From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This article is about Scandinavia as a cultural-linguistic region. Scandinavia_sentence_0

For the broader group of northern European countries including Finland and Iceland, see Nordic countries. Scandinavia_sentence_1

For the peninsula, see Scandinavian Peninsula. Scandinavia_sentence_2

For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). Scandinavia_sentence_3


LanguagesScandinavia_header_cell_0_1_0 List of languagesScandinavia_cell_0_1_1
Demonym(s)Scandinavia_header_cell_0_2_0 ScandinavianScandinavia_cell_0_2_1
CompositionScandinavia_header_cell_0_3_0 Denmark

 Norway  Sweden Sometimes also:  Åland Islands  Faroe Islands  Finland  Iceland Nordic territories that are not part of Scandinavia:

 Bouvet Island  Greenland  Jan Mayen  SvalbardScandinavia_cell_0_3_1

Internet TLDScandinavia_header_cell_0_4_0 Scandinavia_cell_0_4_1

Scandinavia (/ˌskændɪˈneɪviə/ SKAN-dih-NAY-vee-ə) is a subregion in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. Scandinavia_sentence_4

The term Scandinavia in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Scandinavia_sentence_5

The majority national languages of these three belong to the Scandinavian dialect continuum, and are mutually intelligible North Germanic languages. Scandinavia_sentence_6

In English usage, Scandinavia also sometimes refers more narrowly to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or more broadly so as to include the Åland Islands, the Faroe Islands, Finland and Iceland. Scandinavia_sentence_7

The broader definition is similar to what are locally called the Nordic countries, which also include the remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard and Jan Mayen and Greenland, a constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark. Scandinavia_sentence_8

Geography Scandinavia_section_0

See also: Geography of Denmark, Geography of Finland, Geography of Iceland, Geography of Norway, and Geography of Sweden Scandinavia_sentence_9

The geography of Scandinavia is extremely varied. Scandinavia_sentence_10

Notable are the Norwegian fjords, the Scandinavian Mountains, the flat, low areas in Denmark and the archipelagos of Sweden and Norway. Scandinavia_sentence_11

Sweden has many lakes and moraines, legacies of the ice age, which ended about ten millennia ago. Scandinavia_sentence_12

The southern and by far most populous regions of Scandinavia have a temperate climate. Scandinavia_sentence_13

Scandinavia extends north of the Arctic Circle, but has relatively mild weather for its latitude due to the Gulf Stream. Scandinavia_sentence_14

Many of the Scandinavian mountains have an alpine tundra climate. Scandinavia_sentence_15

The climate varies from north to south and from west to east: a marine west coast climate (Cfb) typical of western Europe dominates in Denmark, southernmost part of Sweden and along the west coast of Norway reaching north to 65°N, with orographic lift giving more mm/year precipitation (<5000 mm) in some areas in western Norway. Scandinavia_sentence_16

The central part – from Oslo to Stockholm – has a humid continental climate (Dfb), which gradually gives way to subarctic climate (Dfc) further north and cool marine west coast climate (Cfc) along the northwestern coast. Scandinavia_sentence_17

A small area along the northern coast east of the North Cape has tundra climate (Et) as a result of a lack of summer warmth. Scandinavia_sentence_18

The Scandinavian Mountains block the mild and moist air coming from the southwest, thus northern Sweden and the Finnmarksvidda plateau in Norway receive little precipitation and have cold winters. Scandinavia_sentence_19

Large areas in the Scandinavian mountains have alpine tundra climate. Scandinavia_sentence_20

The warmest temperature ever recorded in Scandinavia is 38.0 °C in Målilla (Sweden). Scandinavia_sentence_21

The coldest temperature ever recorded is −52.6 °C in Vuoggatjålme, Arjeplog (Sweden). Scandinavia_sentence_22

The coldest month was February 1985 in Vittangi (Sweden) with a mean of −27.2 °C. Scandinavia_sentence_23

Southwesterly winds further warmed by foehn wind can give warm temperatures in narrow Norwegian fjords in winter. Scandinavia_sentence_24

Tafjord has recorded 17.9 °C in January and Sunndal 18.9 °C in February. Scandinavia_sentence_25

