San Francisco Bay Area

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"Bay Area" redirects here. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_0

For other uses, see Bay Area (disambiguation). San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_1

Not to be confused with the more extensive San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area or the less extensive San Francisco–Oakland–Berkeley, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_2

San Francisco Bay Area_table_infobox_0

San Francisco Bay AreaSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_0_0_0
CountrySan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_0_1_1
StateSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_0_2_0 CaliforniaSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_0_2_1
SubregionsSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_0_3_0 San Francisco Bay Area_cell_0_3_1
Core citiesSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_0_4_0 San Jose

San FranciscoSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_0_4_1

Other municipalitiesSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_0_5_0 ListSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_0_5_1
AreaSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_0_6_0
Nine-countySan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_0_7_0 6,966 sq mi (18,040 km)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_0_7_1
CSASan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_0_8_0 10,191 sq mi (26,390 km)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_0_8_1
Highest elevation

Copernicus PeakSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_0_9_0

4,360 ft (1,330 m)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_0_9_1
Lowest elevation

AlvisoSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_0_10_0

−13 ft (−4 m)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_0_10_1
Population (2018)San Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_0_11_0
Nine-countySan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_0_12_0 7.75 millionSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_0_12_1
Nine-county densitySan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_0_13_0 1,113/sq mi (430/km)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_0_13_1
CSASan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_0_14_0 9.66 millionSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_0_14_1
CSA densitySan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_0_15_0 868/sq mi (335/km)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_0_15_1
Time zoneSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_0_16_0 UTC−08:00 (Pacific)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_0_16_1
Summer (DST)San Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_0_17_0 UTC−07:00 (PDT)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_0_17_1
Area codesSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_0_18_0 408/669, 415/628, 510/341, 650, 707, 925San Francisco Bay Area_cell_0_18_1

The San Francisco Bay Area, popularly referred to as the Bay Area or simply the Bay, is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco, San Pablo, and Suisun Bay estuaries in Northern California. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_3

While the exact boundaries of the region are variously defined, the Bay Area is defined by the Association of Bay Area Governments to include the nine counties that border the aforementioned estuaries: Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano, Sonoma, and San Francisco. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_4

Other boundaries may exclude parts of or even entire counties, or expand the definition to include neighboring counties that do not border the bay such as San Benito, San Joaquin, and Santa Cruz. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_5

Home to approximately 7.75 million people, Northern California's nine-county Bay Area contains many cities, towns, airports, and associated regional, state, and national parks, connected by a complex multimodal transportation network. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_6

The larger combined statistical area of the region, which includes fourteen counties, is the second-largest in California (after the Greater Los Angeles area), the fifth-largest in the United States, and the 41st-largest urban area in the world with 9.67 million people. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_7

The Bay Area's population is ethnically diverse: for example, roughly half of the region's residents are Hispanic, Asian, African American, or Pacific Islander, all of whom have a significant presence throughout the region. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_8

The earliest archaeological evidence of human settlements in the Bay Area dates back to 8000–10,000 BC (from shell mounds in the Coyote Hills). San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_9

In 1769, the Bay Area was inhabited by the Ohlone people when a Spanish exploration party led by Gaspar de Portolà entered the Bay – the first documented European visit to the Bay Area. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_10

After Mexico established independence from Spain in 1821, the region was briefly controlled by the Mexican government until the United States purchased the territory in 1846 during the Mexican–American War. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_11

Soon after, discovery of gold in California attracted a flood of treasure seekers, many using ports in the Bay Area as an entry point. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_12

During the early years of California's statehood, state legislative business rotated between three locations in the Bay Area before a permanent state capital was established in Sacramento. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_13

A major earthquake leveled the city of San Francisco and environs in 1906, but the region quickly rebuilt in time to host the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_14

During World War II, the Bay Area played a major role in America's war effort in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater, with San Francisco's Fort Mason acting as a primary embarkation point for American forces. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_15

In 1945, the United Nations Charter was signed in San Francisco, establishing the United Nations, and in 1951, the Treaty of San Francisco re-established peaceful relations between Japan and the Allied Powers. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_16

Since then, the Bay Area has experienced numerous political, cultural and artistic movements, developing unique local genres in music and art and establishing itself as a hotbed of progressive politics. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_17

Economically, the post-war Bay Area saw huge growth in the financial and technology industries, creating a vibrant and diverse economy with a gross domestic product of over $700 billion, and home to the third highest concentration of Fortune 500 companies in the United States (as of 2018). San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_18

Despite its urban character, the San Francisco Bay is one of California's most ecologically important habitats, providing key ecosystem services such as filtering pollutants and sediments from the rivers, and supporting a number of endangered species. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_19

In addition, the Bay is known for its stands of coast redwoods, many of which are protected in state and county parks. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_20

The region is also known for the complexity of its landforms, the result of millions of years of tectonic plate movements. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_21

Because the Bay Area is crossed by six major earthquake faults, the region is particularly exposed to hazards presented by large earthquakes. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_22

The climate is temperate and generally very mild, and is ideal for outdoor recreational and athletic activities such as hiking. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_23

The Bay Area is host to six professional sports teams and is a cultural center for music, theater, and the arts. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_24

It is also host to several institutions of higher education, ranging from primary schools to major research universities. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_25

Home to 101 municipalities and nine counties, governance in the Bay Area involves numerous local and regional actors, often with broad and overlapping responsibilities. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_26

Boundaries San Francisco Bay Area_section_0

The borders of the San Francisco Bay Area are not officially delineated, and the unique development patterns influenced by the region's topography, as well as unusual commute patterns caused by the presence of three central cities and employment centers located in various suburban locales, has led to considerable disagreement between local and federal definitions of the area. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_27

Because of this, professor of geography at the University of California, Berkeley Richard Walker claimed that "no other U.S. city-region is as definitionally challenged [as the Bay Area]." San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_28

When the region began to rapidly develop during and immediately after World War II, local planners settled on a nine-county definition for the Bay Area, consisting of the counties that directly border the San Francisco, San Pablo, and Suisun estuaries: Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano, and Sonoma counties. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_29

Today, this definition is accepted by most local governmental agencies including San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board, Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the San Francisco Bay Restoration Authority, the Metropolitan Transportation Commission, and the Association of Bay Area Governments, the latter two of which partner to deliver a Bay Area Census using the nine-county definition. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_30

Various U.S. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_31

Federal government agencies use definitions that differ from their local counterparts' nine-county definition. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_32

For example, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) which regulates broadcast, cable, and satellite transmissions, includes nearby Colusa, Lake and Mendocino counties in their "San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose" media market, but excludes eastern Solano county. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_33

On the other hand, the United States Office of Management and Budget, which designates Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and Combined Statistical Areas (CSA) for populated regions across the country, has five MSAs which include, wholly or partially, areas within the nine-county definition, and one CSA which includes all nine counties plus neighboring San Benito, Santa Cruz and San Joaquin counties. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_34

Subregions San Francisco Bay Area_section_1

Among locals, the nine-county Bay Area can be further divided into five sub-regions: the East Bay, North Bay, South Bay, Peninsula, and the city of San Francisco. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_35

Although geographically located on the tip of the San Francisco Peninsula, the city of San Francisco is not considered part of the "Peninsula" subregion, but as a separate entity. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_36

The "East Bay" is the densest region of the Bay Area outside of San Francisco and includes cities and towns in Alameda and Contra Costa counties, centered around Oakland. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_37

As one of the larger subregions, the East Bay includes a variety of enclaves, including the suburban Tri-Valley area and the highly urban western part of the subregion that runs alongside the bay. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_38

The "Peninsula" subregion includes the cities and towns on the San Francisco Peninsula, excluding the titular city of San Francisco. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_39

Its eastern half, which runs alongside the Bay, is highly populated while its less populated western coast traces the coastline of the Pacific Ocean and is known for its open space and hiking trails. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_40

Roughly coinciding with the borders of San Mateo county, it also includes the northwestern Santa Clara county cities of Palo Alto, Mountain View, and Los Altos. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_41

The "South Bay" includes all of the rest of the cities in Santa Clara county, centered around San Jose, the largest city in Northern California. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_42

It is roughly synonymous with Silicon Valley due to its high concentration of tech companies, although the industry also has a significant presence in the rest of the Bay Area. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_43

The "North Bay" includes Marin, Sonoma, Napa, and Solano counties, and is the largest and least populated subregion. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_44

The western counties of Marin and Sonoma are encased by the Pacific Ocean on the west and the bay on the east, and are characterized by its mountainous and woody terrain. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_45

Sonoma and Napa counties are known internationally for their grape vineyards and wineries, and Solano county to the east, centered around Vallejo, is the fastest growing region in the Bay Area. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_46

History San Francisco Bay Area_section_2

See also: Timeline of the San Francisco Bay Area San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_47

The earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the Bay Area dates to around 10,000 B.C. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_48

(Coyote Hills Shell Mound) along the shores of the bay, with evidence pointing to even earlier settlement in Point Reyes in Marin County. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_49

The Miwokan and Costanoan Ohlone people, who were living in the Bay Area at the time of first European contact, were possibly descended from Siberian tribes who arrived at around 1,000 BC by sailing over the Arctic Ocean and following the salmon migration. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_50

The Ohlone lived in about forty or so tribes spread throughout the lands adjacent to the San Francisco Bay and as far south as Point Sur near Monterey Bay. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_51

The first European claim to any of the area occurred in June of 1579 when Sir Francis Drake landed at Drakes Bay near Point Reyes. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_52

Even though he claimed the region for Queen Elizabeth I as Nova Albion or New Albion the English made no immediate follow up to the claim. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_53

