Sammy Davis Jr.
|Sammy Davis Jr.|
|Born||Samuel George Davis Jr.
(1925-12-08)December 8, 1925 New York City, U.S.
|Died||May 16, 1990(1990-05-16) (aged 64)|
|Resting place||Forest Lawn Memorial Park, Glendale, California, U.S.|
|Associated acts||Ray Vasquez|
Samuel George Davis Jr. (December 8, 1925 – May 16, 1990) was an American singer, dancer, actor, vaudevillian and comedian who has been called "the greatest entertainer ever to grace a stage in these United States."
With the trio, he became a recording artist.
In 1954, at the age of 29, he lost his left eye in a car accident.
Several years later, he converted to Judaism, finding commonalities between the oppression experienced by African-American and Jewish communities.
Davis was nominated for a Tony Award for his performance and the show was said to have featured the first interracial kiss on Broadway.
In 1966, he had his own TV variety show, titled The Sammy Davis Jr. Show.
While Davis's career slowed in the late 1960s, his biggest hit, "The Candy Man", reached the top of the Billboard Hot 100 in June 1972, and he became a star in Las Vegas, earning him the nickname "Mister Show Business".
Davis had a complex relationship with the black community and drew criticism after publicly supporting President Richard Nixon in 1972.
"Talk about handicap.
I'm a one-eyed Negro who's Jewish."
This was to become a signature comment, recounted in his autobiography and in many articles.
He died in debt to the Internal Revenue Service, and his estate was the subject of legal battles after the death of his wife.
Davis was born on December 8, 1925 in the Harlem section of Manhattan in New York City, the son of African-American entertainer and stage performer Sammy Davis Sr. (1900–1988) and to tap dancer and stage performer Elvera Sanchez (1905–2000).
During his lifetime, Davis stated that his mother was Puerto Rican and born in San Juan.
However, in the 2003 biography In Black and White, author Wil Haygood wrote that Davis' mother was born in New York City to Cuban parents, who were of Afro-Cuban and Spanish descent, and that Davis claimed he was Puerto Rican because he feared anti-Cuban backlash would hurt his record sales.
Davis' parents were vaudeville dancers.
As an infant, he was reared by his paternal grandmother.
When he was three years old, his parents separated.
His father, not wanting to lose custody of his son, took him on tour.
Davis learned to dance from his father and his uncle Will Mastin.
Davis joined the act as a child and they became the Will Mastin Trio.
Throughout his career, Davis included the Will Mastin Trio in his billing.
Mastin and his father shielded him from racism, such as by explaining race-based snubs as jealousy.
However, when Davis served in the United States Army during World War II, he was confronted by strong prejudice.
He later said: "Overnight the world looked different.
It wasn't one color any more.
I could see the protection I'd gotten all my life from my father and Will.
I appreciated their loving hope that I'd never need to know about prejudice and hate, but they were wrong.
It was as if I'd walked through a swinging door for 18 years, a door which they had always secretly held open."
He was frequently abused by white soldiers from the South and later recounted that "I must have had a knockdown, drag-out fight every two days."
His nose was broken numerous times and permanently flattened.
At one point he was offered a beer laced with urine.
He was reassigned to the Army's Special Services branch, which put on performances for troops.
At one show he found himself performing in front of soldiers who had previously racially abused him.
He later said, "My talent was the weapon, the power, the way for me to fight.
It was the one way I might hope to affect a man's thinking."
After his discharge, Davis rejoined the family dance act, which played at clubs around Portland, Oregon.
They were to perform for only 20 minutes but the reaction from the celebrity-filled crowd was so enthusiastic, especially when Davis launched into his impressions, that they performed for nearly an hour, and Paige insisted the order of the show be flipped.
Davis began to achieve success on his own and was singled out for praise by critics, releasing several albums.
In 1953, Davis was offered his own television show on ABC, Three for the Road—with the Will Mastin Trio.
The network could not get a sponsor, so the show was dropped.
