Veterans Affairs (VA) and the Social Security Administration (SSA). Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_59

Prior to the Supreme Court's ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges on June 26, 2015, the VA and SSA could provide only limited benefits to married same-sex couples living in states where same-sex marriage was not legal. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_60

Effective March 27, 2015, the definition of spouse under the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 includes employees in a same-sex marriage regardless of state of residence. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_61

Following the Obergefell decision, the Justice Department extended all federal marriage benefits to married same-sex couples nationwide. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_62

The federal government recognizes the marriages of same-sex couples who married in certain states in which same-sex marriage was legal for brief periods between the time a court order allowed such couples to marry and that court order was stayed, including Michigan. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_63

It also recognized marriages performed in Utah from December 20, 2013 to January 6, 2014, even while the state didn't. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_64

Under similar circumstances, it never took a position on Indiana or Wisconsin's marriages performed in brief periods, though it did recognize them once the respective states announced they would do so. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_65

It had not taken a position with respect to similar marriages in Arkansas prior to the Obergefell decision legalizing and recognizing same-sex marriages in all fifty states. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_66

Opponents of same-sex marriage have worked to prevent individual states from recognizing same-sex unions by attempting to amend the United States Constitution to restrict marriage to heterosexual unions. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_67

In 2006, the Federal Marriage Amendment, which would have prohibited states from recognizing same-sex marriages, was approved by the Senate Judiciary Committee on a party-line vote and was debated by the full Senate, but was ultimately defeated in both houses of Congress. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_68

On April 2, 2014, the Alabama House of Representatives adopted a resolution calling for a constitutional convention to propose an amendment to ban same-sex marriage nationwide. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_69

State and territorial recognition Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_3

Further information: Same-sex marriage law in the United States by state Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_70

Same-sex marriages are licensed in and recognized by all U.S. states and the District of Columbia, as well as all U.S. territories except American Samoa. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_71

On July 3, 2015, the Attorney General for American Samoa stated "we are reviewing the opinion [Obergefell v. Hodges] and its potential applicability to American Samoa, and will provide comment when it is completed." Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_72

Currently, same-sex marriages are neither licensed nor recognized there. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_73

On January 6, 2016, Alabama's Chief Justice, Roy Moore, issued a ruling forbidding state officials from issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_74

The ruling had no effect as all Alabama counties continued either issuing marriage licenses to all couples or not issuing licenses at all. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_75

In May 2016, Moore was charged with ethics violations by the state Judicial Inquiry Commission for the ruling, subsequently being suspended from the bench for the remainder of his term on September 30 of that year. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_76

Counties not issuing marriage licenses Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_4

Same-sex marriage in the United States_unordered_list_0

  • Officials of one Texas county, Irion , issued marriage licenses, but claimed they would refuse same-sex couples. Since 2017, they refused to comment on what they would do if a same-sex couple were to apply for license. None applied and no legal action has been taken. Since Alabama replaced marriage licenses with marriage certificates and required that all counties issue them, Irion County, Texas, became the only remaining county in the country that would not allow same-sex couples to marry. As of 2020, Irion County has a new county clerk who has stated she would issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_0_0
  • Officials in several Alabama counties initially stopped issuing any marriage licenses rather than issue them to same-sex couples. By 2017, the number of counties doing this to avoid issuing them to same-sex couples dropped to eight. This was in accordance with a state law, which was passed in 1961 to preserve racial segregation by making it optional for county clerks to issue marriage licenses. The Alabama Legislature passed a bill replacing marriage licenses with marriage certificates in May 2019. These final eight counties resumed allowing couples to marry on August 29, 2019.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_0_1
  • Several Kentucky counties initially refused to marry same-sex couples. In response, Kentucky reformed its marriage license forms and removed the name of the county clerk from the licenses. As of June 2016, Chris Hartmann, director of the Kentucky-based Fairness Campaign, said that to his knowledge "there are no counties where marriage licenses are being denied" in his state.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_0_2

Parental rights Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_5

Main article: LGBT adoption in the United States Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_77

Post-Obergefell, six states have, on occasion, attempted to deny same-sex couples full adoption rights to varying degrees. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_78

In Arkansas, Florida, Indiana, and Wisconsin, same-sex couples have been met with rejection when trying to get both parents' names listed on the birth certificate. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_79

In V.L. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_80 v. E.L., Alabama's highest court attempted to void an adoption decree obtained by a same-sex couple in Georgia, but the U.S. Supreme Court reversed, restoring joint custody to the adoptive mother on March 7, 2016. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_81

Mississippi had once banned same-sex couples from adopting, but the law requiring this was ruled unconstitutional by the United States District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi on March 31, 2016. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_82

With that ruling, adoption by same-sex couples became legal in all fifty states. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_83

On June 26, 2017, the Supreme Court ruled by a 6–3 vote in the case of Pavan v. Smith that under their decision in Obergefell, same-sex couples must be treated equally to opposite-sex couples in the issuance of birth certificates. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_84

In December 2016, the Supreme Court of Arkansas upheld a state law only allowing opposite-sex couples to be automatically listed as parents on their children's birth certificates, while prohibiting same-sex couples from being allowed the same on an equal basis. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_85

The Supreme Court summarily reversed the Arkansas Supreme Court, finding that the disparity in treatment violated their decision in Obergefell. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_86

Tribal law Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_6

Main article: Same-sex marriage in tribal nations in the United States Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_87

The Supreme Court decision legalizing same-sex marriage in the states and territories did not legalize same-sex marriage in Native American tribal nations. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_88

In the United States, Congress (not the federal courts) has legal authority over Native reservations. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_89

Thus, unless Congress passes a law regarding same-sex marriage on such reservations, federally recognized Native American tribes have the legal right to form their own marriage laws. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_90

As of the time of the Obergefell ruling, 25 tribal nations legally recognized same-sex marriage. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_91

Some tribes have passed legislation specifically addressing same-sex relationships and some specify that state law and jurisdiction govern tribal marriages. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_92

As of October 2019, same-sex marriage is legally recognized in at least 44 tribal nations. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_93

Local laws prior to Obergefell v. Hodges Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_7

Prior to Obergefell, same-sex marriage was legal to at least some degree in thirty-eight states, one territory (Guam) and the District of Columbia; of the states, Missouri, Kansas, and Alabama had restrictions. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_94

Until United States v. Windsor, it was only legal in 12 states and the District of Columbia. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_95

Beginning in July 2013, over forty federal and state courts cited Windsor to strike down state bans on the licensing or recognition of same-sex marriage. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_96

