San Francisco

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This article is about the city and county in California. San Francisco_sentence_0

For other uses, see San Francisco (disambiguation). San Francisco_sentence_1

San Francisco_table_infobox_0

San Francisco, CaliforniaSan Francisco_header_cell_0_0_0
CountrySan Francisco_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesSan Francisco_cell_0_1_1
StateSan Francisco_header_cell_0_2_0 CaliforniaSan Francisco_cell_0_2_1
CountySan Francisco_header_cell_0_3_0 San FranciscoSan Francisco_cell_0_3_1
CSASan Francisco_header_cell_0_4_0 San Jose–San Francisco–OaklandSan Francisco_cell_0_4_1
MetroSan Francisco_header_cell_0_5_0 San Francisco–Oakland–HaywardSan Francisco_cell_0_5_1
MissionSan Francisco_header_cell_0_6_0 June 29, 1776San Francisco_cell_0_6_1
IncorporatedSan Francisco_header_cell_0_7_0 April 15, 1850San Francisco_cell_0_7_1
Founded bySan Francisco_header_cell_0_8_0 José Joaquín Moraga

Francisco PalóuSan Francisco_cell_0_8_1

Named forSan Francisco_header_cell_0_9_0 Francis of AssisiSan Francisco_cell_0_9_1
GovernmentSan Francisco_header_cell_0_10_0
TypeSan Francisco_header_cell_0_11_0 Mayor–councilSan Francisco_cell_0_11_1
BodySan Francisco_header_cell_0_12_0 Board of SupervisorsSan Francisco_cell_0_12_1
MayorSan Francisco_header_cell_0_13_0 London Breed (D)San Francisco_cell_0_13_1
SupervisorsSan Francisco_header_cell_0_14_0 ListSan Francisco_cell_0_14_1
Assembly membersSan Francisco_header_cell_0_15_0 David Chiu (D)

Phil Ting (D)San Francisco_cell_0_15_1

State senatorSan Francisco_header_cell_0_16_0 Scott Wiener (D)San Francisco_cell_0_16_1
United States RepresentativesSan Francisco_header_cell_0_17_0 Nancy Pelosi (D)

Jackie Speier (D)San Francisco_cell_0_17_1

AreaSan Francisco_header_cell_0_18_0
City and countySan Francisco_header_cell_0_19_0 231.91 sq mi (600.65 km)San Francisco_cell_0_19_1
LandSan Francisco_header_cell_0_20_0 46.91 sq mi (121.51 km)San Francisco_cell_0_20_1
WaterSan Francisco_header_cell_0_21_0 185.00 sq mi (479.15 km)  80.00%San Francisco_cell_0_21_1
MetroSan Francisco_header_cell_0_22_0 3,524.4 sq mi (9,128 km)San Francisco_cell_0_22_1
ElevationSan Francisco_header_cell_0_23_0 52 ft (16 m)San Francisco_cell_0_23_1
Highest elevationSan Francisco_header_cell_0_24_0 934 ft (285 m)San Francisco_cell_0_24_1
Lowest elevationSan Francisco_header_cell_0_25_0 0 ft (0 m)San Francisco_cell_0_25_1
Population (2010)San Francisco_header_cell_0_26_0
City and countySan Francisco_header_cell_0_27_0 805,235San Francisco_cell_0_27_1
Estimate (2019)San Francisco_header_cell_0_28_0 881,549San Francisco_cell_0_28_1
RankSan Francisco_header_cell_0_29_0 4th in California

16th in United StatesSan Francisco_cell_0_29_1

DensitySan Francisco_header_cell_0_30_0 18,790.74/sq mi (7,255.12/km)San Francisco_cell_0_30_1
MetroSan Francisco_header_cell_0_31_0 4,729,484 (12th)San Francisco_cell_0_31_1
CSASan Francisco_header_cell_0_32_0 9,666,055 (5th)San Francisco_cell_0_32_1
Demonym(s)San Francisco_header_cell_0_33_0 San Franciscan

San Francisqueño/aSan Francisco_cell_0_33_1

Time zoneSan Francisco_header_cell_0_34_0 UTC−8 (Pacific Time Zone)San Francisco_cell_0_34_1
Summer (DST)San Francisco_header_cell_0_35_0 UTC−7 (Pacific Daylight Time)San Francisco_cell_0_35_1
ZIP CodesSan Francisco_header_cell_0_36_0 ListSan Francisco_cell_0_36_1
Area codesSan Francisco_header_cell_0_37_0 415/628San Francisco_cell_0_37_1
FIPS codeSan Francisco_header_cell_0_38_0 06-67000San Francisco_cell_0_38_1
GNIS feature IDsSan Francisco_header_cell_0_39_0 ,San Francisco_cell_0_39_1
GDP (2018)San Francisco_header_cell_0_40_0 City—$183.2billion

MSA—$548.6 billion (4th)

CSA—$1.032 trillion (3rd)San Francisco_cell_0_40_1

WebsiteSan Francisco_header_cell_0_41_0 San Francisco_cell_0_41_1

San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco_sentence_2

San Francisco is the 16th most populous city in the United States, and the fourth most populous in California, with 881,549 residents as of 2019. San Francisco_sentence_3

It covers an area of about 46.89 square miles (121.4 km), mostly at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second most densely populated large U.S. city, and the fifth most densely populated U.S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco_sentence_4

San Francisco is part of the 12th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States by population, with 4.7 million people, and the fourth-largest by economic output, with GDP of $549 billion in 2018. San Francisco_sentence_5

With San Jose, it forms the fifth most populous combined statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area (9.67 million residents in 2018). San Francisco_sentence_6

Colloquial nicknames for San Francisco include The City, SF, Frisco and San Fran. San Francisco_sentence_7

As of 2020, San Francisco has the highest salaries, disposable income, and median home prices in the world at $1.7 million, as well as the highest median rents. San Francisco_sentence_8

In 2018, San Francisco was the seventh-highest-income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $130,696. San Francisco_sentence_9

In the same year, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $183.2 billion, and a GDP per capita of $207,371. San Francisco_sentence_10

The CSA San Francisco shares with San Jose and Oakland was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2018, with a GDP of $1.03 trillion. San Francisco_sentence_11

Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the U.S., this CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2018, at $106,757. San Francisco_sentence_12

San Francisco was ranked 8th in the world and 2nd in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of March 2020. San Francisco_sentence_13

As of 2016, the San Francisco metropolitan area had the highest GDP per capita, labor productivity, and household income levels in the OECD. San Francisco_sentence_14

As of 2019, it is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings. San Francisco_sentence_15

San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established the Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, both named for Francis of Assisi. San Francisco_sentence_16

The California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco_sentence_17

San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco_sentence_18

San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. San Francisco_sentence_19

After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. San Francisco_sentence_20

In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. San Francisco_sentence_21

It then became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. San Francisco_sentence_22

After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, and other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. San Francisco_sentence_23

Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines. San Francisco_sentence_24

A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, fog, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, and landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, and its Chinatown district. San Francisco_sentence_25

San Francisco is also the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co., Gap Inc., Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Dropbox, Reddit, Square, Inc., Dolby, Airbnb, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Yelp, Pinterest, Twitter, Uber, Lyft, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Craigslist. San Francisco_sentence_26

The city, and the surrounding Bay Area, is a global center of the sciences and arts and is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco (USF), University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco State University (SFSU), the de Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the SFJAZZ Center, and the California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco_sentence_27

History San Francisco_section_0

See also: History of San Francisco and Timeline of San Francisco San Francisco_sentence_28

The earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. San Francisco_sentence_29

The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolá, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. San Francisco_sentence_30

The first maritime presence occurred on August 5, 1775, when San Carlos—commanded by Juan Manuel de Ayala—became the first ship to anchor in the bay. San Francisco_sentence_31

The following year, on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís (Mission Dolores), established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. San Francisco_sentence_32

Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. San Francisco_sentence_33

Under Mexican rule, the mission system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. San Francisco_sentence_34

In 1835, William Richardson, a naturalized Mexican citizen of English birth, erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. San Francisco_sentence_35

Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. San Francisco_sentence_36

Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, and Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. San Francisco_sentence_37

Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, and Mexico officially ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war in 1848. San Francisco_sentence_38

Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. San Francisco_sentence_39

The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers (known as "forty-niners", as in "1849"). San Francisco_sentence_40

With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849. San Francisco_sentence_41

The promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. San Francisco_sentence_42

Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships, saloons and hotels; many were left to rot and some were sunk to establish title to the underwater lot. San Francisco_sentence_43

By 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. San Francisco_sentence_44

By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land. San Francisco_sentence_45

Buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. San Francisco_sentence_46

California was quickly granted statehood in 1850, and the U.S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate and a fort on Alcatraz Island to secure the San Francisco Bay. San Francisco_sentence_47

Silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. San Francisco_sentence_48

With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, prostitution, and gambling. San Francisco_sentence_49

Entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush. San Francisco_sentence_50

Early winners were the banking industry, with the founding of Wells Fargo in 1852 and the Bank of California in 1864. San Francisco_sentence_51

Development of the Port of San Francisco and the establishment in 1869 of overland access to the eastern U.S. rail system via the newly completed Pacific Railroad (the construction of which the city only reluctantly helped support) helped make the Bay Area a center for trade. San Francisco_sentence_52

Catering to the needs and tastes of the growing population, Levi Strauss opened a dry goods business and Domingo Ghirardelli began manufacturing chocolate. San Francisco_sentence_53

Chinese immigrants made the city a polyglot culture, drawn to "Old Gold Mountain", creating the city's Chinatown quarter. San Francisco_sentence_54

In 1870, Asians made up 8% of the population. San Francisco_sentence_55

The first cable cars carried San Franciscans up Clay Street in 1873. San Francisco_sentence_56

The city's sea of Victorian houses began to take shape, and civic leaders campaigned for a spacious public park, resulting in plans for Golden Gate Park. San Francisco_sentence_57

San Franciscans built schools, churches, theaters, and all the hallmarks of civic life. San Francisco_sentence_58

The Presidio developed into the most important American military installation on the Pacific coast. San Francisco_sentence_59

By 1890, San Francisco's population approached 300,000, making it the eighth-largest city in the United States at the time. San Francisco_sentence_60

Around 1901, San Francisco was a major city known for its flamboyant style, stately hotels, ostentatious mansions on Nob Hill, and a thriving arts scene. San Francisco_sentence_61

The first North American plague epidemic was the San Francisco plague of 1900–1904. San Francisco_sentence_62

At 5:12 am on April 18, 1906, a major earthquake struck San Francisco and northern California. San Francisco_sentence_63

As buildings collapsed from the shaking, ruptured gas lines ignited fires that spread across the city and burned out of control for several days. San Francisco_sentence_64

