Sayyid

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This article is about the title. Sayyid_sentence_0

It is not to be confused with the given name article Sayyid. Sayyid_sentence_1

"Seyd", "sadat", "Syed", "Saiyid", "Seyyed", and "Descendants of Muhammad" redirect here. Sayyid_sentence_2

For the village in Bushehr Province, see Seydi. Sayyid_sentence_3

For the village in Yazd Province, see Seyyedabad, Bafq. Sayyid_sentence_4

For the village in Fars Province, see Qaleh-ye Seyyed, Mohr. Sayyid_sentence_5

For descendants of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, see Descendants of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. Sayyid_sentence_6

Sayyid_table_infobox_0

SayyidSayyid_table_caption_0
سيدSayyid_header_cell_0_0_0
Regions with significant populationsSayyid_header_cell_0_1_0
LanguagesSayyid_header_cell_0_2_0
ReligionSayyid_header_cell_0_3_0
Related ethnic groupsSayyid_header_cell_0_4_0

Sayyid (UK: /ˈsaɪɪd, ˈseɪjɪd/, US: /ˈsɑːjɪd/;Arabic: سيد‎ [ˈsæjjɪd, Persian: [sejˈjed; meaning "Mister"; Arabic plural: سادة sādah; feminine: سيدة sayyidah) is an honorific title denoting people accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his cousin and son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib) through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and Ali. Sayyid_sentence_7

Female sayyids are given the titles sayyida, syeda, alawiyah or sharifa. Sayyid_sentence_8

In some regions of the Islamic world, such as in India, the descendants of Muhammad are given the title amīr or mīr, meaning "commander", "general". Sayyid_sentence_9

Although not verified, many Arabic language experts state that it has its roots in the word al-asad الأسد, meaning "lion", probably because of the qualities of valour and leadership. Sayyid_sentence_10

Although reliable statistics are unavailable, conservative estimates put the number of Sayyids in the tens of millions. Sayyid_sentence_11

In the Arab world, sayyid is the equivalent of the English word "liege lord" or "master" when referring to a descendant of Muhammad, as in Sayyid Ali Sultan. Sayyid_sentence_12

The word sidi (from the contracted form sayyidī, "my liege") is often used in Arabic. Sayyid_sentence_13

Sayyids are respected in all denominations in Islam. Sayyid_sentence_14

History Sayyid_section_0

The Sayyids are by definition a branch of Banu Hashim, which traces its lineage to Adnan, and therefore directly descends from Ishmael (Ismâ`îl), and collaterally descends from his paternal half-brother Isaac (Isha'aq), the sons of Abraham (Ibrahim). Sayyid_sentence_15

Banū Hāshim (Arabic: بنو هاشم) is the clan of Muhammad, whose great-grandfather was Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, for whom the clan is named. Sayyid_sentence_16

Members of this clan are referred to as Hashemites. Sayyid_sentence_17

Descendants of Muhammad usually carry the titles Sayyid, Syed, Hashmi, Sayed or Sharif, or the Ashraf clan (synonymous to Ahl al-Bayt). Sayyid_sentence_18

Today, two sovereign monarchs – Abdullah II of Jordan and Muhammad VI of Morocco – and the former royal family of Libya are also considered to be a part of Banu Hashim. Sayyid_sentence_19

The Hashemites (Arabic: الهاشميون, Al-Hāshimīyūn; also House of Hashim) are the ruling royal family of Jordan. Sayyid_sentence_20

The House was also the royal family of Syria (1920), Hejaz (1916–1925) and Iraq (1921–1958). Sayyid_sentence_21

The family belongs to the Dhawu Awn, one of the branches of the Hasanid Sharifs of Mecca – also known as Hashemites – who ruled Mecca continuously from the 10th century until its conquest by the House of Saud in 1924. Sayyid_sentence_22

Their eponymous ancestor is Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, great-grandfather of Muhammad. Sayyid_sentence_23

Traditionally, Islam has had a rich history of the veneration of relics, especially of those attributed to Muhammad. Sayyid_sentence_24

The most genuine prophetic relics are believed to be those housed in the Hirkai Serif Odasi (Chamber of the Holy Mantle) in Istanbul's Topkapı Palace. Sayyid_sentence_25

Indication of descent Sayyid_section_1

In the early period, the Arabs used the terms Sayyid and Sharif to denote descendants from both Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali. Sayyid_sentence_26

However, in the modern era, the term Sharif (Sharifah for females) has been used to denote descendants from Hasan, and the term Sayyid (Sayyidah, Syeda for females) has been used to denote descendants from Husayn. Sayyid_sentence_27

Sayyids (who are Shia) often include the following titles in their names to indicate the figure from whom they trace their descent, while Sunni Sayyids often use the last name Shah or Hashmi. Sayyid_sentence_28

The descendants of Ali and his other wives are called Alevi sayyid; they are titled Shah, Sain, Miya Fakir or Dewan. Sayyid_sentence_29

Sayyid_table_general_1

AncestorSayyid_header_cell_1_0_0 Arabic styleSayyid_header_cell_1_0_1 Arabic last nameSayyid_header_cell_1_0_2 Persian last nameSayyid_header_cell_1_0_3 Urdu last nameSayyid_header_cell_1_0_4
Hasan ibn AliSayyid_cell_1_1_0 al-Hasani الحسني او الهاشميSayyid_cell_1_1_1 al-Hasani الحسني

al-Hashemi الهاشميSayyid_cell_1_1_2

Hashemi, Hasani, or Tabatabaei حسنىSayyid_cell_1_1_3 Hassani or Hasani حسنی or Hashemi or Hashmi هاشميSayyid_cell_1_1_4
Husayn ibn AliSayyid_cell_1_2_0 al-Hussaini الحُسينيSayyid_cell_1_2_1 al-Hussaini الحسيني