In November of 1595, a Spanish exploration party led by Sebastião Rodrigues Soromenho also landed at Drakes Bay and claimed the region for Spain's King Philip II as Puerto y Bahía de San Francisco. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_54

The San Francisco Bay itself remained undiscovered by Europeans until members of the Portolá expedition, while trekking along the California coast, encountered it in 1769 when the bay blocked their continued journey north. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_55

In 1806, a Spanish expedition led by Gabriel Moraga began at the Presidio, traveled south of the bay, and then east to explore the San Joaquin Valley. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_56

In 1821, Mexico gained its independence from Spain and the Bay Area became part of the Mexican province of Alta California, a period characterized by ranch life and visiting American trappers. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_57

Mexico's control of the territory would be short-lived, however, and in 1846, a party of settlers occupied Sonoma Plaza and proclaimed the independence of the new Republic of California. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_58

That same year, the Mexican–American War began, and American captain John Berrien Montgomery sailed the USS Portsmouth into the bay and seized San Francisco, which was then known as Yerba Buena, and raised the American flag for the first time over Portsmouth Square. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_59

In 1848, James W. Marshall's discovery of gold in the American River sparked the California Gold Rush, and within half a year, 4,000 men were panning for gold along the river and finding $50,000 per day. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_60

The promise of fabulous riches quickly led to a stampede of wealth-seekers descending on Sutter's Mill. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_61

The Bay Area's population quickly emptied out as laborers, clerks, waiters, and servants joined the rush to find gold, and California's first newspaper, The Californian, was forced to announce a temporary freeze in new issues due to labor shortages. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_62

By the end of 1849, news had spread across the world and newcomers flooded into the Bay Area at a rate of one thousand per week on their way to California's interior, including the first large influx of Chinese immigrants to the U.S. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_63

The rush was so great that vessels were abandoned by the hundreds in San Francisco's ports as crews rushed to the gold fields. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_64

The unprecedented influx of new arrivals spread the nascent government authorities thin, and the military was unable to prevent desertions. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_65

As a result, numerous vigilante groups formed to provide order, but many tasked themselves with forcibly moving or killing local Native Americans, and by the end of the Gold Rush, two thirds of the indigenous population had been killed. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_66

During this same time, a constitutional convention was called to determine California's application for statehood into the United States. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_67

After statehood was granted, the capital city moved between three cities in the Bay Area: San Jose (1849–1851), Vallejo (1851–1852), and Benicia (1852–1853) before permanently settling in Sacramento in 1854. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_68

As the Gold Rush wound down, wealth generated from the endeavor led to the establishment of Wells Fargo Bank and the Bank of California, and immigrant laborers attracted by the promise of wealth transformed the demographic makeup of the region. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_69

Construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad from the Oakland Long Wharf attracted so many laborers from China that by 1870, eight percent of San Francisco's population was of Asian origin. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_70

The completion of the railroad connected the Bay Area with the rest of the United States, established a truly national marketplace for the trade of goods, and accelerated the urbanization of the region. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_71

In the early morning of April 18, 1906, a large earthquake with an epicenter near the city of San Francisco hit the region. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_72

Immediate casualty estimates by the U.S. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_73

Army's relief operations were 498 deaths in San Francisco, 64 deaths in Santa Rosa, and 102 in or near San Jose, for a total of about 700. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_74

More recent studies estimate the total death count to be over 3,000, with over 28,000 buildings destroyed. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_75

Rebuilding efforts began immediately. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_76

Amadeo Peter Giannini, owner of the Bank of Italy (now known as the Bank of America), had managed to retrieve the money from his bank's vaults before fires broke out through the city and was the only bank with liquid funds readily available and was instrumental in loaning out funds for rebuilding efforts. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_77

Congress immediately approved plans for a reservoir in Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite National Park, a plan they had denied a few years earlier, which now provides drinking water for 2.4 million people in the Bay Area. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_78

By 1915, the city had been sufficiently rebuilt and advertised itself to the world during the Panama Pacific Exposition that year, although the effects of the quake hastened the loss of the region's dominant status in California to the Los Angeles metropolitan area. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_79

During the 1929 stock market crash and subsequent economic depression, not a single San Francisco-based bank failed, while the region attempted to spur job growth by simultaneously undertaking two large infrastructure projects: construction of the Golden Gate Bridge, which would connect San Francisco with Marin County, and the Bay Bridge, which would connect San Francisco with Oakland and the East Bay. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_80

After the United States joined World War II in 1941, the Bay Area became a major domestic military and naval hub, with large shipyards constructed in Sausalito and across the East Bay to build ships for the war effort, and Fort Mason acting the primary port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater of Operations. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_81

After the war, the United Nations was chartered in San Francisco to help prevent the kind of devastation that occurred over the past decade, and in September 1951, the Treaty of San Francisco to re-establish peaceful relations between Japan and the Allied Powers was signed in San Francisco, entering into force a year later. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_82

In the years immediately following the war, the Bay Area saw a huge wave of immigration as populations increased across the region. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_83

Between 1950 and 1960, San Francisco welcomed over 100,000 new residents, inland suburbs in the East Bay saw their populations double, Daly City's population quadrupled, and Santa Clara's population quintupled. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_84

By the early 1960s, the Bay Area and the rest of Northern California became the center of the counterculture movement. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_85

Telegraph Avenue in Berkeley and the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood in San Francisco were seen as centers of activity, with the hit American pop song San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair) further enticing like-minded individuals to join the movement in the Bay Area and leading to the Summer of Love. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_86

In the proceeding decades, the Bay Area would cement itself as a hotbed of New Left activism, student activism, opposition to the Vietnam War and other anti-war movements, the black power movement, and the gay rights movement. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_87

At the same time, San Jose and the rest of the South Bay began to rapidly develop as it began to transition from a largely agricultural-based economy into the hotbed of the high-tech industry. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_88

Fred Terman, the director of a top-secret research project at Harvard University during World War II, joined the faculty at Stanford University in order to reshape the university's engineering department. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_89

His students, including David Packard and William Hewlett, would later help usher in the region's high-tech revolution. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_90

In 1955, Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory opened for business near Stanford, and although the business venture was a financial failure, it was the first semiconductor company in the Bay Area, and the talent that it attracted to the region eventually led to a high-tech cluster of companies later known as Silicon Valley. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_91

In 1989, in the middle of the World Series match between two Bay Area baseball teams, the Loma Prieta earthquake struck and caused widespread infrastructural damage, including the failure of the Bay Bridge, a major link between San Francisco and Oakland. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_92

Even so, the Bay Area's technology industry continued to expand and growth in Silicon Valley accelerated that the United States Census confirmed that year that San Jose had overtaken San Francisco in terms of population. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_93

The commercialization of the Internet in the middle of the decade rapidly created a speculative bubble in the high-tech economy known as the dot-com bubble. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_94

This bubble began collapsing in the early 2000s and the industry continued contracting for the next few years, nearly wiping out the market. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_95

Companies like and Google managed to weather the crash however, and following the industry's return to normalcy, their market value increased significantly. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_96

Even as the growth of the technology sector transformed the region's economy, progressive politics continued to guide the region's political environment. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_97

By the turn of the millennium, Non-Hispanic whites, the largest ethnic group in the United States, were only half of the population in the Bay Area as immigration among minority groups accelerated. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_98

During this time, the Bay Area was the center of the LGBT rights movement: in 2004, San Francisco began issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples, a first in the United States, and four years later, a majority of voters in the Bay Area rejected California Proposition 8, which sought to constitutionally restrict marriage to opposite-sex couples but ultimately passed statewide. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_99

The Bay Area was also the center of contentious protests concerning racial and economic inequality. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_100

In 2009, an African American man named Oscar Grant was fatally shot by Bay Area Rapid Transit police officers, precipitating widespread protests across the region and even riots in Oakland, and whose name was symbolically tied to the Occupy Oakland protests two years later that sought to fight against social and economic inequality. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_101

Following the Inauguration of Donald Trump as President of the United States in 2017, the Bay Area became a center of resistance to his administration, beginning with widespread protests in concert with the nationwide Women's March a day later, followed by frequent public feuds between Trump and various Bay Area political, cultural, and business figures over issues of race and immigration, among others. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_102

On March 16, 2020, in response to the COVID-19 outbreak, all residents of six counties in the Bay Area were required by local health authorities to stay in their homes under a shelter in place order, the first such order issued in the United States. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_103

Residents who were found outside and were not homeless, seeking emergency or health relief, or getting essential products such as food, were committing misdemeanors under to the order. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_104

The order was later expanded to cover the entire state of California three days later. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_105

Culture San Francisco Bay Area_section_3

Arts San Francisco Bay Area_section_4

Art San Francisco Bay Area_section_5

Main article: Art in the San Francisco Bay Area San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_106

The Bay Area was a hub of the Abstract Expressionism movement of painting. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_107

It is associated with the works of Clyfford Still, who began teaching at the California School of Fine Arts (now the San Francisco Art Institute) in 1946, leaving a lasting impact on the artistic styles of Bay Area painters up to the present day. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_108

A few years later, Abstract Expressionist painter David Park painted Kids on Bikes in 1950, which retained many aspects of abstract expressionism but with original distinguishing features that would later lead to the Bay Area Figurative Movement. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_109

While both the Figurative Movement and the Abstract Expressionism movement arose from art schools, Funk art would later rise out of the region's underground and was characterized by informal sharing of technique among groups of friends and art showcases in "cooperative" galleries instead of formal museums. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_110

Later, the Bay Area art movement would be heavily influenced by the counterculture movement in the 1960s, and art produced during this time reflected the political environment. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_111

