San Diego

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This article is about the city in California. San Diego_sentence_0

For the county, see San Diego County, California. San Diego_sentence_1

For other uses, see San Diego (disambiguation). San Diego_sentence_2

"San Diegan" redirects here. San Diego_sentence_3

For the historical train, see San Diegan (train). San Diego_sentence_4

San Diego_table_infobox_0

San Diego, CaliforniaSan Diego_header_cell_0_0_0
CountrySan Diego_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesSan Diego_cell_0_1_1
StateSan Diego_header_cell_0_2_0 CaliforniaSan Diego_cell_0_2_1
CountySan Diego_header_cell_0_3_0 San DiegoSan Diego_cell_0_3_1
EstablishedSan Diego_header_cell_0_4_0 July 16, 1769San Diego_cell_0_4_1
IncorporatedSan Diego_header_cell_0_5_0 March 27, 1850San Diego_cell_0_5_1
Named forSan Diego_header_cell_0_6_0 Saint Didacus of AlcaláSan Diego_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentSan Diego_header_cell_0_7_0
TypeSan Diego_header_cell_0_8_0 Strong mayorSan Diego_cell_0_8_1
BodySan Diego_header_cell_0_9_0 San Diego City CouncilSan Diego_cell_0_9_1
MayorSan Diego_header_cell_0_10_0 Todd Gloria (D)San Diego_cell_0_10_1
City AttorneySan Diego_header_cell_0_11_0 Mara Elliott (D)San Diego_cell_0_11_1
City CouncilSan Diego_header_cell_0_12_0 ListSan Diego_cell_0_12_1
State Assembly MembersSan Diego_header_cell_0_13_0 ListSan Diego_cell_0_13_1
State SenatorsSan Diego_header_cell_0_14_0 ListSan Diego_cell_0_14_1
AreaSan Diego_header_cell_0_15_0
TotalSan Diego_header_cell_0_16_0 372.42 sq mi (964.56 km)San Diego_cell_0_16_1
LandSan Diego_header_cell_0_17_0 325.88 sq mi (844.02 km)San Diego_cell_0_17_1
WaterSan Diego_header_cell_0_18_0 46.54 sq mi (120.54 km)  12.68%San Diego_cell_0_18_1
ElevationSan Diego_header_cell_0_19_0 62 ft (19 m)San Diego_cell_0_19_1
Highest elevationSan Diego_header_cell_0_20_0 1,591 ft (485 m)San Diego_cell_0_20_1
Lowest elevationSan Diego_header_cell_0_21_0 0 ft (0 m)San Diego_cell_0_21_1
Population (2010)San Diego_header_cell_0_22_0
TotalSan Diego_header_cell_0_23_0 1,307,402San Diego_cell_0_23_1
Estimate (2019)San Diego_header_cell_0_24_0 1,423,851San Diego_cell_0_24_1
RankSan Diego_header_cell_0_25_0 2nd in California

8th in the United StatesSan Diego_cell_0_25_1

DensitySan Diego_header_cell_0_26_0 4,369.26/sq mi (1,686.98/km)San Diego_cell_0_26_1
UrbanSan Diego_header_cell_0_27_0 2,956,746 (15th)San Diego_cell_0_27_1
MetroSan Diego_header_cell_0_28_0 3,317,749 (17th)San Diego_cell_0_28_1
Demonym(s)San Diego_header_cell_0_29_0 San DieganSan Diego_cell_0_29_1
Time zoneSan Diego_header_cell_0_30_0 UTC−8 (Pacific)San Diego_cell_0_30_1
Summer (DST)San Diego_header_cell_0_31_0 UTC−7 (PDT)San Diego_cell_0_31_1
ZIP CodesSan Diego_header_cell_0_32_0 92101–92124, 92126–92132, 92134–92140, 92142, 92143, 92145, 92147, 92149–92155, 92158–92161, 92163, 92165–92179, 92182, 92186, 92187, 92190–92199San Diego_cell_0_32_1
Area codesSan Diego_header_cell_0_33_0 619/858San Diego_cell_0_33_1
FIPS codeSan Diego_header_cell_0_34_0 San Diego_cell_0_34_1
GNIS feature IDsSan Diego_header_cell_0_35_0 ,San Diego_cell_0_35_1
WebsiteSan Diego_header_cell_0_36_0 San Diego_cell_0_36_1

San Diego (/ˌsæn diˈeɪɡoʊ/, Spanish: [san ˈdjeɣo; Spanish for 'Saint Didacus') is a city in the U.S. San Diego_sentence_5 state of California on the coast of the Pacific Ocean, approximately 110 miles (180 km) southeast of downtown Los Angeles and immediately adjacent to the border with Mexico. San Diego_sentence_6

With an estimated population of 1,423,851 as of July 1, 2019, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California. San Diego_sentence_7

It is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U.S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. San Diego_sentence_8

The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, and recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego_sentence_9

San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". San Diego_sentence_10

Historically home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. San Diego_sentence_11

Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later. San Diego_sentence_12

The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. San Diego_sentence_13

In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly declared Mexican Empire, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. San Diego_sentence_14

California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850. San Diego_sentence_15

The city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego_sentence_16

San Diego's main economic engines are military- and defense-related activities, tourism, international trade, and manufacturing; the city's airport, San Diego International Airport, is the busiest single-runway airport in the United States. San Diego_sentence_17

The presence of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. San Diego_sentence_18

History San Diego_section_0

See also: History of San Diego and Timeline of San Diego San Diego_sentence_19

Pre-colonial period San Diego_section_1

The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San Dieguito and La Jolla people. San Diego_sentence_20

The Kumeyaay people migrated into the area of San Diego around 1000 CE, who erected villages scattered across the region, including the village of Cosoy (Kosa'aay) which was the Kumeyaay village that the future settlement of San Diego would stem from in today's Old Town. San Diego_sentence_21

The village of Cosoy was made up of thirty to forty families living in pyramid-shaped housing structures and was supported by a freshwater spring along from the hillsides. San Diego_sentence_22

Spanish period San Diego_section_2

The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but possibly born in Portugal. San Diego_sentence_23

Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, and named the site "San Miguel". San Diego_sentence_24

In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. San Diego_sentence_25

Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more commonly known as San Diego de Alcalá. San Diego_sentence_26

On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. San Diego_sentence_27

The permanent European colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. San Diego_sentence_28

Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, and the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez. San Diego_sentence_29

An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary, explorer, and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president (and now saint) Junípero Serra. San Diego_sentence_30

In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River above the Kumeyaay village of Cosoy, which would later become incorporated into the Spanish settlement, making it the first settlement by Europeans in what is now the state of California. San Diego_sentence_31

In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. San Diego_sentence_32

The mission became a site for a Kumeyaay revolt in 1775, which forced the mission to relocate six miles up the San Diego River. San Diego_sentence_33

By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. San Diego_sentence_34

Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. San Diego_sentence_35

Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. San Diego_sentence_36

Mexican period San Diego_section_3

In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, and San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. San Diego_sentence_37

In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California. San Diego_sentence_38

The fort on Presidio Hill was gradually abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. San Diego_sentence_39

The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, and most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers. San Diego_sentence_40

The 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, and Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde ("municipal magistrate"), defeating Pío Pico in the vote. San Diego_sentence_41

(See, List of pre-statehood mayors of San Diego.) San Diego_sentence_42

However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. San Diego_sentence_43

Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. San Diego_sentence_44

Americans gained an increased awareness of California, and its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the often officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast. San Diego_sentence_45

In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. San Diego_sentence_46

At first they had an easy time of it capturing the major ports including San Diego, but the Californios in southern Alta California struck back. San Diego_sentence_47

Following the successful revolt in Los Angeles, the American garrison at San Diego was driven out without firing a shot in early October 1846. San Diego_sentence_48

Mexican partisans held San Diego for three weeks until October 24, 1846, when the Americans recaptured it. San Diego_sentence_49

For the next several months the Americans were blockaded inside the pueblo. San Diego_sentence_50

Skirmishes occurred daily and snipers shot into the town every night. San Diego_sentence_51

The Californios drove cattle away from the pueblo hoping to starve the Americans and their Californio supporters out. San Diego_sentence_52

On December 1 the Americans garrison learned that the dragoons of General Stephen W. Kearney were at Warner's Ranch. San Diego_sentence_53

Commodore Robert F. Stockton sent a mounted force of fifty under Captain Archibald Gillespie to march north to meet him. San Diego_sentence_54

Their joint command of 150 men, returning to San Diego, encountered about 93 Californios under Andrés Pico. San Diego_sentence_55

In the ensuing Battle of San Pasqual, fought in the San Pasqual Valley which is now part of the city of San Diego, the Americans suffered their worst losses in the campaign. San Diego_sentence_56

Subsequently, a column led by Lieutenant Gray arrived from San Diego, rescuing Kearny's battered and blockaded command. San Diego_sentence_57

Stockton and Kearny went on to recover Los Angeles and force the capitulation of Alta California with the "Treaty of Cahuenga" on January 13, 1847. San Diego_sentence_58

As a result of the Mexican–American War of 1846–48, the territory of Alta California, including San Diego, was ceded to the United States by Mexico, under the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. San Diego_sentence_59

The Mexican negotiators of that treaty tried to retain San Diego as part of Mexico, but the Americans insisted that San Diego was "for every commercial purpose of nearly equal importance to us with that of San Francisco," and the Mexican–American border was eventually established to be one league south of the southernmost point of San Diego Bay, so as to include the entire bay within the United States. San Diego_sentence_60