al-Hashemi الهاشميSayyid_cell_1_2_2

Hashemi هاشمی

Hussaini حسینیSayyid_cell_1_2_3

Hussaini حسيني

Hashemi or ShahSayyid_cell_1_2_4

Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-AbidinSayyid_cell_1_3_0 al-Abidi or Abid العابديSayyid_cell_1_3_1 al-Abidi العابديSayyid_cell_1_3_2 Abedi عابدىSayyid_cell_1_3_3 Abidi or Abdi عابدیSayyid_cell_1_3_4
Zayd ibn AliSayyid_cell_1_4_0 az-Zaidi الزيديSayyid_cell_1_4_1 al-Zaydi الزيدي

al-Hashemi الهاشميSayyid_cell_1_4_2

Zaydi زیدیSayyid_cell_1_4_3 Zaidi زيدي

Hashemi 'Alawîyyun هاشمي Salari (Saiyyad Salar Masud Descendants)Sayyid_cell_1_4_4

Idris ibn AbdullahSayyid_cell_1_5_0 al-Idrisi الإدريسيSayyid_cell_1_5_1 al-Idrisi الإدريسيSayyid_cell_1_5_2 His descendants are mostly from the MaghrebSayyid_cell_1_5_3 His descendants are mostly from the MaghrebSayyid_cell_1_5_4
Muhammad al-BaqirSayyid_cell_1_6_0 al-Baqari الباقريSayyid_cell_1_6_1 al-Baqiri الباقريSayyid_cell_1_6_2 Baqeri باقریSayyid_cell_1_6_3 Baqri باقریSayyid_cell_1_6_4
Ja'far al-SadiqSayyid_cell_1_7_0 al-Ja'fari الجعفريSayyid_cell_1_7_1 al-Ja'fari or al-Sadiq/Sadegh الصدق او الجعفريSayyid_cell_1_7_2 Jafari or Sadeghi جعفرى/ صادقیSayyid_cell_1_7_3 Jafri or Jafry جعفری or Jaffery shamsi جعفری‌شمسیSayyid_cell_1_7_4
Musa al-KadhimSayyid_cell_1_8_0 al-Moussawi الموسوي او الكاظميSayyid_cell_1_8_1 al-Moussawi or al-Kadhimi الموسوي او الكاظميSayyid_cell_1_8_2 Moosavi or Kazemi موسوى / کاظمىSayyid_cell_1_8_3 Kazmi کاظمیSayyid_cell_1_8_4
Ali al-RidhaSayyid_cell_1_9_0 ar-Radawi الرضويSayyid_cell_1_9_1 al-Ridawi or al-Radawi الرضويSayyid_cell_1_9_2 Razavi or Rezavi رضوىSayyid_cell_1_9_3 Rizvi or Rizavi رضویSayyid_cell_1_9_4
Muhammad at-TaqiSayyid_cell_1_10_0 at-Taqawi التقويSayyid_cell_1_10_1 al-Taqawi التقويSayyid_cell_1_10_2 Taqavi تقوىSayyid_cell_1_10_3 Taqvi تقویSayyid_cell_1_10_4
Ali al-HadiSayyid_cell_1_11_0 an-Naqawi النقويSayyid_cell_1_11_1 al-Naqawi النقوي or al-Bukhari البخاريSayyid_cell_1_11_2 Naghavi نقوىSayyid_cell_1_11_3 Naqvi نقوی or Bhaakri/Bukhari بھاکری/بخاریSayyid_cell_1_11_4
Hasan al-AskariSayyid_cell_1_12_0 al-Askari العسکريSayyid_cell_1_12_1 al-Bukhari البخاريSayyid_cell_1_12_2 Sadat ساداتSayyid_cell_1_12_3 Sadat سادات or Attar al Bukhari or Baha' al-Din Naqshband al Bukhari بخاريSayyid_cell_1_12_4
Abdul Qadir GilaniSayyid_cell_1_13_0 Al-Jilani

الجيلانيSayyid_cell_1_13_1

Al-Jilani

الجيلانيSayyid_cell_1_13_2

Al-Gilani

الگیلانیSayyid_cell_1_13_3

گیلانی سادات

Or Gilani (Gillani) or Jilani Sadat الحسنی الحسینی الگیلانیSayyid_cell_1_13_4

Note: (For non-Arabic speakers) When transliterating Arabic words into English there are two approaches. Sayyid_sentence_30

Sayyid_unordered_list_0

  • 1. The user may transliterate the word letter for letter (e.g., "الزيدي" becomes "a-l-z-ai-d-i").Sayyid_item_0_0
  • 2. The user may transcribe the pronunciation of the word (e.g., "الزيدي" becomes "a-zz-ai-d-i"); in Arabic grammar, some consonants (n, r, s, sh, t and z) cancel the l (ل) from the word "the" al (ال) (see sun and moon letters). When the user sees the prefixes an, ar, as, ash, at, az, etc... this means the word is the transcription of the pronunciation.Sayyid_item_0_1
  • An i, wi (Arabic), or vi (Persian) ending could perhaps be translated by the English suffixes -ite or -ian. The suffix transforms a personal name or place name into the name of a group of people connected by lineage or place of birth. Hence Ahmad al-Hassani could be translated as Ahmad, the descendant of Hassan, and Ahmad al-Manami as Ahmad from the city of Manami. For further explanation, see Arabic names.Sayyid_item_0_2

Also, El-Husseini, Al-Husseini, Husseini, and Hussaini. Sayyid_sentence_31

Those who use the term Sayyid for all descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib regard Allawis or Alavis as Sayyids. Sayyid_sentence_32

However, Allawis are not descendants of Muhammad, as they are descended from the children of Ali and the women he married after the death of Fatima, such as Umm ul-Banin (Fatima bint Hizam). Sayyid_sentence_33