The Bay Area is presently home to a thriving computer animation industry led by Pixar Animation Studios and Industrial Light & Magic. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_112

Pixar, based in Emeryville, produced the first fully computer animated feature film, Toy Story, with software it designed in-house and whose computer animation films have since garnered 26 Academy Awards and critical acclaim. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_113

Industrial Light & Magic, which is based in the Presidio in San Francisco, was created in 1975 to help create visual effects for the Star Wars series has since been involved with creating visual effects for over three hundred Hollywood films. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_114

Music San Francisco Bay Area_section_6

See also: List of bands from the San Francisco Bay Area San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_115

Throughout its recent history, the Bay Area has been home to several musical movements that left lasting influences on the genres they affected. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_116

San Francisco, in particular, was the center of the counterculture movement in the 1960s, which directly led to the rise of several notable musical acts: The Grateful Dead, which formed in 1965, and Jefferson Airplane and Janis Joplin; all three would be closely associated with the 1967 Summer of Love. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_117

Jimi Hendrix also had strong connections to the movement and the Bay Area, as he lived in Berkeley for a brief time as a child and played in many local venues in that decade. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_118

By the 1970s, San Francisco had developed a vibrant jazz scene, earning the moniker, "Harlem of the West". San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_119

The Vietnam War was being fought at the time, and Bay Area bands such as Creedence Clearwater Revival of El Cerrito became known for their political and socially-conscious lyrics against the conflict. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_120

Carlos Santana rose to fame in the early 1970s with his Santana band and would later be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_121

Two former members of Santana, Neal Schon and Gregg Rolie would later lead the formation of the band Journey. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_122

During the 1980s and early 1990s, the Bay Area became home to one of the largest and most influential thrash metal scenes in the world, with contributions from 3 of the "Big Four" of thrash metal, namely Metallica, Slayer, and Megadeth, and the emergence of the avant-garde metal with bands such as Giant Squid, Grayceon, and Ludicra. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_123

The post-grunge era in the 1990s and featured prominent Bay Area bands Third Eye Blind of San Francisco, Counting Crows of Berkeley, and Smash Mouth of San Jose, and later pop punk rock bands like Green Day. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_124

The 1990s also saw the emergence of the influential hyphy movement in hip hop, derived from the Oakland slang for "hyperactive", and pioneered by Bay Area rappers Andre "Mac Dre" Hicks, Mistah Fab, and E-40. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_125

Other notable rappers from the Bay Area include Lil B, Tupac Shakur, MC Hammer, Too $hort, and G-Eazy. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_126

Today, much of the rap coming out of Oakland and the East Bay is "conscious rap", which concerns itself with social issues and awareness. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_127

The Bay Area is also home to hundreds of classical music ensembles, from community choirs to professional orchestras, such as the San Francisco Symphony, California Symphony, Fremont Symphony Orchestra, Oakland Symphony and the San Francisco Chamber Orchestra. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_128

Theater San Francisco Bay Area_section_7

According to the regional theater service organization Theatre Bay Area, the San Francisco Bay Area is the third largest center of activity for theater companies and actors in the United States, after the New York City and Chicago metropolitan areas, with 400 companies spread throughout the region. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_129

The organization was founded in 1976 by the Magic Theatre and American Conservatory Theater (ACT) in San Francisco and the Berkeley Repertory Theatre in Berkeley. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_130

The latter two, along with the San Francisco Mime Troupe and Palo Alto-based Theatreworks, have since gone on to win one Regional Theatre Tony Award each. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_131

Several famous actors have arisen from the Bay Area's theatre community, including Daveed Diggs from Hamilton and Darren Criss from Hedwig, A Very Potter Musical, and Glee. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_132

Locally, well-regarded actors include James Carpenter, a stage actor who has performed at the ACT, Berkeley Repertory, and San Jose Repertory Theatre among others, Rod Gnapp of the Magic Theatre Company, Sean San Jose, one of the founders of the Campo Santo theater, and Campo Santo member Margo Hall. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_133

The Bay Area also has an active youth theater scene. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_134

ACT and the Berkeley Repertory both run classes and camps for young actors, as do the Peninsula Youth Theater and Willow Glen Children’s Theatre in the Peninsula and South Bay, Bay Area Children's Theater and Danville Children’s Musical Theater in the East Bay, and Marin Shakespeare in the North Bay, among many others. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_135

Media San Francisco Bay Area_section_8

Main article: Media in the San Francisco Bay Area San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_136

The San Francisco Bay Area is the eighth-largest television market and the fourth-largest radio market in the U.S. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_137

The Bay Area's oldest radio station, KCBS (AM), began as an experimental station in San Jose in 1909, before the beginning of commercial broadcasting. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_138

KALW was the Bay Area's first FM radio station, and first radio station to begin commercial broadcasting west of the Mississippi River when it signed on the air in 1941. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_139

KPIX, which began broadcasting in 1948, was the first television station to air in the Bay Area and Northern California. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_140

All major U.S. television networks have affiliates serving the region, including KTVU 2 (FOX), KRON-TV 4 (Local News/MyNetwork), KPIX 5 (CBS), KGO-TV 7 (ABC), KQED-TV 9 (PBS), KNTV 11 (NBC), KBCW 44/45 (CW), KQEH 54 (PBS), and KKPX 65 (Ion). San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_141

Bloomberg West, a show that focuses on topics pertaining to technology and business, was launched in 2011 from a studio in and continues to broadcast from San Francisco. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_142

Public broadcasting outlets include both a television station and a radio station, both broadcasting under the call letters KQED from a facility near the Potrero Hill neighborhood. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_143

KQED-FM is the most-listened-to National Public Radio affiliate in the country. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_144

Another local broadcaster, KPOO, is an independent, African-American owned and operated noncommercial radio station established in 1971. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_145

The largest newspapers in the Bay Area are the San Francisco Chronicle and San Jose Mercury News, the highest and second-highest most widely circulated newspaper in Northern California. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_146

The Chronicle is most famous for a former columnist, the late Herb Caen, whose daily musings attracted critical acclaim and represented the "voice of San Francisco". San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_147

The San Francisco Examiner, once the cornerstone of William Randolph Hearst's media empire and the home of Ambrose Bierce, declined in circulation over the years and now takes the form of a free daily tabloid, under new ownership. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_148

Most of the Bay Area's local regions and municipalities also have their own newspapers, such as the East Bay Times and San Mateo Daily Journal. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_149

The national newsmagazine Mother Jones is also based in San Francisco. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_150

Non-English-language newspapers include several Chinese-language papers such as Sing Tao Daily, the largest in the Bay Area by circulation, and El Mundo, a free Spanish-language weekly distributed by the Mercury News. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_151

Sports and recreation San Francisco Bay Area_section_9

Main article: Sports in the San Francisco Bay Area San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_152

The Bay Area is home to six professional major league sports franchises: The San Francisco 49ers of the National Football League (NFL) in American football, the San Francisco Giants and Oakland Athletics of Major League Baseball (MLB), the Golden State Warriors of the National Basketball Association (NBA), the San Jose Sharks of the National Hockey League (NHL), and the San Jose Earthquakes of Major League Soccer (MLS). San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_153

In football, the 49ers play in Levi's Stadium and have won five Super Bowls (XVI, XIX, XXIII, XXIV, XXIX) and lost two (XLVII and LIV). San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_154

In baseball, the Giants, who play at Oracle Park, have won eight World Series titles, three since relocating to San Francisco (2010, 2012, and 2014) from New York in 1958. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_155

The A's, who play at the Oakland Coliseum, have won nine World Series titles, four since relocating to Oakland (1972, 1973, 1974, and 1989) from Kansas City in 1968. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_156

In basketball, the Warriors play at the Chase Center and have won four NBA Finals (1975, 2015, 2017, and 2018) San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_157

In hockey, the Sharks play at the SAP Center, despite making their first Stanley Cup Finals appearance in 2016, have not won the Stanley Cup. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_158

In soccer, the Earthquakes play at Avaya Stadium and have won the MLS Cup twice in 2001 and 2003. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_159

Outside of major league sports, the Bay Area is home to eight minor league teams. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_160

In hockey, the San Jose Barracuda play in the American Hockey League (AHL) and are the top affiliate of the San Jose Sharks, sharing the same rink at the SAP Center in San Jose. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_161

In baseball, The San Jose Giants in the California League of Minor League Baseball (MiLB) are the Class-A Advanced affiliate of the San Francisco Giants, playing out of the San Jose Municipal Stadium. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_162

There are six teams in the Pacific Association of Professional Baseball Clubs (Martinez Clippers, Napa Silverados, San Rafael Pacifics, Sonoma Stompers, Pittsburg Diamonds, and the Vallejo Admirals). San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_163

In terms of collegiate sports, six Bay Area universities are members of NCAA Division I, the highest level of college sports in the country. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_164

All three football-playing schools in the Bay Area are in the Football Bowl Subdivision, the highest level of NCAA college football. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_165

The California Golden Bears and Stanford Cardinal compete in the Pac-12 Conference, and the San Jose State Spartans compete in the Mountain West Conference. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_166

The Cardinal and Golden Bears are intense rivals, with their football teams competing annually in the Big Game for the Stanford Axe. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_167

One of the most famous games in the rivalry occurred in 1982, when the Golden Bears defeated the Cardinal on a last-second return kickoff known as "The Play". San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_168

The Bay Area has an ideal climate for outdoor recreation, such that activities like hiking and cycling are popular among locals. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_169

There are more than 200 miles (320 km) of bicycle paths, lanes and bike routes just within San Francisco, and the Embarcadero and Marina Green are favored sites for skateboarding. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_170