Missouri recognized same-sex marriages from out of state and same-sex marriages licensed by the City of St. Louis under two separate state court orders; two other jurisdictions issued such licenses as well. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_97

In Kansas, marriage licenses were available to same-sex couples in most counties, but the state did not recognize their validity. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_98

Some counties in Alabama issued marriage licenses to same-sex couples for three weeks until the state Supreme Court ordered probate judges to stop doing so. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_99

That court's ruling did not address the recognition of same-sex marriages already licensed in Alabama, but referred to them as "purported 'marriage licenses'". Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_100

In two additional states, same-sex marriages were previously legal between the time their bans were struck down and then stayed. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_101

Michigan recognized the validity of more than 300 marriage licenses issued to same-sex couples and those marriages. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_102

Arkansas recognized the more than 500 marriage licenses issued to same-sex couples there, and the Federal Government had not taken a position on Arkansas's marriage licenses. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_103

Same-sex marriage in the United States_table_general_0

States and territories with same-sex marriage before Obergefell v. Hodges.Same-sex marriage in the United States_table_caption_0
State or territorySame-sex marriage in the United States_header_cell_0_0_0 PopulationSame-sex marriage in the United States_header_cell_0_0_1 Date of Enactment/RulingSame-sex marriage in the United States_header_cell_0_0_2 Date EffectiveSame-sex marriage in the United States_header_cell_0_0_3 Legalization methodSame-sex marriage in the United States_header_cell_0_0_4 DetailsSame-sex marriage in the United States_header_cell_0_0_5
AlaskaSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_1_0 736,732Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_1_1 October 12, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_1_2 October 17, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_1_3 Federal court decisionSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_1_4 U.S. District Court for the District of Alaska ruling in Hamby v. Parnell.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_1_5
ArizonaSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_2_0 6,731,484Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_2_1 October 17, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_2_2 October 17, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_2_3 Federal court decisionSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_2_4 U.S. District Court for the District of Arizona ruling in Connolly v. Jeanes and in Majors v. Horne.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_2_5
CaliforniaSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_3_0 38,802,500Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_3_1 May 15, 2008Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_3_2 June 16, 2008Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_3_3 State court decision → overturned by constitutional banSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_3_4 California Supreme Court ruling in In re Marriage Cases. Ceased via state constitutional amendment after Proposition 8 passed on November 5, 2008.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_3_5
August 4, 2010Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_4_0 June 28, 2013Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_4_1 Federal court decision → legislative statuteSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_4_2 U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California ruling in Perry v. Schwarzenegger, finding Proposition 8 unconstitutional. Stayed during appeal, affirmed by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals as Perry v. Brown. Certiorari granted and appealed as Hollingsworth v. Perry to the U.S. Supreme Court; the high court dismissed Hollingsworth for lack of standing and vacated the Ninth Circuit decision below, resulting with the original decision in Perry left intact. Gender-neutral marriage bill passed by the California State Legislature and signed into law by the Governor of California took effect on January 1, 2015.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_4_3
ColoradoSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_5_0 5,355,866Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_5_1 July 9, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_5_2 October 7, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_5_3 State court decisionSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_5_4 Colorado district court ruling in Brinkman v. LongSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_5_5
July 23, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_6_0 Federal court decisionSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_6_1 U.S. District Court for the District of Colorado ruling in Burns v. HickenlooperSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_6_2
ConnecticutSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_7_0 3,596,677Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_7_1 October 10, 2008Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_7_2 November 12, 2008Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_7_3 State court decision → legislative statuteSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_7_4 Connecticut Supreme Court ruling in Kerrigan v. Commissioner of Public Health; incorporated into state statutes in April 2009.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_7_5
DelawareSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_8_0 935,614Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_8_1 May 7, 2013Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_8_2 July 1, 2013Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_8_3 Legislative statuteSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_8_4 Passed by the Delaware General Assembly and signed into law by the Governor of Delaware.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_8_5
District of ColumbiaSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_9_0 658,893Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_9_1 December 18, 2009Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_9_2 March 9, 2010Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_9_3 Legislative statuteSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_9_4 Passed by the Council of the District of Columbia.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_9_5
FloridaSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_10_0 19,893,297Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_10_1 August 21, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_10_2 January 6, 2015Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_10_3 Federal court decisionSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_10_4 U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Florida ruling in Brenner v. Scott.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_10_5
GuamSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_11_0 165,124 (not included in population total)Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_11_1 June 5, 2015Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_11_2 June 9, 2015Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_11_3 Binding federal court precedent → actions of territorial officials → federal court decision → legislative statuteSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_11_4 Attorney General Elizabeth Barrett-Anderson deferred to the controlling precedent set by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in Latta v. Otter, ordering that marriage licenses for same-sex couples be processed immediately beginning on April 15, 2015. District Court of Guam ruling in Aguero v. Calvo upholding the earlier decision by the Ninth Circuit. Marriage Equality Act, incorporating the decision, passed by the Guam Legislature went into effect on August 27, 2015.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_11_5
HawaiiSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_12_0 1,419,561Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_12_1 November 13, 2013Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_12_2 December 2, 2013Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_12_3 Legislative statuteSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_12_4 Hawaii Marriage Equality Act passed by the Hawaii State Legislature and signed into law by the Governor of Hawaii.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_12_5
IdahoSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_13_0 1,634,464Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_13_1 October 7, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_13_2 October 15, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_13_3 Federal court decisionSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_13_4 U.S. District Court for the District of Idaho ruling in Latta v. Otter, upheld by the Ninth Circuit.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_13_5
IllinoisSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_14_0 12,880,580Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_14_1 November 20, 2013Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_14_2 June 1, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_14_3 Legislative statuteSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_14_4 Passed by the Illinois General Assembly and signed into law by the Governor of Illinois.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_14_5
IndianaSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_15_0 6,596,855Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_15_1 September 4, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_15_2 October 6, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_15_3 Federal court decisionSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_15_4 U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Indiana ruling in Baskin v. Bogan. The Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the district court's ruling.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_15_5
IowaSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_16_0 3,107,126Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_16_1 April 3, 2009Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_16_2 April 27, 2009Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_16_3 State court decisionSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_16_4 Iowa Supreme Court ruling in Varnum v. Brien. One same-sex couple obtained a marriage licensed and married before initial ruling was stayed.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_16_5
MaineSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_17_0 1,330,089Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_17_1 November 6, 2012Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_17_2 December 29, 2012Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_17_3 Initiative statuteSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_17_4 Proposed by initiative as referendum Question 1, approved.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_17_5
MarylandSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_18_0 5,976,407Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_18_1 November 6, 2012Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_18_2 January 1, 2013Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_18_3 Legislative statute → referendumSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_18_4 Civil Marriage Protection Act passed by the Maryland General Assembly; petitioned to referendum Question 6, upheld.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_18_5
MassachusettsSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_19_0 6,745,408Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_19_1 November 18, 2003Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_19_2 May 17, 2004Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_19_3 State court decisionSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_19_4 Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruling in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_19_5
MinnesotaSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_20_0 5,457,173Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_20_1 May 14, 2013Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_20_2 August 1, 2013Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_20_3 Legislative statuteSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_20_4 Passed by the Minnesota Legislature and signed into law by the Governor of Minnesota.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_20_5
MontanaSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_21_0 1,023,579Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_21_1 November 19, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_21_2 November 19, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_21_3 Federal court decisionSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_21_4 U.S. District Court for the District of Montana ruling in Rolando v. Fox.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_21_5
NevadaSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_22_0 2,839,099Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_22_1 October 7, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_22_2 October 9, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_22_3 Federal court decision → legislative statuteSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_22_4 Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruling in Sevcik v. Sandoval. The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals overturned the U.S. District Court for the District of Nevada's ruling. Gender-neutral marriage bill passed by the Nevada Legislature and signed into law by the Governor of Nevada went into effect on July 1, 2017.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_22_5
New HampshireSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_23_0 1,326,813Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_23_1 June 3, 2009Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_23_2 January 1, 2010Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_23_3 Legislative statuteSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_23_4 Passed by the New Hampshire General Court and signed into law by the Governor of New Hampshire.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_23_5
New JerseySame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_24_0 8,938,175Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_24_1 September 27, 2013Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_24_2 October 21, 2013Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_24_3 State court decisionSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_24_4 New Jersey Superior Court ruling in Garden State Equality v. Dow.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_24_5
New MexicoSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_25_0 2,085,572Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_25_1 December 19, 2013Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_25_2 December 19, 2013Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_25_3 State court decision → legislative statuteSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_25_4 New Mexico Supreme Court ruling in Griego v. Oliver. Gender-neutral marriage bill passed by the New Mexico Legislature and signed into law by the Governor of New Mexico went into effect on July 1, 2019.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_25_5
New YorkSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_26_0 19,746,227Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_26_1 June 24, 2011Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_26_2 July 24, 2011Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_26_3 Legislative statuteSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_26_4 Marriage Equality Act passed by the New York State Legislature and signed into law by the Governor of New York.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_26_5
North CarolinaSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_27_0 9,943,964Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_27_1 October 10, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_27_2 October 10, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_27_3 Federal court decisionSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_27_4 U.S. District Court for the Western District of North Carolina ruling in General Synod of the United Church of Christ v. Cooper.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_27_5
OklahomaSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_28_0 3,878,051Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_28_1 July 18, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_28_2 October 6, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_28_3 Federal court decisionSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_28_4 U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Oklahoma ruling in Bishop v. Oklahoma. The Tenth Circuit affirmed the ruling in Bishop v. Smith.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_28_5
OregonSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_29_0 3,970,239Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_29_1 May 19, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_29_2 May 19, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_29_3 Federal court decision → legislative statuteSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_29_4 U.S. District Court for the District of Oregon ruling in Geiger v. Kitzhaber. Gender-neutral marriage bill passed by the Oregon Legislature and signed into law by the Governor of Oregon went into effect on January 1, 2016.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_29_5
PennsylvaniaSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_30_0 12,787,209Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_30_1 May 20, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_30_2 May 20, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_30_3 Federal court decisionSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_30_4 U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania ruling in Whitewood v. Wolf.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_30_5
Rhode IslandSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_31_0 1,055,173Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_31_1 May 2, 2013Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_31_2 August 1, 2013Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_31_3 Legislative statuteSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_31_4 Passed by the Rhode Island General Assembly and signed into law by the Governor of Rhode Island.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_31_5
South CarolinaSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_32_0 4,832,482Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_32_1 November 12, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_32_2 November 20, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_32_3 Federal court decisionSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_32_4 U.S. District Court for the District of South Carolina ruling in Condon v. Haley.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_32_5
UtahSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_33_0 2,942,902Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_33_1 June 25, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_33_2 October 6, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_33_3 Federal court decisionSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_33_4 U.S. District Court for the District of Utah ruling in Kitchen v. Herbert. Marriages licensed between December 20, 2013, and January 6, 2014. The Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the district court ruling in Kitchen v. Herbert.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_33_5
VermontSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_34_0 626,562Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_34_1 April 7, 2009Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_34_2 September 1, 2009Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_34_3 Legislative statuteSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_34_4 Passed by the Vermont General Assembly, overriding Governor Jim Douglas' veto.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_34_5
VirginiaSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_35_0 8,326,289Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_35_1 July 28, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_35_2 October 6, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_35_3 Federal court decision → Legislative statuteSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_35_4 U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia ruling in Bostic v. Rainey. The Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the U.S. district court ruling in Bostic v. Schaefer. Bill repealing the ban on same-sex marriage and civil unions passed by the Virginia General Assembly and signed into law by the Governor of Virginia will take effect on July 1, 2020.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_35_5
Washington_(state) WashingtonSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_36_0 7,061,530Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_36_1 November 6, 2012Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_36_2 December 6, 2012Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_36_3 Legislative statute → referendumSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_36_4 Passed by the Washington State Legislature; suspended by petition and referred to Referendum 74, approved.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_36_5
West VirginiaSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_37_0 1,850,326Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_37_1 October 9, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_37_2 October 9, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_37_3 Binding federal court precedent → actions of state officials → federal court decisionSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_37_4 Governor Earl Ray Tomblin and state Attorney General Patrick Morrisey, recognizing the precedent established by the Fourth Circuit ruling in Bostic v. Schaefer, dropped their defense of the state's same-sex marriage ban. The U.S. District Court for the Southern District of West Virginia in McGee v. Cole overturned West Virginia's statutory ban on same-sex marriage on November 7, 2014.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_37_5
WisconsinSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_38_0 5,757,564Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_38_1 September 4, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_38_2 October 6, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_38_3 Federal court decisionSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_38_4 U.S. District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin ruling in Wolf v. Walker. The Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the district court's ruling.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_38_5
WyomingSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_39_0 584,153Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_39_1 October 17, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_39_2 October 21, 2014Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_39_3 Federal court decisionSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_39_4 U.S. District Court for the District of Wyoming ruling in Guzzo v. Mead.Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_39_5
TotalSame-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_40_0 221,434,635 (69.4% of the U.S. population)Same-sex marriage in the United States_cell_0_40_1

Note: This table shows only states that licensed and recognized same-sex marriages or had legalized them, before Obergefell v. Hodges. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_104