With water mains out of service, the Presidio Artillery Corps attempted to contain the inferno by dynamiting blocks of buildings to create firebreaks. San Francisco_sentence_65

More than three-quarters of the city lay in ruins, including almost all of the downtown core. San Francisco_sentence_66

Contemporary accounts reported that 498 people lost their lives, though modern estimates put the number in the several thousands. San Francisco_sentence_67

More than half of the city's population of 400,000 was left homeless. San Francisco_sentence_68

Refugees settled temporarily in makeshift tent villages in Golden Gate Park, the Presidio, on the beaches, and elsewhere. San Francisco_sentence_69

Many fled permanently to the East Bay. San Francisco_sentence_70

Rebuilding was rapid and performed on a grand scale. San Francisco_sentence_71

Rejecting calls to completely remake the street grid, San Franciscans opted for speed. San Francisco_sentence_72

Amadeo Giannini's Bank of Italy, later to become Bank of America, provided loans for many of those whose livelihoods had been devastated. San Francisco_sentence_73

The influential San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association or SPUR was founded in 1910 to address the quality of housing after the earthquake. San Francisco_sentence_74

The earthquake hastened development of western neighborhoods that survived the fire, including Pacific Heights, where many of the city's wealthy rebuilt their homes. San Francisco_sentence_75

In turn, the destroyed mansions of Nob Hill became grand hotels. San Francisco_sentence_76

City Hall rose again in splendid Beaux Arts style, and the city celebrated its rebirth at the Panama–Pacific International Exposition in 1915. San Francisco_sentence_77

It was during this period San Francisco built some of its most important infrastructure. San Francisco_sentence_78

Civil Engineer Michael O'Shaughnessy was hired by San Francisco Mayor James Rolph as chief engineer for the city in September 1912 to supervise the construction of the Twin Peaks Reservoir, the Stockton Street Tunnel, the Twin Peaks Tunnel, the San Francisco Municipal Railway, the Auxiliary Water Supply System, and new sewers. San Francisco_sentence_79

San Francisco's streetcar system, of which the J, K, L, M, and N lines survive today, was pushed to completion by O'Shaughnessy between 1915 and 1927. San Francisco_sentence_80

It was the O'Shaughnessy Dam, Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, and Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct that would have the largest effect on San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_81

An abundant water supply enabled San Francisco to develop into the city it has become today. San Francisco_sentence_82

In ensuing years, the city solidified its standing as a financial capital; in the wake of the 1929 stock market crash, not a single San Francisco-based bank failed. San Francisco_sentence_83

Indeed, it was at the height of the Great Depression that San Francisco undertook two great civil engineering projects, simultaneously constructing the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and the Golden Gate Bridge, completing them in 1936 and 1937, respectively. San Francisco_sentence_84

It was in this period that the island of Alcatraz, a former military stockade, began its service as a federal maximum security prison, housing notorious inmates such as Al Capone, and Robert Franklin Stroud, the Birdman of Alcatraz. San Francisco_sentence_85

San Francisco later celebrated its regained grandeur with a World's fair, the Golden Gate International Exposition in 1939–40, creating Treasure Island in the middle of the bay to house it. San Francisco_sentence_86

During World War II, the Hunters Point Naval Shipyard became a hub of activity, and Fort Mason became the primary port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater of Operations. San Francisco_sentence_87

The explosion of jobs drew many people, especially African Americans from the South, to the area. San Francisco_sentence_88

After the end of the war, many military personnel returning from service abroad and civilians who had originally come to work decided to stay. San Francisco_sentence_89

The United Nations Charter creating the United Nations was drafted and signed in San Francisco in 1945 and, in 1951, the Treaty of San Francisco re-established peaceful relations between Japan and the Allied Powers. San Francisco_sentence_90

Urban planning projects in the 1950s and 1960s involved widespread destruction and redevelopment of west-side neighborhoods and the construction of new freeways, of which only a series of short segments were built before being halted by citizen-led opposition. San Francisco_sentence_91

The onset of containerization made San Francisco's small piers obsolete, and cargo activity moved to the larger Port of Oakland. San Francisco_sentence_92

The city began to lose industrial jobs and turned to tourism as the most important segment of its economy. San Francisco_sentence_93

The suburbs experienced rapid growth, and San Francisco underwent significant demographic change, as large segments of the white population left the city, supplanted by an increasing wave of immigration from Asia and Latin America. San Francisco_sentence_94

From 1950 to 1980, the city lost over 10 percent of its population. San Francisco_sentence_95

Over this period, San Francisco became a magnet for America's counterculture. San Francisco_sentence_96

Beat Generation writers fueled the San Francisco Renaissance and centered on the North Beach neighborhood in the 1950s. San Francisco_sentence_97

Hippies flocked to Haight-Ashbury in the 1960s, reaching a peak with the 1967 Summer of Love. San Francisco_sentence_98

In 1974, the Zebra murders left at least 16 people dead. San Francisco_sentence_99

In the 1970s, the city became a center of the gay rights movement, with the emergence of The Castro as an urban gay village, the election of Harvey Milk to the Board of Supervisors, and his assassination, along with that of Mayor George Moscone, in 1978. San Francisco_sentence_100

Bank of America completed 555 California Street in 1969 and the Transamerica Pyramid was completed in 1972, igniting a wave of "Manhattanization" that lasted until the late 1980s, a period of extensive high-rise development downtown. San Francisco_sentence_101

The 1980s also saw a dramatic increase in the number of homeless people in the city, an issue that remains today, despite many attempts to address it. San Francisco_sentence_102

The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake caused destruction and loss of life throughout the Bay Area. San Francisco_sentence_103

In San Francisco, the quake severely damaged structures in the Marina and South of Market districts and precipitated the demolition of the damaged Embarcadero Freeway and much of the damaged Central Freeway, allowing the city to reclaim The Embarcadero as its historic downtown waterfront and revitalizing the Hayes Valley neighborhood. San Francisco_sentence_104

Two recent decades have seen two booms driven by the internet industry. San Francisco_sentence_105

First was the dot-com boom of the late 1990s, startup companies invigorated the San Francisco economy. San Francisco_sentence_106

Large numbers of entrepreneurs and computer application developers moved into the city, followed by marketing, design, and sales professionals, changing the social landscape as once-poorer neighborhoods became increasingly gentrified. San Francisco_sentence_107

Demand for new housing and office space ignited a second wave of high-rise development, this time in the South of Market district. San Francisco_sentence_108

By 2000, the city's population reached new highs, surpassing the previous record set in 1950. San Francisco_sentence_109

When the bubble burst in 2001, many of these companies folded and their employees were laid off. San Francisco_sentence_110

Yet high technology and entrepreneurship remain mainstays of the San Francisco economy. San Francisco_sentence_111

By the mid-2000s (decade), the social media boom had begun, with San Francisco becoming a popular location for tech offices and a common place to live for people employed in Silicon Valley companies such as Apple and Google. San Francisco_sentence_112

The Ferry Station Post Office Building, Armour & Co. Building, Atherton House, and YMCA Hotel are historic buildings among dozens of historical landmarks in the city according to the National Register of Historic Places listings in San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_113

Geography San Francisco_section_1

San Francisco is located on the West Coast of the United States at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula and includes significant stretches of the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay within its boundaries. San Francisco_sentence_114

Several picturesque islandsAlcatraz, Treasure Island and the adjacent Yerba Buena Island, and small portions of Alameda Island, Red Rock Island, and Angel Island—are part of the city. San Francisco_sentence_115

Also included are the uninhabited Farallon Islands, 27 miles (43 km) offshore in the Pacific Ocean. San Francisco_sentence_116

The mainland within the city limits roughly forms a "seven-by-seven-mile square", a common local colloquialism referring to the city's shape, though its total area, including water, is nearly 232 square miles (600 km). San Francisco_sentence_117

There are more than 50 hills within the city limits. San Francisco_sentence_118

Some neighborhoods are named after the hill on which they are situated, including Nob Hill, Potrero Hill, and Russian Hill. San Francisco_sentence_119

Near the geographic center of the city, southwest of the downtown area, are a series of less densely populated hills. San Francisco_sentence_120

Twin Peaks, a pair of hills forming one of the city's highest points, forms an overlook spot. San Francisco_sentence_121

San Francisco's tallest hill, Mount Davidson, is 928 feet (283 m) high and is capped with a 103-foot (31 m) tall cross built in 1934. San Francisco_sentence_122

Dominating this area is Sutro Tower, a large red and white radio and television transmission tower. San Francisco_sentence_123

The nearby San Andreas and Hayward Faults are responsible for much earthquake activity, although neither physically passes through the city itself. San Francisco_sentence_124

The San Andreas Fault caused the earthquakes in 1906 and 1989. San Francisco_sentence_125

Minor earthquakes occur on a regular basis. San Francisco_sentence_126

The threat of major earthquakes plays a large role in the city's infrastructure development. San Francisco_sentence_127

The city constructed an auxiliary water supply system and has repeatedly upgraded its building codes, requiring retrofits for older buildings and higher engineering standards for new construction. San Francisco_sentence_128

However, there are still thousands of smaller buildings that remain vulnerable to quake damage. San Francisco_sentence_129

USGS has released the California earthquake forecast which models earthquake occurrence in California. San Francisco_sentence_130

San Francisco's shoreline has grown beyond its natural limits. San Francisco_sentence_131

Entire neighborhoods such as the Marina, Mission Bay, and Hunters Point, as well as large sections of the Embarcadero, sit on areas of landfill. San Francisco_sentence_132

Treasure Island was constructed from material dredged from the bay as well as material resulting from the excavation of the Yerba Buena Tunnel through Yerba Buena Island during the construction of the Bay Bridge. San Francisco_sentence_133

Such land tends to be unstable during earthquakes. San Francisco_sentence_134

The resulting soil liquefaction causes extensive damage to property built upon it, as was evidenced in the Marina district during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. San Francisco_sentence_135

Most of the city's natural watercourses, such as Islais Creek and Mission Creek, have been culverted and built over, although the Public Utilities Commission is studying proposals to daylight or restore some creeks. San Francisco_sentence_136

Cityscape San Francisco_section_2

Main article: List of Landmarks and Historic Places in San Francisco San Francisco_sentence_137

Neighborhoods San Francisco_section_3

Main article: Neighborhoods in San Francisco San Francisco_sentence_138

See also: List of tallest buildings in San Francisco San Francisco_sentence_139

The historic center of San Francisco is the northeast quadrant of the city anchored by Market Street and the waterfront. San Francisco_sentence_140

It is here that the Financial District is centered, with Union Square, the principal shopping and hotel district, and the Tenderloin nearby. San Francisco_sentence_141