Those who limit the term Sayyid to descendants of Muhammad through Fatima, Allawis/Alavis are the same how Sayyids. Sayyid_sentence_34

Some Sayyids also claim to be Najeeb Al Tarfayn, meaning "Noble on both sides", which indicates that both of their parents are Sayyid. Sayyid_sentence_35

In actuality, this term is applied only to Sayyids who have both Hassan and Husayn in their ancestry. Sayyid_sentence_36

These Sayyids, especially in the Arab world, would keep the prefix of Sayyid Alshareef or Shareefayn, or Sayyidayn or Sheikh Assayyid before their names, followed by their father's and grandfather's names and then the clan's and tribe's names followed by AlHasani bil Hussaini or Al Hussaini bil Hasani, depending on which line is patrilineal or matrilineal. Sayyid_sentence_37

Many Sayyids, especially in South Asia and Shia Sayyids, think that only the progeny of both Sayyid parents are called Najeeb Al Tarfayn, but this idea may be attributed to a lack of knowledge in Arabic language and Genealogy. Sayyid_sentence_38

The importance of this concept of Najeeb AlTarfayn has its source in the Hadeeth of Muhammad wherein he stated that the Mahdi, or "The Hidden One", would be Najeeb AlTarfayn from his lineage. Sayyid_sentence_39

Hence, Shia and Sunni Sayyids have different interpretations of this concept.In the Arab world Najeeb AlTarfayn Saadah would keep two white-coloured daggers as opposed to just one by other Sayyids to demarcate their superiority amongst them. Sayyid_sentence_40

Hence their International coat of arms also shows two daggers. Sayyid_sentence_41

Existence of descendants of Hasan al-Askari Sayyid_section_2

The existence of any descendant of Hasan al Askari is disputed by many people. Sayyid_sentence_42

Genealogy trees of Middle Eastern and Central Asian families, mostly from Persia,East Africa, mostly in Somalia and Ethiopia, Khorasan, Samarqand, and Bukhara show that Hasan al-Askari had a second son called Sayyid Ali Akbar, which indicates that al-Askari had children and substantiates the existence of Muhammad al Mahdi. Sayyid_sentence_43

Whether al-Askari had children or not is still disputed may be because of the political conflicts between the followers of the Imamah and the leadership of the Abbasids and Ghulat Shiites who do not believe in Hasan al-Askari's Imamah. Sayyid_sentence_44

Another group of historians studying the pedigrees of some Central Asian saints' shejere (genealogy trees) believe that the Twelfth Imam was not the only son of Hasan al-Askari, and that the Eleventh Imam had two sons: Sayyid Muhammad (i.e., the Shia Mahdi) and Sayyid Ali Akbar. Sayyid_sentence_45

According to the earliest reports as from official family tree documents and records , Imam Hasan al-Askari fathered seven children and was survived by six. Sayyid_sentence_46

The names of his biological children were: Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi, Musa, Ja’far, Ibrahim, Fatima, Ayesha, and ‘Ali, sometimes referred to as Akbar, Asghar or Abdullah. Sayyid_sentence_47

Sayyid ‘Ali Akbar bin Imam Hasan al-Askari is Sultan Saadat (Sodot) who died in Termez. Sayyid_sentence_48

His burial place is located in the main mausoleum Sultan Saodat memorial complex in Termez Sayyid_sentence_49

These Central Asian notable sayyid families have historical genealogical manuscripts that are confirmed with seals by many Naqibs, Muftis, Imams, Kadi Kuzzats, A’lams, Khans, and Emirs of those times. Sayyid_sentence_50

One descendant of Sayyid Ali Akbar was Saint Ishan (Eshon) Imlo of Bukhara. Sayyid_sentence_51

is called "saint of the last time" in Bukhara, as it is believed that after him there were no more saints – Asian Muslims generally revere him as the last of the saints. Sayyid_sentence_52

According to the source, Ishan Imlo died in 1162 AH (1748–1749); his mausoleum (mazar) is in a cemetery in Bukhara. Sayyid_sentence_53

Notable descendants of Sayyid Ali Akbar are Sufi saints like Bahauddin Naqshband, descendant after eleven generations; Khwaja Khawand Mahmud known as Hazrat Ishaan, descendant after eighteen generations; the two brothers Sayyid ul Sadaat Sayyid Mir Jan and Sayyid ul Sadaat Mir Sayyid Mahmud Agha, maternal descendants of Hasan al Askari; qadi ; and Sufi saints Tajuddin Muhammad Badruddin and Pir Baba. Sayyid_sentence_54

In her book Pain and Grace: A Study of Two Mystical Writers of Eighteenth-Century Muslim India, Dr. Annemarie Schimmel writes: Sayyid_sentence_55

Although Shiite historians generally reject the claim that Hasan al-Askari fathered children other than Muhammad al-Mahdi, Bab Mawlid Abi Muhammad al-Hasan writes, in the Shiite hadith book Usul al-Kafi: Sayyid_sentence_56

Africa Sayyid_section_3

Most of the Muslim historians claimed that three of the descendants of Ali ibn Abu Talib migrated into Somalia and Ethiopia. Sayyid_sentence_57

The two Ashrafs migrated to Ethiopia and the remaining sayyid settled in Somalia. Sayyid_sentence_58

Ethiopia Sayyid_section_4

Most of the Muslim historians and geologists claimed that one of the Ashrafs called Hajji Ali migrated into southern part of Ethiopia. Sayyid_sentence_59

After he migrated there, he got a baby and named him Gen-Silte. Sayyid_sentence_60

His children then called by their father's name "Silte". Sayyid_sentence_61

according to the Silte tribesmen, the father of Hajji Aliyye(Hajji Ali) who was Hajji Omar bin Osman was an Arab. Sayyid_sentence_62

he used to live in Hijaz now called Saudi Arabia. Sayyid_sentence_63

He migrated to Harar first, then settled in the southern part of Omnan which is now a part of Silte. Sayyid_sentence_64