Etymology Scandinavia_section_1

The words Scandinavia and Scania (Skåne, the southernmost province of Sweden) are both thought to go back to the Proto-Germanic compound *Skaðin-awjō (the ð represented in Latin by t or d), which appears later in Old English as Scedenig and in Old Norse as Skáney. Scandinavia_sentence_26

The earliest identified source for the name Scandinavia is Pliny the Elder's Natural History, dated to the first century AD. Scandinavia_sentence_27

Various references to the region can also be found in Pytheas, Pomponius Mela, Tacitus, Ptolemy, Procopius and Jordanes, usually in the form of Scandza. Scandinavia_sentence_28

It is believed that the name used by Pliny may be of West Germanic origin, originally denoting Scania. Scandinavia_sentence_29

According to some scholars, the Germanic stem can be reconstructed as and meaning "danger" or "damage". Scandinavia_sentence_30

The second segment of the name has been reconstructed as , meaning "land on the water" or "island". Scandinavia_sentence_31

The name Scandinavia would then mean "dangerous island", which is considered to refer to the treacherous sandbanks surrounding Scania. Scandinavia_sentence_32

Skanör in Scania, with its long Falsterbo reef, has the same stem (skan) combined with -ör, which means "sandbanks". Scandinavia_sentence_33

Alternatively, Sca(n)dinavia and Skáney, along with the Old Norse goddess name Skaði, may be related to Proto-Germanic (meaning "shadow"). Scandinavia_sentence_34

John McKinnell comments that this etymology suggests that the goddess Skaði may have once been a personification of the geographical region of Scandinavia or associated with the underworld. Scandinavia_sentence_35

Another possibility is that all or part of the segments of the name came from the pre-Germanic Mesolithic people inhabiting the region. Scandinavia_sentence_36

In modernity, Scandinavia is a peninsula, but between approximately 10,300 and 9,500 years ago the southern part of Scandinavia was an island separated from the northern peninsula, with water exiting the Baltic Sea through the area where Stockholm is now located. Scandinavia_sentence_37

Correspondingly, some Basque scholars have presented the idea that the segment sk that appears in *Skaðinawjō is connected to the name for the Euzko peoples, akin to Basques, that populated Paleolithic Europe. Scandinavia_sentence_38

According to one scholar, Scandinavian people share particular genetic markers with the Basque people. Scandinavia_sentence_39

Appearance in medieval Germanic languages Scandinavia_section_2

The Latin names in Pliny's text gave rise to different forms in medieval Germanic texts. Scandinavia_sentence_40

In Jordanes' history of the Goths (AD 551), the form Scandza is the name used for their original home, separated by sea from the land of Europe (chapter 1, 4). Scandinavia_sentence_41

Where Jordanes meant to locate this quasi-legendary island is still a hotly debated issue, both in scholarly discussions and in the nationalistic discourse of various European countries. Scandinavia_sentence_42

The form Scadinavia as the original home of the Langobards appears in Paulus Diaconus' Historia Langobardorum, but in other versions of Historia Langobardorum appear the forms Scadan, Scandanan, Scadanan and Scatenauge. Scandinavia_sentence_43

Frankish sources used Sconaowe and Aethelweard, an Anglo-Saxon historian, used Scani. Scandinavia_sentence_44

In Beowulf, the forms Scedenige and Scedeland are used while the Alfredian translation of Orosius and Wulfstan's travel accounts used the Old English Sconeg. Scandinavia_sentence_45

Possible influence on Sami Scandinavia_section_3

The earliest Sami yoik texts written down refer to the world as Skadesi-suolo (north Sami) and Skađsuâl (east Sami), meaning "Skaði's island". Scandinavia_sentence_46

Svennung considers the Sami name to have been introduced as a loan word from the North Germanic languages; "Skaði" is the giant stepmother of Freyr and Freyja in Norse mythology. Scandinavia_sentence_47

It has been suggested that Skaði to some extent is modeled on a Sami woman. Scandinavia_sentence_48

The name for Skade's father Thjazi is known in Sami as Čáhci, "the waterman"; and her son with Odin, Saeming, can be interpreted as a descendant of Saam the Sami population. Scandinavia_sentence_49