Cable cars carry riders up steep inclines to the summit of Nob Hill, once the home of the city's business tycoons, and down to the waterfront tourist attractions of Fisherman's Wharf, and Pier 39, where many restaurants feature Dungeness crab from a still-active fishing industry. San Francisco_sentence_142

Also in this quadrant are Russian Hill, a residential neighborhood with the famously crooked Lombard Street; North Beach, the city's Little Italy and the former center of the Beat Generation; and Telegraph Hill, which features Coit Tower. San Francisco_sentence_143

Abutting Russian Hill and North Beach is San Francisco's Chinatown, the oldest Chinatown in North America. San Francisco_sentence_144

The South of Market, which was once San Francisco's industrial core, has seen significant redevelopment following the construction of Oracle Park and an infusion of startup companies. San Francisco_sentence_145

New skyscrapers, live-work lofts, and condominiums dot the area. San Francisco_sentence_146

Further development is taking place just to the south in Mission Bay area, a former railroad yard, which now has a second campus of the University of California, San Francisco and Chase Center, which opened in 2019 as the new home of the Golden State Warriors. San Francisco_sentence_147

West of downtown, across Van Ness Avenue, lies the large Western Addition neighborhood, which became established with a large African American population after World War II. San Francisco_sentence_148

The Western Addition is usually divided into smaller neighborhoods including Hayes Valley, the Fillmore, and Japantown, which was once the largest Japantown in North America but suffered when its Japanese American residents were forcibly removed and interned during World War II. San Francisco_sentence_149

The Western Addition survived the 1906 earthquake with its Victorians largely intact, including the famous "Painted Ladies", standing alongside Alamo Square. San Francisco_sentence_150

To the south, near the geographic center of the city is Haight-Ashbury, famously associated with 1960s hippie culture. San Francisco_sentence_151

The Haight is now home to some expensive boutiques and a few controversial chain stores, although it still retains some bohemian character. San Francisco_sentence_152

North of the Western Addition is Pacific Heights, an affluent neighborhood that features the homes built by wealthy San Franciscans in the wake of the 1906 earthquake. San Francisco_sentence_153

Directly north of Pacific Heights facing the waterfront is the Marina, a neighborhood popular with young professionals that was largely built on reclaimed land from the Bay. San Francisco_sentence_154

In the south-east quadrant of the city is the Mission District—populated in the 19th century by Californios and working-class immigrants from Germany, Ireland, Italy, and Scandinavia. San Francisco_sentence_155

In the 1910s, a wave of Central American immigrants settled in the Mission and, in the 1950s, immigrants from Mexico began to predominate. San Francisco_sentence_156

In recent years, gentrification has changed the demographics of parts of the Mission from Latino, to twenty-something professionals. San Francisco_sentence_157

Noe Valley to the southwest and Bernal Heights to the south are both increasingly popular among young families with children. San Francisco_sentence_158

East of the Mission is the Potrero Hill neighborhood, a mostly residential neighborhood that features sweeping views of downtown San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_159

West of the Mission, the area historically known as Eureka Valley, now popularly called the Castro, was once a working-class Scandinavian and Irish area. San Francisco_sentence_160

It has become North America's first gay village, and is now the center of gay life in the city. San Francisco_sentence_161

Located near the city's southern border, the Excelsior District is one of the most ethnically diverse neighborhoods in San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_162

The predominantly African American Bayview-Hunters Point in the far southeast corner of the city is one of the poorest neighborhoods and suffers from a high rate of crime, though the area has been the focus of several revitalizing and controversial urban renewal projects. San Francisco_sentence_163

The construction of the Twin Peaks Tunnel in 1918 connected southwest neighborhoods to downtown via streetcar, hastening the development of West Portal, and nearby affluent Forest Hill and St. San Francisco_sentence_164 Francis Wood. San Francisco_sentence_165

Further west, stretching all the way to the Pacific Ocean and north to Golden Gate Park lies the vast Sunset District, a large middle-class area with a predominantly Asian population. San Francisco_sentence_166

The northwestern quadrant of the city contains the Richmond, also a mostly middle-class neighborhood north of Golden Gate Park, home to immigrants from other parts of Asia as well as many Russian and Ukrainian immigrants. San Francisco_sentence_167

Together, these areas are known as The Avenues. San Francisco_sentence_168

These two districts are each sometimes further divided into two regions: the Outer Richmond and Outer Sunset can refer to the more western portions of their respective district and the Inner Richmond and Inner Sunset can refer to the more eastern portions. San Francisco_sentence_169

Many piers remained derelict for years until the demolition of the Embarcadero Freeway reopened the downtown waterfront, allowing for redevelopment. San Francisco_sentence_170

The centerpiece of the port, the Ferry Building, while still receiving commuter ferry traffic, has been restored and redeveloped as a gourmet marketplace. San Francisco_sentence_171

Climate San Francisco_section_4

San Francisco has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb) characteristic of California's coast, with moist mild winters and dry summers. San Francisco_sentence_172

San Francisco's weather is strongly influenced by the cool currents of the Pacific Ocean on the west side of the city, and the water of San Francisco Bay to the north and east. San Francisco_sentence_173

This moderates temperature swings and produces a remarkably mild year-round climate with little seasonal temperature variation. San Francisco_sentence_174

Among major U.S. cities, San Francisco has the coolest daily mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures for June, July, and August. San Francisco_sentence_175

During the summer, rising hot air in California's interior valleys creates a low pressure area that draws winds from the North Pacific High through the Golden Gate, which creates the city's characteristic cool winds and fog. San Francisco_sentence_176

The fog is less pronounced in eastern neighborhoods and during the late summer and early fall. San Francisco_sentence_177

As a result, the year's warmest month, on average, is September, and on average, October is warmer than July, especially in daytime. San Francisco_sentence_178

Because of its sharp topography and maritime influences, San Francisco exhibits a multitude of distinct microclimates. San Francisco_sentence_179

The high hills in the geographic center of the city are responsible for a 20% variance in annual rainfall between different parts of the city. San Francisco_sentence_180

They also protect neighborhoods directly to their east from the foggy and sometimes very cold and windy conditions experienced in the Sunset District; for those who live on the eastern side of the city, San Francisco is sunnier, with an average of 260 clear days, and only 105 cloudy days per year. San Francisco_sentence_181

Temperatures reach or exceed 80 °F (27 °C) on an average of only 21 and 23 days a year at downtown and San Francisco International Airport (SFO), respectively. San Francisco_sentence_182

The dry period of May to October is mild to warm, with the normal monthly mean temperature peaking in September at 62.7 °F (17.1 °C). San Francisco_sentence_183

The rainy period of November to April is slightly cooler, with the normal monthly mean temperature reaching its lowest in January at 51.3 °F (10.7 °C). San Francisco_sentence_184

On average, there are 73 rainy days a year, and annual precipitation averages 23.65 inches (601 mm). San Francisco_sentence_185

Variation in precipitation from year to year is high. San Francisco_sentence_186

Above average rain years are often associated with warm El Niño conditions in the Pacific while dry years often occur in cold water La Niña periods. San Francisco_sentence_187

In 2013 (a "La Niña" year), a record low 5.59 in (142 mm) of rainfall was recorded at downtown San Francisco, where records have been kept since 1849. San Francisco_sentence_188

Snowfall in the city is very rare, with only 10 measurable accumulations recorded since 1852, most recently in 1976 when up to 5 inches (130 mm) fell on Twin Peaks. San Francisco_sentence_189

The highest recorded temperature at the official National Weather Service downtown observation station (currently at the United States Mint building) was 106 °F (41 °C) on September 1, 2017. San Francisco_sentence_190

The lowest recorded temperature was 27 °F (−3 °C) on December 11, 1932. San Francisco_sentence_191

The National Weather Service provides a helpful visual aid graphing the information in the table below to display visually by month the annual typical temperatures, the past year's temperatures, and record temperatures. San Francisco_sentence_192

San Francisco falls under the USDA 10b Plant hardiness zone. San Francisco_sentence_193

Flora and fauna San Francisco_section_5

Historically, tule elk were present in San Francisco County, based on archeological evidence of elk remains in at least five different Native American shellmounds: at Hunter's Point, Fort Mason, Stevenson Street, Market Street, and Yerba Buena. San Francisco_sentence_194

Perhaps the first historical observer record was from the De Anza Expedition on March 23, 1776. San Francisco_sentence_195

Herbert Eugene Bolton wrote about the expedition camp at Mountain Lake, near the southern end of today's Presidio: "Round about were grazing deer, and scattered here and there were the antlers of large elk." San Francisco_sentence_196

Also, when Richard Henry Dana, Jr. visited San Francisco Bay in 1835, he wrote about vast elk herds near the Golden Gate: on December 27 "...we came to anchor near the mouth of the bay, under a high and beautifully sloping hill, upon which herds of hundreds and hundreds of red deer [note: "red deer" is the European term for "elk"], and the stag, with his high branching antlers, were bounding about...", although it is not clear whether this was the Marin side or the San Francisco side. San Francisco_sentence_197

Demographics San Francisco_section_6

Main article: Demographics of San Francisco San Francisco_sentence_198

The U.S. San Francisco_sentence_199 Census Bureau estimates San Francisco's population to be 881,549 as of July 1, 2019, with a population density of 18,838/sq mi. San Francisco_sentence_200

With roughly one-quarter the population density of Manhattan, San Francisco is the second-most densely populated large American city, behind only New York City among cities greater than 200,000 population, and the fifth-most densely populated U.S. county, following only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco_sentence_201

San Francisco forms part of the five-county San Francisco–Oakland–Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, a region of 4.7 million people, and has served as its traditional demographic focal point. San Francisco_sentence_202

It is also part of the greater 14-county San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area, whose population is over 9.6 million, making it the fifth-largest in the United States as of 2018. San Francisco_sentence_203

Race, ethnicity, religion, and languages San Francisco_section_7

San Francisco has a majority minority population, as non-Hispanic whites comprise less than half of the population, 41.9%, down from 92.5% in 1940. San Francisco_sentence_204

As of the 2010 census, the ethnic makeup and population of San Francisco included: 390,387 whites (48%), 267,915 Asians (33%), 48,870 African Americans (6%), and others. San Francisco_sentence_205

There were 121,744 Hispanics or Latinos of any race (15%). San Francisco_sentence_206

In 2010, residents of Chinese ethnicity constituted the largest single ethnic minority group in San Francisco at 21% of the population; the other Asian groups are Filipinos (5%) and Vietnamese (2%). San Francisco_sentence_207

The population of Chinese ancestry is most heavily concentrated in Chinatown, Sunset District, and Richmond District, whereas Filipinos are most concentrated in the Crocker-Amazon (which is contiguous with the Filipino community of Daly City, which has one of the highest concentrations of Filipinos in North America), as well as in SoMa. San Francisco_sentence_208

