San Juan, Puerto Rico

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San Juan, Puerto Rico_table_infobox_0

San Juan

Municipio Autónomo de San JuanSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_0_0

CommonwealthSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_1_0 Puerto RicoSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_0_1_1
EstablishedSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_2_0 1521San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_0_2_1
Named forSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_3_0 John the BaptistSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_0_3_1
BarriosSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_4_0 18 barriosSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_0_4_1
GovernmentSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_5_0
MayorSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_6_0 Carmen Yulín Cruz (PPD)San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_0_6_1
AreaSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_7_0
MunicipalitySan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_8_0 77.0 sq mi (199 km)San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_0_8_1
LandSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_9_0 47.9 sq mi (124 km)San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_0_9_1
WaterSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_10_0 29.1 sq mi (75 km)  37.8%San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_0_10_1
UrbanSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_11_0 876.2 sq mi (2,269 km)San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_0_11_1
ElevationSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_12_0 26 ft (8 m)San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_0_12_1
Population (2010)San Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_13_0
MunicipalitySan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_14_0 395,326San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_0_14_1
DensitySan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_15_0 8,253/sq mi (3,187/km)San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_0_15_1
UrbanSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_16_0 2,148,346San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_0_16_1
MetroSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_17_0 2,350,126San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_0_17_1
Demonym(s)San Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_18_0 SanjuanerosSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_0_18_1
Time zoneSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_19_0 UTC−4 (AST)San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_0_19_1
ZIP CodesSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_20_0 00901, 00907, 00909, 00911-00913, 00915, 00917, 00918, 00920, 00921, 00923-00927San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_0_20_1
Area code(s)San Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_21_0 787 and 939San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_0_21_1
Major routesSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_22_0 Puerto_Rico_Highway_1 Puerto_Rico_Highway_2 Puerto_Rico_Highway_18 Puerto_Rico_Highway_20 Puerto_Rico_Highway_26 Puerto_Rico_Highway_3 Puerto_Rico_Highway_8 Puerto_Rico_Highway_16 Puerto_Rico_Highway_21 Puerto_Rico_Highway_23 Puerto_Rico_Highway_25 Puerto_Rico_Highway_25R Puerto_Rico_Highway_27 Puerto_Rico_Highway_35 Puerto_Rico_Highway_176 Puerto_Rico_Highway_177 Puerto_Rico_Highway_181 Puerto_Rico_Highway_199 Puerto_Rico_Highway_19 Puerto_Rico_Highway_28 Puerto_Rico_Highway_36 Puerto_Rico_Highway_37 Puerto_Rico_Highway_38 Puerto_Rico_Highway_39 Puerto_Rico_Highway_40 Puerto_Rico_Highway_41 Puerto_Rico_Highway_42 Puerto_Rico_Highway_47

Puerto_Rico_Highway_17 Puerto_Rico_Highway_22 Puerto_Rico_Highway_52 Puerto_Rico_Highway_17 Puerto_Rico_Highway_22 Puerto_Rico_Highway_52San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_0_22_1

WebsiteSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_0_23_0 San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_0_23_1

San Juan (/ˌsæn ˈhwɑːn/, Spanish: [saŋ ˈxwan; "Saint John") is the capital and most-populous municipality in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_0

As of the 2010 census, it is the 46th-largest city under the jurisdiction of the United States, with a population of 395,326. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_1

San Juan was founded by Spanish colonists in 1521, who called it Ciudad de Puerto Rico ("Rich Port City"). San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_2

Puerto Rico's capital is the third oldest European-established capital city in the Americas, after Santo Domingo, in the Dominican Republic, founded in 1496, and Panama City, in Panama, founded in 1521, and is the oldest European-established city in the U.S. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_3 proper or U.S. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_4 territories. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_5

Several historical buildings are located in San Juan; among the most notable are the city's former defensive forts, Fort San Felipe del Morro and Fort San Cristóbal, and La Fortaleza, the oldest executive mansion in continuous use in the Americas. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_6

Today, San Juan is Puerto Rico's most important seaport and is the island's manufacturing, financial, cultural, and tourism center. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_7

The population of the Metropolitan Statistical Area, including San Juan and the municipalities of Bayamón, Guaynabo, Cataño, Canóvanas, Caguas, Toa Alta, Toa Baja, Carolina and Trujillo Alto, is about 2.6 million inhabitants; thus, about 80% of the population of Puerto Rico now lives and works in this area. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_8

San Juan is also a principal city of the San Juan-Caguas-Fajardo Combined Statistical Area. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_9

The city has been the host of events within the sports community, including the 1979 Pan American Games; 1966 Central American and Caribbean Games; events of the 2006, 2009 and 2013 World Baseball Classics; the Caribbean Series and the Special Olympics and MLB San Juan Series in 2010. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_10

The damage caused in 2017 by Hurricane Maria was extensive. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_11

Significant progress had been made in the capital by April 2019, and particularly by October 2019. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_12

This was significant for tourism, which had rebounded by October of that year and was close to the pre-Maria era. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_13

History San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_0

See also: Timeline of San Juan, Puerto Rico San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_14

In 1508, Juan Ponce de León founded the original settlement which he called Caparra. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_15

It was named after the Province of Cáceres in Spain, the birthplace of Nicolás de Ovando, then the Governor of Spain's Caribbean territories. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_16

Today, it is part of the Pueblo Viejo sector of Guaynabo, just to the west of the present San Juan metropolitan area. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_17

A year later, the settlement was moved to a site then called Puerto Rico, Spanish for "rich port" or "good port", after its similar geographical features to the town of Puerto Rico of Gran Canaria in the Canary Islands. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_18

In 1521, the newer settlement was given its formal name: Puerto Rico de San Juan Bautista. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_19