It does not include states that recognized same-sex marriages from other jurisdictions but did not license them. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_105

Debate Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_8

Support Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_9

In the United States and Canada, professional organizations including the American Anthropological Association, the American Counseling Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Medical Association, the American Academy of Nursing, the American Psychological Association, the American Psychiatric Association, the Canadian Psychological Association, the American Sociological Association, the National Association of Social Workers, the American Psychoanalytic Association, the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, and the American Academy of Family Physicians have stated that the scientific evidence supports the following conclusions: homosexuality is a natural and normal human sexuality, sexual orientation is not a choice, gay people form stable and committed relationships that are essentially equivalent to the relationships of heterosexuals, same-sex parents are no less capable than opposite-sex parents to raise children, no civilization or viable social order depends on restricting marriage to heterosexuals, and the children of same-sex couples fare just as well or even better than the children of opposite-sex couples. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_106

Prominent figures in the civil rights movement have expressed their support for same-sex marriage. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_107

In 2004, Coretta Scott King, a leader of the civil rights movement and the widow of Martin Luther King Jr., expressed her support for same-sex marriage and publicly denounced attempts to define marriage as the "union of a man and a woman" as a form of "gay bashing". Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_108

In 2007, Mildred Loving, the joint plaintiff alongside her husband Richard Loving in the landmark civil rights case of Loving v. Virginia in 1967, in which the Supreme Court of the United States struck down all state bans on inter-racial marriage, issued a statement on the 40th anniversary of the ruling in which she expressed her support for same-sex marriage and described it as a civil right akin to inter-racial marriage, stating that "I believe all Americans, no matter their race, no matter their sex, no matter their sexual orientation, should have that same freedom to marry". Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_109

In 2009, Julian Bond, a leader of the civil rights movement and a chairman of the NAACP, expressed his support for same-sex marriage and stated that "gay rights are civil rights". Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_110

In 2015, John Lewis, a leader of the civil rights movement and a chairman of the SNCC, welcomed the outcome of the landmark civil rights case of Obergefell v. Hodges in which the Supreme Court of the United States struck down all state bans on same-sex marriage, stating that "races don't fall in love, genders don't fall in love—people fall in love". Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_111

The NAACP, the leading African-American civil rights organization, has pledged its support for gay rights and same-sex marriage, stating that they "support marriage equality consistent with equal protection under the law provided under the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution", and has declared that same-sex marriage is a civil right. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_112

The Human Rights Campaign, the largest LGBT rights organization in the United States, states that "many same-sex couples want the right to legally marry because they are in love — many, in fact, have spent the last 10, 20 or 50 years with that person — and they want to honor their relationship in the greatest way our society has to offer, by making a public commitment to stand together in good times and bad, through all the joys and challenges family life brings." Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_113

Journalist Gail Mathabane likens prohibitions on same-sex marriage to past prohibitions on interracial marriage in the United States. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_114

Author Fernando Espuelas argues that same-sex marriage should be allowed because it recognizes the civil right of a minority. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_115

Historian Nancy Cott rejects alternatives to same-sex marriage (such as civil unions), reasoning that "there really is no comparison, because there is nothing that is like marriage except marriage." Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_116

Role of social media Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_10

Supporters of same-sex marriage successfully utilized social media websites such as Facebook to help achieve their aims. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_117

Some have argued that the successful use of social media by LGBT rights organizations played a key role in the defeat of religion-based opposition. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_118

One of the largest scale uses of social media to mobilize support for same-sex marriage preceded and coincided with the arrival at the U.S. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_119 Supreme Court of high-profile legal cases for Proposition 8 and DOMA in March 2013. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_120

The "red equal sign" project started by the Human Rights Campaign was an electronic campaign primarily based on Facebook that encouraged users to change their profile images to a red equal sign to express support for same-sex marriage. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_121

At the time of the court hearings, an estimated 2.5 million Facebook users changed their profile images to a red equal sign. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_122

Opposition Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_11

Opposition to same-sex marriage is based on claims such as the beliefs that homosexuality is unnatural and abnormal, that the recognition of same-sex unions will promote homosexuality in society, and that children are better off when raised by opposite-sex couples. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_123

While some researchers question the definitiveness of the evidence, others assert that science has shown that homosexuality is a natural and normal human sexuality, that sexual orientation cannot be chosen, and that the children of same-sex couples fare just as well or even better than the children of opposite-sex couples. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_124

Some of the opponents of same-sex marriage are religious groups such as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Catholic Church, and the Southern Baptist Convention, all of which desire for marriage to remain restricted to opposite-sex marriages. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_125

However, there are faith-based supporters of LGBT equality within every faith group and there are LGBT people of faith within every faith group. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_126

The funding of the amendment referendum campaigns has been an issue of great dispute. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_127

Both judges and the IRS have ruled that it is either questionable or illegal for campaign contributions to be shielded by anonymity. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_128

Politicians and media figures Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_12

President Barack Obama's views on same-sex marriage varied over the course of his political career and became more consistently supportive of same-sex marriage rights over time. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_129

In the 1990s, he had supported same-sex marriage while campaigning for the Illinois Senate. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_130

During the 2008 presidential campaign, he was opposed to same-sex marriage, but he also opposed the 2008 California referendum that aimed at reversing a court ruling establishing same-sex marriage there. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_131

In 2009, he opposed two opposing federal legislative proposals that would have banned or established same-sex marriage nationally, stating that each state had to decide the issue. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_132

In December 2010, he expressed support for civil unions with rights equivalent to marriage and for federal recognition of same-sex relationships. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_133

He opposed a federal constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_134

He also stated that his position on same-sex marriage was "evolving" and that he recognized that civil unions from the perspective of same-sex couples was "not enough". Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_135

On May 9, 2012, President Obama became the first sitting president to support same-sex marriage. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_136

He still said the legal question belonged to the states. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_137

In October 2014, Obama told an interviewer that his view had changed: Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_138

Shortly after winning the 2016 election, President Donald Trump said he's "fine" with same-sex marriage and believes it to be settled law: "It's law. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_139

It was settled in the Supreme Court. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_140

I mean, it's done." Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_141

This somewhat contrasted with a previous statement he made in June 2015, after Obergefell v. Hodges, in which he said he's personally for "traditional marriage" and that he believed same-sex marriage should be left to the states. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_142

In that same statement, however, Trump admitted that overturning Obergefell is not realistic. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_143

Several of his federal appointments have also, subsequently, announced they will uphold same-sex marriage and enforce the Supreme Court ruling, while still being personally against same-sex marriage, namely Attorney General Jeff Sessions and Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_144