American period San Diego_section_4

The state of California was admitted to the United States in 1850. San Diego_sentence_61

That same year San Diego has designated the seat of the newly established San Diego County and was incorporated as a city. San Diego_sentence_62

Joshua H. Bean, the last alcalde of San Diego, was elected the first mayor. San Diego_sentence_63

Two years later the city was bankrupt; the California legislature revoked the city's charter and placed it under control of a board of trustees, where it remained until 1889. San Diego_sentence_64

A city charter was reestablished in 1889, and today's city charter was adopted in 1931. San Diego_sentence_65

The original town of San Diego was located at the foot of Presidio Hill, in the area which is now Old Town San Diego State Historic Park. San Diego_sentence_66

The location was not ideal, being several miles away from navigable water at its port at La Playa. San Diego_sentence_67

In 1850, William Heath Davis promoted a new development by the bay shore called "New San Diego", several miles south of the original settlement; however, for several decades the new development consisted only of a pier, a few houses and an Army depot for the support of Fort Yuma. San Diego_sentence_68

After 1854, the fort became supplied by sea and by steamboats on the Colorado River and the depot fell into disuse. San Diego_sentence_69

From 1857 to 1860, San Diego became the western terminus of the San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line, the earliest overland stagecoach and mail operation from the Eastern United States to California, coming from Texas through New Mexico Territory in less than 30 days. San Diego_sentence_70

In the late 1860s, Alonzo Horton promoted a move to the bayside area, which he called "New Town" and which became Downtown San Diego. San Diego_sentence_71

Horton promoted the area heavily, and people and businesses began to relocate to New Town because its location on San Diego Bay was convenient to shipping. San Diego_sentence_72

New Town soon eclipsed the original settlement, known to this day as Old Town, and became the economic and governmental heart of the city. San Diego_sentence_73

Still, San Diego remained a relative backwater town until the arrival of a railroad connection in 1878. San Diego_sentence_74

In the early part of the 20th century, San Diego hosted the World's Fair twice: the Panama-California Exposition (1915) and the California Pacific International Exposition in 1935. San Diego_sentence_75

Both expositions were held in Balboa Park, and many of the Spanish/Baroque-style buildings that were built for those expositions remain to this day as central features of the park. San Diego_sentence_76

The buildings were intended to be temporary structures, but most remained in continuous use until they progressively fell into disrepair. San Diego_sentence_77

Most were eventually rebuilt, using castings of the original façades to retain the architectural style. San Diego_sentence_78

The menagerie of exotic animals featured at the 1915 exposition provided the basis for the San Diego Zoo. San Diego_sentence_79

During the 1950s there was a citywide festival called Fiesta del Pacifico highlighting the area's Spanish and Mexican past. San Diego_sentence_80

In the 2010s there was a proposal for a large-scale celebration of the 100th anniversary of Balboa Park, but the plans were abandoned when the organization tasked with putting on the celebration went out of business. San Diego_sentence_81

The southern portion of the Point Loma peninsula was set aside for military purposes as early as 1852. San Diego_sentence_82

Over the next several decades the Army set up a series of coastal artillery batteries and named the area Fort Rosecrans. San Diego_sentence_83

Significant U.S. Navy presence began in 1901 with the establishment of the Navy Coaling Station in Point Loma, and expanded greatly during the 1920s. San Diego_sentence_84

By 1930, the city was host to Naval Base San Diego, Naval Training Center San Diego, San Diego Naval Hospital, Camp Matthews, and Camp Kearny (now Marine Corps Air Station Miramar). San Diego_sentence_85

The city was also an early center for aviation: as early as World War I, San Diego was proclaiming itself "The Air Capital of the West". San Diego_sentence_86

The city was home to important airplane developers and manufacturers like Ryan Airlines (later Ryan Aeronautical), founded in 1925, and Consolidated Aircraft (later Convair), founded in 1923. San Diego_sentence_87

Charles A. Lindbergh's plane The Spirit of St. Louis was built in San Diego in 1927 by Ryan Airlines. San Diego_sentence_88

During World War II, San Diego became a major hub of military and defense activity, due to the presence of so many military installations and defense manufacturers. San Diego_sentence_89

The city's population grew rapidly during and after World War II, more than doubling between 1930 (147,995) and 1950 (333,865). San Diego_sentence_90

During the final months of the war, the Japanese had a plan to target multiple U.S. cities for biological attack, starting with San Diego. San Diego_sentence_91

The plan was called "Operation Cherry Blossoms at Night" and called for kamikaze planes filled with fleas infected with plague (Yersinia pestis) to crash into civilian population centers in the city, hoping to spread plague in the city and effectively kill tens of thousands of civilians. San Diego_sentence_92

The plan was scheduled to launch on September 22, 1945, but was not carried out because Japan surrendered five weeks earlier. San Diego_sentence_93

After World War II, the military continued to play a major role in the local economy, but post-Cold War cutbacks took a heavy toll on the local defense and aerospace industries. San Diego_sentence_94

The resulting downturn led San Diego leaders to seek to diversify the city's economy by focusing on research and science, as well as tourism. San Diego_sentence_95

From the start of the 20th century through the 1970s, the American tuna fishing fleet and tuna canning industry were based in San Diego, "the tuna capital of the world". San Diego_sentence_96

San Diego's first tuna cannery was founded in 1911, and by the mid-1930s the canneries employed more than 1,000 people. San Diego_sentence_97

A large fishing fleet supported the canneries, mostly staffed by immigrant fishermen from Japan, and later from the Portuguese Azores and Italy whose influence is still felt in neighborhoods like Little Italy and Point Loma. San Diego_sentence_98

Due to rising costs and foreign competition, the last of the canneries closed in the early 1980s. San Diego_sentence_99

Downtown San Diego was in decline in the 1960s and 1970s, but experienced some urban renewal since the early 1980s, including the opening of Horton Plaza, the revival of the Gaslamp Quarter, and the construction of the San Diego Convention Center; Petco Park opened in 2004. San Diego_sentence_100

Geography San Diego_section_5

See also: List of beaches in San Diego, California and Parks in San Diego San Diego_sentence_101

According to SDSU professor emeritus Monte Marshall, San Diego Bay is "the surface expression of a north-south-trending, nested graben". San Diego_sentence_102

The Rose Canyon and Point Loma fault zones are part of the San Andreas Fault system. San Diego_sentence_103

About 40 miles (64 km) east of the bay are the Laguna Mountains in the Peninsular Ranges, which are part of the backbone of the American continents. San Diego_sentence_104

The city lies on approximately 200 deep canyons and hills separating its mesas, creating small pockets of natural open space scattered throughout the city and giving it a hilly geography. San Diego_sentence_105

Traditionally, San Diegans have built their homes and businesses on the mesas, while leaving the urban canyons relatively wild. San Diego_sentence_106

Thus, the canyons give parts of the city a segmented feel, creating gaps between otherwise proximate neighborhoods and contributing to a low-density, car-centered environment. San Diego_sentence_107

The San Diego River runs through the middle of San Diego from east to west, creating a river valley that serves to divide the city into northern and southern segments. San Diego_sentence_108

During the historic period and presumably earlier as well, the river has shifted its flow back and forth between San Diego Bay and Mission Bay, and its fresh water was the focus of the earliest Spanish explorers. San Diego_sentence_109

Miguel Costansó, a cartographer, wrote in 1769, "When asked by signs where the watering-place was, the Indians pointed to a grove which could be seen at a considerable distance to the northeast, giving to understand that a river or creek flowed through it, and that they would lead our men to it if they would follow." San Diego_sentence_110

That river was the San Diego River. San Diego_sentence_111

Several reservoirs and Mission Trails Regional Park also lie between and separate developed areas of the city. San Diego_sentence_112

Notable peaks within the city limits include Cowles Mountain, the highest point in the city at 1,591 feet (485 m); Black Mountain at 1,558 feet (475 m); and Mount Soledad at 824 feet (251 m). San Diego_sentence_113

The Cuyamaca Mountains and Laguna Mountains rise to the east of the city, and beyond the mountains are desert areas. San Diego_sentence_114

The Cleveland National Forest is a half-hour drive from downtown San Diego. San Diego_sentence_115

Numerous farms are found in the valleys northeast and southeast of the city. San Diego_sentence_116

In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that San Diego had the 9th-best park system among the 50 most populous U.S. cities. San Diego_sentence_117

ParkScore ranks city park systems by a formula that analyzes acreage, access, and service and investment. San Diego_sentence_118

Communities and neighborhoods San Diego_section_6

Main article: List of communities and neighborhoods of San Diego San Diego_sentence_119

The City of San Diego recognizes 52 individual areas as Community Planning Areas. San Diego_sentence_120

Within a given planning area there may be several distinct neighborhoods. San Diego_sentence_121

Altogether the city contains more than 100 identified neighborhoods. San Diego_sentence_122

Downtown San Diego is located on San Diego Bay. San Diego_sentence_123

Balboa Park encompasses several mesas and canyons to the northeast, surrounded by older, dense urban communities including Hillcrest and North Park. San Diego_sentence_124

To the east and southeast lie City Heights, the College Area, and Southeast San Diego. San Diego_sentence_125

To the north lies Mission Valley and Interstate 8. San Diego_sentence_126

The communities north of the valley and freeway, and south of Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, include Clairemont, Kearny Mesa, Tierrasanta, and Navajo. San Diego_sentence_127