The ambiguous use of San Juan Bautista and Puerto Rico for both the city and the island in time led to a reversal in practical use by most inhabitants: by 1746 the name for the city (Puerto Rico) had become that of the entire island, leading to the city being identified as Puerto Rico de Puerto Rico on maps of the era. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_20

San Juan, as a settlement of the Spanish Empire, was used by merchant and military ships traveling from Spain as the first stopover in the Americas. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_21

Because of its prominence in the Caribbean, a network of fortifications was built to protect the transports of gold and silver from the New World to Europe. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_22

Because of the rich cargoes, San Juan became a target of the foreign powers of the time. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_23

The city was witness to attacks from the English led by Sir Francis Drake in 1595 (in what is known as the Battle of Puerto Rico) and by George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, in 1598. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_24

Artillery from San Juan's fort, El Morro, repelled Drake; however, Clifford managed to land troops and lay siege to the city. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_25

After a few months of English occupation, Clifford was forced to abandon the siege when his troops began to suffer from exhaustion and sickness. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_26

In 1625 the city was sacked by Dutch forces led by Captain Balduino Enrico (also known as Boudewijn Hendricksz/Bowdoin Henrick), but El Morro withstood the assault and was not taken. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_27

The Dutch were counterattacked by Captain Juan de Amézqueta and 50 members of the civilian militia on land and by the cannons of the Spanish troops in El Morro Castle. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_28

The land battle left 60 Dutch soldiers dead and Enrico with a sword wound to his neck which he received from the hands of Amézqueta. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_29

The Dutch ships at sea were boarded by Puerto Ricans who defeated those aboard. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_30

After a long battle, the Spanish soldiers and volunteers of the city's militia were able to defend the city from the attack and save the island from an invasion. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_31

On October 21, Enrico set La Fortaleza and the city ablaze. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_32

Captains Amézqueta and Andrés Botello decided to put a stop to the destruction and led 200 men in an attack against the enemy's front and rear guard. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_33

They drove Enrico and his men from their trenches and into the ocean in their haste to reach their ships. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_34

The British attack in 1797, during the French Revolutionary Wars, led by Sir Ralph Abercromby (who had just conquered Trinidad). San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_35

His army laid siege to the city but was forced to withdraw in defeat as the Puerto Rican defenses proved more resilient than those of Trinidad. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_36

Various events and circumstances, including liberalized commerce with Spain, the opening of the island to immigrants as a direct result of the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815, and the colonial revolutions, led to an expansion of San Juan and other Puerto Rican settlements in the late 18th and early 19th century. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_37

On May 8, 1898, United States Navy ships, among them USS Detroit, USS Indiana, USS New York, USS Amphitrite, USS Terror and USS Montgomery, commanded by Rear Admiral William T. Sampson arrived at San Juan Bay. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_38

USS Yale captured the Spanish freighter Rita in San Juan Bay, thus being the first hostile encounter between the warring sides in Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_39

On May 9, Yale fought a brief battle with an auxiliary cruiser of Spain, name unknown, resulting in a Spanish victory. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_40

Around this time, Captain Ángel Rivero Méndez was assigned the command of the Spanish forces in the fortress of San Cristóbal in San Juan. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_41

On May 10, Yale returned to San Juan Bay, Rivero-Méndez ordered his men to open fire upon Yale using an Ordoñez 15-centimeter cannon, thus becoming the first attack against the Americans in Puerto Rico during the Spanish–American War. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_42

For his actions, Captain Rivero-Méndez was awarded the "Cruz de la Orden de Mérito Militar" (The Cross of the Order of the Military Merit) first class. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_43

The residents of San Juan were furious with Rivero and blamed him for the destruction caused to their city by the American bombardments. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_44

Nothing came of those accusations and Capt. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_45

Rivero-Méndez was ordered to turn over the keys of all the military installations in San Juan to Captain Henry A. Reed of the U.S. Army after the Treaty of Paris of 1898 was signed. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_46

On July 25, General Nelson A. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_47 Miles landed at Guánica (in southwestern Puerto Rico) with 3,300 soldiers in what was known as the Puerto Rican Campaign. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_48

The American troops found some resistance and engaged the Spanish and Puerto Rican troops in battle, the most notable of these the battles of Yauco and Asomante. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_49

All military actions in Puerto Rico were suspended August 13, 1898, after President William McKinley and French Ambassador Jules Cambon, acting on behalf of the Spanish government, signed an armistice. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_50

Spain ceded the island to the United States later the same year by signing the Treaty of Paris. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_51

Camp Las Casas, located in the district of Santurce, served as the main training camp for the Puerto Rican soldiers prior to World War I and World War II; the majority of the men trained in this facility were assigned to the "Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry" which was renamed the 65th Infantry Regiment of the United States Army by the Reorganization Act of June 4, 1920. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_52

The 65th Infantry was deactivated in 1956 and became the only unit ever to be transferred from an active Army component to the Puerto Rico National Guard. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_53

Lieutenant Teófilo Marxuach (retired as a Lieutenant Colonel), a native of Arroyo, Puerto Rico, fired the first shot in what is considered to be the first shot of World War I fired by the regular armed forces of the United States against any ship flying the colors of the Central Powers. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_54

Marxuach, who was a member of the "Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry" and Officer of the Day, on March 25, 1915, opened fire on the Odenwald, an armed German supply vessel, when it was trying to force its way out of San Juan's bay. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_55

The shots ordered by Lt. Marxuach were the first fired by the United States in World War I. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_56

In 1919, Félix Rigau Carrera, "El Aguila de Sabana Grande" (The Eagle from Sabana Grande), the first Puerto Rican pilot, became the first native Puerto Rican to fly an aircraft in the island when he flew his Curtiss JN-4 from Las Casas. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_57

At the time, the area was used by the military as an air base and it was also Puerto Rico's first commercial airport, and Rigau Carrera was allowed to perform his historic flight from the air field. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_58