Middle East Sayyid_section_5

Men belonging to the Sayyid families or tribes in the Arab world used to wear white or ivory coloured daggers like jambiyas, khanjars or shibriyas to demarcate their nobility amongst other Arab men, although this custom has been restricted due to the local laws of the variously divided Arab countries. Sayyid_sentence_65

Wearing turbans of various colours, especially white, black, green, yellow, orange, or maroon is done as a substitute and practised more by non-Arab Sayyids than their Arab counterparts. Sayyid_sentence_66

Iraq Sayyid_section_6

The Sayyid families in Iraq are so numerous that there are books written especially to list the families and connect their trees. Sayyid_sentence_67

Some of these families are: the Alyassiri, Al Aqeeqi, Al-Nasrullah, Al-Wahab, Al-Hashimi, Al-Quraishi, Al-Witry, Al-Obaidi, Al-Mayali, Al-Samarai, Al-Zaidi, Al-A'araji, Al-Baka, Al-Hasani, Al-Hussaini, Al-Shahristani, Al-Qazwini Al-Qadri, Tabatabaei, Al-Alawi, Al-Ghawalib (Al-Ghalibi), Al-Musawi, Al-Awadi (not to be confused with the Al-Awadhi Huwala family), Al-Gharawi, Al-Sabzewari, Al-Shubber, Al-Hayali, Al-Kamaludeen and many others. Sayyid_sentence_68

Iran Sayyid_section_7

Sayyids (in Persian: سید‎ seyyed) are found in vast numbers in Iran. Sayyid_sentence_69

The Chief of "National Organization for Civil Registration" of Iran declared that more than 6 million of Iranians are Sayyid. Sayyid_sentence_70

The majority of Sayyids migrated to Iran from Arab lands predominantly in the 15th to 17th centuries during the Safavid era. Sayyid_sentence_71

The Safavids transformed the religious landscape of Iran by imposing Twelver Shiism on the populace. Sayyid_sentence_72

Since most of the population embraced Sunni Islam, and an educated version of Shiism was scarce in Iran at the time, Ismail imported a new group of Shia Ulama who predominantly were Sayyids from traditional Shiite centers of the Arabic-speaking lands, such as Jabal Amel (of southern Lebanon), Syria, Bahrain, and southern Iraq in order to create a state clergy. Sayyid_sentence_73

The Safavids offered them land and money in return for loyalty. Sayyid_sentence_74

These scholars taught Twelver Shiism, made it accessible to the population, and energetically encouraged conversion to Shiism. Sayyid_sentence_75

During the reign of Shah Abbas the Great, the Safavids also imported to Iran more Arab Shias, predominantly Sayyids, built religious institutions for them, including many Madrasas (religious schools), and successfully persuaded them to participate in the government, which they had shunned in the past (following the Hidden imam doctrine). Sayyid_sentence_76

Common Sayyid family surnames in Iran are Husseini, Mousavi, Kazemi, Razavi, Eshtehardian, Tabatabaei, Hashemi, Hassani, Jafari, Emami, Ladjevardi, Zaidi, Imamzadeh, Sherazi, Kermani (kirmani) and Shahidi. Sayyid_sentence_77

They were often given accommodation free of charge. Sayyid_sentence_78

Oman Sayyid_section_8

In Oman, Sayyid is used by members of the Al Said ruling royal family. Sayyid_sentence_79

The absolute ruler of the country retains the title Sultan with members of the royal family eligible for succession to the throne given the title Sheikh, these may also use the title Sayyid should they wish to, although as Sheikh supersedes this, it is not a widely used practice. Sayyid_sentence_80

Members of the extended family or members by marriage carry the title Sayyid or Sayyida for a female. Sayyid_sentence_81

Such titles in Oman are hereditary through paternal lineage or in some exceptional circumstances, such as an honorary title given by royal decree. Sayyid_sentence_82

Members of the Al Said family use the term Sayyid soley as a title and not as a means of indicating descent, as the Al Said royal family does not descend from Banu Hashim or from Imam Ali and instead descends from the Qahtanite Zahran tribe. Sayyid_sentence_83

Yemen Sayyid_section_9

In Yemen the Sayyids are more generally known as sadah; they are also referred to as Hashemites. Sayyid_sentence_84

In terms of religious practice they are Shia, Sunni, and Sufi. Sayyid_sentence_85

Sayyid families in Yemen include the Rassids, the Qasimids, the Mutawakkilites, the Hamideddins, some Al-Zaidi of Ma'rib, Sana'a, and Sa'dah, the Ba 'Alawi sada families in Hadhramaut, Al-Wazir of Sana'a, Al-Shammam of Sa'dah, the Sufyan of Juban, and the Al-Jaylani of Juban. Sayyid_sentence_86

Libya Sayyid_section_10

Further information: List of Ashraf tribes in Libya Sayyid_sentence_87

The Sayyids in Libya are Sunni, including the former royal family, which is originally Zaidi-Moroccan (also known as the Senussi family). Sayyid_sentence_88

The El-Barassa Family are Ashraf as claimed by the sons of Abdulsalam ben Meshish, a descendant of Hassan bin Ali bin Abi Talib. Sayyid_sentence_89

South Asia Sayyid_section_11

Although millions of people in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal claim Hashemite descent, genealogy family trees are studied to authenticate claims. Sayyid_sentence_90

In 1901 the total number of Sayyids in British India was counted as 1,339,734. Sayyid_sentence_91

Recent estimates show that in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal there are more than fifteen million Sayyids: eight million in Pakistan, seven million in India, over one million in Bangladesh, and around seventy thousand in Nepal. Sayyid_sentence_92