Stretching north from Miramar are the northern suburbs of Mira Mesa, Scripps Ranch, Rancho Peñasquitos, and Rancho Bernardo. San Diego_sentence_128

The far northeast portion of the city encompasses Lake Hodges and the San Pasqual Valley, which holds an agricultural preserve. San Diego_sentence_129

Carmel Valley and Del Mar Heights occupy the northwest corner of the city. San Diego_sentence_130

To their south are Torrey Pines State Reserve and the business center of the Golden Triangle. San Diego_sentence_131

Further south are the beach and coastal communities of La Jolla, Pacific Beach, Mission Beach, and Ocean Beach. San Diego_sentence_132

Point Loma occupies the peninsula across San Diego Bay from downtown. San Diego_sentence_133

The communities of South San Diego, such as San Ysidro and Otay Mesa, are located next to the Mexico–United States border, and are physically separated from the rest of the city by the cities of National City and Chula Vista. San Diego_sentence_134

A narrow strip of land at the bottom of San Diego Bay connects these southern neighborhoods with the rest of the city. San Diego_sentence_135

For the most part, San Diego neighborhood boundaries tend to be understood by its residents based on geographical boundaries like canyons and street patterns. San Diego_sentence_136

The city recognized the importance of its neighborhoods when it organized its 2008 General Plan around the concept of a "City of Villages". San Diego_sentence_137

Cityscape San Diego_section_7

Main article: List of tallest buildings in San Diego San Diego_sentence_138

San Diego was originally centered on the Old Town district, but by the late 1860s the focus had shifted to the bayfront, in the belief that this new location would increase trade. San Diego_sentence_139

As the "New Town" – present-day Downtown – waterfront location quickly developed, it eclipsed Old Town as the center of San Diego. San Diego_sentence_140

The development of skyscrapers over 300 feet (91 m) in San Diego is attributed to the construction of the El Cortez Hotel in 1927, the tallest building in the city from 1927 to 1963. San Diego_sentence_141

As time went on, multiple buildings claimed the title of San Diego's tallest skyscraper, including the Union Bank of California Building and Symphony Towers. San Diego_sentence_142

Currently the tallest building in San Diego is One America Plaza, standing 500 feet (150 m) tall, which was completed in 1991. San Diego_sentence_143

The downtown skyline contains no super-talls, as a regulation put in place by the Federal Aviation Administration in the 1970s set a 500 feet (152 m) limit on the height of buildings within a one-mile (1.6 km) radius of the San Diego International Airport. San Diego_sentence_144

An iconic description of the skyline includes its skyscrapers being compared to the tools of a toolbox. San Diego_sentence_145

Climate San Diego_section_8

Main article: Climate of San Diego San Diego_sentence_146

San Diego has one of the top-ten best climates in the United States, according to the Farmers' Almanac and has one of the two best summer climates in the country as scored by The Weather Channel. San Diego_sentence_147

Under the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system, the San Diego area has been variously categorized as having either a semi-arid climate (BSh in the original classification and BSkn in modified Köppen classification with the n denoting summer fog) or a Mediterranean climate (Csa). San Diego_sentence_148

San Diego's climate is characterized by warm, dry summers and mild winters, with most of the annual precipitation falling between December and March. San Diego_sentence_149

The city has a mild climate year-round, with an average of 201 days above 70 °F (21 °C) and low rainfall (9–13 inches [230–330 mm] annually). San Diego_sentence_150

The climate in San Diego, like most of Southern California, often varies significantly over short geographical distances, resulting in microclimates. San Diego_sentence_151

In San Diego, this is mostly because of the city's topography (the Bay, and the numerous hills, mountains, and canyons). San Diego_sentence_152

Frequently, particularly during the "May gray/June gloom" period, a thick "marine layer" cloud cover keeps the air cool and damp within a few miles of the coast, but yields to bright cloudless sunshine approximately 5–10 miles (8.0–16.1 km) inland. San Diego_sentence_153

Sometimes the June gloom lasts into July, causing cloudy skies over most of San Diego for the entire day. San Diego_sentence_154

Even in the absence of June gloom, inland areas experience much more significant temperature variations than coastal areas, where the ocean serves as a moderating influence. San Diego_sentence_155

Thus, for example, downtown San Diego averages January lows of 50 °F (10 °C) and August highs of 78 °F (26 °C). San Diego_sentence_156

The city of El Cajon just 10 miles (16 km) inland from downtown San Diego, averages January lows of 42 °F (6 °C) and August highs of 88 °F (31 °C). San Diego_sentence_157

A sign of global warming, the average surface temperature of the water at Scripps Pier in the California Current has increased by almost 3 degrees since 1950, according to scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography. San Diego_sentence_158

Additionally the mean minimum is now above 40 putting San Diego in hardiness zone 11, having not had a freeze in many decades. San Diego_sentence_159

Annual rainfall along the coast averages 10.65 inches (271 mm) and the median is 9.6 inches (240 mm). San Diego_sentence_160

The months of December through March supply most of the rain, with February the only month averaging 2 inches (51 mm) or more. San Diego_sentence_161

The months of May through September tend to be almost completely dry. San Diego_sentence_162

Although there are few wet days per month during the rainy period, rainfall can be heavy when it does fall. San Diego_sentence_163

Rainfall is usually greater in the higher elevations of San Diego; some of the higher areas can receive 11–15 inches (280–380 mm) per year. San Diego_sentence_164

Variability from year to year can be dramatic: in the wettest years of 1883/1884 and 1940/1941 more than 24 inches (610 mm) fell, whilst in the driest years there was as little as 3.2 inches (80 mm). San Diego_sentence_165

The wettest month on record is December 1921 with 9.21 inches (234 mm). San Diego_sentence_166

Snow in the city is so rare that it has been observed only six times in the century-and-a-half that records have been kept. San Diego_sentence_167

In 1949 and 1967, snow stayed on the ground for a few hours in higher locations like Point Loma and La Jolla. San Diego_sentence_168

The other three occasions, in 1882, 1946, and 1987, involved flurries but no accumulation. San Diego_sentence_169

On February 21, 2019, snow fell and accumulated in residential areas of the city, but none fell in the downtown area. San Diego_sentence_170

Ecology San Diego_section_9

Like much of southern California, the majority of San Diego's current area was originally occupied on the west by coastal sage scrub and on the east by chaparral, plant communities made up mostly of drought-resistant shrubs. San Diego_sentence_171

The steep and varied topography and proximity to the ocean create a number of different habitats within the city limits, including tidal marsh and canyons. San Diego_sentence_172

The chaparral and coastal sage scrub habitats in low elevations along the coast are prone to wildfire, and the rates of fire increased in the 20th century, due primarily to fires starting near the borders of urban and wild areas. San Diego_sentence_173

San Diego's broad city limits encompass a number of large nature preserves, including Torrey Pines State Reserve, Los Peñasquitos Canyon Preserve, and Mission Trails Regional Park. San Diego_sentence_174

Torrey Pines State Reserve and a coastal strip continuing to the north constitute one of only two locations where the rare species of Torrey Pine, Pinus torreyana, is found. San Diego_sentence_175

Due to the steep topography that prevents or discourages building, along with some efforts for preservation, there are also a large number of canyons within the city limits that serve as nature preserves, including Switzer Canyon, Tecolote Canyon Natural Park, and Marian Bear Memorial Park in San Clemente Canyon, as well as a number of small parks and preserves. San Diego_sentence_176

San Diego County has one of the highest counts of animal and plant species that appear on the endangered list of counties in the United States. San Diego_sentence_177

Because of its diversity of habitat and its position on the Pacific Flyway, San Diego County has recorded 492 different bird species, more than any other region in the country. San Diego_sentence_178

San Diego always scores high in the number of bird species observed in the annual Christmas Bird Count, sponsored by the Audubon Society, and it is known as one of the "birdiest" areas in the United States. San Diego_sentence_179

San Diego and its backcountry suffer from periodic wildfires. San Diego_sentence_180

In October 2003, San Diego was the site of the Cedar Fire, at that time the largest wildfire in California over the past century. San Diego_sentence_181

The fire burned 280,000 acres (1,100 km), killed 15 people, and destroyed more than 2,200 homes. San Diego_sentence_182

In addition to damage caused by the fire, smoke resulted in a significant increase in emergency room visits due to asthma, respiratory problems, eye irritation, and smoke inhalation; the poor air quality caused San Diego County schools to close for a week. San Diego_sentence_183

Wildfires four years later destroyed some areas, particularly within Rancho Bernardo, as well as the nearby communities of Rancho Santa Fe and Ramona. San Diego_sentence_184

Demographics San Diego_section_10

San Diego_table_general_1

Racial compositionSan Diego_header_cell_1_0_0 2010San Diego_header_cell_1_0_1 1990San Diego_header_cell_1_0_2 1970San Diego_header_cell_1_0_3 1940San Diego_header_cell_1_0_4
WhiteSan Diego_cell_1_1_0 58.9%San Diego_cell_1_1_1 67.1%San Diego_cell_1_1_2 88.9%San Diego_cell_1_1_3 96.9%San Diego_cell_1_1_4
—Non-HispanicSan Diego_cell_1_2_0 45.1%San Diego_cell_1_2_1 58.7%San Diego_cell_1_2_2 78.9%San Diego_cell_1_2_3 n/aSan Diego_cell_1_2_4
Black or African AmericanSan Diego_cell_1_3_0 6.7%San Diego_cell_1_3_1 9.4%San Diego_cell_1_3_2 7.6%San Diego_cell_1_3_3 2.0%San Diego_cell_1_3_4
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)San Diego_cell_1_4_0 28.8%San Diego_cell_1_4_1 20.7%San Diego_cell_1_4_2 10.7%San Diego_cell_1_4_3 n/aSan Diego_cell_1_4_4
AsianSan Diego_cell_1_5_0 15.9%San Diego_cell_1_5_1 11.8%San Diego_cell_1_5_2 2.2%San Diego_cell_1_5_3 1.0%San Diego_cell_1_5_4