Camp Las Casas was eventually closed down, and in 1950 a public housing project by the name of Residencial Fray Bartolome de Las Casas was constructed on its former location. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_59

On January 2, 1947, the people of San Juan elected Felisa Rincón de Gautier (also known as Doña Fela) (1897–1994) as their mayor. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_60

Thus, she became the first woman to be elected as the mayor of a capital city in any of The Americas. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_61

During the Cold War era, she ordered the establishment of the island's first Civil Defense system under the directorship of Colonel Gilberto José Marxuach (Teófilo's son). San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_62

Rincón de Gautier served as mayor until January 2, 1969. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_63

On October 30, 1950, San Juan was the scene of the San Juan Uprising, one of many uprisings which occurred in various towns and cities in Puerto Rico, by the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party against the governments of Puerto Rico and the United States. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_64

Among the uprising's main objective was to attack "La Fortaleza" (the Governors mansion) and the United States Federal Court House Building in Old San Juan. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_65

In accordance to the planned uprising in San Juan, a group of nationalists were supposed to attack simultaneously the gubernatorial mansion La Fortaleza, where Puerto Rican governor Luis Muñoz Marín resided, and the United States Federal Court House which is located close to an area called "La Marina" in Old San Juan. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_66

The La Fortaleza battle, which ensued between the nationalists and the police lasted 15 minutes, and ended when four of the five attackers were killed. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_67

Coat of arms and flag San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_1

Main article: Diego de Torres Vargas San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_68

On March 8, 1948 the city government of San Juan officially adopted as the city's first flag an orange field, in the center of which is the coat of arms of the city. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_69

The orange color was based and taken from Father Diego de Torres Vargas' text and it reads : "Escudo de armas dado a Puerto Rico por los Reyes Católicos en el año de 1511, siendo Procurador un vecino llamado Pedro Moreno. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_70

Son : un cordero blanco con su banderilla colorada, sobre un libro, y todo sobre una isla verde, que es la de Puerto Rico, y por los lados una F y una I, que quiere decir Fernando e Isabel, los Reyes Católicos que se las dieron, y hoy se conservan en el estandarte real, que es de damasco anaranjado, con que se ganó la ciudad" ("Coat of arms given to Puerto Rico by the Catholic Monarchs in the year 1511 being Procurator a vecino named Pedro Moreno. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_71

They are: a white lamb with a red flag, on top of a book, and everything above a green island, which is Puerto Rico...which is of orange damask, with which the city was won"). San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_72

It appears that the color was changed from orange to white at some point. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_73

San Juan, Puerto Rico_unordered_list_0

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  • San Juan, Puerto Rico_item_0_1
  • San Juan, Puerto Rico_item_0_2
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  • San Juan, Puerto Rico_item_0_5

Geography San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_2

San Juan is located along the north-eastern coast of Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_74

It lies south of the Atlantic Ocean; north of Caguas and Trujillo Alto; east of and Guaynabo; and west of Carolina. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_75

The city occupies an area of 76.93 square miles (199.2 km), of which, 29.11 square miles (75.4 km) (37.83%) is water. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_76

San Juan's main water bodies are San Juan Bay and two natural lagoons, the Condado and San José. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_77

Hurricane Maria San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_3

Much of San Juan was flooded with Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017, which also triggered numerous landslides. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_78

Climate San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_4

San Juan has a tropical monsoon climate and has an average temperature of 81.0 °F (27.2 °C) although 90 °F (32 °C) or higher temperatures are seen on an average 79 days annually, more commonly occurring during the wetter months of the northern summer, especially if the winds come from the south. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_79

In the winter, temperatures can drop to around 60 °F (16 °C), though the average winter low is 71 °F (22 °C). San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_80

The coolest temperature officially recorded was 60 °F (16 °C) on March 3, 1957, and the hottest was 98 °F (37 °C) on October 9, 1981; the record cold daily maximum is 71 °F (22 °C) on February 4, 1935, while the record warm daily minimum is 83 °F (28 °C) on August 11, 1995, the most recent of four occasions. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_81

Rainfall is well-distributed throughout the year, but the months of January, February, and March are the driest; as March averages just 1.95 inches (49.5 mm) of rain, the city falls under the tropical monsoon category. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_82

Rainfall averages 56.35 inches (1,431.3 mm), falling on an average 198.5 days per year; despite this dampness, the city averages 2,970 hours of sunshine per year, or just over ⅔ of the possible total. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_83

Annual rainfall has historically ranged from 35.53 in (902 mm) in 1991 to 89.50 in (2,273 mm) in 2010. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_84

Cityscape San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_5

Architecture San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_6

The architecture of San Juan is very diverse, due to its size and all the cultural influences received during its existence. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_85

The oldest part of the city, known as Old San Juan, mostly features the influence of Spanish architecture. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_86

This part of the city is comprised by a network of "setted" roads usually surrounded by ancient, two-storied houses built on masonry. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_87

Some colonial structures have been restored and serve either as government offices or museums. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_88

Some examples are the Ballajá Barracks, which now serve as museum and headquarters of several cultural organizations; La Fortaleza, which has served as the residence of the Governor of Puerto Rico since the 16th Century; and the Ancient Welfare Asylum, which now houses the Institute of Puerto Rican Culture, among others. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_89

Old San Juan also features several public squares, like the Plaza de Armas, located in front of San Juan City Hall; and cathedrals, like the Cathedral of San Juan Bautista. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_90

Old San Juan is also notable for being partly enclosed by massive walls and fortifications built by the Spanish government. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_91

The architecture is more varied in other districts of the city. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_92

The district of Santurce features a lot of influence from art deco, while the districts of Hato Rey feature more modern structures. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_93

Barrios San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_7

Main article: Subdivisions of San Juan, Puerto Rico San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_94