The Tenderloin District is home to a large portion of the city's Vietnamese population as well as businesses and restaurants, which is known as the city's Little Saigon. San Francisco_sentence_209

The principal Hispanic groups in the city were those of Mexican (7%) and Salvadoran (2%) ancestry. San Francisco_sentence_210

The Hispanic population is most heavily concentrated in the Mission District, Tenderloin District, and Excelsior District. San Francisco_sentence_211

The city's percentage of Hispanic residents is less than half of that of the state. San Francisco_sentence_212

The population of African Americans in San Francisco is 6% of the city's population. San Francisco_sentence_213

The percentage of African Americans in San Francisco is similar to that of California. San Francisco_sentence_214

The majority of the city's black population reside within the neighborhoods of Bayview-Hunters Point, Visitacion Valley, and in the Fillmore District. San Francisco_sentence_215

According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, the largest religious groupings in San Francisco's metropolitan area are Christians (48%), followed by those of no religion (35%), Hindus (5%), Jews (3%), Buddhists (2%), Muslims (1%) and a variety of other religions have smaller followings. San Francisco_sentence_216

According to the same study by the Pew Research Center, about 20% of residents in the area are Protestant, and 25% professing Roman Catholic beliefs. San Francisco_sentence_217

Meanwhile, 10% of the residents in metropolitan San Francisco identifies as agnostics, while 5% identifies as atheists. San Francisco_sentence_218

As of 2010, 55% (411,728) of San Francisco residents spoke only English at home, while 19% (140,302) spoke a variety of Chinese (mostly Taishanese and Cantonese), 12% (88,147) Spanish, 3% (25,767) Tagalog, and 2% (14,017) Russian. San Francisco_sentence_219

In total, 45% (342,693) of San Francisco's population spoke a language at home other than English. San Francisco_sentence_220

Ethnic clustering San Francisco_section_8

San Francisco has several prominent Chinese, Mexican, and Filipino ethnic neighborhoods including Chinatown and the Mission District. San Francisco_sentence_221

Research collected on the immigrant clusters in the city show that more than half of the Asian population in San Francisco is either Chinese-born (40.3%) or Philippine-born (13.1%), and of the Mexican population 21% were Mexican-born, meaning these are people who recently immigrated to the United States. San Francisco_sentence_222

Between the years of 1990 and 2000, the number foreign born residents increased from 33% to nearly 40%, During this same time period, the San Francisco Metropolitan area received 850,000 immigrants, ranking third in the United States after Los Angeles and New York. San Francisco_sentence_223

Education, households, and income San Francisco_section_9

Of all major cities in the United States, San Francisco has the second-highest percentage of residents with a college degree, behind only Seattle. San Francisco_sentence_224

Over 44% of adults have a bachelor's or higher degree. San Francisco_sentence_225

San Francisco had the highest rate at 7,031 per square mile, or over 344,000 total graduates in the city's 46.7 square miles (121 km). San Francisco_sentence_226

San Francisco has the highest estimated percentage of gay and lesbian individuals of any of the 50 largest U.S. cities, at 15%. San Francisco_sentence_227

San Francisco also has the highest percentage of same-sex households of any American county, with the Bay Area having a higher concentration than any other metropolitan area. San Francisco_sentence_228

San Francisco ranks third of American cities in median household income with a 2007 value of $65,519. San Francisco_sentence_229

Median family income is $81,136. San Francisco_sentence_230

An emigration of middle-class families has left the city with a lower proportion of children than any other large American city, with the dog population cited as exceeding the child population of 115,000, in 2018. San Francisco_sentence_231

The city's poverty rate is 12%, lower than the national average. San Francisco_sentence_232

Homelessness has been a chronic problem for San Francisco since the early 1970s. San Francisco_sentence_233

The city is believed to have the highest number of homeless inhabitants per capita of any major U.S. city. San Francisco_sentence_234

There are 345,811 households in the city, out of which: 133,366 households (39%) were individuals, 109,437 (32%) were opposite-sex married couples, 63,577 (18%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 21,677 (6%) were unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 10,384 (3%) were same-sex married couples or partnerships. San Francisco_sentence_235

The average household size was 2.26; the average family size was 3.11. San Francisco_sentence_236

452,986 people (56%) lived in rental housing units, and 327,985 people (41%) lived in owner-occupied housing units. San Francisco_sentence_237

The median age of the city population is 38 years. San Francisco_sentence_238

San Francisco "declared itself a sanctuary city in 1989, and city officials strengthened the stance in 2013 with its 'Due Process for All' ordinance. San Francisco_sentence_239

The law declared local authorities could not hold immigrants for immigration officials if they had no violent felonies on their records and did not currently face charges." San Francisco_sentence_240

The city issues a Resident ID Card regardless of the applicant's immigration status. San Francisco_sentence_241

Homelessness San Francisco_section_10

See also: Homelessness in the San Francisco Bay Area San Francisco_sentence_242

Homelessness, historically, has been a major problem in the city and remains a growing problem in modern times. San Francisco_sentence_243

8,035 homeless people were counted in San Francisco's 2019 point-in-time street and shelter count. San Francisco_sentence_244

This was an increase of more than 17% over the 2017 count of 6,858 people. San Francisco_sentence_245

5,180 of the people were living unsheltered on the streets and in parks. San Francisco_sentence_246

26% of respondents in the 2019 count identified job loss as the primary cause of their homelessness, 18% cited alcohol or drug use, and 13% cited being evicted from their residence. San Francisco_sentence_247

The city of San Francisco has been dramatically increasing its spending to service the growing population homelessness crisis: spending jumped by $241 million in 2016–17 to total $275 million, compared to a budget of just $34 million the previous year. San Francisco_sentence_248

In 2017–18 the budget for combatting homelessness stood at $305 million. San Francisco_sentence_249

In the 2019-2020 budget year, the city budgeted $368 million for homelessness services. San Francisco_sentence_250

In the propose 2020-2021 budget the city budgeted $850 million for homelessness services. San Francisco_sentence_251

In January 2018 a United Nations special rapporteur on homelessness, Leilani Farha, stated that she was "completely shocked" by San Francisco's homelessness crisis during a visit to the city. San Francisco_sentence_252

She compared the "deplorable conditions" of the homeless camps she witnessed on San Francisco's streets to those she had seen in Mumbai. San Francisco_sentence_253

Economy San Francisco_section_11

See also: List of companies based in San Francisco San Francisco_sentence_254

According to academic Rob Wilson, San Francisco is a global city, a status that pre-dated the city's popularity during the California Gold Rush. San Francisco_sentence_255

Such cities are characterized by their ethnic clustering, network of international connectivity, and convergence of technological innovation. San Francisco_sentence_256

Global cities, such as San Francisco, are considered to be complex and require a high level of talent as well as large masses of low wage workers. San Francisco_sentence_257

A divide is created within the city of ethnic, typically lower-class neighborhoods, and expensive ones with newly developed buildings. San Francisco_sentence_258

This in turn creates a population of highly educated, white-collar individuals as well as blue-collar workers, many of whom are immigrants, and who both are drawn to the increasing number of opportunities available. San Francisco_sentence_259

Competition for these opportunities pushes growth and adaptation in world centers. San Francisco_sentence_260

San Francisco has a diversified service economy, with employment spread across a wide range of professional services, including financial services, tourism, and (increasingly) high technology. San Francisco_sentence_261

In 2016, approximately 27% of workers were employed in professional business services; 14% in leisure and hospitality; 13% in government services; 12% in education and health care; 11% in trade, transportation, and utilities; and 8% in financial activities. San Francisco_sentence_262

In 2017, GDP in the five-county San Francisco metropolitan area grew 3.4% to $501 billion. San Francisco_sentence_263

Additionally, in 2017 the 14-county San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland combined statistical area had a GDP of $907 billion, ranking 3rd among CSAs, and ahead of all but 16 countries. San Francisco_sentence_264

As of 2017, San Francisco County was the 7th highest-income county in the United States (among 3,142), with a per capita personal income of $119,868. San Francisco_sentence_265

Marin County, directly to the north over the Golden Gate Bridge, and San Mateo County, directly to the south on the Peninsula, were the 5th and 9th highest-income counties respectively. San Francisco_sentence_266

The legacy of the California Gold Rush turned San Francisco into the principal banking and finance center of the West Coast in the early twentieth century. San Francisco_sentence_267

Montgomery Street in the Financial District became known as the "Wall Street of the West", home to the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, the Wells Fargo corporate headquarters, and the site of the now-defunct Pacific Coast Stock Exchange. San Francisco_sentence_268

Bank of America, a pioneer in making banking services accessible to the middle class, was founded in San Francisco and in the 1960s, built the landmark modern skyscraper at 555 California Street for its corporate headquarters. San Francisco_sentence_269

Many large financial institutions, multinational banks, and venture capital firms are based in or have regional headquarters in the city. San Francisco_sentence_270

With over 30 international financial institutions, six Fortune 500 companies, and a large support infrastructure of professional services—including law, public relations, architecture and design—San Francisco is designated as an Alpha(-) World City. San Francisco_sentence_271

The 2017 Global Financial Centres Index ranked San Francisco as the sixth-most competitive financial center in the world. San Francisco_sentence_272

Since the 1990s, San Francisco's economy has diversified away from finance and tourism towards the growing fields of high tech, biotechnology, and medical research. San Francisco_sentence_273

Technology jobs accounted for just 1 percent of San Francisco's economy in 1990, growing to 4 percent in 2010 and an estimated 8 percent by the end of 2013. San Francisco_sentence_274

San Francisco became a center of Internet start-up companies during the dot-com bubble of the 1990s and the subsequent social media boom of the late 2000s (decade). San Francisco_sentence_275

Since 2010, San Francisco proper has attracted an increasing share of venture capital investments as compared to nearby Silicon Valley, attracting 423 financings worth US$4.58 billion in 2013. San Francisco_sentence_276

In 2004, the city approved a payroll tax exemption for biotechnology companies to foster growth in the Mission Bay neighborhood, site of a second campus and hospital of the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). San Francisco_sentence_277

Mission Bay hosts the UCSF Medical Center, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, and Gladstone Institutes, as well as more than 40 private-sector life sciences companies. San Francisco_sentence_278

The top employer in the city is the city government itself, employing 5.6% (31,000+ people) of the city's workforce, followed by UCSF with over 25,000 employees. San Francisco_sentence_279

The largest private-sector employer is Salesforce, with 8,500 employees, as of 2018. San Francisco_sentence_280

Small businesses with fewer than 10 employees and self-employed firms make up 85% of city establishments, and the number of San Franciscans employed by firms of more than 1,000 employees has fallen by half since 1977. San Francisco_sentence_281

The growth of national big box and formula retail chains into the city has been made intentionally difficult by political and civic consensus. San Francisco_sentence_282