Extensive public tennis facilities are available in Golden Gate Park and Dolores Park, as well as at smaller neighborhood courts throughout the city. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_171

San Francisco residents have often ranked among the fittest in the U.S. Boating, sailing, windsurfing and kitesurfing are among the popular activities on San Francisco Bay, and the city maintains a yacht harbor in the Marina District. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_172

The St. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_173

Francis Yacht Club and Golden Gate Yacht Club are located in the Marina Harbor, while the South Beach Yacht Club is located next to Oracle Park. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_174

The Bay Area was host to the 2013 America's Cup. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_175

Demographics San Francisco Bay Area_section_10

According to the 2010 United States Census, the population of the nine-county Bay Area was 7.15 million, with 49.6% male and 50.4% female. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_176

Of these, approximately 2.3 million (32%) are foreign born. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_177

In 2010 the racial makeup of the nine-county Bay Area was 52.5% White (42.4% were non-Hispanic and 10.1% were Hispanic), 23.3% Asian, 6.7% non-Hispanic Black or African American, 0.7% Native American or Alaska Native, 0.6% Pacific Islander, 5.4% from two or more races and 10.8% from other races. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_178

Hispanic or Latino residents of any race formed 23.5% of the population. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_179

The Bay Area cities of Vallejo, Suisun City, Oakland, San Leandro, Fairfield, and Richmond are among the most ethnically diverse cities in the United States. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_180

Non-Hispanic whites form majorities of the population in Marin, Napa, and Sonoma counties. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_181

Whites also make up the majority in the eastern regions of the East Bay centered around the Lamorinda and Tri-Valley areas. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_182

San Francisco's North Beach district is considered the Little Italy of the city, and was once home to a significant Italian-American community. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_183

San Francisco, Marin County and the Lamorinda area all have substantial Jewish communities. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_184

The Latino population is spread throughout the Bay Area, but among the nine counties, the greatest number of them live in Santa Clara County, while Contra Costa County sees the highest growth rate. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_185

The largest Hispanic or Latino groups were those of Mexican (17.9%), Salvadoran (1.3%), Guatemalan (0.6%), Puerto Rican (0.6%) and Nicaraguans (0.5%) ancestry. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_186

Mexican Americans make up the largest share of Hispanic residents in Napa county, while Central Americans make up the largest share in San Francisco, many of whom live in the Mission District which is home to many residents of Salvadoran and Guatemalan descent. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_187

The Asian-American population in the Bay Area is one of the largest in the United States. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_188

Asian-Americans make up the plurality in two major counties in the Bay Area: Santa Clara County and Alameda County. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_189

The largest Asian-American groups were those of Chinese (7.9%), Filipino (5.1%), Indian (3.3%), Vietnamese (2.5%), and Japanese (0.9%) heritage. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_190

Daly City has the highest proportion of Asian-American residents (58.4%) in a large U.S. city outside of Hawaii. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_191

Asian Americans also constitute a majority in Cupertino, Fremont, Milpitas, Union City and significant populations in Dublin, Foster City, Hercules, Millbrae, San Ramon, Saratoga, Sunnyvale and Santa Clara. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_192

The cities of San Jose and San Francisco had the third and fourth most Asian-American residents in the United States. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_193

In San Francisco, Chinese Americans constitute 21.4% of the population and constitute the single largest ethnic group in the city. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_194

The Bay Area is home to over 382,950 Filipino Americans, one of the largest communities of Filipino people outside of the Philippines with the largest proportion of Filipino Americans concentrating themselves within American Canyon, Daly City, Fairfield, Hercules, South San Francisco, Union City and Vallejo. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_195

Santa Clara county, and increasingly the East Bay, house a significant Indian American community. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_196

There are more than 100,000 people of Vietnamese ancestry residing within San Jose city limits, the largest Vietnamese population of any city in the world outside of Vietnam. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_197

In addition, there is a sizable community of Korean Americans in Santa Clara county, where San Jose is located. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_198

East Bay cities such as Richmond and Oakland, and the North Bay city of Santa Rosa, have plentiful populations of Laotian and Cambodians in certain neighborhoods. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_199

Pacific Islanders such as Samoans and Tongans have the largest presence in East Palo Alto, where they constitute over 7% of the population. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_200

The African-American population of San Francisco was formerly substantial, had a thriving jazz scene and was known as "Harlem of the West." San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_201

While black residents formed one-seventh of the city's population in 1970, today they have mostly moved to parts of the East Bay and North Bay, including Antioch, Fairfield and out of the Bay Area entirely. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_202

The South Park neighborhood of Santa Rosa was once home to a primarily black community until the 1980s, when many Latino immigrants settled in the area. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_203

Other cities with large numbers of African Americans include Vallejo (28%), Richmond (26%), East Palo Alto (17%) and the CDP of Marin City (38%). San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_204

Since the economy of the Bay Area heavily relies on innovation and high-tech skills, a greater, educated population exists in the region. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_205

Roughly 87.4% of Bay Area residents have attained a high school degree or higher, while 46% of adults in the Bay Area have earned a post-secondary degree or higher. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_206

The Bay Area is one of the wealthiest regions in the United States, due, primarily, to the economic power engines of San Jose, San Francisco, and Oakland. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_207

The Bay Area city of Pleasanton has the second-highest household income in the country after New Canaan, Connecticut. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_208

However, discretionary income is very comparable with the rest of the country, primarily because the higher cost of living offsets the increased income. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_209

By 2014, the Bay Area's wealth gap was considerable: the top ten percent of income-earners took home over eleven times as much as the bottom ten percent, and a Brookings Institution study found the San Francisco metro area, which excludes four Bay Area counties, to be the third most unequal urban area in the country. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_210

Among the wealthy, there are forty-seven Bay Area residents made the Forbes magazine's 400 richest Americans list, published in 2007. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_211

Thirteen lived in San Francisco proper, placing it seventh among cities in the world. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_212

Among the forty-seven were several well-known names such as Steve Jobs, George Lucas, and Charles Schwab. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_213

The wealthiest resident was Larry Ellison of Oracle, worth $25 billion. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_214

A study by Capgemini indicates that in 2009, 4.5 percent of all households within the San Francisco-Oakland and San Jose metropolitan areas held $1 million in investable assets, placing the region first in the United States, just ahead of the New York City metro region. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_215

On the other hand, low income residents in the Bay Area saw their incomes fall by nine percent since 2007, with the bottom ten percent earning just $20,000 on average. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_216

San Francisco Bay Area_table_general_1

Counties by population and ethnicitySan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_1_0_0
CountySan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_1_1_0 TypeSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_1_1_1 PopulationSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_1_1_2 WhiteSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_1_1_3 OtherSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_1_1_4 AsianSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_1_1_5 AfricanSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_1_1_6 NativeSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_1_1_7 HispanicSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_1_1_8
AlamedaSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_2_0 CountySan Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_2_1 1,494,876San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_2_2 46.2%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_2_3 13.8%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_2_4 26.2%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_2_5 12.5%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_2_6 1.3%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_2_7 22.2%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_2_8
Contra CostaSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_3_0 CountySan Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_3_1 1,037,817San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_3_2 63.2%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_3_3 12.5%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_3_4 14.3%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_3_5 9.1%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_3_6 0.5%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_3_7 23.9%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_3_8
MarinSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_4_0 CountySan Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_4_1 250,666San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_4_2 79.9%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_4_3 11.0%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_4_4 5.6%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_4_5 3.0%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_4_6 0.2%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_4_7 14.0%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_4_8
NapaSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_5_0 CountySan Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_5_1 135,377San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_5_2 81.3%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_5_3 8.9%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_5_4 6.8%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_5_5 2.0%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_5_6 0.3%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_5_7 31.5%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_5_8
San FranciscoSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_6_0 City and countySan Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_6_1 870,887San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_6_2 48.5%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_6_3 11.3%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_6_4 33.3%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_6_5 6.1%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_6_6 0.9%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_6_7 15.1%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_6_8
San MateoSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_7_0 CountySan Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_7_1 711,622San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_7_2 59.6%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_7_3 11.1%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_7_4 24.6%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_7_5 2.9%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_7_6 1.8%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_7_7 24.9%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_7_8
Santa ClaraSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_8_0 CountySan Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_8_1 1,762,754San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_8_2 50.9%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_8_3 13.8%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_8_4 31.8%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_8_5 2.6%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_8_6 0.4%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_8_7 26.6%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_8_8
SolanoSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_9_0 CountySan Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_9_1 411,620San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_9_2 52.1%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_9_3 17.6%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_9_4 14.4%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_9_5 14.6%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_9_6 1.4%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_9_7 23.6%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_9_8
SonomaSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_10_0 CountySan Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_10_1 478,551San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_10_2 81.6%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_10_3 11.3%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_10_4 4.0%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_10_5 1.2%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_10_6 1.5%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_10_7 24.3%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_1_10_8