What is now known as Old San Juan occupied the western end of a rocky islet, the Isleta de San Juan, at the mouth of San Juan Bay. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_95

During the 20th century, the main population centers surged well beyond the walls of the old city and onto Puerto Rico's main island, and merged with the existing settlements east and south of Old San Juan. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_96

With the annexation of Río Piedras in 1951, the municipality of San Juan grew four times its previous size. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_97

As a result, the municipality also went from 2 to 18 barrios (barrios), 16 of which fall within the former municipality of Río Piedras. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_98

Eight of the 18 barrios are further subdivided into subbarrios, including the two barrios (San Juan Antiguo and Santurce) that belonged to the original municipality of San Juan. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_99

The 18 barrios are: San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_100

Old San Juan San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_8

Main article: Old San Juan San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_101

During the Spanish colonial times most of the urban population resided in what is now known as Old San Juan. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_102

This sector is located on the western half of a small island called the Isleta de San Juan, which is connected to the mainland by two bridges and a causeway. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_103

The small island, which comprises an area of 47 square miles (120 km), also hosts the working-class neighborhood of Puerta de Tierra and most of Puerto Rico's central government buildings, including the Commonwealth's Capitol. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_104

The main central part of the city is characterized by narrow streets made of blue cobblestone and picturesque colonial buildings, some of which date back to the 16th and 17th century. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_105

Sections of the old city are surrounded by massive walls and several defensive structures and notable forts. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_106

These include the 16th-century Fort San Felipe del Morro and the 17th-century Fort San Cristóbal, both part of San Juan National Historic Site, and the 16th-century El Palacio de Santa Catalina, also known as La Fortaleza, which serves as the governor's mansion. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_107

Other buildings of interest predating the 20th century are the Ayuntamiento or Alcaldía (City Hall), the Diputación Provincial and the Real Intendencia buildings, which house the Puerto Rico Department of State, the Casa Rosa, the San José Church (1523) and the adjacent Hotel El Convento, the former house of the Ponce de León family known as Casa Blanca, the Teatro Tapia, the former Spanish barracks (now Museum of Ballajá), La Princesa (former municipal jail, now headquartering the Puerto Rico Tourism Company), and the Santa María Magdalena de Pazzis Cemetery, located just outside the city walls. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_108

The Cathedral of San Juan Bautista (construction began in the 1520s) is also located in Old San Juan, and contains the tomb of the Spanish explorer and settlement founder Juan Ponce de León. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_109

Old San Juan, also known as the "old city", is the main cultural tourist attraction in Puerto Rico; its bayside is lined by dock slips for large cruise ships. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_110

Other districts San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_9

East of Old San Juan lies the wealthy tourist-oriented neighborhood of Condado, which occupies land that used to be owned by entrepreneur Pablo Ubarri Capetillo, a Spanish railroad developer and Count of San José de Santurce under the Spanish colonial period. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_111

Beaches such as nearby Ocean Park, popular with swimmers, surfers and kitesurfers, are found all along the district's Atlantic coastline which is also the locus of numerous hotels. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_112

Near Condado are two separate business districts, Santurce and Miramar. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_113

Miramar is mainly a residential area rising south of the Condado Lagoon. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_114

It comprises the former barrio of Miraflores, as well as drained marshland and landfill over which was built San Juan's first airport, the Isla Grande airport, which was renamed Fernando Luis Ribas Dominicci Airport in honor of Major Fernando Luis Ribas-Dominicci (USAF). San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_115

Miramar now hosts the Puerto Rico Convention Center as well as some of San Juan Harbor's cruise ship piers. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_116

In 2005 Miramar was designated an historical district of Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_117

Santurce, originally named San Mateo de Cangrejos (Saint Matthew of the Crabs), was a settlement for freed African slaves during the early days of the city. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_118

After Pablo Ubarri sought permission to link San Juan with Río Piedras proper via steam tramway in 1878, the time it took to travel between both points were shortened and thereby stimulated the colonization and growth of the district. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_119

At the beginning of the twentieth century an electric trolley was installed, the township was split into three parts, and its main settlement, merged with the city, was renamed using the Spanish spelling of Santurtzi (Saint George in Basque), Ubarri's birthplace in Vizcaya, Spain. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_120

The "Museo de Arte de Puerto Rico" (Puerto Rico Museum of Art) and other important cultural venues are located in Santurce. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_121

South of Santurce is Hato Rey, part of the former municipality of Río Piedras. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_122

Hato Rey was grazing ground for cattle owned by the royal government (hence its name, the King's Herd in Spanish) as early as the 16th century, and is now considered the financial center of the island. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_123

A section of this district is often referred to as Milla de Oro (actually 0.47 miles or 0.76 kilometers long) due in part to the many banks and businesses located there. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_124

In the southern part of the city is the socially diversified community of Río Piedras. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_125

Founded in the mid-1850s, Río Piedras was a separate town which hosted sugar cane plantations and the estates of some of San Juan's wealthiest inhabitants (as well as their working class staff). San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_126

The Spanish colonial governors also had their summer home there on land which eventually gave way to the main campus of the University of Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_127

In 1951 the municipalities of San Juan and Río Piedras were merged to redefine San Juan's current city limits. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_128

Today Río Piedras comprises the largest area of the municipality of San Juan. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_129

and is home to the "Plaza del Mercado" (Río Piedras Marketplace), the main campus and the Medical Sciences campus of the University of Puerto Rico and the San Juan Botanical Garden. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_130