Older joik texts give evidence of the old Sami belief about living on an island and state that the wolf is known as suolu gievra, meaning "the strong one on the island". Scandinavia_sentence_50

The Sami place name Sulliidčielbma means "the island's threshold" and Suoločielgi means "the island's back". Scandinavia_sentence_51

In recent substrate studies, Sami linguists have examined the initial cluster sk- in words used in Sami and concluded that sk- is a phonotactic structure of alien origin. Scandinavia_sentence_52

Reintroduction of the term Scandinavia in the eighteenth century Scandinavia_section_4

Main article: Scandinavism Scandinavia_sentence_53

See also: Politics of Denmark, Politics of Norway, and Politics of Sweden Scandinavia_sentence_54

Although the term Scandinavia used by Pliny the Elder probably originated in the ancient Germanic languages, the modern form Scandinavia does not descend directly from the ancient Germanic term. Scandinavia_sentence_55

Rather the word was brought into use in Europe by scholars borrowing the term from ancient sources like Pliny, and was used vaguely for Scania and the southern region of the peninsula. Scandinavia_sentence_56

The term was popularised by the linguistic and cultural Scandinavist movement, which asserted the common heritage and cultural unity of the Scandinavian countries and rose to prominence in the 1830s. Scandinavia_sentence_57

The popular usage of the term in Sweden, Denmark and Norway as a unifying concept became established in the nineteenth century through poems such as Hans Christian Andersen's "I am a Scandinavian" of 1839. Scandinavia_sentence_58

After a visit to Sweden, Andersen became a supporter of early political Scandinavism. Scandinavia_sentence_59

In a letter describing the poem to a friend, he wrote: "All at once I understood how related the Swedes, the Danes and the Norwegians are, and with this feeling I wrote the poem immediately after my return: 'We are one people, we are called Scandinavians! Scandinavia_sentence_60

'". Scandinavia_sentence_61

The influence of Scandinavism as a Scandinavist political movement peaked in the middle of the nineteenth century, between the First Schleswig War (1848–1850) and the Second Schleswig War (1864). Scandinavia_sentence_62

The Swedish king also proposed a unification of Denmark, Norway and Sweden into a single united kingdom. Scandinavia_sentence_63

The background for the proposal was the tumultuous events during the Napoleonic Wars in the beginning of the century. Scandinavia_sentence_64

This war resulted in Finland (formerly the eastern third of Sweden) becoming the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809 and Norway (de jure in union with Denmark since 1387, although de facto treated as a province) becoming independent in 1814, but thereafter swiftly forced to accept a personal union with Sweden. Scandinavia_sentence_65

The dependent territories Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Greenland, historically part of Norway, remained with Denmark in accordance with the Treaty of Kiel. Scandinavia_sentence_66

Sweden and Norway were thus united under the Swedish monarch, but Finland's inclusion in the Russian Empire excluded any possibility for a political union between Finland and any of the other Nordic countries. Scandinavia_sentence_67

The end of the Scandinavian political movement came when Denmark was denied the military support promised from Sweden and Norway to annex the (Danish) Duchy of Schleswig, which together with the (German) Duchy of Holstein had been in personal union with Denmark. Scandinavia_sentence_68

The Second war of Schleswig followed in 1864, a brief but disastrous war between Denmark and Prussia (supported by Austria). Scandinavia_sentence_69

Schleswig-Holstein was conquered by Prussia and after Prussia's success in the Franco-Prussian War a Prussian-led German Empire was created and a new power-balance of the Baltic sea countries was established. Scandinavia_sentence_70

The Scandinavian Monetary Union, established in 1873, lasted until World War I. Scandinavia_sentence_71

Use of Nordic countries vs. Scandinavia Scandinavia_section_5

Further information on this terminology: Nordic countries and Fennoscandia Scandinavia_sentence_72

The term Scandinavia (sometimes specified in English as Continental Scandinavia or mainland Scandinavia) is commonly used strictly for Denmark, Norway and Sweden as a subset of the Nordic countries (known in Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish as Norden; Finnish: Pohjoismaat, Icelandic: Norðurlöndin, Faroese: Norðurlond). Scandinavia_sentence_73

