Santiago de Cuba

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For the American warship, see USS Santiago de Cuba (1861). Santiago de Cuba_sentence_0

For the city in Chile, see Santiago de Chile. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_1

Santiago de Cuba_table_infobox_0

Santiago de CubaSantiago de Cuba_header_cell_0_0_0
CountrySantiago de Cuba_header_cell_0_1_0 CubaSantiago de Cuba_cell_0_1_1
ProvinceSantiago de Cuba_header_cell_0_2_0 Santiago de CubaSantiago de Cuba_cell_0_2_1
EstablishedSantiago de Cuba_header_cell_0_3_0 1515Santiago de Cuba_cell_0_3_1
Founded bySantiago de Cuba_header_cell_0_4_0 Diego Velázquez de CuéllarSantiago de Cuba_cell_0_4_1
AreaSantiago de Cuba_header_cell_0_5_0
MunicipalitySantiago de Cuba_header_cell_0_6_0 1,023.8 km (395.3 sq mi)Santiago de Cuba_cell_0_6_1
ElevationSantiago de Cuba_header_cell_0_7_0 82 m (269 ft)Santiago de Cuba_cell_0_7_1
Population (2020)Santiago de Cuba_header_cell_0_8_0
TotalSantiago de Cuba_header_cell_0_9_0 555,865Santiago de Cuba_cell_0_9_1
Demonym(s)Santiago de Cuba_header_cell_0_10_0 santiaguero/aSantiago de Cuba_cell_0_10_1
Area code(s)Santiago de Cuba_header_cell_0_11_0 +53 22Santiago de Cuba_cell_0_11_1
WebsiteSantiago de Cuba_header_cell_0_12_0 Santiago de Cuba_cell_0_12_1

Santiago de Cuba is the second-largest city in Cuba and the capital city of Santiago de Cuba Province. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_2

It lies in the southeastern area of the island, some 870 km (540 mi) southeast of the Cuban capital of Havana. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_3

The municipality extends over 1,023.8 square kilometers (395.3 sq mi), and contains the communities of Antonio Maceo, Bravo, Castillo Duany, Daiquirí, El Caney, El Cobre, El Cristo, Guilera, Leyte Vidal, Moncada and Siboney. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_4

Historically Santiago de Cuba has long been the second-most important city on the island after Havana, and still remains the second-largest. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_5

It is on a bay connected to the Caribbean Sea and is an important sea port. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_6

In the 2012 population census, the city of Santiago de Cuba recorded a population of 431,272 people. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_7

History Santiago de Cuba_section_0

See also: Timeline of Santiago de Cuba Santiago de Cuba_sentence_8

Santiago de Cuba was the fifth village founded by Spanish conquistador Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar on July 25, 1515. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_9

The settlement was destroyed by fire in 1516, and was immediately rebuilt. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_10

This was the starting point of the expeditions led by Juan de Grijalba and Hernán Cortés to the coasts of Mexico in 1518, and in 1538 by Hernando de Soto's expedition to Florida. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_11

The first cathedral was built in the city in 1528. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_12

From 1522 until 1589, Santiago was the capital of the Spanish colony of Cuba. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_13

The city was plundered by French forces in 1553, and by English forces in 1603. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_14

More than 50 years later the English raided again in 1662 under Christopher Myngs. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_15

The city had a huge influx of French and British immigrants in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_16

Some eighteen thousand refugees, both ethnic French whites and free people of color, and African freedmen, came from Saint-Domingue in the summer of 1803 during the last days of the Haitian slave revolt, which had started in 1791. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_17

Other refugees had emigrated from Saint-Domingue earlier in the revolution. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_18

Haiti declared its independence as a republic in 1804. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_19

The French were withdrawing surviving troops after suffering heavy losses from warfare and yellow fever. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_20

The immigrants, who included freedmen as France had abolished slavery on Saint-Domingue, struggled to maintain their freedom in Cuba, which was still a slave society. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_21