History of South Asian Sayyids Sayyid_section_12

Sayyids migrated many centuries ago from different parts of the Middle East and Central Asia (Turkestan) during the invasion of the Mongols, Ghaznavid dynasty, Delhi Sultanate, and Mughal Empire, encompassing a timespan of roughly until the late 19th century. Sayyid_sentence_93

Sayyids migrated to Sindh, Uch, and Attock Khurd (Punjab) in the north and settled there very early. Sayyid_sentence_94

Other early migrant Sayyids moved deep into the south to the Deccan sultanates located in the Deccan Plateau region in the time of the Bahmani Sultanate, and later Golkonda, Nizam Shahi of Ahmednagar, Bijapur, Bidar, and Berar. Sayyid_sentence_95

Several visited India as merchants or escaped from the Abbasid, Umayyad and Safavid. Sayyid_sentence_96

Their names appear in Indian history at the dissolution of the Mughal Empire, when the Sayyid brothers created and dethroned emperors at their will (1714–1720). Sayyid_sentence_97

The first Muslims appointed to the Council of India and the first appointed to the privy council were both Sayyids. Sayyid_sentence_98

India Sayyid_section_13

The total Sayyid population in India is 7,017,000, with the largest populations in Uttar Pradesh (1,493,000), Maharashtra (1,108,000), Karnataka (766,000), Andhra Pradesh (727,000), Rajasthan (497,000), Bihar (419,000), West Bengal (372,000), Madhya Pradesh (307,000), Gujarat (245,000), Tamil Nadu (206,000), and 25,000 in Jammu and Kashmir. Sayyid_sentence_99

Sayyids are also found in the north-eastern state of Assam, where they are locally also referred to as Dawans. Sayyid_sentence_100

In India, Sayyids of Hadramawt (who originated mainly from the Arabian Peninsula and the Persian Gulf) gained widespread fame. Sayyid_sentence_101

There is a big community of Sayyids settled in and around the Nanganallur region in Chennai that trace their ancestry directly to the Sayyids of Iraq. Sayyid_sentence_102

Traditional Sayyid families rarely marry outside their community, and emphasise marrying into Najeeb Altarfain (of Sayyid descent from both the mother's and father's side) families. Sayyid_sentence_103

This insistence on endogamy has begun to decline among the more urbanized families, with an increase in exogamy with other groups such as the Shaikh and Mughals. Sayyid_sentence_104

Historically, the Sayyids of Uttar Pradesh were substantial landowners, often absentees, and this was especially the case with the Awadh taluqdars. Sayyid_sentence_105

In the urban townships, Sayyid families served as priests, teachers, and administrators with the British colonial authorities given the community a preference in recruitment. Sayyid_sentence_106

Though they account for less than 3% of Muslim population, they control a majority of economic resources. Sayyid_sentence_107

The community also has a very high literacy rate. Sayyid_sentence_108

The independence and partition of India in 1947 was traumatic for the community, with many families becoming divided and some moving to Pakistan. Sayyid_sentence_109

This was followed by the abolition of the zamindari system, where land was redistributed to those who till the land. Sayyid_sentence_110

Many Sayyids who remained on the land are now medium and small scale farmers, while in urban areas, there has been a shift towards modern occupations. Sayyid_sentence_111

North India Sayyid_section_14

The earliest migration of Sayyids from Afghanistan to North India took place in 1032 when Gazi Saiyyed Salar Sahu (general and brother-in-law of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni) and his son Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud established their military headquarters at Satrikh (16 km (9.9 mi) from Zaidpur) in the Barabanki district of Uttar Pradesh. Sayyid_sentence_112

They are considered to be the first Muslim settlers in North India. Sayyid_sentence_113

In 1033 Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud was killed at the battle of Bahraich, the location of his mazr. Sayyid_sentence_114

Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud had no children. Sayyid_sentence_115

His parental uncle Syed Maroofuddin Ghazi and his family lived in Tijara until 1857 before they migrated to Bhopal. Sayyid_sentence_116

Syed Ahmed Rizvi Kashmiri and Khan Bahadur Aga Syed Hussain were both Rizvi Sayyids through Aaqa Meer Sayyid Hussain Qomi Rizvi, whose sacred shrine is in the Zainageer Village of Sopore, Kashmir. Sayyid_sentence_117

Iraqi Sayyids or Iraqi biradri in Eastern Uttar Pradesh are descendants of Sayyid Masud Al Hussaini who was the direct descendant of Prophet's grandson Hussain ibn Ali and came to India from Iraq during the reign of Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq in 1330 A.D. Sayyid_sentence_118

He settled with his seven sons and forty champions in Ghazipur (U.P.) Sayyid_sentence_119

as some of them (i.e., Syed Abu Bakr in Nonahra, Ghazipur) converted to Sunni Islam in the reign of Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi around 1517. Sayyid_sentence_120

His Shia descendants are now known as Sayyids of Ghazipur. Sayyid_sentence_121

Sayyids of Syed nagli, or Said Nagli, or the Baquari Syeds had migrated from Termez (Present day Uzbekistan) during the Sultanate era. Sayyid_sentence_122

Sikandar Lodi was the ruler of Delhi when Mir Syed Mohammad al Hussain al Hussaini al Termezi Haji al Haramain came to India and settled at Syed Nagli. Sayyid_sentence_123

He was a Baquari Syed who drew his lineage from Muhammad al Baqir. Sayyid_sentence_124

Perhaps the most important figure in the history of the Sayyid in Uttar Pradesh was Sayyid Basrullah Shustari, who moved from Mashad in Iran in 1549 and joined the court of the Mughal Emperor Akbar. Sayyid_sentence_125

Akbar appointed Shustari as his chief justice, who used his position to strengthen the status of the various Sayyid families. Sayyid_sentence_126