Demographics San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_10

San Juan, Puerto Rico_table_infobox_1

Race – San Juan, Puerto Rico – 2010 CensusSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_1_0_0
RaceSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_1_1_0 PopulationSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_1_1_1 % of TotalSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_1_1_2
WhiteSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_1_2_0 268,708San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_1_2_1 68.0%San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_1_2_2
Black/African AmericanSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_1_3_0 73,538San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_1_3_1 18.4%San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_1_3_2
American Indian and Alaska NativeSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_1_4_0 3,071San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_1_4_1 0.8%San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_1_4_2
AsianSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_1_5_0 1,750San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_1_5_1 0.4%San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_1_5_2
Native Hawaiians/Pacific IslanderSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_1_6_0 36San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_1_6_1 0.0%San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_1_6_2
Some other raceSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_1_7_0 32,386San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_1_7_1 8.2%San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_1_7_2
Two or more racesSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_1_8_0 15,835San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_1_8_1 4.0%San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_1_8_2

San Juan is the largest city in Puerto Rico by population. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_131

From 1899 to 1950 the municipality of San Juan excluded the township of Río Piedras. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_132

For this reason, population data and land area for the period make reference only to the Antiguo San Juan and Santurce barrios, or subdivisions, of San Juan. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_133

The old municipality of Río Piedras constituted the third most populated city of Puerto Rico at the time of its annexation in 1951. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_134

Its strategic location south of the capital served as a junction for all the principal ways of transportation of the island and as a geographical entry to San Juan, which are factors that prompted Río Piedras's dramatic urban development in the 20th century. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_135

According to the 2010 Census, the racial composition of San Juan was as follows: San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_136

San Juan, Puerto Rico_unordered_list_1

Among the Hispanic and Latino population, Puerto Ricans are, unsurprisingly, the largest group; they make up 87.5% of San Juan's Hispanic population. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_137

People of Dominican descent made up 12.2% of the Hispanic population, while those of Cuban descent formed 1.7% of the Hispanic populace. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_138

Other Hispanic and Latino groups collectively formed 3.2% of San Juan's Hispanic population. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_139

There are 4,822 whites of non-Hispanic origin living in San Juan; 1,187 blacks of non-Hispanic origin living in San Juan. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_140

Non-Hispanic whites and blacks form 1.2% and 0.3% of San Juan's population respectively. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_141

There are also approximately 673 Asians of non-Hispanic origin in San Juan; they make up less than 0.1% of the population. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_142

However, Asians of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin together number at 6,342. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_143

The vast majority of Asians in San Juan are of Chinese descent; of the 6,342 Asians, 4,928 are Chinese. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_144

Chinese comprise 1.4% of the population. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_145

The only other sizable Asian group in San Juan are Indian Americans; there are 698 people of Indian descent in the city, forming 0.2% of the population. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_146

There are very small numbers of people of Filipino, Japanese, and Vietnamese ancestry; none of these groups number more than 100 members. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_147

According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, 87.5% of San Juan's population was native and 12.5% were foreign-born. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_148

Of the native population, 86.9% were born in Puerto Rico or the U.S. proper, of which 75.6% were born in Puerto Rico and 8.9% were born in the U.S. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_149

The other 0.7% were born in a different U.S. territory or born abroad to American parents. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_150

The remaining 11.9% of the population were born outside the United States and U.S. territories. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_151

In recent years, an increasing number of Americans not of Hispanic ancestry (both of African American and of White American descent) have moved to San Juan. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_152

In addition, a large number of Stateside Puerto Ricans have settled in the city upon their return to Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_153

There is also a growing West Indian population, both of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_154

In terms of ancestry, 23,875 people claimed American ancestry, which is equivalent to 5.8% of San Juan's population. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_155

Other sizable ancestry groups included those of Italian descent, French descent, and West Indian descent. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_156

People of Italian descent numbered at 1,694, forming 0.4% of the population; people of French descent numbered at 1,064, forming 0.2% of the population. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_157

Finally, those of West Indian descent numbered at 1,393, forming 0.3% of San Juan's population. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_158

Approximately 1,026 people claimed Sub-Saharan African ancestry; 719 claimed Irish ancestry; 646 claimed German ancestry; 431 claimed Arab ancestry, and 346 claimed English ancestry. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_159

There are many other ancestry groups in San Juan, but they are very scant. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_160

Economy San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_11

San Juan experienced significant economic growth following World War II. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_161

During this period the city underwent an industrial revolution, although as of 1984 it had never generated its own economic region. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_162

The city's economy relies mostly on companies dedicated to the manufacture of several products, including: Chemical substances (bleach and house cleaning products); medicines; rum and other beverages; fertilizers; electric tools; electronic devices; plastics, textiles, and food-based products. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_163

Tourism is also a key industry, based on San Juan's proximity to Puerto Rico's main airport, the Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_164

The tourism focus of the city is located in the district of Condado Beach where there are luxurious hotels. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_165

Historical locations such as El Morro, Old San Juan and El Cuartel de Ballaja are promoted in tourism campaigns. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_166

The district of Hato Rey contains a corporate sector known as "La Milla de Oro", (The Golden Mile) which serves as the headquarters of local and international banks. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_167

San Juan's Hato Rey district is often referred to as the "Wall Street of the Caribbean", due to the influence of the area on Puerto Rico and the Caribbean's economy. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_168

Seaborne Airlines is headquartered on the 9th floor of the World Plaza Building in San Juan. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_169

Tourism San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_12

Technological advances after World War II in the development of the airliner, coupled with the island's climate and natural setting, have transformed San Juan into the springboard for tourism around the island, and has made the rest of the Caribbean known throughout the world during the last fifty years. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_170

Today the capital features hotels, museums, historical buildings, restaurants, beaches and shopping centers. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_171

In San Juan there are tourist attractions, including: Old San Juan, Ocean Park, Isla Verde and Condado. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_172

Places and monuments emphasized in tourism campaigns include: Old San Juan, promoting the historic nature of its colonial buildings and narrow streets covered by adoquine, a blue stone cast from furnace slag; they were brought over as ballast on Spanish ships. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_173