Cuba initially allowed only white refugees, women of color, children, and loyal "domestics" to land; French troops and all men of color over the age of thirteen were held off shore, to be rapidly deported to the mainland, as they were considered a revolutionary threat. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_22

Some French soldiers joined other refugees in Charleston, South Carolina, or New York City; others went to New Orleans. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_23

The refugees who stayed added to the city's eclectic cultural mix, already rich with Spanish and African culture. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_24

Some of the women and children were impressed into slavery again, although they had been free. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_25

In 1809, after Napoleon Bonaparte's forces invaded Spain, French citizens were ordered out of Cuba. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_26

Most went to the United States, and thousands settled in New Orleans, with the freedmen increasing its African culture, as most had been born in Africa. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_27

The ethnic French whites and free people of color, generally with longer ties to French culture, added their flavor to the culture of the city as well. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_28

Near the end of the century, during the Spanish–American War, Santiago was the site of the major defeat of Spanish troops at San Juan Hill on July 1, 1898. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_29

After capturing the surrounding hills, United States General William Rufus Shafter laid siege to the city. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_30

Spain later surrendered to the United States after Admiral William T. Sampson destroyed the Spanish Atlantic fleet just outside Santiago's harbor on July 3, 1898. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_31

Cuba had declared independence from Spain but was occupied by US troops for several years. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_32

Historians suggest they were there to ensure the sugar economy continued to be productive. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_33

José Martí, a Cuban poet, writer, and national hero, is buried in Santa Ifigenia Cemetery in this city. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_34

Role in the Cuban Revolution Santiago de Cuba_section_1

Santiago was the home of the 20th-century revolutionary hero Frank País. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_35

On July 26, 1953, the Cuban Revolution began with an ill-prepared armed attack on the Moncada Barracks by a small contingent of rebels led by Fidel Castro. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_36

Shortly after this disastrous incident, País began talking with students and young working people informally, drawing around him what became an extremely effective urban revolutionary alliance. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_37

He and his followers developed highly organized cells, coordinating a large-scale urban resistance that became instrumental in the success of the Cuban Revolution. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_38

País' group prepared carefully, accruing weapons, collecting money, collecting medical supplies. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_39

They published a cheap newsletter that reported news critical of the government, attempting to counter Batista's censorship of the mainline press. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_40

In the summer of 1955, País's organization merged with Castro's July 26 Movement. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_41

País became the leader of the new organization in Oriente province. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_42

Two years later he was betrayed to the police and was fatally shot after his capture. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_43

On January 1, 1959, Fidel Castro proclaimed the victory of the Cuban Revolution from a balcony on Santiago de Cuba's city hall. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_44

The ashes of País were interred in Santa Ifigenia Cemetery, where Marti had been buried. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_45

Culture Santiago de Cuba_section_2

Santiago de Cuba was the hometown of poet José María Heredia. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_46

The Teatro Heredia, which hosts theater and cultural events, is named in his honor. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_47

The mural relief portrait on the building façade depicts Juan Almeida Bosque, a commander of insurgent forces in the Cuban Revolution. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_48

It is the birthplace of the world-famous Bacardi brand, which was started by Facundo Bacardi Masso in 1862. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_49

It now houses a museum that displays the extensive art collection of the Bacardí family. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_50

Santiago de Cuba is well known for its cultural life. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_51

Some of Cuba's most famous musicians, including Compay Segundo, Ibrahim Ferrer and Eliades Ochoa (all of whom participated in the film Buena Vista Social Club) and trova composer Ñico Saquito (Benito Antonio Fernández Ortiz) were born in the city or in one of the villages surrounding it. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_52

They have contributed to the typical, country-like music of the city. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_53

Santiago de Cuba is well known for its traditional dances, most notably son, from which salsa has been derived. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_54

The city celebrates Carnival in July, although it typically precedes Lent. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_55

With the city preoccupied with the holiday, Castro chose July 26 to enter undetected into the city to assault the Moncada Barracks. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_56

During Carnival, traditional conga music is played in the streets on a traditional pentatonic trumpet, called the trompeta china. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_57