They were preferred in administrative posts and formed a privileged elite. Sayyid_sentence_127

When the Mughal Empire disintegrated, the Sayyid played an important role in the turbulent politics of the time. Sayyid_sentence_128

The new British colonial authorities that replaced the Mughals after the Battle of Buxar made a pragmatic decision to work with the various Sayyid jagirdars. Sayyid_sentence_129

Several Sayyid taluqdars in Awadh were substantial landowners under the British colonial regime, and many other Sayyid contributed to state administration. Sayyid_sentence_130

After the abolition of the zamindari system, many Sayyid zamindars (e.g. that of Ghazipur) had to leave their homes. Sayyid_sentence_131

Uttar Pradesh Sayyid_section_15

The ancestor of the Bārha Sayyids, Sayyid Abu'l Farah Al Hussaini Al Wasti, left his original home in Wasit, Iraq, with his twelve sons at the end of the 13th century and migrated to India, where he obtained four villages in Sirhind-Fategarh. Sayyid_sentence_132

By the 16th century Abu'l Farah's descendants had taken over Bārha villages in Muzaffarnagar. Sayyid_sentence_133

The Sayyids of Bilgram are Hussaini Sayyids, who first migrated from Wasit, Iraq, in the 13th century. Sayyid_sentence_134

Their ancestor, Syed Mohammad Sughra, a Zaidi Sayyid of Iraq, arrived in India during the rule of Sultan Iltutmish. Sayyid_sentence_135

In 1217–18 the family conquered and settled in Bilgram. Sayyid_sentence_136

A notable Sufi that belonged to a Sayyid family was Syed Salar Masud, from whom many of the Sayyid families of Awadh claim their lineage. Sayyid_sentence_137

Sayyids of Salon (Raebareli), Jarwal (Bahraich), Kintoor (Barabanki), and Zaidpur (Barabanki) were well-known Taluqadars (feudal lords) of Awadh province. Sayyid_sentence_138

Sayyed also found in Abdullapur Meerut. Sayyid_sentence_139

People from Sadaat also found in Kannauj trace their lineage from Husayn through Ali al-Hadi, a branch of Naqvi Bukhari. Sayyid_sentence_140

Sayyids from Iran initially chose four places to settle in India. Sayyid_sentence_141

These were Hallaur, Baraha, Mohan and Bilgram. Sayyid_sentence_142

Sayyids of Mohan descend from one of the descendants of the Imam Raza, Sayyid Mahmood Neshapuri who migrated to India from Iran and settled in Mohan. Sayyid_sentence_143

Gujarat Sayyid_section_16

In Gujarat, most of the Sayyid families are descended from individuals invited by the Muslim rulers of Gujarat to serve as advisers and administrators, and were granted jagirs. Sayyid_sentence_144

During the period of Sultan Mahmud Begada (1458–1511), the sultan provided land to three Sayyid brothers and a grant to settle there after the victory of Pavagadh Fort. Sayyid_sentence_145

In 1484 the sultan conquered the fort on 21 November 1484 and transferred his capital to Champaner, which he completely rebuilt at the foothills of the Pavagadh Fort and named it Muhammadabad. Sayyid_sentence_146

During Mughal rule in Gujarat (1570–1750), the Sayyid held the majority of the civil and ecclesiastical posts. Sayyid_sentence_147

For example, the Sayyids of Thasra, Kheda district, were invited to serve as administrators and judges by the Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb, and were provided land grants to settle there. Sayyid_sentence_148

They also comprised a significant portion of the Mughal army, and many are still found in old Muslim garrison towns like Ahmedabad. Sayyid_sentence_149

Many of the early Sufi saints that came to Gujarat belonged to Sayyid families, most of which came from Central Asia, Iran, Yemen, Oman, Basra, and Bahrain. Sayyid_sentence_150

Bihar Sayyid_section_17

There are different groups of Sayyids in bihar tracing their ancestory from Iran , Iraq . Sayyid_sentence_151

The most prominent Sayyids of Bihar have been the descendants of Shaikh Sharfuddin Maneri (Sufi Saint) and Malik Ibrahim Baya ( Ruler Sufi Saint ). Sayyid_sentence_152

Their Tomb (resting place) are in Bihar Sharif and are Protected under Archaeological Survey of India . Sayyid_sentence_153

In Bihar, Sayyids were landlords, Judges, barristers, intellectuals, civil servant, clerics, teachers, businessmen and farmers. Sayyid_sentence_154

They were deeply involved in Bihari politics before India's independence. Sayyid_sentence_155

Bihar first Premier ( chief Minister) Mohammad Yunus (politician) a direct decendent of Syed Ibrahim Malik baya , Abu Bakr Ahmad Haleem ( Political science) and, Sulaiman Nadvi (Historian) , Saiyid Fazl Ali , Abdul Bari (professor) and other are some of the notable personalities among Bihar Sayyids. Sayyid_sentence_156

Here are the list of Padma Shri and Padma Vibhushan Award recipients in Bihar - Sayyid_sentence_157

Sayyid_table_general_2

Padma SriSayyid_table_caption_2
NameSayyid_header_cell_2_0_0 FieldSayyid_header_cell_2_0_1 YearSayyid_header_cell_2_0_2
Moin-ul-Haq

Sunni IslamSayyid_cell_2_1_0

Awarded for the work done in field of SportSayyid_cell_2_1_1 1970Sayyid_cell_2_1_2
Dr. Syed Hassan (educationist)

. Sunni IslamSayyid_cell_2_2_0

Awarded for the work done in the field of EducationSayyid_cell_2_2_1 1991Sayyid_cell_2_2_2
Prof. Syed Hasan Askari

Shia IslamSayyid_cell_2_3_0

Awarded for the work done in the field of Medival historySayyid_cell_2_3_1 1985Sayyid_cell_2_3_2