In 1956, he starred in the Broadway musical Mr. . Wonderful
In 1958, Davis was hired to crown the winner of the Miss Cavalcade of Jazz beauty contest for the famed fourteenth Cavalcade of Jazz concert produced by Leon Hefflin Sr. held at the Shrine Auditorium on August 3.
The event featured the top four prominent disc jockey of Los Angeles.
Initially, Sinatra called the gathering "the Clan", but Davis voiced his opposition, saying that it reminded people of the Ku Klux Klan.
Sinatra renamed the group "the Summit".
One long night of poker that went on into the early morning saw the men drunken and disheveled.
As Angie Dickinson approached the group, she said, "You all look like a pack of rats."
The nickname caught on, and they were called the Rat Pack, the name of its earlier incarnation led by Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall, who originally made the remark of the "pack of rats" about the group around her husband Bogart.
In 1964, Davis was the first African American to sing at the Copacabana night club in New York.
Davis was a headliner at The Frontier Casino in Las Vegas, but, due to Jim Crow practices in Las Vegas, he was required (as were all black performers in the 1950s) to lodge in a rooming house on the west side of the city, instead of in the hotels as his white colleagues did.
No dressing rooms were provided for black performers, and they had to wait outside by the swimming pool between acts.
Davis and other black artists could entertain but could not stay at the hotels where they performed, gamble in the casinos, or dine or drink in the hotel restaurants and bars.
Davis later refused to work at places which practiced racial segregation.
Canada provided opportunities for performers like Davis unable to break the color barrier in U.S. broadcast television, and in 1959, he starred in his own TV special Sammy's Parade on the Canadian network CBC It was a breakthrough event for the performer, as in the United States in the 1950s, corporate sponsors largely controlled the screen: "Black people [were] not portrayed very well on television, if at all," according to Jason King of the Clive Davis Institute of Recorded Music.
In 1964, Davis was starring in Golden Boy at night and shooting his own New York-based afternoon talk show during the day.
When he could get a day off from the theater, he recorded songs in the studio, performed at charity events in Chicago, Miami, or Las Vegas, or appeared on television variety specials in Los Angeles.
Davis felt he was cheating his family of his company, but he said he was incapable of standing still.
Although he was still popular in Las Vegas, he saw his musical career decline by the late 1960s.
He had a No.
11 hit (No.
He signed with Motown to update his sound and appeal to young people.
His deal to have his own label with the company fell through.
He had an unexpected No.
He did not particularly care for the song and was chagrined that he had become known for it, but Davis made the most of his opportunity and revitalized his career.
Although he enjoyed no more Top 40 hits, he did enjoy popularity with his 1976 performance of the theme song from the Baretta television series, "Baretta's Theme (Keep Your Eye on the Sparrow)" (1975–1978), which was released as a single (20th Century Records).
He appeared on the television shows The Rifleman, I Dream of Jeannie, All in the Family (during which he famously kisses Archie Bunker (Carroll O'Connor) on the cheek), and Charlie's Angels (with his wife, Altovise Davis).
He appeared in Japanese commercials for Suntory whisky in the 1970s.
In addition to the Emmy Award-winning musical performances, the show is notable for Nancy Sinatra and Davis greeting each other with a kiss, one of the first black-white kisses in US television.
Davis had a friendship with Elvis Presley in the late 1960s, as they both were top-draw acts in Vegas at the same time.
Davis was in many ways just as reclusive during his hotel gigs as Elvis was, holding parties mainly in his penthouse suite which Elvis occasionally attended.
In Japan, Davis appeared in television commercials for coffee, and in the United States he joined Sinatra and Martin in a radio commercial for a Chicago car dealership.