In an effort to buoy small privately owned businesses in San Francisco and preserve the unique retail personality of the city, the Small Business Commission started a publicity campaign in 2004 to keep a larger share of retail dollars in the local economy, and the Board of Supervisors has used the planning code to limit the neighborhoods where formula retail establishments can set up shop, an effort affirmed by San Francisco voters. San Francisco_sentence_283

However, by 2016, San Francisco was rated low by small businesses in a Business Friendliness Survey. San Francisco_sentence_284

Like many U.S. cities, San Francisco once had a significant manufacturing sector employing nearly 60,000 workers in 1969, but nearly all production left for cheaper locations by the 1980s. San Francisco_sentence_285

As of 2014, San Francisco has seen a small resurgence in manufacturing, with more than 4,000 manufacturing jobs across 500 companies, doubling since 2011. San Francisco_sentence_286

The city's largest manufacturing employer is Anchor Brewing Company, and the largest by revenue is Timbuk2. San Francisco_sentence_287

Technology San Francisco_section_12

San Francisco became a hub for technological driven economic growth during the internet boom of the 1990s, and still holds an important position in the world city network today. San Francisco_sentence_288

Intense redevelopment towards the "new economy" makes business more technologically minded. San Francisco_sentence_289

Between the years of 1999 and 2000, the job growth rate was 4.9%, creating over 50,000 jobs in technology firms and internet content production. San Francisco_sentence_290

In the second technological boom driven by social media in the mid 2000s, San Francisco became a location for companies such as Apple, Google, Facebook and Twitter to base their tech offices and for their employees to live. San Francisco_sentence_291

Since then, tech employment has continued to increase. San Francisco_sentence_292

In 2014, San Francisco's tech employment grew nearly 90% between 2010 and 2014, beating out Silicon Valley's 30% growth rate over the same period. San Francisco_sentence_293

The tech sector's dominance in the Bay Area is internationally recognized and continues to attract new businesses and young entrepreneurs from all over the globe. San Francisco_sentence_294

San Francisco is now widely considered the most important city in the world for new technology startups. San Francisco_sentence_295

A recent high of 7 billion dollars in venture capital was invested in the region. San Francisco_sentence_296

These startup companies hire a high concentration of well educated individuals looking to work in the tech industry, and creates a city population of highly concentrated levels of education. San Francisco_sentence_297

Over 50% of San Franciscans have a 4-year university degree, ranking the city among the highest levels of education in the country and world. San Francisco_sentence_298

Tourism and conventions San Francisco_section_13

See also: Port of San Francisco San Francisco_sentence_299

Tourism is one of the city's largest private-sector industries, accounting for more than one out of seven jobs in the city. San Francisco_sentence_300

The city's frequent portrayal in music, film, and popular culture has made the city and its landmarks recognizable worldwide. San Francisco_sentence_301

In 2016, it attracted the fifth-highest number of foreign tourists of any city in the United States. San Francisco_sentence_302

More than 25 million visitors arrived in San Francisco in 2016, adding US$9.96 billion to the economy. San Francisco_sentence_303

With a large hotel infrastructure and a world-class convention facility in the Moscone Center, San Francisco is a popular destination for annual conventions and conferences. San Francisco_sentence_304

Some of the most popular tourist attractions in San Francisco noted by the Travel Channel include the Golden Gate Bridge and Alamo Square Park, which is home to the famous "Painted Ladies". San Francisco_sentence_305

Both of these locations were often used as landscape shots for the hit American sitcom Full House. San Francisco_sentence_306

There is also Lombard Street, known for its "crookedness" and extensive views. San Francisco_sentence_307

Tourists also visit Pier 39, which offers dining, shopping, entertainment, and views of the bay, sun-bathing seals, and the famous Alcatraz Island. San Francisco_sentence_308

San Francisco also offers tourists cultural and unique nightlife in its neighborhoods. San Francisco_sentence_309

The new Terminal Project at Pier 27 opened September 25, 2014 as a replacement for the old Pier 35. San Francisco_sentence_310

Itineraries from San Francisco usually include round trip cruises to Alaska and Mexico. San Francisco_sentence_311

A heightened interest in conventioneering in San Francisco, marked by the establishment of convention centers such as Yerba Buena, acted as a feeder into the local tourist economy and resulted in an increase in the hotel industry: "In 1959, the city had fewer than thirty-three hundred first-class hotel rooms; by 1970, the number was nine thousand; and by 1999, there were more than thirty thousand." San Francisco_sentence_312

The commodification of the Castro District has contributed to San Francisco's tourist economy. San Francisco_sentence_313

Culture and contemporary life San Francisco_section_14

Main article: Culture of San Francisco San Francisco_sentence_314

See also: San Francisco in popular culture San Francisco_sentence_315

Although the Financial District, Union Square, and Fisherman's Wharf are well known around the world, San Francisco is also characterized by its numerous culturally rich streetscapes featuring mixed-use neighborhoods anchored around central commercial corridors to which residents and visitors alike can walk. San Francisco_sentence_316

Because of these characteristics, San Francisco is ranked the second "most walkable" city in the United States by Walkscore.com. San Francisco_sentence_317

Many neighborhoods feature a mix of businesses, restaurants and venues that cater to both the daily needs of local residents while also serving many visitors and tourists. San Francisco_sentence_318

Some neighborhoods are dotted with boutiques, cafés and nightlife such as Union Street in Cow Hollow, 24th Street in Noe Valley, Valencia Street in the Mission, Grant Avenue in North Beach, and Irving Street in the Inner Sunset. San Francisco_sentence_319

This approach especially has influenced the continuing South of Market neighborhood redevelopment with businesses and neighborhood services rising alongside high-rise residences. San Francisco_sentence_320

Since the 1990s, the demand for skilled information technology workers from local startups and nearby Silicon Valley has attracted white-collar workers from all over the world and created a high standard of living in San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_321

Many neighborhoods that were once blue-collar, middle, and lower class have been gentrifying, as many of the city's traditional business and industrial districts have experienced a renaissance driven by the redevelopment of the Embarcadero, including the neighborhoods South Beach and Mission Bay. San Francisco_sentence_322

The city's property values and household income have risen to among the highest in the nation, creating a large and upscale restaurant, retail, and entertainment scene. San Francisco_sentence_323

According to a 2014 quality of life survey of global cities, San Francisco has the highest quality of living of any U.S. city. San Francisco_sentence_324

However, due to the exceptionally high cost of living, many of the city's middle and lower-class families have been leaving the city for the outer suburbs of the Bay Area, or for California's Central Valley. San Francisco_sentence_325

By June 2, 2015, the median rent was reported to be as high as $4,225. San Francisco_sentence_326

The high cost of living is due in part to restrictive planning laws which limit new residential construction. San Francisco_sentence_327

The international character that San Francisco has enjoyed since its founding is continued today by large numbers of immigrants from Asia and Latin America. San Francisco_sentence_328

With 39% of its residents born overseas, San Francisco has numerous neighborhoods filled with businesses and civic institutions catering to new arrivals. San Francisco_sentence_329

In particular, the arrival of many ethnic Chinese, which accelerated beginning in the 1970s, has complemented the long-established community historically based in Chinatown throughout the city and has transformed the annual Chinese New Year Parade into the largest event of its kind in its hemisphere. San Francisco_sentence_330

With the arrival of the "beat" writers and artists of the 1950s and societal changes culminating in the Summer of Love in the Haight-Ashbury district during the 1960s, San Francisco became a center of liberal activism and of the counterculture that arose at that time. San Francisco_sentence_331

The Democrats and to a lesser extent the Green Party have dominated city politics since the late 1970s, after the last serious Republican challenger for city office lost the 1975 mayoral election by a narrow margin. San Francisco_sentence_332

San Francisco has not voted more than 20% for a Republican presidential or senatorial candidate since 1988. San Francisco_sentence_333

In 2007, the city expanded its Medicaid and other indigent medical programs into the Healthy San Francisco program, which subsidizes certain medical services for eligible residents. San Francisco_sentence_334

San Francisco also has had a very active environmental community. San Francisco_sentence_335

Starting with the founding of the Sierra Club in 1892 to the establishment of the non-profit Friends of the Urban Forest in 1981, San Francisco has been at the forefront of many global discussions regarding the environment. San Francisco_sentence_336

The 1980 San Francisco Recycling Program was one of the earliest curbside recycling programs. San Francisco_sentence_337

The city's GoSolarSF incentive promotes solar installations and the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission is rolling out the CleanPowerSF program to sell electricity from local renewable sources. San Francisco_sentence_338

SF Greasecycle is a program to recycle used cooking oil for conversion to biodiesel. San Francisco_sentence_339

The Sunset Reservoir Solar Project, completed in 2010, installed 24,000 solar panels on the roof of the reservoir. San Francisco_sentence_340

The 5-megawatt plant more than tripled the city's 2-megawatt solar generation capacity when it opened in December 2010. San Francisco_sentence_341

LGBT San Francisco_section_15

Main article: LGBT culture in San Francisco San Francisco_sentence_342

San Francisco has long had an LGBT-friendly history. San Francisco_sentence_343

It was home to the first lesbian-rights organization in the United States, Daughters of Bilitis; the first openly gay person to run for public office in the United States, José Sarria; the first openly gay man to be elected to public office in California, Harvey Milk; the first openly lesbian judge appointed in the U.S., Mary C. Morgan; and the first transgender police commissioner, Theresa Sparks. San Francisco_sentence_344

The city's large gay population has created and sustained a politically and culturally active community over many decades, developing a powerful presence in San Francisco's civic life. San Francisco_sentence_345

Survey data released in 2015 by Gallup place the proportion of the San Francisco metro area at 6.2%, which is the highest such proportion observed of the 50 most populous metropolitan areas as measured by the polling organization. San Francisco_sentence_346

One of the most popular destinations for gay tourists internationally, the city hosts San Francisco Pride, one of the largest and oldest pride parades. San Francisco_sentence_347

San Francisco Pride events have been held continuously since 1972. San Francisco_sentence_348

The events are themed and a new theme is created each year. San Francisco_sentence_349

In 2013, over 1.5 million people attended, around 500,000 more than the previous year. San Francisco_sentence_350

The Folsom Street Fair (FSF) is an annual BDSM and leather subculture street fair that is held in September, capping San Francisco's "Leather Pride Week". San Francisco_sentence_351

It started in 1984 and is California's third-largest single-day, outdoor spectator event and the world's largest leather event and showcase for BDSM products and culture. San Francisco_sentence_352

Media San Francisco_section_16

Main article: Media in the San Francisco Bay Area San Francisco_sentence_353

The major daily newspaper in San Francisco is the San Francisco Chronicle, which is currently Northern California's most widely circulated newspaper. San Francisco_sentence_354