Sayyid_table_general_3

Padma VibhushanSayyid_table_caption_3
NameSayyid_header_cell_3_0_0 fieldSayyid_header_cell_3_0_1 yearSayyid_header_cell_3_0_2
Saiyid Fazl Ali

Sunni IslamSayyid_cell_3_1_0

Reorganization of India's statesSayyid_cell_3_1_1 1956Sayyid_cell_3_1_2
Sayyid_cell_3_2_0 Sayyid_cell_3_2_1 Sayyid_cell_3_2_2

Most prominent personalities of Rizvi Saadat of Bihar were from Desna, Bihar. Sayyid_sentence_158

For Example Syed Mohammed Saeed Raza, Abdul Qavi Desnavi and Sulaiman Nadvi. Sayyid_sentence_159

Few famous Zaidi Sadaat personalities of Bihar were, Syed Hasan Imam, , Aftab Alam (judge). Sayyid_sentence_160

South India Sayyid_section_18

Kerala Sayyid_section_19

Kerala has a 2,000-year-old association with Arabia. Sayyid_sentence_161

In Malayalam, Thangal is an honorific Muslim title that is almost equivalent to Sayyid and is given to males whom are believed to be descendants of Muhammad. Sayyid_sentence_162

The present-day Thangals are supposed to be descended from Sayyid families who migrated from the historic city of Tarim, in the Hadhramaut Province, Yemen, during the 17th century in order to propagate Islam on the Malabar Coast. Sayyid_sentence_163

Sayyids selected coastal areas to settle. Sayyid_sentence_164

The royal family of Arakkal in Kerala had Thangal origins. Sayyid_sentence_165

Tamil Nadu Sayyid_section_20

There are a notable number of Sayyids in Tamil Nadu that mostly concentrate in the cities like Erwadi, Nagore, Madurai, and Kayalpattinam. Sayyid_sentence_166

Badusha Sulthan Syed Ibrahim Shaheed of Ervadi, a Hussaini descendant of Mohammed and a ruler of Madinah, travelled to South India in the middle of the 12th century. Sayyid_sentence_167

His descendants who live in Ervadi with the clan name Levvai are from a single forefather and are Sayyids. Sayyid_sentence_168

The heirs of Shahul Hamid Abdul Qadir badusha of Nagore who live there and are called with clan name of Sahib or Saab or Saabu are Sayyids. Sayyid_sentence_169

Kazi Syed Tajuddin the son of Mufti Jamaluddin al Ma'abari who founded the Kazimar Big Mosque in the 13th century the first mosque in Madurai is a Hussaini descendant of Prophet Mohammed and hence belong to Syed family. Sayyid_sentence_170

Until recently, his descendants (Syeds-Qazis-Huqdars) lived in the same Kazimar Street locality in the center of Madurai city for over seven centuries and managed the Kazimar Big Mosque constructed by their forefather. Sayyid_sentence_171

Syed Tajuddin's younger son Kazi Alauddin lived in Kayalpattinam and his shrine is found there. Sayyid_sentence_172

Pakistan Sayyid_section_21

See also: Arabs in Pakistan Sayyid_sentence_173

There are numerous Sayyids in Pakistan. Sayyid_sentence_174

Some of them first migrated to Gardez, Bukhara, and Termez, before moving to South Asia due to mass genocides, discrimination, and prejudice from the rulers of that era. Sayyid_sentence_175

Pakistani Sayyids have lineages which descend from Prophet Muhammad and Imam Ali through Husayn and Hasan. Sayyid_sentence_176

Many settled early in Uch, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, and Punjab. Sayyid_sentence_177

There are many Sayyids of both Shia and Sunni sects of Islam. Sayyid_sentence_178

Amongst the famous Sayyids who migrated to this region were Shah Yousaf Gardez of Multan, who came to Multan, Punjab, around 1050. Sayyid_sentence_179

His grandfather, Syed Ali Qaswer, a descendant of Ja'far al-Sadiq, the grandson of Husayn, migrated from Bughdad and was settled in Gardez, Afghanistan. Sayyid_sentence_180

The Gardezis of Pakistan and the Azad of Jammu and Kashmir are his descendants. Sayyid_sentence_181

Other saints include Syed Ali Shah Tirmizi (Pir Baba) of Buner, Syed Kastir Gul of Nowshera, Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari, Shaykh Syed Mir Mirak Andrabi of Khanqi Andrabi in Kashmir, Haji Syed Ahmed Shah (Haji Baba) of Dir and Sayyid Muhammad Al-Makki. Sayyid_sentence_182

Sayyid people of Pakistan are figured as the most prominent and well-established people of the country, with a number of them having become popular and well-known religious icons, political leaders, and professionals. Sayyid_sentence_183

Furthermore, Pakistan currently holds the largest Sayyid population in all of South Asia. Sayyid_sentence_184

The Syeds in Balochistan are present in the Pishine and District Harnai. Sayyid_sentence_185

The Harnai Syed include sub-categories such as Bukhari. Sayyid_sentence_186

The Syed Bukhari is popular in Harnai district because of his religious thoughts. Sayyid_sentence_187

The popular mazar of Syed Bukhari in the districts of Harnai Shaikh Mussa Baba and Shaik Zirak and Mubarak are also populated... Sayyid_sentence_188

The Sayyids of Punjab belong to the Hasani (descendants of Hasan), Husaini (descendants of Husayn), Zaidi (descendants of Zayd ibn Ali, grandson of Husayn), Rizvi, (descendants of Ali al-Ridha), and Naqvi and their sub-caste Bukhari (descendants of Ali al-Hadi). Sayyid_sentence_189

The Sayyids from Sheraz, Iran, migrated to Baluchistan and later to Sindh are known as Sherazi Sayyid. Sayyid_sentence_190