Former presidents Bill Clinton, Jimmy Carter, and Barack Obama, former vice presidents Dick Cheney, Al Gore, Walter Mondale, and Joe Biden have voiced their support for same-sex marriage, as have former first ladies Laura Bush, Hillary Clinton, Michelle Obama, and Nancy Reagan. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_145

Former President George H. W. Bush and his wife former First Lady Barbara Bush have served as witnesses to a same-sex wedding, but neither has publicly stated whether this means they support same-sex marriage in general; George W. Bush reportedly offered to officiate the same wedding, but has similarly not made a public statement regarding his position on the issue (as president, he was opposed). Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_146

Fifteen U.S. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_147 senators announced their support in the spring of 2013. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_148

By April 2013, a majority of the Senate had expressed support for same-sex marriage. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_149

Senator Rob Portman of Ohio became the first sitting Republican senator to endorse same-sex marriage in March 2013, followed by Senator Mark Kirk of Illinois in April, Senator Lisa Murkowski of Alaska in June, and Senator Susan Collins of Maine a year later. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_150

Politicians who have notably opposed same-sex marriage have included Rick Santorum, Mike Huckabee, and Sarah Palin. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_151

Prominent politicians who have shifted from opposing to supporting same-sex marriage include Republican Senator Rob Portman, and Republican Representative Bob Barr (the author of the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act). Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_152

In an interview on The O'Reilly Factor in August 2010, when Glenn Beck was asked if he "believe(s) that gay marriage is a threat to [this] country in any way", he stated, "No I don't. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_153

... Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_154

I believe that Thomas Jefferson said: 'If it neither breaks my leg nor picks my pocket what difference is it to me?'" Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_155

Studies Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_13

Child suicide Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_14

The establishment of same-sex marriage is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children, with the effect being concentrated among children of a minority sexual orientation. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_156

A study of nationwide data from across the United States from January 1999 to December 2015 revealed that the rate of attempted suicide among all schoolchildren in grades 9–12 declined by 7% and the rate of attempted suicide among schoolchildren of a minority sexual orientation in grades 9–12 declined by 14% in states which established same-sex marriage, resulting in approximately 134,000 fewer children attempting suicide each year in the United States. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_157

The researchers took advantage of the gradual manner in which same-sex marriage was established in the United States (expanding from one state in 2004 to all fifty states in 2015) to compare the rate of attempted suicide among children in each state over the time period studied. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_158

Once same-sex marriage was established in a particular state, the reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children in that state became permanent. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_159

No reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children occurred in a particular state until that state recognized same-sex marriage. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_160

The lead researcher of the study observed that "laws that have the greatest impact on gay adults may make gay kids feel more hopeful for the future". Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_161

Economic impact on same-sex couples Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_15

Until the Supreme Court's June 2013 ruling in United States v. Windsor required the Federal Government to treat lawfully married same-sex couples on an equal basis with lawfully married opposite-sex couples, same-sex married couples faced severe disadvantages. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_162

The Federal Government did not recognize those marriages for any purpose. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_163

According to a 1997 General Accounting Office study, at least 1,049 U.S. federal laws and regulations include references to marital status. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_164

A 2004 study by the Congressional Budget Office found 1,138 statutory provisions "in which marital status is a factor in determining or receiving 'benefits, rights, and privileges.'" Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_165

Many of these laws govern property rights, benefits, and taxation. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_166

Same-sex couples whose marriages were not recognized by the Federal Government were ineligible for spousal and survivor Social Security benefits and were ineligible for the benefits of the spouse of a federal government employee. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_167

One study found that the difference in Social Security income for same-sex couples compared to opposite-sex married couples was per year. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_168

Compared to similarly situated opposite-sex married couples, same-sex couples faced the following financial and legal disadvantages: Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_169

Same-sex marriage in the United States_unordered_list_1

  • Legal costs associated with obtaining domestic partner documents to gain legal abilities granted automatically by legal marriage, including power of attorney, health care decision-making, and inheritanceSame-sex marriage in the United States_item_1_3
  • A person can inherit an unlimited amount from a deceased spouse without incurring an estate tax, but was subject to taxes if inheriting from a same-sex partnerSame-sex marriage in the United States_item_1_4
  • Same-sex couples were not eligible to file jointly as a married couple and thus could not take the advantages of lower tax rates when the individual income of the partners differs significantlySame-sex marriage in the United States_item_1_5
  • Employer-provided health insurance coverage for a same-sex partner incurred federal income taxSame-sex marriage in the United States_item_1_6
  • Higher health costs associated with lack of insurance and preventive care: 20% of same-sex couples had a member who was uninsured compared to 10% of married opposite-sex couplesSame-sex marriage in the United States_item_1_7
  • Inability to protect jointly owned home from loss due to costs of potential medical catastropheSame-sex marriage in the United States_item_1_8
  • Inability of a U.S. citizen to sponsor a same-sex spouse for citizenshipSame-sex marriage in the United States_item_1_9

Some 7,400 companies were offering spousal benefits to same-sex couples as of 2008. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_170

In states that recognized same-sex marriages, same-sex couples could continue to receive those same benefits only if they married. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_171

Only 18% of private employers offered domestic partner health care benefits. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_172

Same-sex couples face the same financial constraints of legal marriage as opposite-sex married couples, including the marriage penalty in taxation. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_173

While social service providers usually do not count one partner's assets toward the income means test for welfare and disability assistance for the other partner, a legally married couple's joint assets are normally used in calculating whether a married individual qualifies for assistance. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_174

A 2019 study found an increase in employment among same-sex couples after the legalization of same-sex marriage. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_175

The author of the study provided additional evidence suggesting that this change in employment was driven by a decline in discrimination. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_176

Economic impact on the state and federal governments Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_16

The 2004 Congressional Budget Office study, working from an assumption "that about 0.6 percent of adults would enter into same-sex marriages if they had the opportunity" (an assumption in which they admitted "significant uncertainty") estimated that legalizing same-sex marriage throughout the United States "would improve the budget's bottom line to a small extent: by less than $1 billion in each of the next 10 years". Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_177

This result reflects an increase in net government revenues (increased income taxes due to marriage penalties more than offsetting decreased tax revenues arising from postponed estate taxes). Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_178

Marriage recognition would increase the government expenses for Social Security and Federal Employee Health Benefits but that increase would be more than made up for by decreased expenses for Medicaid, Medicare, and Supplemental Security Income. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_179

According to a study published in May 2020 by the Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Public Policy, the legalization of same-sex marriage boosted state and local economies by an estimated 3.8 billion dollars. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_180