The Chronicle is most famous for a former columnist, the late Herb Caen, whose daily musings attracted critical acclaim and represented the "voice of San Francisco". San Francisco_sentence_355

The San Francisco Examiner, once the cornerstone of William Randolph Hearst's media empire and the home of Ambrose Bierce, declined in circulation over the years and now takes the form of a free daily tabloid, under new ownership. San Francisco_sentence_356

Sing Tao Daily claims to be the largest of several Chinese language dailies that serve the Bay Area. San Francisco_sentence_357

SF Weekly is the city's alternative weekly newspaper. San Francisco_sentence_358

San Francisco and 7x7 are major glossy magazines about San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_359

The national newsmagazine Mother Jones is also based in San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_360

The San Francisco Bay Area is the sixth-largest television market and the fourth-largest radio market in the U.S. San Francisco_sentence_361

The city's oldest radio station, KCBS, began as an experimental station in San Jose in 1909, before the beginning of commercial broadcasting. San Francisco_sentence_362

KALW was the city's first FM radio station when it signed on the air in 1941. San Francisco_sentence_363

The city's first television station was KPIX, which began broadcasting in 1948. San Francisco_sentence_364

All major U.S. television networks have affiliates serving the region, with most of them based in the city. San Francisco_sentence_365

CNN, MSNBC, BBC, Al Jazeera America, Russia Today, and CCTV America also have regional news bureaus in San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_366

Bloomberg West was launched in 2011 from a studio on the Embarcadero and CNBC broadcasts from One Market Plaza since 2015. San Francisco_sentence_367

ESPN uses the local ABC studio for their broadcasting. San Francisco_sentence_368

The regional sports network, Comcast SportsNet Bay Area and its sister station Comcast SportsNet California, are both located in San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_369

The Pac-12 Network is also based in San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_370

Public broadcasting outlets include both a television station and a radio station, both broadcasting under the call letters KQED from a facility near the Potrero Hill neighborhood. San Francisco_sentence_371

KQED-FM is the most-listened-to National Public Radio affiliate in the country. San Francisco_sentence_372

Another local broadcaster, KPOO, is an independent, African-American owned and operated noncommercial radio station established in 1971. San Francisco_sentence_373

CNET, founded 1994, and Salon.com, 1995, are based in San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_374

San Francisco-based inventors made important contributions to modern media. San Francisco_sentence_375

During the 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge began recording motion photographically and invented a zoopraxiscope with which to view his recordings. San Francisco_sentence_376

These were the first motion pictures. San Francisco_sentence_377

Then in 1927, Philo Farnsworth's image dissector camera tube transmitted its first image. San Francisco_sentence_378

This was the first television. San Francisco_sentence_379

Nicknames San Francisco_section_17

San Francisco has several nicknames, including "The City by the Bay", "Golden Gate City", "Frisco", "SF", "San Fran", and "Fog City", as well as older ones like "The City that Knows How", "Baghdad by the Bay", "The Paris of the West", or, as locals call it, "The City". San Francisco_sentence_380

San Fran and Frisco are only used outside of San Francisco itself and disparaged by residents. San Francisco_sentence_381

Entertainment and recreation San Francisco_section_18

Performing arts San Francisco_section_19

Main article: List of theatres in San Francisco San Francisco_sentence_382

San Francisco's War Memorial and Performing Arts Center hosts some of the most enduring performing-arts companies in the country. San Francisco_sentence_383

The War Memorial Opera House houses the San Francisco Opera, the second-largest opera company in North America as well as the San Francisco Ballet, while the San Francisco Symphony plays in Davies Symphony Hall. San Francisco_sentence_384

Opened in 2013, the SFJAZZ Center hosts jazz performances year round. San Francisco_sentence_385

The Fillmore is a music venue located in the Western Addition. San Francisco_sentence_386

It is the second incarnation of the historic venue that gained fame in the 1960s, housing the stage where now-famous musicians such as the Grateful Dead, Janis Joplin, Led Zeppelin and Jefferson Airplane first performed, fostering the San Francisco Sound. San Francisco_sentence_387

San Francisco has a large number of theaters and live performance venues. San Francisco_sentence_388

Local theater companies have been noted for risk taking and innovation. San Francisco_sentence_389

The Tony Award-winning non-profit American Conservatory Theater (A.C.T.) San Francisco_sentence_390

is a member of the national League of Resident Theatres. San Francisco_sentence_391

Other local winners of the Regional Theatre Tony Award include the San Francisco Mime Troupe. San Francisco_sentence_392

San Francisco theaters frequently host pre-Broadway engagements and tryout runs, and some original San Francisco productions have later moved to Broadway. San Francisco_sentence_393

Museums San Francisco_section_20

Main article: List of museums in San Francisco Bay Area, California § San Francisco San Francisco_sentence_394

The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA) houses 20th century and contemporary works of art. San Francisco_sentence_395

It moved to its current building in the South of Market neighborhood in 1995 and attracted more than 600,000 visitors annually. San Francisco_sentence_396

SFMOMA closed for renovation and expansion in 2013. San Francisco_sentence_397

The museum reopened on May 14, 2016 with an addition, designed by Snøhetta, that has doubled the museum's size. San Francisco_sentence_398

The Palace of the Legion of Honor holds primarily European antiquities and works of art at its Lincoln Park building modeled after its Parisian namesake. San Francisco_sentence_399

The de Young Museum in Golden Gate Park features American decorative pieces and anthropological holdings from Africa, Oceania and the Americas, while Asian art is housed in the Asian Art Museum. San Francisco_sentence_400

Opposite the de Young stands the California Academy of Sciences, a natural history museum that also hosts the Morrison Planetarium and Steinhart Aquarium. San Francisco_sentence_401

Located on Pier 15 on the Embarcadero, the Exploratorium is an interactive science museum. San Francisco_sentence_402

The Contemporary Jewish Museum is a non-collecting institution that hosts a broad array of temporary exhibitions. San Francisco_sentence_403

On Nob Hill, the Cable Car Museum is a working museum featuring the cable car power house, which drives the cables. San Francisco_sentence_404

Beaches and parks San Francisco_section_21

See also: List of parks in San Francisco San Francisco_sentence_405

Several of San Francisco's parks and nearly all of its beaches form part of the regional Golden Gate National Recreation Area, one of the most visited units of the National Park system in the United States with over 13 million visitors a year. San Francisco_sentence_406

Among the GGNRA's attractions within the city are Ocean Beach, which runs along the Pacific Ocean shoreline and is frequented by a vibrant surfing community, and Baker Beach, which is located in a cove west of the Golden Gate and part of the Presidio, a former military base. San Francisco_sentence_407

Also within the Presidio is Crissy Field, a former airfield that was restored to its natural salt marsh ecosystem. San Francisco_sentence_408

The GGNRA also administers Fort Funston, Lands End, Fort Mason, and Alcatraz. San Francisco_sentence_409

The National Park Service separately administers the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park – a fleet of historic ships and waterfront property around Aquatic Park. San Francisco_sentence_410

There are more than 220 parks maintained by the San Francisco Recreation & Parks Department. San Francisco_sentence_411

The largest and best-known city park is Golden Gate Park, which stretches from the center of the city west to the Pacific Ocean. San Francisco_sentence_412

Once covered in native grasses and sand dunes, the park was conceived in the 1860s and was created by the extensive planting of thousands of non-native trees and plants. San Francisco_sentence_413

The large park is rich with cultural and natural attractions such as the Conservatory of Flowers, Japanese Tea Garden and San Francisco Botanical Garden. San Francisco_sentence_414

Lake Merced is a fresh-water lake surrounded by parkland and near the San Francisco Zoo, a city-owned park that houses more than 250 animal species, many of which are endangered. San Francisco_sentence_415

The only park managed by the California State Park system located principally in San Francisco, Candlestick Point was the state's first urban recreation area. San Francisco_sentence_416

San Francisco is the first city in the U.S. to have a park within a 10-Minute Walk of every resident. San Francisco_sentence_417

It also ranks fifth in the U.S. for park access and quality in the 2018 ParkScore ranking of the top 100 park systems across the United States, according to the nonprofit Trust for Public Land. San Francisco_sentence_418

Sports San Francisco_section_22

Main article: Sports in the San Francisco Bay Area San Francisco_sentence_419

Major League Baseball's San Francisco Giants have played in San Francisco since moving from New York in 1958. San Francisco_sentence_420

The Giants play at Oracle Park, which opened in 2000. San Francisco_sentence_421

The Giants won World Series titles in 2010, 2012, and in 2014. San Francisco_sentence_422

The Giants have boasted such stars as Willie Mays, Willie McCovey and Barry Bonds. San Francisco_sentence_423

In 2012, San Francisco was ranked No. San Francisco_sentence_424

1 in a study that examined which U.S. metro areas have produced the most Major Leaguers since 1920. San Francisco_sentence_425

The San Francisco 49ers of the National Football League (NFL) began play in 1946 as an All-America Football Conference (AAFC) league charter member, moved to the NFL in 1950 and into Candlestick Park in 1971. San Francisco_sentence_426

The team began playing its home games at Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara in 2014. San Francisco_sentence_427

The 49ers won five Super Bowl titles between 1982 and 1995. San Francisco_sentence_428

The San Francisco Warriors played in the NBA from 1962 to 1971, before being renamed the Golden State Warriors prior to the 1971–1972 season in an attempt to present the team as a representation of the whole state of California. San Francisco_sentence_429

The Warrior's arena, Chase Center, is currently located in San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_430

They have won six championships, and made five consecutive NBA Finals from 2015 to 2019, winning three of them. San Francisco_sentence_431

At the collegiate level, the San Francisco Dons compete in NCAA Division I. San Francisco_sentence_432

Bill Russell led the Don's basketball team to NCAA championships in 1955 and 1956. San Francisco_sentence_433

There is also the San Francisco State Gators, who compete in NCAA Division II. San Francisco_sentence_434

Oracle Park hosted the annual Fight Hunger Bowl college football game from 2002 through 2013 before it moved to Santa Clara. San Francisco_sentence_435

The Bay to Breakers footrace, held annually since 1912, is best known for colorful costumes and a celebratory community spirit. San Francisco_sentence_436

The San Francisco Marathon attracts more than 21,000 participants. San Francisco_sentence_437

The Escape from Alcatraz triathlon has, since 1980, attracted 2,000 top professional and amateur triathletes for its annual race. San Francisco_sentence_438

The Olympic Club, founded in 1860, is the oldest athletic club in the United States. San Francisco_sentence_439

Its private golf course has hosted the U.S. Open on five occasions. San Francisco_sentence_440

San Francisco hosted the 2013 America's Cup yacht racing competition. San Francisco_sentence_441