The city had a population of 1,307,402 according to the 2010 census, distributed over a land area of 372.1 square miles (963.7 km). San Diego_sentence_185

The urban area of San Diego extends beyond the administrative city limits and had a total population of 2,956,746, making it the third-largest urban area in the state, after that of the Los Angeles metropolitan area and San Francisco metropolitan area. San Diego_sentence_186

They, along with the Riverside–San Bernardino, form those metropolitan areas in California larger than the San Diego metropolitan area, which had a total population of 3,095,313 at the 2010 census. San Diego_sentence_187

The 2010 population represents an increase of just under 7% from the 1,223,400 people, 450,691 households, and 271,315 families reported in 2000. San Diego_sentence_188

The estimated city population in 2009 was 1,306,300. San Diego_sentence_189

The population density was 3,771.9 inhabitants per square mile (1,456.3/km). San Diego_sentence_190

The racial makeup of San Diego was 58.9% White, 6.7% African American, 0.6% Native American, 15.9% Asian (5.9% Filipino, 2.7% Chinese, 2.5% Vietnamese, 1.3% Indian, 1.0% Korean, 0.7% Japanese, 0.4% Laotian, 0.3% Cambodian, 0.1% Thai). San Diego_sentence_191

0.5% Pacific Islander (0.2% Guamanian, 0.1% Samoan, 0.1% Native Hawaiian), 12.3% from other races, and 5.1% from two or more races. San Diego_sentence_192

The ethnic makeup of the city was 28.8% Hispanic or Latino (of any race); 24.9% of the total population were Mexican American, 1.4% were Spanish American and 0.6% were Puerto Rican. San Diego_sentence_193

Median age of Hispanics was 27.5 years, compared to 35.1 years overall and 41.6 years among non-Hispanic whites; Hispanics were the largest group in all ages under 18, and non-Hispanic whites constituted 63.1% of population 55 and older. San Diego_sentence_194

As of January 2019, the San Diego City and County had the fifth-largest homeless population among major cities in the United States, with 8102 persons experiencing homelessness. San Diego_sentence_195

In the city of San Diego, 4887 individuals were experiencing homelessness according to the 2020 count. San Diego_sentence_196

In 2000 there were 451,126 households, out of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.8% were non-families. San Diego_sentence_197

Households made up of individuals account for 28.0%, and 7.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. San Diego_sentence_198

The average household size was 2.61, and the average family size was 3.30. San Diego_sentence_199

The U.S. Census Bureau reported that in 2000, 24.0% of San Diego residents were under 18, and 10.5% were 65 and over. San Diego_sentence_200

As of 2011 the median age was 35.6; more than a quarter of residents were under age 20 and 11% were over age 65. San Diego_sentence_201

Millennials (ages 18 through 34) constitute 27.1% of San Diego's population, the second-highest percentage in a major U.S. city. San Diego_sentence_202

The San Diego County regional planning agency, SANDAG, provides tables and graphs breaking down the city population into five-year age groups. San Diego_sentence_203

In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $45,733, and the median income for a family was $53,060. San Diego_sentence_204

Males had a median income of $36,984 versus $31,076 for females. San Diego_sentence_205

The per capita income for the city was $35,199. San Diego_sentence_206

According to Forbes in 2005, San Diego was the fifth wealthiest U.S. city, but about 10.6% of families and 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.0% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. San Diego_sentence_207

San Diego was rated the fifth-best place to live in the United States in 2006 by Money magazine, although it was no longer rated in the top 100 places by 2017. San Diego_sentence_208

As of January 1, 2008 estimates by the San Diego Association of Governments revealed that the household median income for San Diego rose to $66,715, up from $45,733 in 2000. San Diego_sentence_209

San Diego was named the ninth-most LGBT-friendly city in the U.S. in 2013. San Diego_sentence_210

The city also has the seventh-highest percentage of gay residents in the U.S. Additionally in 2013, San Diego State University (SDSU), one of the city's prominent universities, was named one of the top LGBT-friendly campuses in the nation. San Diego_sentence_211

According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, 68% of the population of the city identified themselves as Christians, with 32% professing attendance at a variety of churches that could be considered Protestant, and 32% professing Roman Catholic beliefs. San Diego_sentence_212

while 27% claim no religious affiliation. San Diego_sentence_213

The same study says that other religions (including Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism) collectively make up about 5% of the population. San Diego_sentence_214

Economy San Diego_section_11

Main article: Economy of San Diego San Diego_sentence_215

The largest sectors of San Diego's economy are defense/military, tourism, international trade, and research/manufacturing. San Diego_sentence_216

In 2014, San Diego was designated by a Forbes columnist as the best city in the country to launch a small business or startup company. San Diego_sentence_217

San Diego recorded a median household income of $79,646 in 2018, an increase of 3.89% from $76,662 in 2017. San Diego_sentence_218

The median property value in San Diego in 2018 was $654,700, and the average home has 2 cars per household. San Diego_sentence_219

Defense and military San Diego_section_12

The economy of San Diego is influenced by its deepwater port, which includes the only major submarine and shipbuilding yards on the West Coast. San Diego_sentence_220

Several major national defense contractors were started and are headquartered in San Diego, including General Atomics, Cubic, and NASSCO. San Diego_sentence_221

San Diego hosts the largest naval fleet in the world: In 2008 it was home to 53 ships, over 120 tenant commands, and more than 35,000 sailors, marines, Department of Defense civilian employees and contractors. San Diego_sentence_222

About 5 percent of all civilian jobs in the county are military-related, and 15,000 businesses in San Diego County rely on Department of Defense contracts. San Diego_sentence_223

Military bases in San Diego include US Navy facilities, Marine Corps bases, and Coast Guard stations. San Diego_sentence_224

The city is "home to the majority of the U.S. Pacific Fleet's surface combatants, all of the Navy's West Coast amphibious ships and a variety of Coast Guard and Military Sealift Command vessels". San Diego_sentence_225

Tourism San Diego_section_13

Tourism is a major industry owing to the city's climate, beaches, and tourist attractions such as Balboa Park, Belmont amusement park, San Diego Zoo, San Diego Zoo Safari Park, and SeaWorld San Diego. San Diego_sentence_226

San Diego's Spanish and Mexican heritage is reflected in many historic sites across the city, such as Mission San Diego de Alcalá and Old Town San Diego State Historic Park. San Diego_sentence_227

Also, the local craft brewing industry attracts an increasing number of visitors for "beer tours" and the annual San Diego Beer Week in November; San Diego has been called "America's Craft Beer Capital." San Diego_sentence_228

San Diego County hosted more than 32 million visitors in 2012; collectively they spent an estimated $8 billion. San Diego_sentence_229

The visitor industry provides employment for more than 160,000 people. San Diego_sentence_230

San Diego's cruise ship industry used to be the second-largest in California. San Diego_sentence_231

Numerous cruise lines operate out of San Diego. San Diego_sentence_232

However, cruise ship business has been in decline since 2008, when the Port hosted over 250 ship calls and more than 900,000 passengers. San Diego_sentence_233

By 2016–2017 the number of ship calls had fallen to 90. San Diego_sentence_234

Local sight-seeing cruises are offered in San Diego Bay and Mission Bay, as well as whale-watching cruises to observe the migration of gray whales, peaking in mid-January. San Diego_sentence_235

Sport fishing is another popular tourist attraction; San Diego is home to southern California's biggest sport fishing fleet. San Diego_sentence_236

International trade San Diego_section_14

San Diego's commercial port and its location on the United States–Mexico border make international trade an important factor in the city's economy. San Diego_sentence_237

The city is authorized by the United States government to operate as a Foreign Trade Zone. San Diego_sentence_238

The city shares a 15-mile (24 km) border with Mexico that includes two border crossings. San Diego_sentence_239

San Diego hosts the busiest international border crossing in the world, in the San Ysidro neighborhood at the San Ysidro Port of Entry. San Diego_sentence_240

A second, primarily commercial border crossing operates in the Otay Mesa area; it is the largest commercial crossing on the California-Baja California border and handles the third-highest volume of trucks and dollar value of trade among all United States-Mexico land crossings. San Diego_sentence_241

One of the Port of San Diego's two cargo facilities is located in Downtown San Diego at the Tenth Avenue Marine Terminal. San Diego_sentence_242

This terminal has facilities for containers, bulk cargo, and refrigerated and frozen storage, so that it can handle the import and export of many commodities. San Diego_sentence_243

In 2009 the Port of San Diego handled 1,137,054 short tons of total trade; foreign trade accounted for 956,637 short tons while domestic trade amounted to 180,417 short tons. San Diego_sentence_244

Historically tuna fishing and canning was one of San Diego's major industries, and although the American tuna fishing fleet is no longer based in San Diego, seafood companies Bumble Bee Foods and Chicken of the Sea are still headquartered there. San Diego_sentence_245