The Williams Institute estimated that the 300,000 same-sex couples who married in the U.S. since 2015 generated about $3.2 billion for local and state economies. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_181

In addition, traveling wedding guests spent an additional $544 million, and about 45,000 jobs were supported by same-sex weddings. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_182

$244 million was generated in state and local taxes. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_183

Mental health Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_17

Based in part on research that has been conducted on the adverse effects of stigmatization of gays and lesbians, numerous prominent social science organizations have issued position statements supporting same-sex marriage and opposing discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation; these organizations include the American Psychoanalytic Association and the American Psychological Association. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_184

Several psychological studies have shown that an increase in exposure to negative conversations, media messages, and negative reactions among peers about same-sex marriage creates a harmful environment for LGBT people that may affect their health and well-being, especially among its younger members. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_185

One study surveyed more than 1,500 lesbian, gay and bisexual adults across the nation and found that respondents from the 25 states that have outlawed same-sex marriage had the highest reports of "minority stress"—the chronic social stress that results from minority-group stigmatization—as well as general psychological distress. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_186

According to the study, the negative campaigning that comes with a ban is directly responsible for the increased stress. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_187

Past research has shown that minority stress is linked to health risks such as risky sexual behavior and substance abuse. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_188

Two other studies examined personal reports from LGBT adults and their families living in Memphis, Tennessee, immediately after a successful 2006 ballot campaign banned same-sex marriage. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_189

Most respondents reported feeling alienated from their communities. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_190

The studies also found that families experienced a kind of secondary minority stress, says Jennifer Arm, a counseling graduate student at the University of Memphis. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_191

At the Perry v. Schwarzenegger trial, expert witness Ilan Meyer testified that the mental health outcomes for gays and lesbians would improve if laws such as Proposition 8 did not exist because "when people are exposed to more stress...they are more likely to get sick..." and that particular situation is consistent with laws that say to gay people "you are not welcome here, your relationships are not valued." Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_192

Such laws have "significant power", he said. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_193

Physical health Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_18

In 2009, a pair of economists at Emory University tied the passage of state bans on same-sex marriage in the US to an increase in the rates of HIV/AIDS infection. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_194

The study linked the passage of same-sex marriage ban in a state to an increase in the annual HIV rate within that state of roughly 4 cases per 100,000 population. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_195

A study by the Columbia Mailman School of Public Health found that gay men in Massachusetts visited health clinics significantly less often following the legalization of same-sex marriage in that state. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_196

In popular culture Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_19

The Fox sitcom Roc was the first sitcom to feature a same-sex marriage in 1991. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_197

Since then, several shows and series have featured same-sex marriages, including amongst others Roseanne ("December Bride"), Glee, Friends ("The One with the Lesbian Wedding"), Brooklyn Nine-Nine, Modern Family, The Simpsons ("There's Something About Marrying"), The Ellen DeGeneres Show, Brothers & Sisters, Grey's Anatomy, Will & Grace, Conan, Steven Universe, Shameless, The Fosters, etc. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_198

The 22nd season premier of the PBS animated-show Arthur featured the marriage of teacher Mr. Ratburn and his male partner. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_199

Alabama's public television channel refused to air the episode. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_200

Marriage statistics Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_20

There is no complete data on the number of same-sex marriages conducted in the United States. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_201

Marriages and divorces are recorded by states, counties, and territories, plus New York City and the District of Columbia, but not by the Federal Government. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_202

States such as Oregon do not distinguish between opposite-sex and same-sex marriages in their official records. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_203

The legal records on marriage and divorce belong to the states. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_204

In August 2016, the Treasury Department estimated the number of same-sex marriages by linking the tax returns of same-sex couples who had filed jointly in 2014 with their Social Security records. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_205

(Although this method excluded couples who file singly, these are small in number; of all married couples who file taxes, 97.5% file jointly.) Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_206

This research showed that in 2014 there were about 183,280 married same-sex couples in the country, or "roughly a third of 1 percent of all marriages" according to The New York Times. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_207

Numbers from 2015 showed a large increase to 250,450 marriages. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_208

According to the statistics, female couples were four times more likely to have children than male couples. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_209

Additionally, male couples earned a pretax average of $165,960 per year, while lesbian couples earned $118,415 and straight couples earned $115,210. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_210

The highest rates of female same-sex marriage were found in Oakland (2.1% of all marriages), Seattle, San Francisco, Springfield (MA) and Portland (OR), whereas gay male marriages were most frequent in San Francisco (3.2%), Washington D.C., New York City, Seattle and Fort Lauderdale. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_211

The United States Census Bureau has collected data on unmarried same-sex households since 2005. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_212

Since 2013 following United States v. Windsor, the Bureau began recording married same-sex households in its Same-Sex Couples report. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_213

It recorded about 252,000 same-sex spouses in 2013; 335,000 in 2014; 425,000 in 2015; 487,000 in 2016; 555,000 in 2017; 593,000 in 2018. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_214

In 2018, the states of California, Texas and New York had the highest total number of same-sex households, whereas Wyoming, Vermont, South Dakota and Connecticut had the most married same-sex households in comparison to unmarried households (92.4% of Wyoming same-sex households were married, followed by Vermont at 79.3%, South Dakota at 77.8% and Connecticut at 70.7%). Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_215

Nationally, 59.5% of cohabiting same-sex couples were married. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_216

The Population Reference Bureau reported that by October 2015 approximately 486,000 same-sex marriages had taken place in the United States. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_217

It estimated that 45% of all same-sex couples in the country were married at that time. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_218

According to Gallup, the percent of cohabiting same-sex couples who are married rose from 38% in 2015 to 49% in 2016 and to 61% in 2017. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_219

Case law Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_21

See also: Same-sex marriage legislation in the United States § Lawsuits seeking to overturn statutory bans Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_220

United States federal and state case law regarding same-sex marriage: Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_221

1970s Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_22

Same-sex marriage in the United States_unordered_list_2

  • Anonymous v. Anonymous, 67 Misc.2d 982 (N.Y. 1971). The law makes no provision for a "marriage" between persons of the same sex.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_2_10
  • Baker v. Nelson, 191 N.W.2d 185 (Minn. 1971). Upholds a Minnesota law defining marriage as the union of a man and a woman. (Overruled by Obergefell v. Hodges in 2015; see below)Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_2_11
  • Jones v. Hallahan, 501 S.W.2d 588 (Ky. 1973). Upholds the denial of a marriage license to two women in Kentucky based on dictionary definitions of marriage, despite the fact that state statutes do not specify the gender of marriage partners.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_2_12
  • Frances B. v. Mark B., 78 Misc.2d 112 (1974). Marriage is and always has been a contract between a man and a woman.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_2_13
  • Singer v. Hara, 522 P.2d 1187 (Wash. Ct. App. 1974). The historical definition of marriage is between one man and one woman, and same-sex couples are inherently ineligible to marry. This ban does not constitute sex discrimination.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_2_14