Guests included Muhammad Ali, Paul Anka, Jack Barry, Dr. Joyce Brothers, Ray Charles, Dick Clark, Roy Clark, Howard Cosell, Ossie Davis, Ruby Dee, Joe Franklin, Cliff Gorman, Richie Havens, Danny Kaye, Jerry Lewis, Hal Linden, Rich Little, Butterfly McQueen, Minnie Pearl, Boots Randolph, Tex Ritter, Phil Rizzuto, The Rockettes, Nipsey Russell, Sally Struthers, Mel Tillis, Ben Vereen, and Lawrence Welk.
It was a financial disaster.
The total amount of pledges was $1.2 million.
Actual pledges received were $525,000.
Davis was a huge fan of daytime television, particularly the soap operas produced by the American Broadcasting Company.
In 1988, Davis was billed to tour with Frank Sinatra and Dean Martin, but Sinatra and Martin had a falling out.
Liza Minnelli replaced Dean on the tour dubbed as The Ultimate Event.
During the tour in 1989, Davis was diagnosed with throat cancer; his treatments prevented him from performing.
Accident and conversion
Davis nearly died in an automobile accident on November 19, 1954 in San Bernardino, California, as he was making a return trip from Las Vegas to Los Angeles.
Instead of putting it by his door as a traditional blessing, Davis wore it around his neck for good luck.
The only time he forgot it was the night of the accident.
The accident occurred at a fork in U.S. at Cajon Boulevard and Kendall Drive. Route 66
Davis lost his left eye to the bullet-shaped horn button (a standard feature in 1954 and 1955 Cadillacs) as a result.
His friend, actor Jeff Chandler, said he would give one of his own eyes if it would keep Davis from total blindness.
Davis wore an eye patch for at least six months following the accident.
wearing the patch.
Later, he was fitted for a glass eye, which he wore for the rest of his life.
Davis, who was born to a Catholic mother and Baptist father, began studying the history of Jews.
He converted to Judaism several years later in 1961.
One passage from his readings (from the book A History of the Jews by Abram L. Sachar), describing the endurance of the Jewish people, interested him in particular: "The Jews would not die.
Three millennia of prophetic teaching had given them an unwavering spirit of resignation and had created in them a will to live which no disaster could crush."
The accident marked a turning point in Davis's career, taking him from a well-known entertainer to a national celebrity.
Because Novak was white, Harry Cohn, the president of Columbia, gave in to his worries that racist backlash against the relationship could hurt the studio.
There are several accounts of what happened, but they agree that Davis was threatened by organized crime figures close to Cohn.
According to one account, Cohn called racketeer John Roselli, who was told to inform Davis that he must stop seeing Novak.
To try to scare Davis, Roselli had him kidnapped for a few hours.
Another account relates that the threat was conveyed to Davis's father by mobster Mickey Cohen.
Davis was threatened with the loss of his other eye or a broken leg if he did not marry a black woman within two days.
Davis sought the protection of Chicago mobster Sam Giancana, who said that he could protect him in Chicago and Las Vegas but not California.
Davis briefly married black dancer Loray White in 1958 to protect himself from mob violence; Davis had previously dated White, who was 23, twice divorced, and had a six-year-old child.
He paid her a lump sum, $10,000 or $25,000, to engage in a marriage on the condition that it would be dissolved before the end of the year.
Davis became inebriated at the wedding and attempted to strangle White en route to their wedding suite.
Checking on him later, Silber found Davis with a gun to his head.
Davis despairingly said to Silber, "Why won't they let me live my life?"
The couple never lived together, and commenced divorce proceedings in September 1958.
The divorce was granted in April 1959.
In 1960, there was another racially charged public controversy when Davis married white, Swedish-born actress May Britt in a ceremony officiated by Rabbi William M. Kramer at Temple Israel of Hollywood.
While interracial marriage had been legal in California since 1948, anti-miscegenation laws in the United States still stood in 23 states, and a 1958 opinion poll had found that only four percent of Americans supported marriage between black and white spouses.
Davis received racist hate mail while starring in the Broadway adaptation of Golden Boy during 1964–1966, in which his character is in a relationship with a white woman, paralleling his own interracial relationship.