Companies San Diego_section_15

San Diego hosts several major producers of wireless cellular technology. San Diego_sentence_246

Qualcomm was founded and is headquartered in San Diego, and is one of the largest private-sector employers in San Diego. San Diego_sentence_247

Other wireless industry manufacturers headquartered here include Nokia, LG Electronics, Kyocera International, Cricket Communications and Novatel Wireless. San Diego_sentence_248

The largest software company in San Diego is security software company Websense Inc. San Diego also has the U.S. headquarters for the Slovakian security company ESET. San Diego_sentence_249

San Diego has been designated as an iHub Innovation Center for potential collaboration between wireless and the life sciences. San Diego_sentence_250

The University of California, San Diego and other research institutions have helped to fuel the growth of biotechnology. San Diego_sentence_251

In 2013, San Diego had the second-largest biotech cluster in the United States, below the Boston area and above the San Francisco Bay Area. San Diego_sentence_252

There are more than 400 biotechnology companies in the area. San Diego_sentence_253

In particular, the La Jolla and nearby Sorrento Valley areas are home to offices and research facilities for numerous biotechnology companies. San Diego_sentence_254

Major biotechnology companies like Illumina and Neurocrine Biosciences are headquartered in San Diego, while many other biotech and pharmaceutical companies have offices or research facilities in San Diego. San Diego_sentence_255

San Diego is also home to more than 140 contract research organizations (CROs) that provide contract services for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. San Diego_sentence_256

Top employers San Diego_section_16

See also: List of companies headquartered in San Diego San Diego_sentence_257

According to the city's 2016 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: San Diego_sentence_258

San Diego_table_general_2

EmployerSan Diego_header_cell_2_0_0 EmployeesSan Diego_header_cell_2_0_1
United States NavySan Diego_cell_2_1_0 38,455San Diego_cell_2_1_1
University of California, San DiegoSan Diego_cell_2_2_0 29,986San Diego_cell_2_2_1
Sharp HealthCareSan Diego_cell_2_3_0 17,807San Diego_cell_2_3_1
County of San DiegoSan Diego_cell_2_4_0 17,384San Diego_cell_2_4_1
San Diego Unified School DistrictSan Diego_cell_2_5_0 14,120San Diego_cell_2_5_1
Qualcomm, Inc.San Diego_cell_2_6_0 11,600San Diego_cell_2_6_1
City of San DiegoSan Diego_cell_2_7_0 11,387San Diego_cell_2_7_1
Scripps HealthSan Diego_cell_2_8_0 10,853San Diego_cell_2_8_1
Kaiser PermanenteSan Diego_cell_2_9_0 8,385San Diego_cell_2_9_1
San Diego Community College DistrictSan Diego_cell_2_10_0 5,580San Diego_cell_2_10_1

Real estate San Diego_section_17

San Diego has high real estate prices. San Diego_sentence_259

San Diego home prices peaked in 2005, and then declined along with the national trend. San Diego_sentence_260

As of December 2010, prices were down 36 percent from the peak, median price of homes having declined by more than $200,000 between 2005 and 2010. San Diego_sentence_261

As of May 2015, the median price of a house was $520,000. San Diego_sentence_262

In November 2018 the median home price was $558,000. San Diego_sentence_263

The San Diego metropolitan area had one of the worst housing affordability rankings of all metropolitan areas in the United States in 2009. San Diego_sentence_264

Consequently, San Diego has experienced negative net migration since 2004. San Diego_sentence_265

A significant number of people moved to adjacent Riverside County, commuting daily to jobs in San Diego, while others are leaving the region altogether and moving to more affordable regions. San Diego_sentence_266

Government San Diego_section_18

Local government San Diego_section_19

See also: Mayor of San Diego, San Diego City Council, and Government of San Diego County San Diego_sentence_267

The city is governed by a mayor and a nine-member city council. San Diego_sentence_268

In 2006, its government changed from a council–manager government to a strong mayor government, as decided by a citywide vote in 2004. San Diego_sentence_269

The mayor is in effect the chief executive officer of the city, while the council is the legislative body. San Diego_sentence_270

The City of San Diego is responsible for police, public safety, streets, water and sewer service, planning and zoning, and similar services within its borders. San Diego_sentence_271

San Diego is a sanctuary city, however, San Diego County is a participant of the Secure Communities program. San Diego_sentence_272

As of 2011, the city had one employee for every 137 residents, with a payroll greater than $733 million. San Diego_sentence_273

The members of the city council are each elected from single-member districts within the city. San Diego_sentence_274

The mayor and city attorney are elected directly by the voters of the entire city. San Diego_sentence_275

The mayor, city attorney, and council members are elected to four-year terms, with a two-term limit. San Diego_sentence_276

Elections are held on a non-partisan basis per California state law; nevertheless, most officeholders do identify themselves as either Democrats or Republicans. San Diego_sentence_277

In 2007, registered Democrats outnumbered Republicans by about 7 to 6 in the city, and Democrats currently (as of 2018) hold a 6–3 majority in the city council. San Diego_sentence_278

The current mayor, Kevin Faulconer, is a Republican. San Diego_sentence_279

San Diego is the largest city in the United States to have a Republican mayor. San Diego_sentence_280

San Diego is part of San Diego County, and includes all or part of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th supervisorial districts of the San Diego County Board of Supervisors, Other county officers elected in part by city residents include the Sheriff, District Attorney, Assessor/Recorder/County Clerk, and Treasurer/Tax Collector. San Diego_sentence_281

Areas of the city immediately adjacent to San Diego Bay ("tidelands") are administered by the Port of San Diego, a quasi-governmental agency which owns all the property in the tidelands and is responsible for its land use planning, policing, and similar functions. San Diego_sentence_282

San Diego is a member of the regional planning agency San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG). San Diego_sentence_283

Public schools within the city are managed and funded by independent school districts (see below). San Diego_sentence_284

State and federal representation San Diego_section_20

In the California State Senate, San Diego County encompasses the 38th, 39th and 40th districts, represented by Brian Jones (R), Toni Atkins (D), and Ben Hueso (D), respectively. San Diego_sentence_285

In the California State Assembly, lying partially within the city of San Diego are the 77th, 78th, 79th, and 80th districts, represented by Brian Maienschein (D), Chris Ward (D), Shirley Weber (D), and Lorena Gonzalez (D), respectively. San Diego_sentence_286

In the United States House of Representatives, San Diego County includes parts or all of California's 49th, 50th, 51st, 52nd, and 53rd congressional districts, represented by Mike Levin (D), (vacant), Juan Vargas (D), Scott Peters (D), and Susan Davis (D), respectively. San Diego_sentence_287

Election history San Diego_section_21

After narrowly supporting Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964, San Diego provided majorities to all six Republican presidential candidates from 1968 to 1988. San Diego_sentence_288

However, in more recent decades, San Diego has trended in favor of Democratic presidential candidates for president. San Diego_sentence_289

George H.W. San Diego_sentence_290 Bush in 1988 is the last Republican candidate to carry San Diego in a presidential election. San Diego_sentence_291

Major scandals San Diego_section_22

San Diego was the site of the 1912 San Diego free speech fight, in which the city restricted speech, vigilantes brutalized and tortured anarchists, and the San Diego Police Department killed a member of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). San Diego_sentence_292

In 1916, rainmaker Charles Hatfield was blamed for $4 million in damages and accused of causing San Diego's worst flood, during which about 20 Japanese American farmers died. San Diego_sentence_293

Then-mayor Roger Hedgecock was forced to resign his post in 1985, after he was found guilty of one count of conspiracy and 12 counts of perjury, related to the alleged failure to report all campaign contributions. San Diego_sentence_294

After a series of appeals, the 12 perjury counts were dismissed in 1990 based on claims of juror misconduct; the remaining conspiracy count was reduced to a misdemeanor and then dismissed. San Diego_sentence_295

A 2002 scheme to underfund pensions for city employees led to the San Diego pension scandal. San Diego_sentence_296

This resulted in the resignation of newly re-elected Mayor Dick Murphy and the criminal indictment of six pension board members. San Diego_sentence_297

Those charges were finally dismissed by a federal judge in 2010. San Diego_sentence_298

On November 28, 2005, U.S. San Diego_sentence_299

Congressman Randy "Duke" Cunningham resigned after being convicted on federal bribery charges. San Diego_sentence_300

He had represented California's 50th congressional district, which includes much of the northern portion of the city of San Diego. San Diego_sentence_301

In 2006, Cunningham was sentenced to a 100-month prison sentence. San Diego_sentence_302

He was released in 2013. San Diego_sentence_303

In 2005 two city council members, Ralph Inzunza and Deputy Mayor Michael Zucchet – who briefly took over as acting mayor when Murphy resigned – were convicted of extortion, wire fraud, and conspiracy to commit wire fraud for taking campaign contributions from a strip club owner and his associates, allegedly in exchange for trying to repeal the city's "no touch" laws at strip clubs. San Diego_sentence_304

Both subsequently resigned. San Diego_sentence_305

Inzunza was sentenced to 21 months in prison. San Diego_sentence_306

In 2009, a judge acquitted Zucchet on seven out of the nine counts against him, and granted his petition for a new trial on the other two charges; the remaining charges were eventually dropped. San Diego_sentence_307

In July 2013, three former supporters of mayor Bob Filner asked him to resign because of allegations of repeated sexual harassment. San Diego_sentence_308