1980s Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_23

Same-sex marriage in the United States_unordered_list_3

  • Adams v. Howerton, 673 F.2d 1036 (9th Cir. 1982), cert. denied, 458 U.S. 1111. A same-sex marriage does not make one a "spouse" under the Immigration and Nationality Act.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_3_15
  • De Santo v. Barnsley, 476 A.2d 952 (Pa. Super. Ct. 1984). Same-sex couples cannot divorce because they cannot form a common law marriage.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_3_16

1990s Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_24

Same-sex marriage in the United States_unordered_list_4

  • In re Estate of Cooper, 149 Misc.2d 282 (Sur. Ct. Kings Co. 1990). The state has a compelling interest in fostering the traditional institution of marriage and prohibiting same-sex marriage.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_4_17
  • Baehr v. Lewin, 852 P.2d 44 (Haw. 1993). A statute limiting marriage to opposite-sex couples violates the Hawaii Constitution's equal protection clause unless the state can show that the statute is both justified by compelling state interests and also narrowly tailored. This ruling prompted the adoption of Hawaii's constitutional amendment allowing the State Legislature to restrict marriage to different-sex couples and the federal Defense of Marriage Act.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_4_18
  • Dean v. District of Columbia, 653 A.2d 307 (D.C. 1995). DC does not authorise same-sex marriage; denial of a marriage license does not violate the Due Process Clause of the United States Constitution.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_4_19
  • Storrs v. Holcomb, 645 N.Y.S.2d 286 (App. Div. 1996). New York does not recognize or authorize same-sex marriage. Overturned in part by Martinez v. County of Monroe in 2008.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_4_20
  • In re Estate of Hall, 707 N.E.2d 201, 206 (Ill. App. Ct. 1998). Illinois does not recognize a same-sex marriage. The petitioner's claim to be in a same-sex marriage was not in a marriage recognized by law.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_4_21
  • Baker v. Vermont, 170 Vt. 194; 744 A.2d 864 (Vt. 1999). The Common Benefits Clause of the Constitution of Vermont requires that same-sex couples be granted the same legal rights as married persons, though it need not be called marriage.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_4_22

2000s Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_25

Same-sex marriage in the United States_unordered_list_5

  • Frandsen v. County of Brevard, 828 So. 2d 757 (Fla. 2001). The Florida Constitution will not be construed to recognize same-sex marriage; sex classifications not subject to strict scrutiny under the Constitution.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_5_23
  • Burns v. Burns, 560 S.E.2d 47 (Ga. Ct. App. 2002). Marriage is the union of one man and one woman.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_5_24
  • In re Estate of Gardiner, 42 P.3d 120 (Kan. 2002). A post-operative male-to-female transsexual is not a woman within the meaning of the statutes and cannot validly marry another man.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_5_25
  • Rosengarten v. Downes, 806 A.2d 1066 (Conn. Ct. App. 2002). Connecticut will not dissolve a Vermont civil union.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_5_26
  • Standhardt v. Superior Court ex rel. County of Maricopa, 77 P.3d 451 (Ariz. Ct. App. 2003). The Constitution of Arizona does not provide the right to same-sex marriage.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_5_27
  • Goodridge v. Dept. of Public Health, 798 N.E.2d 941 (Mass. 2003). The denial of marriage licenses to same-sex couples violated provisions of the Massachusetts State Constitution guaranteeing individual liberty and equality, and it was not rationally related to a legitimate state interest.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_5_28
  • Morrison v. Sadler, 821 N.E.2d 15 (Ind. Super. Ct. 2005). Indiana's Defense of Marriage Act is valid.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_5_29
  • Langan v. St. Vincent's Hospital, 802 N.Y.S.2d 476 (App. Div. 2005). For the purposes of New York's wrongful death statute, the survivor partner from a Vermont civil union lacks standing as a "spouse".Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_5_30
  • Citizens for Equal Protection v. Bruning, 455 F.3d 859 (8th Cir. 2006). Nebraska's Initiative Measure 416 does not violate the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause, was not a bill of attainder, and does not violate the First Amendment.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_5_31
  • Lewis v. Harris, 908 A.2d 196 (N.J. 2006). Prohibiting same-sex marriage does not violate the New Jersey Constitution, but the state must extend all the rights and responsibilities of marriage to same-sex couples. The New Jersey Legislature had 180 days to amend the marriage laws or create a "parallel structure".Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_5_32
  • Andersen v. King County, 138 P.3d 963 (Wash. 2006). Washington's Defense of Marriage Act does not violate the State Constitution.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_5_33
  • Hernandez v. Robles, 855 N.E.2d 1 (N.Y. 2006). The New York Constitution does not require that marriage rights be extended to same-sex couples.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_5_34
  • Conaway v. Deane, 932 A.2d 571 (Md. 2007). Upholds a Maryland law defining marriage as the union of a man and a woman.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_5_35
  • Martinez v. County of Monroe, 850 N.Y.S.2d 740 (App. Div. 2008). Because New York recognizes the marriages of opposite-sex couples from other jurisdictions, it must do the same for same-sex couples.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_5_36
  • In re Marriage Cases, 183 P.3d 384 (Cal. 2008). Limiting marriage to opposite-sex couples is invalid under the equal protection clause of the California Constitution. Full marriage rights, not merely domestic partnership, must be offered to same-sex couples.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_5_37
  • Kerrigan v. Commissioner of Public Health, 957 A.2d 407 (Conn. 2008). The availability of civil unions but not marriage to same-sex partners is a violation of the equality and liberty provisions of the Connecticut Constitution.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_5_38
  • Strauss v. Horton, 207 P.3d 48 (Cal. 2009). Proposition 8 was validly adopted, and marriages contracted before its adoption remain valid.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_5_39
  • Varnum v. Brien, 763 N.W.2d 862 (Iowa 2009). Barring same-sex couples from marriage violates the equal protection provisions of the Iowa Constitution. Equal protection requires full marriage, rather than civil unions or some other substitute, for same-sex couples.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_5_40