At that time, Davis appeared in the musical, although New York had no laws against it, debate about interracial marriage was still ongoing in America as Loving v. Virginia was being fought.
Davis's daughter Tracey Davis (July 5, 1961 – November 2, 2020) revealed in a 2014 book that this marriage also resulted in President Kennedy refusing to allow Davis to perform at his Inauguration.
The snub was confirmed by director Sam Pollard, who revealed in a 2017 American Masters documentary that Davis's invitation to perform at his inauguration was abruptly cancelled on the night of his inaugural party.
In addition to Tracey, Davis and Britt adopted two sons, Mark and Jeff.
Davis performed almost continuously and spent little time with his wife.
They divorced in 1968, after Davis admitted to having had an affair with singer Lola Falana.
In 1968, Davis started dating Altovise Gore, a dancer in Golden Boy.
They were married on May 11, 1970 by Reverend Jesse Jackson.
They adopted a son, Manny, in 1989.
Davis and Gore remained married until his death in 1990.
Davis was an avid photographer who enjoyed shooting pictures of family and acquaintances.
His body of work was detailed in a 2007 book by Burt Boyar titled Photo by Sammy Davis, Jr. "Jerry [Lewis] gave me my first important camera, my first 35 millimeter, during the Ciro's period, early '50s," Boyar quotes Davis.
"And he hooked me."
Davis used a medium format camera later on to capture images.
Boyar reports that Davis had said, "Nobody interrupts a man taking a picture to ask ... 'What's that nigger doin' here?'"
His catalog includes rare photos of his father dancing onstage as part of the Will Mastin Trio and intimate snapshots of close friends Jerry Lewis, Dean Martin, Frank Sinatra, James Dean, Nat "King" Cole, and Marilyn Monroe.
His political affiliations also were represented, in his images of Robert Kennedy, Jackie Kennedy, and Martin Luther King Jr. His most revealing work comes in photographs of wife May Britt and their three children, Tracey, Jeff and Mark.
Davis was an enthusiastic shooter and gun owner.
He participated in fast-draw competitions.
Davis was skilled at fast and fancy gunspinning and appeared on television variety shows showing off this skill.
He also demonstrated gunspinning to Mark on The Rifleman in "Two Ounces of Tin."
He appeared in Western films and as a guest star on several television Westerns.
Nancy Sinatra revealed in her 1986 book Frank Sinatra: My Father how Kennedy had planned to snub Davis as plans for his wedding to Britt were unfolding.
He went on to become a close friend of President Richard Nixon (a Republican) and publicly endorsed him at the 1972 Republican National Convention.
In February 1972, during the later stages of the Vietnam War, Davis went to Vietnam to observe military drug abuse rehabilitation programs and talk to and entertain the troops.
He did this as a representative from President Nixon's Special Action Office For Drug Abuse Prevention.
He performed shows for up to 15,000 troops; after one two-hour performance he reportedly said "I've never been so tired and felt so good in my life."
The U.S. Army made a documentary about Davis's time in Vietnam performing for troops on behalf of Nixon's drug treatment program.
Nixon invited Davis and his wife, Altovise, to sleep in the White House in 1973, the first time African-Americans were invited to do so.
The Davises spent the night in the Lincoln Bedroom.
Davis later said he regretted supporting Nixon, accusing Nixon of making promises on civil rights that he did not keep.
Illness and death
In August 1989, Davis began to develop symptoms—a tickle in his throat and an inability to taste food.
Doctors found a cancerous tumor in Davis's throat.
He had often smoked four packs of cigarettes a day as an adult.
When told that surgery (laryngectomy) offered him the best chance of survival, Davis replied he would rather keep his voice than have a part of his throat removed; he was initially treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation.
His larynx was later removed when his cancer recurred.
He was released from the hospital on March 13, 1990.
Davis died of complications from throat cancer two months later at his home in Beverly Hills, California on May 16, 1990 at age 64.