Over the ensuing six weeks, 18 women came forward to publicly claim that Filner had sexually harassed them, and multiple individuals and groups called for him to resign. San Diego_sentence_309

Filner agreed to resign effective August 30, 2013, subsequently pleaded guilty to one felony count of false imprisonment and two misdemeanor battery charges, and was sentenced to house arrest and probation. San Diego_sentence_310

Crime San Diego_section_23

Main article: Crime in San Diego San Diego_sentence_311

San Diego was ranked as the 20th-safest city in America in 2013 by Business Insider. San Diego_sentence_312

According to Forbes magazine, San Diego was the ninth-safest city in the top 10 list of safest cities in the U.S. in 2010. San Diego_sentence_313

Like most major cities, San Diego had a declining crime rate from 1990 to 2000. San Diego_sentence_314

Crime in San Diego increased in the early 2000s. San Diego_sentence_315

In 2004, San Diego had the sixth lowest crime rate of any U.S. city with over half a million residents. San Diego_sentence_316

From 2002 to 2006, the crime rate overall dropped 0.8%, though not evenly by category. San Diego_sentence_317

While violent crime decreased 12.4% during this period, property crime increased 1.1%. San Diego_sentence_318

Total property crimes per 100,000 people were lower than the national average in 2008. San Diego_sentence_319

According to Uniform Crime Report statistics compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 2010, there were 5,616 violent crimes and 30,753 property crimes. San Diego_sentence_320

Of these, the violent crimes consisted of forcible rapes, 73 robberies and 170 aggravated assaults, while 6,387 burglaries, 17,977 larceny-thefts, 6,389 motor vehicle thefts and 155 acts of arson defined the property offenses. San Diego_sentence_321

In 2013, San Diego had the lowest murder rate of the ten largest cities in the United States. San Diego_sentence_322

Education San Diego_section_24

Primary and secondary schools San Diego_section_25

Main article: Primary and secondary schools in San Diego San Diego_sentence_323

Public schools in San Diego are operated by independent school districts. San Diego_sentence_324

The majority of the public schools in the city are served by the San Diego Unified School District, the second-largest school district in California, which includes 11 K–8 schools, 107 elementary schools, 24 middle schools, 13 atypical and alternative schools, 28 high schools, and 45 charter schools. San Diego_sentence_325

Several adjacent school districts which are headquartered outside the city limits serve some schools within the city; these include the Poway Unified School District, Del Mar Union School District, San Dieguito Union High School District, and Sweetwater Union High School District. San Diego_sentence_326

In addition, there are a number of private schools in the city. San Diego_sentence_327

Colleges and universities San Diego_section_26

According to education rankings released by the U.S. San Diego_sentence_328 Census Bureau in 2017, 44.4% percent of San Diegans (city, not county) ages 25 and older hold bachelor's degrees, compared to 30.9% in the United States as a whole. San Diego_sentence_329

The census ranks the city as the ninth-most educated city in the United States, based on these figures. San Diego_sentence_330

Public colleges and universities in the city include San Diego State University (SDSU), the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), and the San Diego Community College District, which includes San Diego City College, San Diego Mesa College, and San Diego Miramar College. San Diego_sentence_331

Private non-profit colleges and universities in the city include the University of San Diego (USD), Point Loma Nazarene University (PLNU), National University's San Diego campus, University of Redlands' School of Business San Diego campus, Brandman University's San Diego campus, San Diego Christian College, and John Paul the Great Catholic University. San Diego_sentence_332

For-profit institutions include Alliant International University (AIU), California International Business University (CIBU), California College San Diego, Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising's San Diego campus, NewSchool of Architecture and Design, Platt College, Southern States University (SSU), UEI College, and Woodbury University School of Architecture's satellite campus. San Diego_sentence_333

There is one medical school in the city, the UCSD School of Medicine. San Diego_sentence_334

There are three ABA accredited law schools in the city, which include California Western School of Law, Thomas Jefferson School of Law, and University of San Diego School of Law. San Diego_sentence_335

There is also one law school, Western Sierra Law School, not accredited by the ABA. San Diego_sentence_336

Libraries San Diego_section_27

The city-run San Diego Public Library system is headquartered downtown and has 36 branches throughout the city. San Diego_sentence_337

The newest location is in Skyline Hills, which broke ground in 2015. San Diego_sentence_338

The libraries have had reduced operating hours since 2003 due to the city's financial problems. San Diego_sentence_339

In 2006 the city increased spending on libraries by $2.1 million. San Diego_sentence_340

A new nine-story Central Library on Park Boulevard at J Street opened on September 30, 2013. San Diego_sentence_341

In addition to the municipal public library system, there are nearly two dozen libraries open to the public run by other governmental agencies, and by schools, colleges, and universities. San Diego_sentence_342

Noteworthy are the Malcolm A. San Diego_sentence_343 Love Library at San Diego State University, and the Geisel Library at the University of California, San Diego. San Diego_sentence_344

Culture San Diego_section_28

Main article: Culture of San Diego San Diego_sentence_345

See also: City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture San Diego_sentence_346

Many popular museums, such as the San Diego Museum of Art, the San Diego Natural History Museum, the Museum of Us, the Museum of Photographic Arts, and the San Diego Air & Space Museum, are located in Balboa Park, which is also the location of the San Diego Zoo. San Diego_sentence_347

The Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego (MCASD) is located in La Jolla and has a branch located at the Santa Fe Depot downtown. San Diego_sentence_348

The downtown branch consists of two buildings on two opposite streets. San Diego_sentence_349

The Columbia district downtown is home to historic ship exhibits belonging to the San Diego Maritime Museum, headlined by the Star of India, as well as the unrelated San Diego Aircraft Carrier Museum featuring the USS Midway aircraft carrier. San Diego_sentence_350

The San Diego Symphony at Symphony Towers performs on a regular basis; from 2004 to 2017 its director was Jahja Ling. San Diego_sentence_351

The San Diego Opera at Civic Center Plaza, now directed by David Bennett, was ranked by Opera America as one of the top 10 opera companies in the United States. San Diego_sentence_352

Old Globe Theatre at Balboa Park produces about 15 plays and musicals annually. San Diego_sentence_353

The La Jolla Playhouse at UCSD is directed by Christopher Ashley. San Diego_sentence_354

Both the Old Globe Theatre and the La Jolla Playhouse have produced the world premieres of plays and musicals that have gone on to win Tony Awards or nominations on Broadway. San Diego_sentence_355

The Joan B. Kroc Theatre at Kroc Center's Performing Arts Center is a 600-seat state-of-the-art theatre that hosts music, dance, and theatre performances. San Diego_sentence_356

The San Diego Repertory Theatre at the Lyceum Theatres in Westfield Horton Plaza produces a variety of plays and musicals. San Diego_sentence_357

Hundreds of movies and a dozen TV shows have been filmed in San Diego, a tradition going back as far as 1898. San Diego_sentence_358

Sports San Diego_section_29

Main article: Sports in San Diego San Diego_sentence_359

Professional sports San Diego_section_30

The San Diego region is home to one major professional team—Major League Baseball's San Diego Padres, who play at Petco Park. San Diego_sentence_360

From 1961 to the 2016 season, the team hosted a National Football League franchise, the San Diego Chargers. San Diego_sentence_361

In 2017, they moved to Los Angeles and became the Los Angeles Chargers. San Diego_sentence_362

In two separate stints, the National Basketball Association had a franchise in San Diego, the San Diego Rockets from 1967 to 1971, and the San Diego Clippers from 1978 to 1984. San Diego_sentence_363

The franchises moved to Houston and Los Angeles respectively. San Diego_sentence_364

From 1972 to 1975, San Diego was home to an American Basketball Association team. San Diego_sentence_365

First named the Conquistadors (a.k.a. "The Q's") the name was changed to the San Diego Sails for the 1975–76 season, but the team folded before completing that campaign. San Diego_sentence_366

In 2017 the San Diego 1904 FC club was organized as a proposed American professional Division II soccer team. San Diego_sentence_367

The club's founders include several major-league soccer players. San Diego_sentence_368

They intend to build a soccer stadium in Oceanside, approximately 40 miles north of downtown San Diego, and will play at the University of San Diego's Torero Stadium in the meantime. San Diego_sentence_369

The team was originally announced to make its debut in the North American Soccer League in 2018. San Diego_sentence_370

However, due to the cancellation of the 2018 NASL season, the expansion team is negotiating an agreement to join the United Soccer League in 2019. San Diego_sentence_371

San Diego has hosted numerous major sports events. San Diego_sentence_372

Three NFL Super Bowl championships have been held at San Diego County Credit Union (SDCCU) Stadium. San Diego_sentence_373

College football's annual bowl game, the Holiday Bowl, is also held at the stadium. San Diego_sentence_374

The annual Farmers Insurance Open golf tournament (formerly the Buick Invitational) on the PGA Tour occurs at Torrey Pines Golf Course. San Diego_sentence_375

This course was also the site of the 2008 U.S. Open Golf Championship. San Diego_sentence_376

Parts of the World Baseball Classic were played at Petco Park in 2006 and 2009. San Diego_sentence_377

SDCCU Stadium also hosts international soccer games and supercross events. San Diego_sentence_378

Soccer, American football, and track and field are also played in Balboa Stadium, the city's first stadium, constructed in 1914. San Diego_sentence_379

Rugby union is a developing sport in the city. San Diego_sentence_380

The San Diego Legion were one of Major League Rugby's founding teams, beginning play in 2018. San Diego_sentence_381