2010s Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_26

Same-sex marriage in the United States_description_list_6

Same-sex marriage in the United States_unordered_list_7

  • Gill v. Office of Personnel Management (2009–2013). Section 3 of the federal Defense of Marriage Act is found unconstitutional in U.S. district court. The First Circuit Court of Appeals affirms that ruling and stays implementation pending appeal. Windsor finds Section 3 unconstitutional and appeal of Gill is denied by the Supreme Court.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_7_41
  • Massachusetts v. United States Department of Health and Human Services (2009–2013). Decided alongside Gill with the same outcome.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_7_42
  • Golinski v. Office of Personnel Management (2010–2013). Section 3 of the federal Defense of Marriage Act is found unconstitutional in U.S. district court, which determines that sexual orientation is a quasi-suspect classification requiring the court to apply intermediate scrutiny, that is, to determine whether Section 3 relates to an important government interest. On appeal, the case is held in abeyance pending the decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in Windsor, which settles the issues raised in Golinski, the appeal of which to the Supreme Court is then denied.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_7_43
  • United States v. Windsor (2010–2013). Section 3 of the federal Defense of Marriage Act is found unconstitutional in U.S. district court. The Second Circuit Court of Appeals affirms that ruling, as does the U.S. Supreme Court. The U.S. Government began implementing the decision the same week.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_7_44

Same-sex marriage in the United States_description_list_8

Same-sex marriage in the United States_unordered_list_9

  • Hollingsworth v. Perry (2009–2013). California's Proposition 8, a voter-endorsed constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage, is found unconstitutional in U.S. district court in Perry v. Schwarzenegger. The proposition's backers appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, which upholds the district court's finding of unconstitutionality in Perry v. Brown. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the proposition's backers lacked standing to appeal and left the district court ruling intact.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_9_45

Same-sex marriage in the United States_description_list_10

Same-sex marriage in the United States_unordered_list_11

  • Christiansen v. Christiansen. On June 6, 2011, the Supreme Court of Wyoming grants a divorce to two women who married in Canada, but says its decision does not apply "in any context other than divorce".Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_11_46
  • Port v. Cowan (2010–2012). Maryland must recognize valid out-of-state same-sex marriages under doctrine of comity.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_11_47
  • Garden State Equality v. Dow (2011–2013), New Jersey's civil unions violate due process guarantees; denying same-sex marriage ruled unconstitutional in state superior court. The N.J. Supreme Court refuses to stay the ruling and the state defendants drop their appeal.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_11_48
  • Griego v. Oliver, 316 P.3d 865 (N.M. 2013). The New Mexico Supreme Court rules that the State Constitution requires marriage rights to be extended to same-sex couples.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_11_49
  • Kitchen v. Herbert, 961 F. Supp. 2d 1181 (2013). U.S. district court rules Utah's ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional. The Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals upholds that ruling on June 25, 2014. All parties support review by the U.S. Supreme Court, and that court denied review on October 6.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_11_50
  • Whitewood v. Wolf (Pennsylvania). On May 20, 2014, Judge John E. Jones III rules that Pennsylvania's same-sex marriage ban is unconstitutional.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_11_51
  • Geiger v. Kitzhaber and Rummell v. Kitzhaber (Oregon). On May 19, 2014, district judge Michael J. McShane declares Oregon's same-sex marriage ban unconstitutional.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_11_52
  • Bostic v. Schaefer (Virginia). The Fourth Circuit on July 28, 2014, in a 2–1 decision, affirms a district court ruling that Virginia's denial of marriage rights to same-sex couples is unconstitutional. The Supreme Court denied review on October 6.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_11_53
  • Baskin v. Bogan (Indiana) and Wolf v. Walker (Wisconsin). The Seventh Circuit consolidated these cases and on September 4, 2014, upheld two district court rulings that had found Indiana's and Wisconsin's bans on same-sex marriage unconstitutional. The U.S. Supreme Court denied review on October 6.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_11_54
  • Bishop v. Smith (Oklahoma). On July 18, 2014, the Tenth Circuit upholds the district court ruling that Oklahoma's ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional. The Supreme Court denied review on October 6.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_11_55
  • Barrier v. Vasterling (Missouri). State circuit judge J. Dale Youngs rules on October 3, 2014 that Missouri's refusal to recognize same-sex marriages from other jurisdictions violates the plaintiff same-sex couples' right to equal protection under both the state and federal constitutions.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_11_56
  • Caspar v. Snyder (Michigan). On January 15, 2015, U.S. district judge Mark A. Goldsmith ruled that the state must recognize the validity of "window marriages" established on March 21 and 22, 2014, before the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals stayed a district court ruling in DeBoer v. Snyder that found Michigan's ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional, despite the fact that DeBoer was later reversed. The state chose not to appeal.Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_11_57
  • Obergefell v. Hodges (2013-2015). U.S. Supreme Court case finding state bans on same-sex marriage to be unconstitutional under the 14th Amendment. (Overturned Baker v. Nelson)Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_11_58

Public opinion Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_27

Main article: Public opinion of same-sex marriage in the United States Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_222

Public opinion of same-sex marriage in the United States has shifted rapidly since polling of the American people regarding the issue first began on an occasional basis in the 1980s and a regular basis in the 1990s, with support having consistently risen while opposition has continually fallen. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_223

National support rose above 50% for the first time in 2011 and has not gone below that mark since then. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_224

National support rose to 60% for the first time in 2015 and has not gone below that mark since then. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_225

Support continues to rise while opposition continues to fall each year, driven in large part by a significant generational gap in support. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_226

From 1988 to 2009, support for same-sex marriage increased between 1% and 1.5% per year and accelerated thereafter. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_227

As of 2016, 83% of Americans aged 18–29 supported same-sex marriage. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_228

As of 2017, there was majority support for same-sex marriage in 44 states, plurality support in four states, plurality opposition in one state, and majority opposition in one state. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_229

As of 2018, 60% of Americans said they would not mind if their child married someone of the same gender. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_230

Annual polling conducted by Gallup each May in 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020 has found support for same-sex marriage stable, with two-thirds of Americans indicating that same-sex marriage should be recognized as valid under law (a range of 63% to 67% was recorded). Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_231

In 2020, 67% of respondents stated that same-sex marriage should be legally recognized as valid under the law. Same-sex marriage in the United States_sentence_232

See also Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_28

Same-sex marriage in the United States_unordered_list_12

Legislation Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_29

Same-sex marriage in the United States_unordered_list_13

Miscellaneous Same-sex marriage in the United States_section_30

Same-sex marriage in the United States_unordered_list_14

  • A Union in Wait (documentary film)Same-sex marriage in the United States_item_14_75


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Same-sex marriage in the United States.