On May 18, 1990, two days after his death, the neon lights of the Las Vegas Strip were darkened for 10 minutes as a tribute.
His widow Altovise Davis became liable for his debt because she had cosigned his tax returns.
She was forced to auction his personal possessions and real estate.
Altovise Davis and the IRS reached a settlement in 1997.
After she died in 2009, their son Manny was named executor of the estate and majority rights holder of his intellectual property.
- In an episode of Charlie's Angels, Davis had a dual role, playing both himself and a Sammy Davis Jr. impersonator who is kidnapped by mistake (in a comic relief scene, the impersonator beats up a candy machine which does not give him his candy, a spoof of Davis's song "The Candy Man").
- Comedian Jim Carrey has portrayed Davis on stage, in the 1983 film Copper Mountain, and in a stand-up routine.
- On Saturday Night Live, Davis has been portrayed by Garrett Morris, Eddie Murphy, Billy Crystal and Tim Meadows.
- Davis was portrayed on the popular sketch comedy show In Living Color by Tommy Davidson, notably a parody of the film Ghost, in which the ghost of Davis enlists the help of Whoopi Goldberg to communicate with his wife.
- David Raynr portrayed Davis in the 1992 miniseries Sinatra, a television film about the life of Frank Sinatra.
- In the comedy film Wayne's World 2 (1993), Tim Meadows portrays Davis in the dream sequence with Michael A. Nickles as Jim Morrison.
- In the sitcom Malcolm & Eddie (1996), Eddie Sherman (played by comedian Eddie Griffin) impersonates Davis in the episode "Sh-Boing-Boing" to help his partner Malcolm McGee (played by Malcolm-Jamal Warner) reconcile his grandparents' relationship.
- Davis was portrayed by Don Cheadle in the HBO film The Rat Pack, a 1998 television film about the group of entertainers. Cheadle won a Golden Globe Award for his performance.
- He was portrayed by Paul Sharma in the 2003 West End production Rat Pack Confidential.
- Davis was portrayed in 2008 by Keith Powell in an episode of 30 Rock titled "Subway Hero."
- In September 2009, the musical Sammy: Once in a Lifetime premiered at the Old Globe Theatre in San Diego with a book, music, and lyrics by Leslie Bricusse, and additional songs by Bricusse and Anthony Newley. The title role was played by Tony Award nominee Obba Babatundé.
- Comedian Billy Crystal has portrayed Davis on Saturday Night Live, in his stand-up routines, and at the 2012 Oscars.
- Actor Phaldut Sharma created the comedy web-series I Gotta Be Me (2015), following a frustrated soap star as he performs as Sammy in a Rat Pack tribute show.
- In January 2017, Davis's estate joined a production team led by Lionel Richie, Lorenzo di Bonaventura, and Mike Menchel to make a movie based on Davis's life and show-biz career.
Honors and awards
Shortly before his death in 1990, ABC aired the TV special Sammy Davis, Jr. 60th Anniversary Celebration, produced by George Schlatter.