The San Diego Breakers played at Torero Stadium in the only PRO Rugby season before the league folded. San Diego_sentence_382

The USA Sevens, a major international rugby event, was held there from 2007 through 2009. San Diego_sentence_383

San Diego is also represented by Old Mission Beach Athletic Club RFC, the former home club of USA Rugby's former Captain Todd Clever. San Diego_sentence_384

San Diego participated in the Western American National Rugby League between 2011 and 2013. San Diego_sentence_385

The semi-pro San Diego Surf of the American Basketball Association is located in the city. San Diego_sentence_386

The San Diego Yacht Club hosted the America's Cup yacht races three times during the period 1988 to 1995. San Diego_sentence_387

The amateur beach sport Over-the-line was invented in San Diego, and the annual world Over-the-line championships are held at Mission Bay every year. San Diego_sentence_388

Major professional teams: San Diego_sentence_389

San Diego_table_general_3

ClubSan Diego_header_cell_3_0_0 SportSan Diego_header_cell_3_0_1 SinceSan Diego_header_cell_3_0_2 LeagueSan Diego_header_cell_3_0_3 Venue (capacity)San Diego_header_cell_3_0_4 Attendance avg.San Diego_header_cell_3_0_5
San Diego PadresSan Diego_cell_3_1_0 BaseballSan Diego_cell_3_1_1 1969San Diego_cell_3_1_2 Major League BaseballSan Diego_cell_3_1_3 Petco Park (40,209)San Diego_cell_3_1_4 29,585 (2019)San Diego_cell_3_1_5

Other top level professional teams San Diego_sentence_390

San Diego_table_general_4

ClubSan Diego_header_cell_4_0_0 SportSan Diego_header_cell_4_0_1 SinceSan Diego_header_cell_4_0_2 LeagueSan Diego_header_cell_4_0_3 Venue (capacity)San Diego_header_cell_4_0_4 Attendance avg.San Diego_header_cell_4_0_5
San Diego SealsSan Diego_cell_4_1_0 Box lacrosseSan Diego_cell_4_1_1 2017San Diego_cell_4_1_2 National Lacrosse LeagueSan Diego_cell_4_1_3 Pechanga Arena (12,920)San Diego_cell_4_1_4 7,769 (2018–19)San Diego_cell_4_1_5
San Diego SockersSan Diego_cell_4_2_0 Indoor soccerSan Diego_cell_4_2_1 2009San Diego_cell_4_2_2 Major Arena Soccer LeagueSan Diego_cell_4_2_3 Pechanga Arena (12,920)San Diego_cell_4_2_4 3,607 (2018–19)San Diego_cell_4_2_5
San Diego LegionSan Diego_cell_4_3_0 Rugby unionSan Diego_cell_4_3_1 2018San Diego_cell_4_3_2 Major League RugbySan Diego_cell_4_3_3 Torero Stadium (6,000)San Diego_cell_4_3_4 3,043 (2019)San Diego_cell_4_3_5
San Diego Strike ForceSan Diego_cell_4_4_0 Indoor footballSan Diego_cell_4_4_1 2019San Diego_cell_4_4_2 Indoor Football LeagueSan Diego_cell_4_4_3 Pechanga Arena (12,920)San Diego_cell_4_4_4 1,734 (2018–19)San Diego_cell_4_4_5
San Diego AviatorsSan Diego_cell_4_5_0 Team tennisSan Diego_cell_4_5_1 2014San Diego_cell_4_5_2 World TeamTennisSan Diego_cell_4_5_3 Omni La Costa Resort and Spa (2,100)San Diego_cell_4_5_4 N/ASan Diego_cell_4_5_5
San Diego GrowlersSan Diego_cell_4_6_0 UltimateSan Diego_cell_4_6_1 2015San Diego_cell_4_6_2 American Ultimate Disc LeagueSan Diego_cell_4_6_3 Balboa Stadium (3,000)San Diego_cell_4_6_4 N/ASan Diego_cell_4_6_5

Minor League professional teams San Diego_sentence_391

San Diego_table_general_5

ClubSan Diego_header_cell_5_0_0 SportSan Diego_header_cell_5_0_1 SinceSan Diego_header_cell_5_0_2 LeagueSan Diego_header_cell_5_0_3 Venue (capacity)San Diego_header_cell_5_0_4 Attendance avg.San Diego_header_cell_5_0_5 Competition

TierSan Diego_header_cell_5_0_6

San Diego GullsSan Diego_cell_5_1_0 Ice hockeySan Diego_cell_5_1_1 2015San Diego_cell_5_1_2 American Hockey LeagueSan Diego_cell_5_1_3 Pechanga Arena (12,920)San Diego_cell_5_1_4 9,021 (2018–19)San Diego_cell_5_1_5 2San Diego_cell_5_1_6
San Diego Loyal SCSan Diego_cell_5_2_0 SoccerSan Diego_cell_5_2_1 2020San Diego_cell_5_2_2 USL ChampionshipSan Diego_cell_5_2_3 Torero Stadium (8,000)San Diego_cell_5_2_4 N/ASan Diego_cell_5_2_5 2San Diego_cell_5_2_6
San Diego 1904 FCSan Diego_cell_5_3_0 SoccerSan Diego_cell_5_3_1 2019San Diego_cell_5_3_2 National Independent Soccer AssociationSan Diego_cell_5_3_3 SDCCU Stadium (70,561)San Diego_cell_5_3_4 2,782 (2019)San Diego_cell_5_3_5 3San Diego_cell_5_3_6

College sports San Diego_section_31

San Diego hosts three NCAA Division I universities: San Diego State University; the University of California, San Diego; and the University of San Diego. San Diego_sentence_392

San Diego_table_general_6

ClubSan Diego_header_cell_6_0_0 UniversitySan Diego_header_cell_6_0_1 EnrollmentSan Diego_header_cell_6_0_2 LeagueSan Diego_header_cell_6_0_3 Primary conferenceSan Diego_header_cell_6_0_4
San Diego State AztecsSan Diego_cell_6_1_0 San Diego State UniversitySan Diego_cell_6_1_1 35,081San Diego_cell_6_1_2 NCAA Division ISan Diego_cell_6_1_3 Mountain West ConferenceSan Diego_cell_6_1_4
San Diego TorerosSan Diego_cell_6_2_0 University of San DiegoSan Diego_cell_6_2_1 8,328San Diego_cell_6_2_2 NCAA Division ISan Diego_cell_6_2_3 West Coast ConferenceSan Diego_cell_6_2_4
UC San Diego TritonsSan Diego_cell_6_3_0 University of California, San DiegoSan Diego_cell_6_3_1 38,736San Diego_cell_6_3_2 NCAA Division ISan Diego_cell_6_3_3 Big West ConferenceSan Diego_cell_6_3_4
Cal State San Marcos CougarsSan Diego_cell_6_4_0 California State University San MarcosSan Diego_cell_6_4_1 13,893San Diego_cell_6_4_2 NCAA Division IISan Diego_cell_6_4_3 California Collegiate Athletic AssociationSan Diego_cell_6_4_4
Point Loma Nazarene Sea LionsSan Diego_cell_6_5_0 Point Loma Nazarene UniversitySan Diego_cell_6_5_1 3,480San Diego_cell_6_5_2 NCAA Division IISan Diego_cell_6_5_3 Pacific West ConferenceSan Diego_cell_6_5_4
San Diego Christian HawksSan Diego_cell_6_6_0 San Diego Christian CollegeSan Diego_cell_6_6_1 681San Diego_cell_6_6_2 NAIASan Diego_cell_6_6_3 Golden State Athletic ConferenceSan Diego_cell_6_6_4

Media San Diego_section_32

See also: Media in San Diego San Diego_sentence_393

Published within the city are the daily newspaper, The San Diego Union Tribune and its online portal of the same name, and the alternative newsweeklies, the San Diego CityBeat and San Diego Reader. San Diego_sentence_394

Times of San Diego is a free online newspaper covering news in the metropolitan area. San Diego_sentence_395

Voice of San Diego is a non-profit online news outlet covering government, politics, education, neighborhoods, and the arts. San Diego_sentence_396

The San Diego Daily Transcript is a business-oriented online newspaper. San Diego_sentence_397

San Diego led U.S. local markets with 69.6 percent broadband penetration in 2004 according to Nielsen//NetRatings. San Diego_sentence_398

San Diego's first television station was KFMB, which began broadcasting on May 16, 1949. San Diego_sentence_399

Since the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) licensed seven television stations in Los Angeles, two VHF channels were available for San Diego because of its relative proximity to the larger city. San Diego_sentence_400

In 1952, however, the FCC began licensing UHF channels, making it possible for cities such as San Diego to acquire more stations. San Diego_sentence_401

Stations based in Mexico (with ITU prefixes of XE and XH) also serve the San Diego market. San Diego_sentence_402

Television stations today include XHTJB 3 (Once TV), XETV 6 (Canal 5), KFMB 8 (CBS, with CW/MNTV on DT2), KGTV 10 (ABC), XEWT 12 (Televisa Regional), KPBS 15 (PBS), KBNT-CD 17 (Univision), XHTIT-TDT 21 (Azteca 7), XHJK-TDT 27 (Azteca 13), XHAS 33 (Telemundo), K35DG-D 35 (UCSD-TV), KDTF-LD 51 (Telefutura), KNSD 39 (NBC), KZSD-LP 20 (Azteca America), KSEX-CD 42 (Infomercials), XHBJ-TDT 45 (Gala TV), XHDTV 49 (Milenio Televisión), KUSI 51 (Independent), XHUAA-TDT 57 (Canal de las Estrellas), and KSWB-TV 69 (Fox). San Diego_sentence_403