This includes the city's ancient defensive wall and forts, most notably El Morro and the Castillo San Cristóbal. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_174

On January 23, 1984 both of these edifices were catalogued as being part of humanity's cultural patrimony. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_175

The restaurants and art galleries in the zone are visited by tourists. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_176

The local universities are promoted as historic places, most notably the campus of University of Puerto Rico located in Río Piedras, which is the oldest university on the island being founded in 1903. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_177

Post Hurricane Maria San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_13

An April 2019 report indicated that, by that time, repairs after Hurricane Maria were moving rapidly. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_178

Only a few hotels were still closed in San Juan and that life for tourists in and around the capital had, for the most part, returned to normal. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_179

By October 2019, nearly all of the popular amenities for tourists, in the major destinations such as San Juan, Ponce and Arecibo, were in operation on the island and tourism was rebounding. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_180

This was important for the economy, since tourism provides up 10% of Puerto Rico's GDP, according to Discover Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_181

In late November 2019, reports indicated that 90 calls to San Juan by Royal Caribbean ships would be cancelled during 2020 and 2021. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_182

This step would mean 360,000 fewer visitors, with a loss to the island's economy of $44 million. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_183

As well, 30 ship departures from San Juan were being canceled. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_184

The rationale for this decision was discussed in a news report, as follows: San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_185

Culture San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_14

See also: List of notable residents of San Juan, Puerto Rico San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_186

San Juan is the birthplace of artists and musicians, locally known as Sanjuaneros, who have significantly influenced Puerto Rican culture. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_187

During the 20th century, the musical aspect of the city was influenced by performers including Afro-Caribbean dancer and choreographer Sylvia del Villard and José Enrique Pedreira who became a composer of Puerto Rican Danzas. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_188

International musicians such as opera singer Justino Díaz and Grammy Award winners Ramón Ayala (Daddy Yankee) and Ricky Martin were born in the city. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_189

Other notable residents include writers Giannina Braschi and Tomas Blanco, award-winning actors Raul Julia and Benicio del Toro, and comedian José Miguel Agrelot. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_190

Rafael Cordero (1790–1868), was influential in the development of Puerto Rican education and has been once renowned as " The Father of Public Education in Puerto Rico". San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_191

The city is also the home of contemporary and classic art museums. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_192

The Puerto Rico Arts Museum owns the largest collection of contemporary art in Puerto Rico, housing over 1,100 permanent art pieces and displaying temporary exhibitions containing artwork from various locations through Latin America. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_193

The Puerto Rico Museum of Contemporary Art, located in Santurce, specializes in contemporary artwork from Latin America and the Caribbean. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_194

The paintings displayed in the permanent exhibition are either acquired by the museum's administrative personnel or donated by artists and collectors. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_195

They are judged by a panel of painters, art critics, and scholars before being displayed. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_196

Other museums such as the Pablo Casals Museum, the Book Museum, Americas Museum and the National Gallery display historic items and artwork alongside contemporary art. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_197

Miscellaneous museums such as the Children's Museum and the Bacardi Distillery (also known as the "Rum Cathedral") in nearby Cataño appeal to different audiences through interactive exhibitions. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_198

Government San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_15

Main article: List of mayors of San Juan, Puerto Rico San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_199

As one of Puerto Rico's 78 municipalities, San Juan's government consists of two branches, the executive and the legislative. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_200

Those citizens eligible to vote directly elect a mayor and the municipal assembly for four-year terms. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_201

The municipal government is housed in City Hall or Casa Alcaldia, which is located at 153 San Francisco Street, facing the Plaza de Armas at the center of Old San Juan. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_202

City Hall was constructed based on Madrid's City Hall starting in 1604 and finally completed in 1789. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_203

The executive branch is headed by a popularly elected mayor. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_204

The office is held by Carmen Yulín Cruz, who was elected at the 2012 general election. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_205

Before her, Jorge A. Santini held the position for 12 years. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_206

In addition to running the city's day-to-day operations and supervising associated departments, the mayor is responsible for appointing a secretary-auditor and a treasurer. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_207

San Juan's Municipal Legislature is made up of 17 municipal legislators, elected at-large, which represent the city's population. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_208

San Juan is also the seat of the Puerto Rico Senatorial district I, which is represented by two Senators. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_209

In 2012, José Nadal Power and Ramón Luis Nieves were elected as District Senators. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_210

Safety San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_16

In 2010 there were 201 homicides in San Juan, a rate of around 50 per 100,000 residents. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_211

Law enforcement in San Juan is the joint responsibility of the Department of Police and Public Safety, also known as the San Juan Police Department and the Puerto Rico Police Department. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_212

The Municipal Police, originally known as the "San Juan Municipal Guard", was created in 1521 and had active military and law enforcement functions until 1980, when Act #77 created municipal law enforcement agencies in Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_213

It employs over 1,000 sworn officers plus civilian staff. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_214

Media San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_17

See also: Media of Puerto Rico San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_215

Education San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_18

Colleges and universities San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_19

San Juan is home to many of Puerto Rico's institutions of higher learning. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_216

The University of Puerto Rico Río Piedras Campus is located in San Juan, along with the University of Puerto Rico's Medical Sciences Campus. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_217

Other colleges located in San Juan are the University of the Sacred Heart, the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico, the Ana G. Méndez University System's Metropolitan University, the Metropolitan Campus of the Inter American University of Puerto Rico, the Carlos Albizu University, the Evangelic Seminary of Puerto Rico and the Center for Advanced Studies on Puerto Rico and the Caribbean. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_218

There are smaller colleges located in the city, including the ICPR Junior College, the Instituto de Banca y Comercio and the International Junior College, located in Santurce. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_219

There are also several technical schools based in San Juan, including the Technological College of San Juan, the Liceo de Artes y Ciencias, Ramirez College of Business and Technology, and the Puerto Rico Technical Junior College. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_220