San Francisco Bay Area_table_general_2

Counties by population and incomeSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_2_0_0
CountySan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_2_1_0 TypeSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_2_1_1 PopulationSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_2_1_2 Per capita incomeSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_2_1_3 Median household incomeSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_2_1_4 Median family incomeSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_2_1_5
AlamedaSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_2_0 CountySan Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_2_1 1,494,876San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_2_2 $34,937San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_2_3 $70,821San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_2_4 $87,012San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_2_5
Contra CostaSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_3_0 CountySan Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_3_1 1,037,817San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_3_2 $38,141San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_3_3 $79,135San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_3_4 $93,437San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_3_5
MarinSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_4_0 CountySan Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_4_1 250,666San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_4_2 $54,605San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_4_3 $89,605San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_4_4 $113,826San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_4_5
NapaSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_5_0 CountySan Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_5_1 135,377San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_5_2 $35,309San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_5_3 $68,641San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_5_4 $79,884San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_5_5
San FranciscoSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_6_0 City and countySan Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_6_1 870,887San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_6_2 $46,777San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_6_3 $72,947San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_6_4 $87,329San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_6_5
San MateoSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_7_0 CountySan Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_7_1 711,622San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_7_2 $45,346San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_7_3 $87,633San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_7_4 $104,370San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_7_5
Santa ClaraSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_8_0 CountySan Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_8_1 1,762,754San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_8_2 $40,698San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_8_3 $89,064San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_8_4 $103,255San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_8_5
SolanoSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_9_0 CountySan Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_9_1 411,620San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_9_2 $29,367San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_9_3 $69,914San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_9_4 $79,316San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_9_5
SonomaSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_10_0 CountySan Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_10_1 478,551San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_10_2 $33,119San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_10_3 $64,343San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_10_4 $78,227San Francisco Bay Area_cell_2_10_5

Crime San Francisco Bay Area_section_11

Statistics regarding crime rates in the Bay Area generally fall into two categories: violent crime and property crime. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_217

Historically, violent crime has been concentrated in a few cities in the East Bay, namely Oakland, Richmond, and Antioch, but also East Palo Alto in the Peninsula, Vallejo in the North Bay, and San Francisco. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_218

Nationally, Oakland's murder rate ranked 18th among cities with over 100,000 residents, and third for violent crimes per capita. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_219

According to a 2015 Federal Bureau of Investigation report, Oakland was also the source of the most violent crime in the Bay Area, with 16.9 reported incidents per thousand people. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_220

Vallejo came in second, at 8.7 incidents per thousand people, while San Pablo, Antioch, and San Francisco rounded out the top five. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_221

East Palo Alto, which used to have the Bay Area's highest murder rate, saw violent crime incidents drop 65% between 2013 and 2014, while Oakland saw violent crime incidents drop 15%. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_222

Meanwhile, San Jose, which was one of the safest large cities in the United States in the early 2000s, has seen its violent crime rates trend upwards. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_223

Cities with the lowest rate of violent crime include the Peninsula cities of Los Altos and Foster City, East Bay cities of San Ramon and Danville, and South Bay cities of Saratoga and Cupertino. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_224

In 2015, 45 Bay Area cities counted zero homicides, the largest of which was Daly City. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_225

In 2015, Oakland also saw the highest rates of property crime in the Bay Area, at 59.4 incidents per thousand residents, with San Francisco following close behind at 53 incidents per thousand residents. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_226

The East Bay cities Pleasant Hill, Berkeley, and San Leandro rounded out the top five. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_227

The South Bay city of Saratoga and the North Bay city of Windsor saw the least rates of property crime. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_228

Additionally, San Francisco saw the most reports of arson. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_229

Several street gangs operate in the Bay Area, including the Sureños and Norteños in San Francisco's Mission District. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_230

African-American street gangs familiar in other cities, including the Crips, have struggled to establish footholds in the city, although gangs with shotcallers in China, including Triad groups such as the Wo Hop To, have been reported active. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_231

In 1977, an ongoing rivalry between two Chinese gangs led to a shooting attack at the Golden Dragon restaurant in Chinatown, which left five people dead and eleven wounded. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_232

Five members of the Joe Boys gang were arrested and convicted of the crime. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_233

Oakland, which also sees organized gang violence, implemented Operation Ceasefire in 2012 in an effort to reduce the violence. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_234

Economy San Francisco Bay Area_section_12

The three principal cities of the Bay Area represent different employment clusters and are dominated by different, but commingled, industries. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_235

San Francisco is home to the region's financial and business industry, tourism, and is host to numerous conventions. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_236

The East Bay, centered around Oakland, is home to heavy industry, metalworking, oil, and shipping, while San Jose is the heart of Silicon Valley where a major pole of economic activity around the technology industry resides. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_237

Furthermore, the North Bay is a major player in the country's agriculture and wine industry. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_238

In all, the Bay Area is home to the second highest concentration of Fortune 500 companies, second only to the New York metropolitan area, with thirty such companies based throughout the region. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_239

In 2017, the greater twelve-county statistical area had a GDP of $878 billion, the third-highest among combined statistical areas. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_240

In 2016, the smaller nine-county Bay Area had a GDP of $781 billion, which nonetheless would rank it 5th among U.S. states and 18th among countries. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_241

Several major corporations are headquartered in the Bay Area. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_242

Among the Fortune 500 companies located in the region include technology companies Google, Facebook, Apple Inc., Hewlett Packard, Intel, Adobe Inc., Applied Materials, eBay, Cisco Systems, Symantec, Oracle, Netflix, Sony Interactive Entertainment, Electronic Arts, and Salesforce; energy companies Chevron and PG&E; financial service companies Charles Schwab Corporation, Visa Inc., and Wells Fargo; apparel retailers Gap Inc., Levi Strauss & Co., and Ross Stores; aerospace and defense contractor Lockheed Martin; local grocer Safeway; pharmaceutical company McKesson; and biotechnology companies Genentech and Gilead Sciences. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_243

The largest manufacturers include Tesla Inc., Lam Research, Bayer, Chevron, and Coca-Cola. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_244

Oakland is the site of the fifth-largest container shipping port in the United States and is also a major rail terminus. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_245

In research, NASA's Ames Research Center and the federal research facility Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are based in Mountain View and Livermore respectively. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_246

In the North Bay, Napa and Sonoma counties are known for their famous wineries, including Fantesca Estate & Winery, Domaine Chandon California, and D'Agostini Winery. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_247

Despite the San Francisco Bay Area's booming industries contributing to the aforementioned economic growth, there is a significant level of poverty in the region. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_248

Rising housing prices and gentrification in the San Francisco Bay Area are often framed as symptomatic of high-income tech workers moving in to previously low-income, underserved neighborhoods. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_249

As of June 2014, median rent in San Francisco increased to $2,300, a 21% in one year. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_250

In Oakland, median rent increased by one-third between 2011 and 2013. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_251

Two notable policy strategies to prevent eviction due to rising rents include rent control and subsidies such as Section 8 and Shelter Plus Care. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_252

Moreover, in 2002, then San Francisco Supervisor Gavin Newsom introduced the "Care Not Cash" initiative, diverting funds away from cash handouts (which he argued encouraged drug use) to housing. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_253

This proved controversial, with some suggesting his rhetoric criminalized poverty, while others supporting the prioritizing of housing as a solution. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_254

To this day, the effectiveness of Care Not Cash continues to be debated. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_255

Contrary to historical patterns of low incomes within the inner city, poverty rates in the Bay Area are shifting such that they are increasing more rapidly in suburban areas than in urban areas. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_256

It is not yet clear whether the suburbanization of poverty is due to the relocation of poor populations or shifting income levels in the respective regions. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_257

However, the mid-2000s housing boom encouraged city dwellers to move into the newly cheap houses in suburbs outside of the city, and these suburban housing developments were then most impacted by the 2008 housing bubble burst. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_258

As such, people in poverty experience decreased access to transportation due to underdeveloped public transport infrastructure in suburban areas. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_259

Suburban poverty is most prevalent among Hispanics and Blacks, and affects native-born people more significantly than foreign-born. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_260

As greater proportions of incomes are spent on rent, many impoverished populations in the San Francisco Bay Area also face food insecurity and health setbacks. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_261

Housing San Francisco Bay Area_section_13

The Bay Area is the most expensive place to live in the United States. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_262

Strong economic growth has created hundreds of thousands of new jobs, but coupled with severe restrictions on building new housing units, has resulted in an extreme housing shortage. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_263

For example, from 2012 to 2017, the San Francisco metropolitan area added 400,000 new jobs, but only 60,000 new housing units. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_264

As of 2016, the entire Bay Area had 3.6 M jobs, and 2.6 M housing units, for a ratio of 1.4 jobs per housing unit, significantly above the ratio for the US as a whole, which stands at 1.1 jobs per housing unit. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_265

(152M jobs, 136M housing units) According to a survey conducted by the United States Census Bureau, the Bay Area ranks #1 "in median home value, median monthly costs for homes with a mortgage, and median gross rent." San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_266

As of 2017, the average income needed in order to purchase a house in the region was $179,390, while the median price for a house was $895,000 and the average cost of a home in the Bay Area being $440,000 - more than twice the national average, while the average monthly rent is $1,240 - 50 percent more than the national average. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_267

In 2018, a Bay Area household income of $117,000 was classified as "low income" by the Department of Housing and Urban Development. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_268

With high costs of living, many Bay Area residents allocate large amounts of their income towards housing. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_269

20 percent of Bay Area homeowners spend more than half their income on housing, while roughly 25 percent of renters in the Bay Area spend more than half of their incomes on rent. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_270

Expending an average of more than $28,000 per year on housing in addition to roughly $13,400 on transportation, Bay Area residents spend around $41,420 per year to live in the region. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_271

This combined total of housing and transportation signifies 59 percent of the Bay Area's median household income, conveying the extreme costs of living. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_272

The high rate of homelessness in the Bay Area can be attributed to the high cost of living. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_273

No approximate number of homeless people living in the Bay Area can be determined due to the difficulty of tracking homeless residents. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_274

However, according to San Francisco’s Department of Public Health, the number of homeless people in San Francisco alone is 9,975. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_275

Additionally, San Francisco was revealed to have the most unsheltered homeless people in the country. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_276