They live in Jacobabad and Thatta. Sayyid_sentence_191

The first Sherazi Sayyid to migrate from Baluchistan to Sindh was Malook Shah who was a saint (he is buried near Jacobabad). Sayyid_sentence_192

Another saint, Sindh Mehr Shah, descended from Malook Shah. Sayyid_sentence_193

MPA Aijaz Ali Shah and ex-Provincial Secretary Arbab Ali Shah are Sherazi Sayyid. Sayyid_sentence_194

Genetic studies of Sayyids of the Indian sub-continent Sayyid_section_22

The authors of the study, the Y chromosomes of self-identified Syeds from India and Pakistan are no less diverse than those non-Syeds from the same regions, suggested that Syed status, rather than being strictly patrilineal, may have been passed through other routes. Sayyid_sentence_195

The paper, "Y chromosomes of self-identified Syeds from the Indian subcontinent", by Elise M. S. Belle, Saima Shah, Tudor Parfitt, and Mark G. Thomas showed that "self-identified Syeds had no less genetic diversity than those non-Syeds from the same regions, suggesting that there is no biological basis to the belief that self-identified Syeds in this part of the world share a recent common ancestry. Sayyid_sentence_196

However, self-identified men belonging to the ‘Islamic honorific lineages’ (Syeds, Hashemites, Quraysh and Ansari) show a greater genetic affinity to Arab populations—despite the geographic distance – than do their neighbouring populations from India and Pakistan." Sayyid_sentence_197

In Northern India, 29 per cent of the Shia Muslim belong to haplogroup J. Sayyid_sentence_198

There are 18 per cent belonging mainly to haplogroup J2 and another 11 per cent belong to haplogroup J1, which both represent Middle Eastern lineages. Sayyid_sentence_199

J1 is exclusively Near Eastern. Sayyid_sentence_200

Southeast Asia Sayyid_section_23

Most of the Alawi Sayyids who moved to Southeast Asia were descendants of Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, especially of Ba 'Alawi sada, many of which were descendants of migrants from Hadhramaut. Sayyid_sentence_201

Even though they are alleged descendants of Husayn, it is uncommon for the female Sayyids to be called Sayyidah; they are more commonly called Sharifah. Sayyid_sentence_202

Most of them live in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Moro Province in Philippines, Pattani and Cambodia. Sayyid_sentence_203

Many of the royal families of this region such as the previous royal families of the Philippines (Sultanate of Sulu, Sultanate of Maguindanao, Confederation of Sultanates of Ranao), Singapore (Sultanate of Singapore), Malaysia (Sultanates of Johor and Perlis), Indonesia (Sultanates of Siak, Pontianak, Gowa, some Javanese Sultanates), and the existing royal family of Brunei (House of Bolkiah) are also Sayyids, especially of Ba'Alawi. Sayyid_sentence_204

Some common surnames of these Sayyids are al-Saqqaf, Shihab (or Shahab), al-Aidaroos, al-Habsyi (or al-Habshi), al-Kaff, al-Aththos, al-Haddad, al-Jufri (or al-Jifri), al-Muhdhar, al-Shaikh Abubakar, al-Qadri, al-Munawwar. Sayyid_sentence_205

Tesayyud Sayyid_section_24

In the Ottoman Empire, tax breaks for "the People of the House" encouraged many people to buy certificates of descent or forge genealogies; the phenomenon of teseyyüd – falsely claiming noble ancestry – spread across ethnic, class, and religious boundaries. Sayyid_sentence_206

In the 17th century, an Ottoman bureaucrat estimated that there were 300,000 impostors. Sayyid_sentence_207

In 18th-century Anatolia, nearly all upper-class urban people claimed descent from Muhammad. Sayyid_sentence_208

Maternal descendance Sayyid_section_25

According to Iran's religious leader and the Deobandi creed—a creed especially followed by patriarchal Pashtun tribes—the status of being a Sayyid can only be attributed through patrilineal lineage. Sayyid_sentence_209

According to Shia opinions, children of a Sayyida mother and a non-Sayyid father are referred to as Mirza. Sayyid_sentence_210

The Persian notation "Mirza", which is a derivation of the word "Mirzada" (i.e., Son of a "Mir") has various meanings: one is a Sayyid leader of a Sayyid branch or community, simultaneously being a religious Islamic scholar. Sayyid_sentence_211

Thus, a Sayyid of patrilineal lineage, being the son of a Mir, can also be called "Mirza". Sayyid_sentence_212

This example substantiates the fact that there are different opinions concerning the transmission of the title Sayyid. Sayyid_sentence_213

Another historical opinion of Ottoman Naqib al Ashrafs expresses that children of maternal prophetical descent are called Sharif. Sayyid_sentence_214

However, in 1632 when an Ottoman court challenged a man wearing a Sayyid's green turban, he established that he was a Sayyid on his mother's side, which was accepted by the court. Sayyid_sentence_215

In patriarchal societies, women usually have to assimilate themselves into their husband's status. Sayyid_sentence_216

However, this does not affect female descendants of Muhammad as it is seen as a sacred blood relation. Sayyid_sentence_217

Thus, the heraldic title can be given to an individual through his or hers mother's line in accordance to Ottoman Naqib al-Ashrafs. Sayyid_sentence_218

Even the Zaynabids, the descendants of Lady Zainab, the daughter of Ali ibn Abi Talib can also be titled Sayyid or Sharif, according to the Egyptian Al-Suyuti. Sayyid_sentence_219

In Tajikistan matrilineal descendants are honoured. Sayyid_sentence_220

There is no total consensus indicating Sayyids and abandoning individuals of maternal descent, which may be to limit the number because of financial reasons, such as Khums or governmental support especially for Sayyids. Sayyid_sentence_221

See also Sayyid_section_26

Sayyid_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sayyid.