|2002||Grammy Hall of Fame Award||"What Kind of Fool Am I?"||Inducted||Recorded in 1962|
|2001||Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award||Winner||Posthumously|
|1972||Pop Male Vocalist||"Candy Man"||Nominee|
|1962||Record of the Year||"What Kind of Fool Am I?"||Nominee|
|1962||Male Solo Vocal Performance||"What Kind of Fool Am I?"||Nominee|
|1990||Outstanding Variety, Music or Comedy||Sammy Davis Jr.'s 60th Anniversary Celebration||Winner|
|1989||Outstanding Guest Actor in a Comedy Series||The Cosby Show||Nominee|
|1980||Outstanding Cameo Appearance in a Daytime Drama Series||One Life to Live||Nominee|
|1966||Outstanding Variety Special||The Swinging World of Sammy Davis Jr.||Nominee|
|1956||Best Specialty Act — Single or Group||Sammy Davis Jr.||Nominee|
|2017||Singer||National Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame||Inducted|
|2008||International Civil Rights Walk of Fame||Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site||Inducted|
|2006||Las Vegas Walk of Stars||front of Riviera Hotel||Inducted|
|1989||NAACP Image Award||NAACP||Winner|
|1987||Kennedy Center Honors||John F. Kennedy Center for
the Performing Arts
|1985||Worst Supporting Actor||Golden Raspberry Awards||Cannonball Run II (1984)||Nominee|
|1977||Best TV Actor — Musical/Comedy||Golden Globe||Sammy and Company (1975)||Nominee|
|1974||Special Citation Award||National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences||Winner|
|1968||NAACP Spingarn Medal Award||NAACP||Winner|
|1965||Best Actor — Musical||Tony Award||Golden Boy||Nominee|
|1961||Man of the Year||American Guild of Variety Artists||Winner|
|1960||Recording||Hollywood Walk of Fame||Inducted|
Main article: Sammy Davis Jr. discography
- Mr. Wonderful (1957), musical
- Golden Boy (1964), musical – Tony Nomination for Best Actor in a Musical
- Sammy (1974), special performance featuring Davis with the Nicholas Brothers
- Stop the World – I Want to Get Off (1978) musical revival
- General Electric Theater – "The Patsy" (1960) Season 8 Episode 21
- Lawman – episode Blue Boss and Willie Shay" (1961)
- The Dick Powell Show – episode "The Legend" (1962)
- Hennesey – episode "Tight Quarters" (1962)
- The Rifleman – 2 episodes "Two Ounces of Tin (#4.21)" (February 19, 1962) and "The Most Amazing Man (#5.9)" (November 27, 1962)
- 77 Sunset Strip – episode "The Gang's All Here" (1962)
- Ben Casey – episode "Allie" (1963)
- The Patty Duke Show – episode "Will the Real Sammy Davis Please Hang Up?" (1965)
- The Sammy Davis Jr. Show – Host (January 7, 1966)
- Alice In Wonderland or What's a Nice Kid Like You Doing in a Place Like This? (March 30, 1966)
- The Wild Wild West – episode "The Night of the Returning Dead" (October 14, 1966)
- Batman – "The Clock King's Crazy Crimes" (1966)
- I Dream of Jeannie – episode "The Greatest Entertainer in the World" (1967)
- Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In – Here Comes The Judge skit (1968–70, 1971, 1973)
- The Mod Squad – three episodes: "Keep the Faith Baby" (1969), "Survival House" (1970), and "The Song of Willie" (1970)
- The Beverly Hillbillies – episode Manhattan Hillbilies (1969)
- The Name of the Game – episode "I Love You, Billy Baker" (1970)
- Here's Lucy (1970)
- All in the Family – episode "Sammy's Visit" (1972)
- Chico and the Man – episode "Sammy Stops In" (1975)
- The Carol Burnett Show (1975)
- Sammy and Company – host/performer (1975-1977)
- Charlie's Angels – episode "Sammy Davis, Jr. Kidnap Caper" (1977)
- Sanford (TV series) – episodes "Dinner and George's" (cameo) and "The Benefit" (1980)
- Archie Bunker's Place – episode "The Return of Sammy" (1980)
- General Hospital – episode Benefit for Sports Center (1982)
- General Hospital - Eddie Phillips (father to Bryan Phillips) (1983)
- Channel Seven Perth's Telethon (1983)
- The Jeffersons – episode "What Makes Sammy Run?" (1984)
- Fantasy Island – episode "Mr. Bojangles and the Dancer/Deuces are Wild" (1984)
- Gimme a Break! – episode "The Lookalike" (1985)
- Alice in Wonderland (1985 film)
- Hunter – episode "Ring of Honor" (1989)
- The Cosby Show – episode "No Way, Baby" (1989)
- Sammy Davis, Jr. 60th Anniversary Celebration (1990) – 2½ hour all star TV special
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sammy Davis Jr..