Because of the high cost of housing, many workers in the Bay Area live far from their place of employment, contributing to one of the highest percentages of extreme commuters in the United States, or commutes that take over ninety minutes in one direction. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_277

For example, about 50,000 people commute from neighboring San Joaquin county into the nine-county Bay Area daily, and more extremely, some workers commute semimonthly by flying. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_278

Education San Francisco Bay Area_section_14

Colleges and universities San Francisco Bay Area_section_15

See also: List of colleges and universities in the San Francisco Bay Area San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_279

The Bay Area is home to a large number of colleges and universities. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_280

The three most notable universities are Stanford University, University of California, Berkeley, and University of California, San Francisco all considered among the most prestigious universities in the world. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_281

The first institution of higher education in the Bay Area, Santa Clara University, was founded by Jesuits in 1851, who also founded the University of San Francisco in 1855. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_282

San Jose State University was founded in 1857 and is the oldest public college on the West Coast of the United States. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_283

According to the Brookings Institution, 45% of residents of the two-county San Jose metro area have a college degree and 43% of residents in the five-county San Francisco metro area have a college degree, the second and fourth highest ranked metro areas in the country for higher educational attainment. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_284

Rankings compiled by U.S. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_285

News & World Report feature several Bay Area universities in prominent spots. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_286

Stanford University is the highest ranked university in the Bay Area, and seventh overall in the United States. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_287

The University of California, Berkeley is ranked twentieth overall, but for the past nineteen years has been highest-ranked public university in the country. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_288

Additionally, San Jose State University and Sonoma State University were respectively ranked sixth and tenth among public colleges in the West Coast. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_289

The city of San Francisco is host to two additional University of California schools, neither of which confer undergraduate degrees. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_290

The University of California, San Francisco is entirely dedicated to graduate education in health and biomedical sciences. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_291

It is ranked among the top five medical schools in the United States and operates the UCSF Medical Center, which is the highest-ranked hospital in California. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_292

The University of California, Hastings College of the Law, founded in Civic Center in 1878, is the oldest law school in California and claims more judges on the state bench than any other institution. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_293

The city is also host to a California State University school, San Francisco State University. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_294

Additional campuses of the California State University system in the Bay Area are Cal State East Bay in Hayward and Cal Maritime in Vallejo. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_295

California Community Colleges System also operates a number of community colleges in the Bay Area. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_296

According to CNNMoney, the Bay Area community college with the highest "success" rate is De Anza College in Cupertino, which is also the tenth-highest ranked in the nation. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_297

Other relatively well-ranked Bay Area community colleges include Foothill College, City College of San Francisco, West Valley College, Diablo Valley College, and Las Positas College. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_298

Many scholars have pointed out the overlap of education and the economy within the Bay Area. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_299

According to multiple reports, research universities such as Stanford University, University of California - Santa Cruz and University of California - Berkeley, are essential to the culture and economy in the area. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_300

These universities also provide countless, public programs for people to learn and enhance skills relevant to the local economies. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_301

These opportunities not only provide educational services to the community, but also generate significant amounts of revenue. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_302

Primary and secondary schools San Francisco Bay Area_section_16

See also: List of high schools in California San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_303

Public primary and secondary education in the Bay Area is provided through school districts organized through three structures: elementary school districts, high school districts, or unified school districts, and are governed by an elected board. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_304

In addition, many Bay Area counties and the city of San Francisco operate "special service schools" that are geared towards providing education to students with handicaps or special needs. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_305

An alternative public educational setting is offered by charter schools, which may be established with a renewable charter of up to five years by third parties. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_306

The mechanism for charter schools in the Bay Area is governed by the California Charter Schools Act of 1992. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_307

According to rankings compiled by U.S. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_308

News & World Report, the highest-ranked high school in California is the Pacific Collegiate School, located in Santa Cruz and part of the greater Bay Area. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_309

Within the traditional nine-county boundaries, the highest ranked high school is KIPP San Jose Collegiate in San Jose. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_310

Among the top twenty high schools in California include Lowell High School in San Francisco, Monta Vista High School in Cupertino, Lynbrook High School in San Jose, the University Preparatory Academy in San Jose, Mission San Jose High School in Fremont, Oakland Charter High School in Oakland, Henry M. Gunn High School in Palo Alto, and Saratoga High School in Saratoga. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_311

Geography San Francisco Bay Area_section_17

Climate San Francisco Bay Area_section_18

See also: Climate of California San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_312

The Bay Area is located in the relatively rare warm-summer Mediterranean climate zone (Köppen Csb) that is a characteristic of California's coast, featuring mild to cool winters with occasional rainfall, and warm to hot, dry summers. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_313

It is largely influenced by the cold California Current, which penetrates the natural mountainous barrier along the coast by traveling through various gaps. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_314

In terms of precipitation, this means that the Bay Area has pronounced wet and dry seasons. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_315

The wet season, which roughly runs between November and March, is the source of about 82% of annual precipitation in the area. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_316

In the South Bay and further inland, while the wet season is cool and mild, the summer dry season is characterized by warm sunny days, while in San Francisco and areas closer to the Golden Gate strait, the dry season is periodically affected by fog. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_317

Due to the Bay Area's diverse topography, the result of the clashing tectonic plates, the region is home to numerous microclimates that lead to pronounced differences in climate and temperature over short distances. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_318

Within the city of San Francisco, natural and artificial topographical features direct the movement of wind and fog, resulting in startlingly varied climates between city blocks. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_319

Along the Golden Gate Strait, oceanic wind and fog from the Pacific Ocean are able to penetrate the mountain barriers inland into the Bay Area. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_320

During the summer, rising hot air in California's interior valleys creates a low pressure area that draws winds from the North Pacific High through the Golden Gate, which creates the city's characteristic cool winds and fog. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_321

The microclimate phenomenon is most pronounced during this time, when fog penetration is at its maximum in areas near the Golden Gate strait, while the South Bay and areas further inland are sunny and dry. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_322

Along the San Francisco peninsula, gaps in the Santa Cruz Mountains, one south of San Bruno Mountain and another in Crystal Springs, allow oceanic weather into the interior and causing a cooling effect for cities along the Peninsula and even as far south as San Jose. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_323

This weather pattern is also the source for delays at San Francisco International Airport. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_324

In Marin county north of the Golden Gate strait, two gaps north of Muir Woods bring cold air across the Marin Headlands, with the cooling effect reaching as far north as Santa Rosa. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_325

Further inland, the East Bay receives oceanic weather that travels through the Golden Gate strait, and further diffuses that air through the Berkeley Hills, Niles Canyon and the Hayward Pass into the Livermore Valley and Altamont Pass. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_326

Here, the resulting breeze is so strong that it is home to one of the world's largest array of wind turbines. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_327

Further north, the Carquinez Strait funnels the ocean weather into the San Joaquin River Delta, causing a cooling effect in Stockton and Sacramento, so that these cities are also cooler than their Central Valley counterparts in the south. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_328

San Francisco Bay Area_table_general_3

Average daily high and low temperatures in °F (°C) for selected locations in the Bay Area, colored and sortable by average monthly temperatureSan Francisco Bay Area_table_caption_3
CitySan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_3_0_0 JanSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_3_0_1 FebSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_3_0_2 MarSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_3_0_3 AprSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_3_0_4 MaySan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_3_0_5 JunSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_3_0_6 JulSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_3_0_7 AugSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_3_0_8 SepSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_3_0_9 OctSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_3_0_10 NovSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_3_0_11 DecSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_3_0_12
FairfieldSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_3_1_0 55 / 39

(13 / 4)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_1_1

61 / 42

(16 / 6)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_1_2

66 / 45

(19 / 7)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_1_3

71 / 47

(22 / 8)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_1_4

78 / 52

(26 / 11)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_1_5

85 / 56

(29 / 13)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_1_6

90 / 58

(32 / 14)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_1_7

89 / 57

(32 / 14)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_1_8

86 / 56

(30 / 13)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_1_9

78 / 51

(26 / 11)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_1_10

65 / 44

(18 / 7)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_1_11

55 / 39

(13 / 4)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_1_12

OaklandSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_3_2_0 58 / 44

(14 / 7)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_2_1

67 / 47

(19 / 8)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_2_2

64 / 49

(18 / 9)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_2_3

66 / 50

(19 / 10)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_2_4

69 / 53

(21 / 12)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_2_5

72 / 55

(22 / 13)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_2_6

72 / 56

(22 / 13)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_2_7

73 / 58

(23 / 14)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_2_8

74 / 57

(23 / 14)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_2_9

72 / 54

(22 / 12)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_2_10

65 / 49

(18 / 9)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_2_11

58 / 45

(14 / 7)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_2_12

San FranciscoSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_3_3_0 57 / 46