San Diego has an 80.6 percent cable penetration rate. San Diego_sentence_404

Due to the ratio of U.S. and Mexican-licensed stations, San Diego is the largest media market in the United States that is legally unable to support a television station duopoly between two full-power stations under FCC regulations, which disallow duopolies in metropolitan areas with fewer than nine full-power television stations and require that there must be eight unique station owners that remain once a duopoly is formed (there are only seven full-power stations on the California side of the San Diego-Tijuana market). San Diego_sentence_405

Though the E. San Diego_sentence_406 W. Scripps Company owns KGTV and KZSD-LP, they are not considered a duopoly under the FCC's legal definition as common ownership between full-power and low-power television stations in the same market is permitted regardless to the number of stations licensed to the area. San Diego_sentence_407

As a whole, the Mexico side of the San Diego-Tijuana market has two duopolies and one triopoly (Entravision Communications owns both XHAS-TV and XHDTV-TV, Azteca owns XHJK-TV and XHTIT-TV, and Grupo Televisa owns XHUAA-TV and XHWT-TV along with being the license holder for XETV-TV, which was formerly managed by California-based subsidiary Bay City Television). San Diego_sentence_408

San Diego's television market is limited to only San Diego County. San Diego_sentence_409

The Imperial Valley has its own market (which also extends into western Arizona), while neighboring Orange and Riverside counties are part of the Los Angeles market. San Diego_sentence_410

(Sometimes in the past, a missing network affiliate in the Imperial Valley would be available on cable TV from San Diego.) San Diego_sentence_411

The radio stations in San Diego include nationwide broadcaster, iHeartMedia; Entercom Communications, Local Media San Diego, and many other smaller stations and networks. San Diego_sentence_412

Stations include: KOGO AM 600, KGB AM 760, KCEO AM 1000, KCBQ AM 1170, K-Praise, KLSD AM 1360, KFSD 1450 AM, KPBS-FM 89.5, Channel 933, Star 94.1, FM 94/9, FM News and Talk 95.7, Q96 96.1, KyXy 96.5, Free Radio San Diego (AKA Pirate Radio San Diego) 96.9FM FRSD, KWFN 97.3, KXSN 98.1, Big-FM 100.7, 101.5 KGB-FM, KLVJ 102.1, KSON 103.7, Rock 105.3, and another Pirate Radio station at 106.9FM, as well as a number of local Spanish-language radio stations. San Diego_sentence_413

Infrastructure San Diego_section_33

Utilities San Diego_section_34

Water is supplied to residents by the Water Department of the City of San Diego. San Diego_sentence_414

The city receives most of its water from the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California. San Diego_sentence_415

Gas and electric utilities are provided by San Diego Gas & Electric, a division of Sempra Energy. San Diego_sentence_416

Street lights San Diego_section_35

In the mid-20th century the city had mercury vapor street lamps. San Diego_sentence_417

In 1978, the city decided to replace them with more efficient sodium vapor lamps. San Diego_sentence_418

This triggered an outcry from astronomers at Palomar Observatory 60 miles (97 km) north of the city, concerned that the new lamps would increase light pollution and hinder astronomical observation. San Diego_sentence_419

The city altered its lighting regulations to limit light pollution within 30 miles (48 km) of Palomar. San Diego_sentence_420

In 2011, the city announced plans to upgrade 80% of its street lighting to new energy-efficient lights that use induction technology, a modified form of fluorescent lamp producing a broader spectrum than sodium vapor lamps. San Diego_sentence_421

The new system is predicted to save $2.2 million per year in energy and maintenance. San Diego_sentence_422

The city stated the changes would "make our neighborhoods safer." San Diego_sentence_423

They also increase light pollution. San Diego_sentence_424

In 2014, San Diego announced plans to become the first U.S. city to install cyber-controlled street lighting, using an "intelligent" lighting system to control 3,000 LED street lights. San Diego_sentence_425

Transportation San Diego_section_36

Main articles: Transportation in San Diego and Streets and highways of San Diego San Diego_sentence_426

With the automobile being the primary means of transportation for over 80 percent of residents, San Diego is served by a network of freeways and highways. San Diego_sentence_427

This includes Interstate 5, which runs south to Tijuana and north to Los Angeles; Interstate 8, which runs east to Imperial County and the Arizona Sun Corridor; Interstate 15, which runs northeast through the Inland Empire to Las Vegas and Salt Lake City; and Interstate 805, which splits from I-5 near the Mexican border and rejoins I-5 at Sorrento Valley. San Diego_sentence_428

Major state highways include SR 94, which connects downtown with I-805, I-15 and East County; SR 163, which connects downtown with the northeast part of the city, intersects I-805 and merges with I-15 at Miramar; SR 52, which connects La Jolla with East County through Santee and SR 125; SR 56, which connects I-5 with I-15 through Carmel Valley and Rancho Peñasquitos; SR 75, which spans San Diego Bay as the San Diego-Coronado Bridge, and also passes through South San Diego as Palm Avenue; and SR 905, which connects I-5 and I-805 to the Otay Mesa Port of Entry. San Diego_sentence_429

The stretch of SR 163 that passes through Balboa Park is San Diego's oldest freeway, and has been called one of America's most beautiful parkways. San Diego_sentence_430

San Diego's roadway system provides an extensive network of cycle routes. San Diego_sentence_431

Its dry and mild climate makes cycling a convenient year-round option; however, the city's hilly terrain and long average trip distances make cycling less practicable. San Diego_sentence_432

Older and denser neighborhoods around the downtown tend to be oriented to utility cycling. San Diego_sentence_433

This is partly because of the grid street patterns now absent in newer developments farther from the urban core, where suburban style arterial roads are much more common. San Diego_sentence_434

As a result, a majority of cycling is recreational. San Diego_sentence_435

In 2006, San Diego was rated the best city (with a population over 1 million) for cycling in the U.S. San Diego_sentence_436

San Diego is served by the San Diego Trolley light rail system, by the SDMTS bus system, and by Coaster and Amtrak Pacific Surfliner commuter rail; northern San Diego county is also served by the Sprinter light rail line. San Diego_sentence_437

The trolley primarily serves downtown and surrounding urban communities, Mission Valley, east county, and coastal south bay. San Diego_sentence_438

A planned mid-coast extension of the Trolley will operate from Old Town to University City and the University of California, San Diego along the I-5 Freeway, with planned operation by 2021. San Diego_sentence_439

The Amtrak and Coaster trains currently run along the coastline and connect San Diego with Los Angeles, Orange County, Riverside, San Bernardino, and Ventura via Metrolink and the Pacific Surfliner. San Diego_sentence_440

There are two Amtrak stations in San Diego, in Old Town and the Santa Fe Depot downtown. San Diego_sentence_441

San Diego transit information about public transportation and commuting is available on the Web and by dialing "511" from any phone in the area. San Diego_sentence_442

The city has two major commercial airports within or near its city limits. San Diego_sentence_443

Downtown San Diego International Airport (SAN), also known as Lindbergh Field, is the busiest single-runway airport in the United States. San Diego_sentence_444

It served over 24 million passengers in 2018, and is dealing with larger numbers every year. San Diego_sentence_445

It is located on San Diego Bay, three miles (4.8 km) from downtown, and maintains scheduled flights to the rest of the United States (including Hawaii), as well as to Canada, Germany, Mexico, Japan, and the United Kingdom. San Diego_sentence_446

It is operated by an independent agency, the San Diego Regional Airport Authority. San Diego_sentence_447

Tijuana International Airport has a terminal within the city limits in the Otay Mesa district connected to the rest of the airport in Tijuana, Mexico, via the Cross Border Xpress cross-border footbridge. San Diego_sentence_448

It is the primary airport for flights to the rest of Mexico, and offers connections via Mexico City to the rest of Latin America. San Diego_sentence_449

In addition, the city has two general-aviation airports, Montgomery Field (MYF) and Brown Field (SDM). San Diego_sentence_450

Recent regional transportation projects have sought to mitigate congestion, including improvements to local freeways, expansion of San Diego Airport, and doubling the capacity of the cruise ship terminal. San Diego_sentence_451

Freeway projects included expansion of Interstates 5 and 805 around "The Merge" where these two freeways meet, as well as expansion of Interstate 15 through North County, which includes new high-occupancy-vehicle (HOV) "managed lanes". San Diego_sentence_452

A tollway (the southern portion of SR 125, known as the South Bay Expressway) connects SR 54 and Otay Mesa, near the Mexican border. San Diego_sentence_453

According to an assessment in 2007, 37 percent of city streets were in acceptable condition. San Diego_sentence_454

However, the proposed budget fell $84.6 million short of bringing streets up to an acceptable level. San Diego_sentence_455

Expansion at the port has included a second cruise terminal on Broadway Pier, opened in 2010. San Diego_sentence_456

Airport projects include expansion of Terminal Two. San Diego_sentence_457

Notable people San Diego_section_37

Main article: List of people from San Diego San Diego_sentence_458

Sister cities San Diego_section_38

San Diego's sister cities are: San Diego_sentence_459

See also San Diego_section_39

San Diego_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Diego.