A relatively high number of residents of the city adhere to Afro-Cuban religions, most notably santería. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_58

The city hosts an important community of descendants of immigrants from the early 19th century from what is now Haiti. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_59

Some aspects of the religious "vodún" heritage of the city can be traced back to this community. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_60

The city features several historic architectural styles, from Baroque to neoclassical. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_61

Many colonial buildings have huge windows and balconies, where people can enjoy views of the steep streets and wooded hills. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_62

Preserved historical treasures include the first Spanish dwelling in the Americas, the first cathedral in Cuba, Cobre mine, the first copper mine opened in the Americas; and the first Cuban museum. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_63

World Heritage Site Santiago de Cuba_section_3

The local citadel of San Pedro de la Roca is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "the most complete, best-preserved example of Spanish-American military architecture, based on Italian and Renaissance design principles". Santiago de Cuba_sentence_64

World Heritage Biosphere Reserve Santiago de Cuba_section_4

The Baconao Park was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage Biosphere Reserve List in 1987. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_65

Geography Santiago de Cuba_section_5

Santiago de Cuba is located in the southeast of the island at coordinates 20° 01' 17.42" N 75° 49' 45.75" W, some 870 km (540 mi) of the capital, Havana. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_66

Historically Santiago de Cuba has been the second-largest city in Cuba, behind Havana. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_67

It features a bay connected to the Caribbean Sea and is a major port. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_68

The municipality of Santiago de Cuba, its capital city, is the most populated municipality of Cuba. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_69

The city has developed at the foot of the bay and is surrounded on land by the Sierra Maestra. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_70

It has a hot and humid climate. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_71

The landscapes includes the complexity of urban elements, and natural greenery and marine settings, all at the same time. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_72

It has an irregular offset to the bay, which contributed to the development of an urban setting where the avenues and streets are steep or descend. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_73

Climate Santiago de Cuba_section_6

Under the Köppen climate classification, Santiago de Cuba has a tropical savanna climate with no significant wet and dry periods through the year. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_74

Demographics Santiago de Cuba_section_7

In the 2012 population census the city of Santiago de Cuba recorded a population of 431,272 people. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_75

Communications Santiago de Cuba_section_8

Santiago is served by Antonio Maceo Airport. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_76

Cubana de Aviación connects the city with Havana, Port Au Prince, and Santo Domingo, with other airlines connecting to other cities in the Caribbean and North America. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_77

The public transport in the city, as in Havana, is carried out by two divisions, Omnibus Metropolitanos (OM) and Metrobus. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_78

The Metrobus serves the inner-city urban area, with a maximum distance of 20 km (12 mi). Santiago de Cuba_sentence_79

Omnibus Metropolitanos (OM) connects the adjacent towns and municipalities in the metropolitan area with the city center, with a maximum distance of 40 km (25 mi). Santiago de Cuba_sentence_80

Ferrocarriles de Cuba railways and ASTRO inter-city buses connect the city with Havana's Central Railway Station and with most other main cities of Cuba. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_81

The main railway station, also known as "General Senén Casas", is an important hub of the national railways. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_82

Located in the city centre, near the harbour, this was completely rebuilt in 1997. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_83

The city of Santiago is also crossed by the Carretera Central highway and by the southern section of the A1 motorway, largely unbuilt, that will link it with Havana when it is completed. Santiago de Cuba_sentence_84

Schools Santiago de Cuba_section_9

The main tertiary education institution is the University of Santiago de Cuba (Universidad de Oriente - Santiago de Cuba, UO). Santiago de Cuba_sentence_85

Natives and residents Santiago de Cuba_section_10

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International relations Santiago de Cuba_section_11

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Cuba Santiago de Cuba_sentence_86

Twin towns – Sister cities Santiago de Cuba_section_12

Santiago de Cuba is twinned with: Santiago de Cuba_sentence_87

Santiago de Cuba_unordered_list_1

See also Santiago de Cuba_section_13

Santiago de Cuba_unordered_list_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: de Cuba.