With an ideal climate for outdoor activities, San Francisco has ample resources and opportunities for amateur and participatory sports and recreation. San Francisco_sentence_442

There are more than 200 miles (320 km) of bicycle paths, lanes and bike routes in the city. San Francisco_sentence_443

San Francisco residents have often ranked among the fittest in the country. San Francisco_sentence_444

Golden Gate Park has miles of paved and unpaved running trails as well as a golf course and disc golf course. San Francisco_sentence_445

Boating, sailing, windsurfing and kitesurfing are among the popular activities on San Francisco Bay, and the city maintains a yacht harbor in the Marina District. San Francisco_sentence_446

Law and government San Francisco_section_23

Main articles: Government of San Francisco, Politics of San Francisco, and Mayors of San Francisco San Francisco_sentence_447

San Francisco—officially known as the City and County of San Francisco—is a consolidated city-county, a status it has held since the 1856 secession of what is now San Mateo County. San Francisco_sentence_448

It is the only such consolidation in California. San Francisco_sentence_449

The mayor is also the county executive, and the county Board of Supervisors acts as the city council. San Francisco_sentence_450

The government of San Francisco is a charter city and is constituted of two co-equal branches: the executive branch is headed by the mayor and includes other citywide elected and appointed officials as well as the civil service; the 11-member Board of Supervisors, the legislative branch, is headed by a president and is responsible for passing laws and budgets, though San Franciscans also make use of direct ballot initiatives to pass legislation. San Francisco_sentence_451

The members of the Board of Supervisors are elected as representatives of specific districts within the city. San Francisco_sentence_452

Upon the death or resignation of mayor, the President of the Board of Supervisors becomes acting mayor until the full Board elects an interim replacement for the remainder of the term. San Francisco_sentence_453

In 1978, Dianne Feinstein assumed the office following the assassination of George Moscone and was later selected by the board to finish the term. San Francisco_sentence_454

In 2011, Ed Lee was selected by the board to finish the term of Gavin Newsom, who resigned to take office as Lieutenant Governor of California. San Francisco_sentence_455

Lee (who won 2 elections to remain mayor) was temporarily replaced by San Francisco Board of Supervisors President London Breed after he died on December 12, 2017. San Francisco_sentence_456

Supervisor Mark Farrell was appointed by the Board of Supervisors to finish Lee's term on January 23, 2018. San Francisco_sentence_457

Because of its unique city-county status, the local government is able to exercise jurisdiction over certain property outside city limits. San Francisco_sentence_458

San Francisco International Airport, though located in San Mateo County, is owned and operated by the City and County of San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_459

San Francisco's largest jail complex (County Jail No. San Francisco_sentence_460

5) is located in San Mateo County, in an unincorporated area adjacent to San Bruno. San Francisco_sentence_461

San Francisco was also granted a perpetual leasehold over the Hetch Hetchy Valley and watershed in Yosemite National Park by the Raker Act in 1913. San Francisco_sentence_462

San Francisco serves as the regional hub for many arms of the federal bureaucracy, including the U.S. San Francisco_sentence_463 Court of Appeals, the Federal Reserve Bank, and the U.S. San Francisco_sentence_464 Mint. San Francisco_sentence_465

Until decommissioning in the early 1990s, the city had major military installations at the Presidio, Treasure Island, and Hunters Point—a legacy still reflected in the annual celebration of Fleet Week. San Francisco_sentence_466

The State of California uses San Francisco as the home of the state supreme court and other state agencies. San Francisco_sentence_467

Foreign governments maintain more than seventy consulates in San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_468

The municipal budget for fiscal year 2015–16 was $8.99 billion, and is one of the largest city budgets in the United States. San Francisco_sentence_469

The City of San Francisco spends more per resident than any city other than Washington D.C, over $10,000 in FY 2015–2016. San Francisco_sentence_470

The city employs around 27,000 workers. San Francisco_sentence_471

In the United States House of Representatives, San Francisco is split between California's 12th and 14th districts. San Francisco_sentence_472

Public safety San Francisco_section_24

Crime San Francisco_section_25

San Francisco_table_infobox_1

San FranciscoSan Francisco_header_cell_1_0_0
Violent crimesSan Francisco_header_cell_1_1_0
HomicideSan Francisco_header_cell_1_2_0 2.4San Francisco_cell_1_2_1
RapeSan Francisco_header_cell_1_3_0 20.8San Francisco_cell_1_3_1
RobberySan Francisco_header_cell_1_4_0 171.0San Francisco_cell_1_4_1
Aggravated assaultSan Francisco_header_cell_1_5_0 149.9San Francisco_cell_1_5_1
Total violent crimeSan Francisco_header_cell_1_6_0 344.1San Francisco_cell_1_6_1
Property crimesSan Francisco_header_cell_1_7_0
BurglarySan Francisco_header_cell_1_8_0 290.5San Francisco_cell_1_8_1
Larceny-theftSan Francisco_header_cell_1_9_0 2,136.3San Francisco_cell_1_9_1
Motor vehicle theftSan Francisco_header_cell_1_10_0 222.4San Francisco_cell_1_10_1
ArsonSan Francisco_header_cell_1_11_0 14.4San Francisco_cell_1_11_1
Total property crimeSan Francisco_header_cell_1_12_0 2,649.2San Francisco_cell_1_12_1

In 2011, 50 murders were reported, which is 6.1 per 100,000 people. San Francisco_sentence_473

There were about 134 rapes, 3,142 robberies, and about 2,139 assaults. San Francisco_sentence_474

There were about 4,469 burglaries, 25,100 thefts, and 4,210 motor vehicle thefts. San Francisco_sentence_475

The Tenderloin area has the highest crime rate in San Francisco: 70% of the city's violent crimes, and around one-fourth of the city's murders, occur in this neighborhood. San Francisco_sentence_476

The Tenderloin also sees high rates of drug abuse, gang violence, and prostitution. San Francisco_sentence_477

Another area with high crime rates is the Bayview-Hunters Point area. San Francisco_sentence_478

In the first six months of 2015 there were 25 murders compared to 14 in the first six months of 2014. San Francisco_sentence_479

However, the murder rate is still much lower than in past decades. San Francisco_sentence_480

That rate, though, did rise again by the close of 2016. San Francisco_sentence_481

According to the San Francisco Police Department, there were 59 murders in the city in 2016, an annual total that marked a 13.5% increase in the number of homicides (52) from 2015. San Francisco_sentence_482

During the first half of 2018, human feces on San Francisco sidewalks were the second-most-frequent complaint of city residents, with about 65 calls per day. San Francisco_sentence_483

The city has formed a "poop patrol" to attempt to combat the problem. San Francisco_sentence_484

Gangs San Francisco_section_26

Several street gangs operate in the city, including MS-13, the Sureños and Norteños in the Mission District. San Francisco_sentence_485

African-American street gangs familiar in other cities, including the Crips, have struggled to establish footholds in San Francisco, while police and prosecutors have been accused of liberally labeling young African-American males as gang members. San Francisco_sentence_486

Criminal gangs with shotcallers in China, including Triad groups such as the Wo Hop To, have been reported active in San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_487

In 1977, an ongoing rivalry between two Chinese gangs led to a shooting attack at the Golden Dragon restaurant in Chinatown, which left 5 people dead and 11 wounded. San Francisco_sentence_488

None of the victims in this attack were gang members. San Francisco_sentence_489

Five members of the Joe Boys gang were arrested and convicted of the crime. San Francisco_sentence_490

In 1990, a gang-related shooting killed one man and wounded six others outside a nightclub near Chinatown. San Francisco_sentence_491

In 1998, six teenagers were shot and wounded at the Chinese Playground; a 16-year-old boy was subsequently arrested. San Francisco_sentence_492

Peace officers San Francisco_section_27

The San Francisco Police Department was founded in 1849. San Francisco_sentence_493

The portions of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area located within the city, including the Presidio and Ocean Beach, are patrolled by the United States Park Police. San Francisco_sentence_494

The San Francisco Fire Department provides both fire suppression and emergency medical services to the city. San Francisco_sentence_495

The city operates 22 public "pit stop" toilets. San Francisco_sentence_496

Needle exchange San Francisco_section_28

To prevent the spread of diseases from needles, the city gives away 400,000 free syringes every month. San Francisco_sentence_497

Only 60% are ever returned. San Francisco_sentence_498

Some end up as potentially dangerous litter. San Francisco_sentence_499

International relations San Francisco_section_29

Main articles: Sister cities of San Francisco, California and List of diplomatic missions in San Francisco San Francisco_sentence_500

San Francisco participates in the Sister Cities program. San Francisco_sentence_501

A total of 41 consulates general and 23 honorary consulates have offices in the San Francisco Bay Area. San Francisco_sentence_502

Education San Francisco_section_30

Colleges and universities San Francisco_section_31

See also: List of colleges and universities in San Francisco San Francisco_sentence_503

The University of California, San Francisco is the sole campus of the University of California system entirely dedicated to graduate education in health and biomedical sciences. San Francisco_sentence_504

It is ranked among the top five medical schools in the United States and operates the UCSF Medical Center, which ranks as the number one hospital in California and the number 5 in the country. San Francisco_sentence_505

UCSF is a major local employer, second in size only to the city and county government. San Francisco_sentence_506

A 43-acre (17 ha) Mission Bay campus was opened in 2003, complementing its original facility in Parnassus Heights. San Francisco_sentence_507

It contains research space and facilities to foster biotechnology and life sciences entrepreneurship and will double the size of UCSF's research enterprise. San Francisco_sentence_508

All in all, UCSF operates more than 20 facilities across San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_509

The University of California, Hastings College of the Law, founded in Civic Center in 1878, is the oldest law school in California and claims more judges on the state bench than any other institution. San Francisco_sentence_510

San Francisco's two University of California institutions have recently formed an official affiliation in the UCSF/UC Hastings Consortium on Law, Science & Health Policy. San Francisco_sentence_511

San Francisco State University is part of the California State University system and is located near Lake Merced. San Francisco_sentence_512

The school has approximately 30,000 students and awards undergraduate, master's and doctoral degrees in more than 100 disciplines. San Francisco_sentence_513

The City College of San Francisco, with its main facility in the Ingleside district, is one of the largest two-year community colleges in the country. San Francisco_sentence_514

It has an enrollment of about 100,000 students and offers an extensive continuing education program. San Francisco_sentence_515

Founded in 1855, the University of San Francisco, a private Jesuit university located on Lone Mountain, is the oldest institution of higher education in San Francisco and one of the oldest universities established west of the Mississippi River. San Francisco_sentence_516

Golden Gate University is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational university formed in 1901 and located in the Financial District. San Francisco_sentence_517

With an enrollment of 13,000 students, the Academy of Art University is the largest institute of art and design in the nation. San Francisco_sentence_518