(14 / 8)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_3_1

60 / 48

(16 / 9)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_3_2

62 / 49

(17 / 9)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_3_3

63 / 49

(17 / 9)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_3_4

64 / 51

(18 / 11)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_3_5

66 / 53

(19 / 12)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_3_6

66 / 54

(19 / 12)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_3_7

68 / 55

(20 / 13)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_3_8

70 / 55

(21 / 13)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_3_9

69 / 54

(21 / 12)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_3_10

63 / 50

(17 / 10)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_3_11

57 / 46

(14 / 8)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_3_12

San JoseSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_3_4_0 58 / 42

(14 / 6)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_4_1

62 / 45

(17 / 7)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_4_2

66 / 47

(19 / 8)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_4_3

69 / 49

(21 / 9)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_4_4

74 / 52

(23 / 11)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_4_5

79 / 56

(26 / 13)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_4_6

82 / 58

(28 / 14)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_4_7

82 / 58

(28 / 14)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_4_8

80 / 57

(27 / 14)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_4_9

74 / 53

(23 / 12)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_4_10

64 / 46

(18 / 8)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_4_11

58 / 42

(14 / 6)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_4_12

Santa RosaSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_3_5_0 59 / 39

(15 / 4)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_5_1

63 / 41

(17 / 5)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_5_2

67 / 43

(19 / 6)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_5_3

70 / 45

(21 / 7)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_5_4

75 / 48

(24 / 9)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_5_5

80 / 52

(27 / 11)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_5_6

82 / 52

(28 / 11)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_5_7

83 / 53

(28 / 12)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_5_8

83 / 52

(28 / 11)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_5_9

78 / 48

(26 / 9)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_5_10

67 / 43

(19 / 6)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_5_11

59 / 39

(15 / 4)San Francisco Bay Area_cell_3_5_12

Ecology San Francisco Bay Area_section_19

Main article: Ecology of the San Francisco Estuary San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_329

See also: List of species endemic to the San Francisco Bay Area San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_330

Marine wildlife San Francisco Bay Area_section_20

The Bay Area is home to a diverse array of wildlife and, along with the connected San Joaquin River Delta represents one of California's most important ecological habitats. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_331

California's Dungeness crab, Pacific halibut, and the California scorpionfish are all significant components of the bay's fisheries. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_332

The bay's salt marshes now represent most of California's remaining salt marsh and support a number of endangered species and provide key ecosystem services such as filtering pollutants and sediments from the rivers. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_333

Most famously, the bay is a key link in the Pacific Flyway and with millions of shorebirds annually visiting the bay shallows as a refuge, is the most important component of the flyway south of Alaska. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_334

Many endangered species of birds are also found here: the California least tern, the California clapper rail, the snowy egret, and the black crowned night heron. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_335

There is also a significant diversity of salmonids present in the bay. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_336

Steelhead populations in California have dramatically declined due to human and natural causes; in the Bay Area, all naturally spawned anadromous steelhead populations below natural and manmade impassable barriers in California streams from the Russian River to Aptos Creek, and the drainages of San Francisco, San Pablo, and Suisun Bays are listed as threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_337

The Central California Coast coho salmon population is the most endangered of the many troubled salmon populations on the west coast of the United States, including populations residing in tributaries to the San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_338

Industrial, mining, and other uses of mercury have resulted in a widespread distribution of that poisonous metal in the bay, with uptake in the bay's phytoplankton and contamination of its sportfish. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_339

Aquatic mammals are also present in the bay. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_340

Before 1825, Spanish, French, English, Russians and Americans were drawn to the Bay Area to harvest prodigious quantities of beaver, river otter, marten, fisher, mink, fox, weasel, harbor and fur seals and sea otter. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_341

This early fur trade, known as the California Fur Rush, was more than any other single factor, responsible for opening up the West and the San Francisco Bay Area, in particular, to world trade. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_342

By 1817 sea otter in the area were practically eliminated. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_343

Since then, the California golden beaver has re-established a presence in the Alhambra Creek. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_344

The North American river otter which was first reported in Redwood Creek at Muir Beach in 1996, has since been spotted in the North Bay's Corte Madera Creek, the South Bay's Coyote Creek, as well as in 2010 in San Francisco Bay itself at the Richmond Marina. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_345

Other mammals include the internationally famous sea lions who began inhabiting San Francisco's Pier 39 after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and the locally famous Humphrey the Whale, a humpback whale who entered San Francisco Bay twice on errant migrations in the late 1980s and early 1990s. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_346

Bottlenose dolphins and harbor porpoises have recently returned to the bay, having been absent for many decades. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_347

Historically, this was the northern extent of their warm-water species range. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_348

Birds San Francisco Bay Area_section_21

In addition to the many species of marine birds that can be seen in the Bay Area, many other species of birds make the Bay Area their home, making the region a popular destination for birdwatching. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_349

Many birds, including many described in the following paragraphs, are listed as endangered species despite once being common in the region, due to human and other impacts. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_350

Western burrowing owls were originally listed as a species of special concern by the California Department of Fish and Game in 1979. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_351

California's population declined 60% from the 1980s to the early 1990s, and continues to decline at roughly 8% per year. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_352

A 1992–93 survey reported little to no breeding burrowing owls in most of the western counties in the Bay Area, leaving only Alameda, Contra Costa, and Solano counties as remnants of a once large breeding range. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_353

Bald eagles were once common in the Bay Area, but habitat destruction and thinning of eggs from DDT poisoning reduced the California state population to 35 nesting pairs. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_354

Bald eagles disappeared from the Bay Area in 1915, and only began returning in recent years. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_355

In the 1980s an effort to re-introduce the species to the area began with the Santa Cruz Predatory Bird Research Group and the San Francisco Zoo importing birds and eggs from Vancouver Island and northeastern California, and there are now nineteen nesting couples in eight of the Bay Area's nine counties. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_356

Other once absent species that have returned to the Bay Area include Swainson’s hawk, white tailed kite, and the osprey. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_357

In 1927, zoologist Joseph Grinnell wrote that osprey were only rare visitors to the San Francisco Bay Area, although he noted records of one or two used nests in the broken tops of redwood trees along the Russian River. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_358

In 1989, the southern breeding range of the osprey in the Bay Area was Kent Lake, although osprey were noted to be extending their range further south in the Central Valley and the Sierra Nevada. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_359

In 2014, a Bay Area-wide survey found osprey had extended their breeding range southward with nesting sites as far south as Hunters Point in San Francisco on the west side and Hayward on the east side, while further studies have found nesting sites as far south as the Los Gatos Creek watershed, indicating that the nesting range now includes the entire length of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_360

Most nests were built on man-made structures close to areas of human disturbance, likely due to lack of mature trees near the Bay. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_361

The wild turkey population was introduced in the 1960s by state game officials, and by 2015 have become a common sight in East Bay communities. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_362

Geology and landforms San Francisco Bay Area_section_22

The Bay Area is well known for the complexity of its landforms that are the result of the forces of plate tectonics acting over of millions of years, since the region is located in the middle of a meeting point between two plates. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_363

Nine out of eleven distinct assemblages have been identified in a single county, Alameda. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_364

Diverse assemblages adjoin in complex arrangements due to offsets along the many faults (both active and stable) in the area. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_365

As a consequence, many types of rock and soil are found in the region. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_366

The oldest rocks are metamorphic rocks that are associated with granite in the Salinian Block west of the San Andreas fault. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_367

These were formed from sedimentary rocks of sandstone, limestone, and shale in uplifted seabeds. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_368

Volcanic deposits also exist in the Bay Area, left behind by the movement of the San Andreas fault, whose movement sliced a subduction plate and allowed magma to briefly flow to the surface. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_369

The region has considerable vertical relief in its landscapes that are not in the alluvial plains leading to the bay or in inland valleys. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_370

The topography, and geologic history, of the Bay Area can largely be attributed to the compressive forces between the Pacific Plate and the North American plate. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_371

The three major ridge structures in the Bay Area, part of the Pacific Coast Range, are all roughly parallel to the major faults. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_372

The Santa Cruz Mountains along the San Francisco Peninsula and the Marin Hills in Marin County follow the San Andreas fault, The Berkeley Hills, San Leandro Hills and their southern ridgeline extension through Mission Peak roughly follow the Hayward fault, and the Diablo Range, which includes Mount Diablo and Mount Hamilton and runs along the Calaveras fault. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_373

In total, the Bay Area is traversed by seven major fault systems with hundreds of related faults, all of which are stressed by the relative motion between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate or by compressive stresses between these plates. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_374

The fault systems include the Hayward Fault Zone, Concord-Green Valley Fault, Calaveras Fault, Clayton-Marsh Creek-Greenville Fault, Rodgers Creek Fault, and the San Gregorio Fault. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_375

Significant blind thrust faults (faults with near vertical motion and no surface ruptures) are associated with portions of the Santa Cruz Mountains and the northern reaches of the Diablo Range and Mount Diablo. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_376

These "hidden" faults, which are not as well known, pose a significant earthquake hazard. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_377

Among the more well-understood faults, as of 2014, scientists estimate a 72% probability of a magnitude 6.7 earthquake occurring along either the Hayward, Rogers Creek, or San Andreas fault, with an earthquake more likely to occur in the East Bay's Hayward Fault. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_378

Two of the largest earthquakes in recent history were the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_379

Hydrography San Francisco Bay Area_section_23

Main article: Hydrography of the San Francisco Bay Area San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_380

The Bay Area is home to a complex network of watersheds, marshes, rivers, creeks, reservoirs, and bays that predominantly drain into the San Francisco Bay and Pacific Ocean. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_381

The largest bodies of water in the Bay Area are the San Francisco, San Pablo, and Suisun estuaries. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_382

Major rivers of the North Bay include the Napa River, the Petaluma River, the Gualala River, and the Russian River; the former two drain into San Pablo Bay, the latter two into the Pacific Ocean. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_383

In the South Bay, the Guadalupe River drains into San Francisco Bay near Alviso. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_384

There are also several lakes present in the Bay Area, including man-made lakes like Lake Berryessa and natural albeit heavily modified lakes like Lake Merritt. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_385

Prior to the introduction of European agricultural methods, the shores of San Francisco Bay consisted mostly of tidal marshes. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_386

Today, the bay has been significantly altered heavily re-engineered to accommodate the needs of water delivery, shipping, agriculture, and urban development, with side effects including the loss of wetlands and the introduction of contaminants and invasive species. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_387

Approximately 85% of those marshes have been lost or destroyed, but about 50 marshes and marsh fragments remain. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_388