The Puerto Rico Conservatory of Music and the School of Fine Arts in Old San Juan specialize in education that promotes the fine arts and music. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_221

Public and private schools San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_20

Also, San Juan is home to 136 public schools operated by the Puerto Rico Department of Education. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_222

Most of the specialized schools operated by the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are located in San Juan. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_223

These schools emphasize topics such as Science and Math, Radio and Television, Arts, Trade, Music, and Sports, but also include other subjects such as Spanish, English, and Social Studies in their curriculum. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_224

In addition to dozens of state-run elementary, intermediate, and high schools, the government of the city of San Juan operates two bilingual schools, including one sports-magnet school, the first municipal-run schools in Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_225

Several private schools are located in San Juan, including Robinson and St. John's schools in the Condado, Perpetuo Socorro in Miramar, St. John's Episcopal, Santa Mónica and Academia San Jorge in Santurce, Commonwealth High School, La Merced and Espíritu Santo in Hato Rey, Escuela Josefita Monserrate de Selles, San Antonio, Colegio San Ignacio de Loyola, San José in Río Piedras and Cupeyville, St. Mary's, Boneville and Cupey Maria Montesory School in Cupey. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_226

Transportation San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_21

The Port of San Juan is the fourth busiest seaport in the Western Hemisphere, ranked among the top 17 in the world in terms of container movement. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_227

It is also the largest home-based cruise port in the world with over a dozen cruise ships. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_228

It is the second busiest port in cruise volume after Miami. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_229

The Metropolitan Area is served by two airports. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_230

The Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport, San Juan's primary commercial airport, is located eight miles (12.9 km) from Old San Juan in the neighboring municipality of Carolina. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_231

The airport accommodates more than 30 domestic and international airlines and is the busiest airport in the Caribbean. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_232

It is often referred to as "The Gateway to the Caribbean" because it serves as the main connection to the island and the rest of the Caribbean for the United States and vice versa. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_233

The area's secondary airport is the Fernando Ribas Dominicci Airport, which is located directly across the San Antonio Creek or Cano San Antonio from Old San Juan in the Isla Grande district. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_234

Dominicci Airport is used mainly by general aviation aircraft, charter flights, and some domestic commercial flights. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_235

It used to be the city's and also the island of Puerto Rico's main international gateway until the opening of Luis Muñoz Marin International Airport. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_236

It is now also widely used by the Isla Grande Flight School and Caribbean Flight Center, the only flight school on the island. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_237

There are 193 bridges in San Juan. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_238

Public transport San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_22

See also: Tren Urbano San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_239

At 4,300 vehicles per paved mile, San Juan has by far the highest density of vehicles on the road of any city in the world. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_240

The city is served by five limited-access expressways and highways and numerous arterial avenues and boulevards, but continues to suffer from severe traffic congestion. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_241

The Metropolitan Bus Authority (Autoridad Metropolitana de Autobuses or AMA in Spanish) provides daily bus transportation to residents of San Juan, Guaynabo, Bayamón, Toa Baja, Trujillo Alto, Cataño and Carolina through 30 fixed routes. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_242

Its fleet consists of 277 regular buses and 35 handicap-accessible buses. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_243

AMA's ridership is estimated at 112,000 on weekdays. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_244

There is also a daily ferry service, known as the Cataño Ferry (La Lancha de Cataño), which operates between Old San Juan and the town of Cataño. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_245

In an attempt to decrease vehicle dependency and road congestion, the city built a metro system dubbed "Tren Urbano" ("Urban Train"). San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_246

The 10.7-mile (17.2 km) line connects to 16 stations. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_247

The project, which opened in late 2004, cost $2.25 billion and was more than $1 billion over budget and four years late. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_248

The Tren Urbano has received less ridership than was originally projected and has not significantly reduced the city's automobile traffic, despite a reported 7.5% ridership increase in 2006 over 2005. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_249

There is a planned project to build an "interurban light rail system" connecting the cities of San Juan and Caguas. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_250

Increased investment in public transportation, however, has not changed the fact that San Juan is an automobile-reliant city and its fast growth has sparked urban sprawl. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_251

As of mid-2010, the government has approved plans for a redesign of this Puerto Rican city, featuring a new mass transit system, new roads and intersections, and more beach-access points. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_252

No cars will be allowed inside the oldest part of city (Old San Juan). San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_253

The plans hope to remedy previous poor urban planning in the oldest section of the city, the Isleta, while curbing reliance on motor vehicles. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_254

The plans for redevelopment also hope to make the city more appealing in order to attract new residents, as San Juan has suffered from a shrinking population over the past 60 years. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_255

Health and utilities San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_23

San Juan has an elaborate system of triage, hospital, and preventive care health services. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_256

The municipal government sponsors regular health fairs in different areas of the city focusing on health care for the elderly and the disabled. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_257

There are 20 hospitals in San Juan, half of them operated by the government. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_258

The largest hospital in San Juan and most important of Puerto Rico and the Caribbean is the Rio Piedras Medical Center, or Centro Medico de Rio Piedras in Spanish. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_259

This hospital, founded in 1956, is operated by the Medical Services Administration of the Department of Health of Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_260

It is made up of eight other hospitals. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_261