Founded in 1871, the San Francisco Art Institute is the oldest art school west of the Mississippi. San Francisco_sentence_519

The California College of the Arts, located north of Potrero Hill, has programs in architecture, fine arts, design, and writing. San Francisco_sentence_520

The San Francisco Conservatory of Music, the only independent music school on the West Coast, grants degrees in orchestral instruments, chamber music, composition, and conducting. San Francisco_sentence_521

The California Culinary Academy, associated with the Le Cordon Bleu program, offers programs in the culinary arts, baking and pastry arts, and hospitality and restaurant management. San Francisco_sentence_522

California Institute of Integral Studies, founded in 1968, offers a variety of graduate programs in its Schools of Professional Psychology & Health, and Consciousness and Transformation. San Francisco_sentence_523

Primary and secondary schools San Francisco_section_32

See also: List of high schools in California § San Francisco County San Francisco_sentence_524

Public schools are run by the San Francisco Unified School District as well as the State Board of Education for some charter schools. San Francisco_sentence_525

Lowell High School, the oldest public high school in the U.S. west of the Mississippi, and the smaller School of the Arts High School are two of San Francisco's magnet schools at the secondary level. San Francisco_sentence_526

Public school students attend schools based on an assignment system rather than neighborhood proximity. San Francisco_sentence_527

Just under 30% of the city's school-age population attends one of San Francisco's more than 100 private or parochial schools, compared to a 10% rate nationwide. San Francisco_sentence_528

Nearly 40 of those schools are Catholic schools managed by the Archdiocese of San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_529

Early education San Francisco_section_33

San Francisco has nearly 300 preschool programs primarily operated by Head Start, San Francisco Unified School District, private for-profit, private non-profit and family child care providers. San Francisco_sentence_530

All 4-year-old children living in San Francisco are offered universal access to preschool through the Preschool for All program. San Francisco_sentence_531

Transportation San Francisco_section_34

See also: Transportation in the San Francisco Bay Area San Francisco_sentence_532

Public transportation San Francisco_section_35

See also: San Francisco Municipal Railway San Francisco_sentence_533

Transit is the most used form of transportation every day in San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_534

Every weekday, more than 560,000 people travel on Muni’s 69 bus routes and more than 140,000 customers ride the Muni Metro light rail system. San Francisco_sentence_535

32% of San Francisco residents use public transportation for their daily commute to work, ranking it first on the West Coast and third overall in the United States. San Francisco_sentence_536

The San Francisco Municipal Railway, primarily known as Muni, is the primary public transit system of San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_537

Muni is the seventh-largest transit system in the United States, with 210,848,310 rides in 2006. San Francisco_sentence_538

The system operates a combined light rail and subway system, the Muni Metro, as well as large bus and trolley coach networks. San Francisco_sentence_539

Additionally, it runs a historic streetcar line, which runs on Market Street from Castro Street to Fisherman's Wharf. San Francisco_sentence_540

It also operates the famous cable cars, which have been designated as a National Historic Landmark and are a major tourist attraction. San Francisco_sentence_541

Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART), a regional Rapid Transit system, connects San Francisco with the East Bay and San Jose through the underwater Transbay Tube. San Francisco_sentence_542

The line runs under Market Street to Civic Center where it turns south to the Mission District, the southern part of the city, and through northern San Mateo County, to the San Francisco International Airport, and Millbrae. San Francisco_sentence_543

Another commuter rail system, Caltrain, runs from San Francisco along the San Francisco Peninsula to San Jose. San Francisco_sentence_544

Historically, trains operated by Southern Pacific Lines ran from San Francisco to Los Angeles, via Palo Alto and San Jose. San Francisco_sentence_545

Amtrak California Thruway Motorcoach runs a shuttle bus from three locations in San Francisco to its station across the bay in Emeryville. San Francisco_sentence_546

Additionally, BART offers connections to San Francisco from Amtrak's stations in Emeryville, Oakland and Richmond, and Caltrain offers connections in San Jose and Santa Clara. San Francisco_sentence_547

Thruway service also runs south to San Luis Obispo with connection to the Pacific Surfliner. San Francisco_sentence_548

San Francisco Bay Ferry operates from the Ferry Building and Pier 39 to points in Oakland, Alameda, Bay Farm Island, South San Francisco, and north to Vallejo in Solano County. San Francisco_sentence_549

The Golden Gate Ferry is the other ferry operator with service between San Francisco and Marin County. San Francisco_sentence_550

SolTrans runs supplemental bus service between the Ferry Building and Vallejo. San Francisco_sentence_551

San Francisco was an early adopter of carsharing in America. San Francisco_sentence_552

The non-profit City CarShare opened in 2001. San Francisco_sentence_553

Zipcar closely followed. San Francisco_sentence_554

To accommodate the large amount of San Francisco citizens who commute to the Silicon Valley daily, employers like Genentech, Google, and Apple have begun to provide private bus transportation for their employees, from San Francisco locations. San Francisco_sentence_555

These buses have quickly become a heated topic of debate within the city, as protesters claim they block bus lanes and delay public buses. San Francisco_sentence_556

Freeways and roads San Francisco_section_36

Main article: List of streets in San Francisco San Francisco_sentence_557

In 2014, only 41.3% of residents commuted by driving alone or carpooling in private vehicles in San Francisco, a decline from 48.6% in 2000. San Francisco_sentence_558

There are 1,088 miles of streets in San Francisco with 946 miles of these streets being surface streets, and 59 miles of freeways. San Francisco_sentence_559

Due to its unique geography, and the freeway revolts of the late 1950s, Interstate 80 begins at the approach to the Bay Bridge and is the only direct automobile link to the East Bay. San Francisco_sentence_560

U.S. San Francisco_sentence_561 Route 101 connects to the western terminus of Interstate 80 and provides access to the south of the city along San Francisco Bay toward Silicon Valley. San Francisco_sentence_562

Northward, the routing for U.S. 101 uses arterial streets to connect to the Golden Gate Bridge, the only direct automobile link to Marin County and the North Bay. San Francisco_sentence_563

As part of the retrofitting of the Golden Gate Bridge and installation of a suicide barrier, starting in 2019 the railings on the west side of the pedestrian walkway were replaced with thinner, more flexible slats in order to improve the bridge's aerodynamic tolerance of high wind to 100 mph (161 km/h). San Francisco_sentence_564

Starting in June 2020, reports were received of a loud hum produced by the new railing slats, heard across the city when a strong west wind was blowing. San Francisco_sentence_565

State Route 1 also enters San Francisco from the north via the Golden Gate Bridge and bisects the city as the 19th Avenue arterial thoroughfare, joining with Interstate 280 at the city's southern border. San Francisco_sentence_566

Interstate 280 continues south from San Francisco, and also turns to the east along the southern edge of the city, terminating just south of the Bay Bridge in the South of Market neighborhood. San Francisco_sentence_567

After the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, city leaders demolished the Embarcadero Freeway and a portion of the Central Freeway, converting them into street-level boulevards. San Francisco_sentence_568

State Route 35 enters the city from the south as Skyline Boulevard and terminates at its intersection with Highway 1. San Francisco_sentence_569

State Route 82 enters San Francisco from the south as Mission Street, and terminates shortly thereafter at its junction with 280. San Francisco_sentence_570

The western terminus of the historic transcontinental Lincoln Highway, the first road across America, is in San Francisco's Lincoln Park. San Francisco_sentence_571

Vision Zero San Francisco_section_37

In 2014, San Francisco committed to Vision Zero, with the goal of ending all traffic fatalities caused by motor vehicles within the city by 2024. San Francisco_sentence_572

San Francisco's Vision Zero plan calls for investing in engineering, enforcement, and education, and focusing on dangerous intersections. San Francisco_sentence_573

In 2013, 25 people were killed by car and truck drivers while walking and biking in the city and 9 car drivers and passengers were killed in collisions. San Francisco_sentence_574

In 2019, 42 people were killed in traffic collisions in San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_575

Airports San Francisco_section_38

Main article: San Francisco International Airport San Francisco_sentence_576

Though located 13 miles (21 km) south of downtown in unincorporated San Mateo County, San Francisco International Airport (SFO) is under the jurisdiction of the City and County of San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_577

SFO is a hub for United Airlines and Alaska Airlines. San Francisco_sentence_578

SFO is a major international gateway to Asia and Europe, with the largest international terminal in North America. San Francisco_sentence_579

In 2011, SFO was the eighth-busiest airport in the U.S. and the 22nd-busiest in the world, handling over 40.9 million passengers. San Francisco_sentence_580

Located across the bay, Oakland International Airport is a popular, low-cost alternative to SFO. San Francisco_sentence_581

Geographically, Oakland Airport is approximately the same distance from downtown San Francisco as SFO, but due to its location across San Francisco Bay, it is greater driving distance from San Francisco. San Francisco_sentence_582

Cycling and walking San Francisco_section_39

Cycling is a popular mode of transportation in San Francisco, with 75,000 residents commuting by bicycle each day. San Francisco_sentence_583

Bay Wheels, previously named Bay Area Bike Share at inception, launched in August 2013 with 700 bikes in downtown San Francisco, selected cities in the East Bay, and San Jose. San Francisco_sentence_584

The San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency and Bay Area Air Quality Management District are responsible for the operation with management provided by Motivate. San Francisco_sentence_585

A major expansion started in 2017, along with a rebranding as Ford GoBike; the company received its current name in 2019. San Francisco_sentence_586

Pedestrian traffic is also widespread. San Francisco_sentence_587

In 2015, Walk Score ranked San Francisco the second-most walkable city in the United States. San Francisco_sentence_588

San Francisco has significantly higher rates of pedestrian and bicyclist traffic deaths than the United States on average. San Francisco_sentence_589

In 2013, 21 pedestrians were killed in vehicle collisions, the highest since 2001, which is 2.5 deaths per 100,000 population – 70% higher than the national average of 1.5. San Francisco_sentence_590

Cycling is becoming increasingly popular in the city. San Francisco_sentence_591

Annual bicycle counts conducted by the Municipal Transportation Agency (MTA) in 2010 showed the number of cyclists at 33 locations had increased 58% from the 2006 baseline counts. San Francisco_sentence_592

In 2008, the MTA estimated that about 128,000 trips were made by bicycle each day in the city, or 6% of total trips. San Francisco_sentence_593

Since 2002, improvements in cycling infrastructure such as additional bike lanes and parking racks have made cycling in San Francisco safer and more convenient. San Francisco_sentence_594

As of 2019, 2.6% of the city's streets have protected bike lanes, with 28 miles of protected bike lanes in the city. San Francisco_sentence_595

Since 2006, San Francisco has received a Bicycle Friendly Community status of "Gold" from the League of American Bicyclists. San Francisco_sentence_596

See also San Francisco_section_40

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San Francisco.