Huge tracts of the marshes were originally destroyed by farmers for agricultural purposes, then repurposed to serve as salt evaporation ponds to produce salt for food and other purposes. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_389

Today, regulations limit the destruction of tidal marshes, and large portions are currently being rehabilitated to their natural state. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_390

Government and politics San Francisco Bay Area_section_24

Main article: Politics in the San Francisco Bay Area San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_391

Government in the San Francisco Bay Area consists of multiple actors, including 101 city and nine county governments, a dozen regional agencies, and a large number of single-purpose special districts such as municipal utility districts and transit districts. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_392

Incorporated cities are responsible for providing police service, zoning, issuing building permits, and maintaining public streets among other duties. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_393

County governments are responsible for elections and voter registration, vital records, property assessment and records, tax collection, public health, agricultural regulations, and building inspections, among other duties. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_394

Public education is provided by independent school districts, which may be organized as elementary districts, high school districts, unified school districts combining elementary and high school grades, or community college districts, and are managed by an elected school board. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_395

A variety of special districts also exist and provide a single purpose, such as delivering public transit in the case of the Bay Area Rapid Transit District, or monitoring air quality levels in the case of the Bay Area Air Quality Management District. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_396

Politics in the Bay Area is widely regarded as one of the most liberal in California and in the United States. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_397

Since the late 1960s, the Bay Area has cemented its role as the most liberal region in California politics, giving greater support for the center-left Democratic Party's candidates than any other region of the state, even as California trended towards the Democratic Party over time. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_398

According to research by the Public Policy Institute of California, the Bay Area and the North Coast counties of Humboldt and Mendocino were the most consistently and strongly liberal areas in California. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_399

According to the California Secretary of State, the Democratic Party holds a voter registration advantage in every congressional district, State Senate district, State Assembly district, State Board of Equalization district, all nine counties, and all of the 101 incorporated municipalities in the Bay Area. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_400

On the other hand, the center-right Republican Party holds a voter registration advantage in only one State Assembly sub-district (the portion of the 4th in Solano County). San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_401

According to the Cook Partisan Voting Index (CPVI), congressional districts the Bay Area tends to favor Democratic candidates by roughly 40 to 50 percentage points, considerably above the mean for California and the nation overall. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_402

San Francisco Bay Area_table_general_4

Bay Area counties by population and voter registrationSan Francisco Bay Area_table_caption_4
CountySan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_4_0_0 PopulationSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_4_0_1 Registered votersSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_4_0_2 DemocraticSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_4_0_3 RepublicanSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_4_0_4 D–R spreadSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_4_0_5 American

IndependentSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_4_0_6

GreenSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_4_0_7 LibertarianSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_4_0_8 Peace and

FreedomSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_4_0_9


ElectSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_4_0_10

OtherSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_4_0_11 No party preferenceSan Francisco Bay Area_header_cell_4_0_12
AlamedaSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_1_0 1,494,876San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_1_1 54.6%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_1_2 56.4%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_1_3 14.1%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_1_4 +42.3%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_1_5 2.0%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_1_6 1.2%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_1_7 0.5%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_1_8 0.4%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_1_9 0.0%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_1_10 6.0%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_1_11 19.5%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_1_12
Contra CostaSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_2_0 1,037,817San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_2_1 58.5%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_2_2 50.4%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_2_3 21.8%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_2_4 +24.8%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_2_5 2.6%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_2_6 0.5%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_2_7 0.6%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_2_8 0.2%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_2_9 0.0%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_2_10 0.2%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_2_11 23.7%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_2_12
MarinSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_3_0 250,666San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_3_1 61.5%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_3_2 54.4%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_3_3 18.2%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_3_4 +36.2%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_3_5 2.1%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_3_6 1.4%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_3_7 0.5%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_3_8 0.2%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_3_9 0.0%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_3_10 0.3%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_3_11 12.9%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_3_12
NapaSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_4_0 135,377San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_4_1 56.2%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_4_2 46.9%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_4_3 24.2%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_4_4 +22.7%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_4_5 3.0%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_4_6 0.8%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_4_7 0.8%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_4_8 0.3%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_4_9 0.0%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_4_10 0.5%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_4_11 23.4%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_4_12
San FranciscoSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_5_0 870,887San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_5_1 62.4%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_5_2 55.6%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_5_3 8.6%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_5_4 +47.0%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_5_5 1.8%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_5_6 1.7%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_5_7 0.6%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_5_8 0.3%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_5_9 0.0%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_5_10 0.3%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_5_11 31.1%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_5_12
San MateoSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_6_0 711,622San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_6_1 50.7%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_6_2 51.3%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_6_3 19.4%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_6_4 +31.9%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_6_5 2.1%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_6_6 0.7%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_6_7 0.5%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_6_8 0.2%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_6_9 0.0%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_6_10 0.2%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_6_11 25.5%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_6_12
Santa ClaraSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_7_0 1,762,754San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_7_1 46.5%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_7_2 45.6%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_7_3 21.7%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_7_4 +23.9%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_7_5 2.1%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_7_6 0.5%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_7_7 0.6%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_7_8 0.2%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_7_9 0.0%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_7_10 0.2%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_7_11 29.0%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_7_12
SolanoSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_8_0 411,620San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_8_1 51.1%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_8_2 48.6%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_8_3 25.0%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_8_4 +23.6%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_8_5 2.8%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_8_6 0.4%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_8_7 0.5%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_8_8 0.4%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_8_9 0.0%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_8_10 0.4%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_8_11 22.0%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_8_12
SonomaSan Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_9_0 478,551San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_9_1 54.7%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_9_2 51.5%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_9_3 21.6%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_9_4 +29.9%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_9_5 2.5%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_9_6 1.8%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_9_7 0.7%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_9_8 0.3%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_9_9 0.0%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_9_10 0.3%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_9_11 21.3%San Francisco Bay Area_cell_4_9_12

In U.S. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_403

Presidential elections since 1960, the nine-county Bay Area voted for Republican candidates only two times, in both cases voting for a Californian: in 1972 for Richard Nixon and again in 1980 for Ronald Reagan. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_404

The last county to vote for a Republican presidential candidate was Napa county in 1988 for George H. W. Bush. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_405

Since then, all nine Bay Area counties have voted consistently for the Democratic candidate. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_406

Currently, both of California's U.S. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_407

Senators are Democrats, and all twelve U.S. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_408

congressional districts located wholly or partially in the Bay Area are represented by a Democratic representative. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_409

Additionally, every Bay Area member of the California State Senate and the California State Assembly is a registered Democrat. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_410

The association between the Bay Area and progressive politics has led to the term "San Francisco values" being used by conservative commentators in a pejorative sense to describe the secular progressive culture in the area. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_411

Transportation San Francisco Bay Area_section_25

Main article: Transportation in the San Francisco Bay Area San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_412

Transportation in the San Francisco Bay Area is reliant on a complex multimodal infrastructure consisting of roads, bridges, highways, rail, tunnels, airports, ferries, and bike and pedestrian paths. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_413

The development, maintenance, and operation of these different modes of transportation are overseen by various agencies, including the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, and the Metropolitan Transportation Commission. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_414

These and other organizations collectively manage several interstate highways and state routes, two subway networks, three commuter rail agencies, eight trans-bay bridges, transbay ferry service, local bus service, three international airports (San Francisco, San Jose, and Oakland), and an extensive network of roads, tunnels, and paths such as the San Francisco Bay Trail. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_415

The Bay Area hosts an extensive freeway and highway system that is particularly prone to traffic congestion, with one study by Inrix concluding that the Bay Area's traffic was the fourth worst in the world. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_416

There are some city streets in San Francisco where gaps occur in the freeway system, partly the result of the Freeway Revolt, which prevented a freeway-only thoroughfare through San Francisco between the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, the western terminus of Interstate 80, and the southern terminus of the Golden Gate Bridge (U.S. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_417 Route 101). San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_418

Additional damage that occurred in the wake of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake resulted in freeway segments being removed instead of being reinforced or rebuilt, leading to the revitalization of neighborhoods such as San Francisco's Embarcadero and Hayes Valley. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_419

The greater Bay Area contains the three principal north–south highways in California: Interstate 5, U.S. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_420 Route 101, and California State Route 1. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_421

U.S. 101 and State Route 1 directly serve the traditional nine-county region, while Interstate 5 bypasses to the east in San Joaquin County to provide a more direct Los AngelesSacramento route. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_422

Additional local highways connect the various subregions of the Bay Area together. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_423

There are over two dozen public transit agencies in the Bay Area with overlapping service areas that utilize different modes, with designated connection points between the various operators. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_424

Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART), a heavy rail/metro system, operates in five counties and connects San Francisco and Oakland via an underwater tube. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_425

Other commuter rail systems link San Francisco with the Peninsula and San Jose (Caltrain), San Jose with the Tri-Valley Area and San Joaquin County (ACE), and Sonoma with Marin County (SMART). San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_426

In addition, Amtrak provides frequent commuter service between San Jose and the East Bay with Sacramento, and long-distance service to other parts of the United States. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_427

Muni Metro operates a hybrid streetcar/subway system within the city of San Francisco, and VTA operates a light rail system in Santa Clara County. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_428

These rail systems are supplemented by numerous bus agencies and transbay ferries such as Golden Gate Ferry and the San Francisco Bay Ferry. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_429

Most of these agencies accept the Clipper Card, a reloadable contactless smart card, as a universal electronic payment system. San Francisco Bay Area_sentence_430

See also San Francisco Bay Area_section_26

San Francisco Bay Area_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Francisco Bay Area.