San Juan, Puerto Rico_unordered_list_2

  • San Juan Municipal Hospital: This hospital is operated by the San Juan municipal government.San Juan, Puerto Rico_item_2_14
  • Industrial Hospital: This is the hospital for Puerto Rico government employees, whether municipal or Commonwealth government employees. Normally, injured police officers and firefighters are cared for here.San Juan, Puerto Rico_item_2_15
  • San Juan Pediatric Hospital - Also operated by the San Juan municipal government.San Juan, Puerto Rico_item_2_16
  • Pediatric Hospital: Operated by the government of the Commonwealth, this is the main trauma hospital for pediatric cases.San Juan, Puerto Rico_item_2_17
  • Centro Médico: This is the main hospital for trauma cases for Puerto Rico and the Caribbean.San Juan, Puerto Rico_item_2_18
  • Centro Cardiovascular del Caribe (Caribbean Cardiovascular Center): This is the main hospital for open heart surgery in the Caribbean. It features a hotel for the patients' families.San Juan, Puerto Rico_item_2_19
  • Psychiatric Hospital: The main psychiatric hospital in Puerto Rico. Operated by the government of Puerto Rico.San Juan, Puerto Rico_item_2_20
  • Psychiatric Correctional Hospital: It is both a hospital and correctional facility. It is operated jointly by the Puerto Rico Department of Corrections and the Medical Services Administration.San Juan, Puerto Rico_item_2_21

The city of San Juan operates 10 hospitals. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_262

Of these, nine are Diagnostic and Treatment Centers located in communities throughout San Juan. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_263

The main hospital is located at Centro Medico. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_264

These 10 hospitals are: San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_265

San Juan, Puerto Rico_unordered_list_3

  • La PerlaSan Juan, Puerto Rico_item_3_22
  • Puerta de TierraSan Juan, Puerto Rico_item_3_23
  • Llorens TorresSan Juan, Puerto Rico_item_3_24
  • Puerto NuevoSan Juan, Puerto Rico_item_3_25
  • San JoséSan Juan, Puerto Rico_item_3_26
  • Rio PiedrasSan Juan, Puerto Rico_item_3_27
  • Sabana LlanaSan Juan, Puerto Rico_item_3_28
  • HoareSan Juan, Puerto Rico_item_3_29
  • Santurce Parada 19San Juan, Puerto Rico_item_3_30
  • General Hospital (Centro Medico)San Juan, Puerto Rico_item_3_31

Also, there are 10 private hospitals in San Juan. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_266

These are: San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_267

San Juan, Puerto Rico_unordered_list_4

  • Hospital MetropolitanoSan Juan, Puerto Rico_item_4_32
  • Hospital Auxilio MutuoSan Juan, Puerto Rico_item_4_33
  • Hospital Auxilio Mutuo ExpresoSan Juan, Puerto Rico_item_4_34
  • Hospital de Veteranos: The main Veterans hospital in the Caribbean. Operated by the U.S. Veteran Healthcare System.San Juan, Puerto Rico_item_4_35
  • Ashford Presbyterian HospitalSan Juan, Puerto Rico_item_4_36
  • Hospital Pavia Hato ReySan Juan, Puerto Rico_item_4_37
  • Hospital Pavia SanturceSan Juan, Puerto Rico_item_4_38
  • San Jorge Children's Hospital: The most well known children's hospital in the San Juan Metropolitan Area.San Juan, Puerto Rico_item_4_39
  • Hospital San Gerardo: Located at the Cupey neighborhood, is a small hospital but is also specialized in psychiatry and elderly.San Juan, Puerto Rico_item_4_40
  • Hospital del Maestro (Teachers Hospital): Located in Hato Rey, this hospital is operated by the Puerto Rico Teachers Association.San Juan, Puerto Rico_item_4_41

Sports San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_24

Teams based in San Juan have been notably successful in athletic competition. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_268

The Santurce Crabbers won the National Superior Basketball League championship in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2003 during this period being recognized as a dynasty. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_269

The San Juan Senators and the Santurce Crabbers were the two major baseball teams in the city, winning the championship of the Puerto Rican Professional Baseball League a total of 17 times. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_270

The Santurce Crabbers are located third among teams with more championships in the Caribbean Series, winning championships in the 1951, 1953, 1955, 1993 and 2000 editions of the tournament. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_271

The city has also been the host of events within the sports community; some examples include: San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_272

San Juan, Puerto Rico_unordered_list_5

The $28 million San Juan Natatorium attracts island-wide and regional swim meets, as well as winter training by top-rated mainland U.S. colleges and universities, including the United States Military Academy at West Point and the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_273

In July 2007, the San Juan Golf Academy and its driving range began operating atop the city's former sanitary landfill in Puerto Nuevo, and will eventually include the city's first and only 9-hole golf course. San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_274

Professional teams San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_25

San Juan, Puerto Rico_table_general_2

ClubSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_2_0_0 SportSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_2_0_1 LeagueSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_2_0_2 VenueSan Juan, Puerto Rico_header_cell_2_0_3
Cangrejeros de SanturceSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_2_1_0 BasketballSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_2_1_1 Baloncesto Superior NacionalSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_2_1_2 Roberto Clemente ColiseumSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_2_1_3
Cangrejeros de SanturceSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_2_2_0 BaseballSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_2_2_1 Puerto Rico Baseball LeagueSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_2_2_2 Hiram Bithorn StadiumSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_2_2_3
Atléticos de San JuanSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_2_3_0 Football/Balompié (Soccer)San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_2_3_1 Puerto Rico Soccer LeagueSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_2_3_2
Academia QuintanaSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_2_4_0
San Juan UnitedSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_2_5_0 Puerto Rico Soccer League Second DivisionSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_2_5_1 Sixto Escobar StadiumSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_2_5_2

International relations San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_26

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Puerto Rico San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_275

Twin towns – sister cities San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_27

San Juan is twinned with: San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_276

San Juan, Puerto Rico_table_general_3


InternationalSan Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_3_0_0

San Juan, Puerto Rico_cell_3_0_1

Notable people from San Juan San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_28

See also: :Category:People from San Juan, Puerto Rico San Juan, Puerto Rico_sentence_277

See also San Juan, Puerto Rico_section_29

San Juan, Puerto Rico_unordered_list_6

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Juan, Puerto Rico.