However, in English usage, the term Scandinavia is sometimes used as a synonym or near-synonym for Nordic countries. Scandinavia_sentence_74

Debate about which meaning is more appropriate is complicated by the fact that usage in English is different from usage in the Scandinavian languages themselves (which use Scandinavia in the narrow meaning), and by the fact that the question of whether a country belongs to Scandinavia is politicised: people from the Nordic world beyond Norway, Denmark and Sweden may be offended at being either included in or excluded from the category of "Scandinavia". Scandinavia_sentence_75

Nordic countries is used unambiguously for Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland, including their associated territories (Svalbard, Greenland, the Faroe Islands and the Åland Islands). Scandinavia_sentence_76

In addition to the mainland Scandinavian countries of: Scandinavia_sentence_77


The Nordic countries also consist of: Scandinavia_sentence_78


The clearest example of the use of the term Scandinavia as a political and societal construct is the unique position of Finland, based largely on the fact that most of modern-day Finland was part of Sweden for more than six centuries (see: Finland under Swedish rule), thus to much of the world associating Finland with all of Scandinavia. Scandinavia_sentence_79

But the creation of a Finnish identity is unique in the region in that it was formed in relation to two different imperial models, the Swedish and the Russian. Scandinavia_sentence_80

There is also the geological term Fennoscandia (sometimes Fennoscandinavia), which in technical use refers to the Fennoscandian Shield (or Baltic Shield), that is the Scandinavian peninsula (Norway and Sweden), Finland and Karelia (excluding Denmark and other parts of the wider Nordic world). Scandinavia_sentence_81

The terms Fennoscandia and Fennoscandinavia are sometimes used in a broader, political sense to refer to Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland. Scandinavia_sentence_82

Scandinavian as an ethnic term Scandinavia_section_6

Further information on this terminology: North Germanic peoples Scandinavia_sentence_83

Whereas both narrow and broad conceptions of Scandinavian countries are relatively straightforwardly defined, there is ambiguity and political contestation as to which people are Scandinavian people (or Scandinavians). Scandinavia_sentence_84

English dictionaries usually define the noun Scandinavian as meaning any inhabitant of Scandinavia (which might be narrowly conceived or broadly conceived). Scandinavia_sentence_85

However, the noun Scandinavian is frequently used as a synonym for speakers of Scandinavian languages (languages descended from Old Norse). Scandinavia_sentence_86

This usage can exclude the indigenous Sámi people of Scandinavia. Scandinavia_sentence_87

Thus, Scandinavians always include Scandinavian-speaking Swedes, Norwegians, and Danes (and, earlier, speakers of the North Germanic languages). Scandinavia_sentence_88

In usages based on cultural/linguistic definitions (native speakers of North Germanic languages), Scandinavians also include Faroe Islanders, Icelanders, the Swedish-speaking population of Finland, the Swedish-speaking population of Estonia, and the Scandinavian diaspora. Scandinavia_sentence_89

In usages based on geographical definitions (inhabitants of Continental Scandinavia), Scandinavians include Sami people and, depending on how broad an understanding of Scandinavia is being used, Finns and Inuit. Scandinavia_sentence_90

Languages in Scandinavia Scandinavia_section_7

Main articles: North Germanic languages, Sami languages, Finnic languages, and Scandoromani Scandinavia_sentence_91

Two language groups have coexisted on the Scandinavian peninsula since prehistory—the North Germanic languages (Scandinavian languages) and the Sami languages. Scandinavia_sentence_92

The majority of the population of Scandinavia (including Iceland and the Faroe Islands) today derive their language from several North Germanic tribes who once inhabited the southern part of Scandinavia and spoke a Germanic language that evolved into Old Norse and from Old Norse into Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Faroese, and Icelandic. Scandinavia_sentence_93

The Danish, Norwegian and Swedish languages form a dialect continuum and are known as the Scandinavian languages—all of which are considered mutually intelligible with one another. Scandinavia_sentence_94

Faroese and Icelandic, sometimes referred to as insular Scandinavian languages, are intelligible in continental Scandinavian languages only to a limited extent. Scandinavia_sentence_95

A small minority of Scandinavians are Sami people, concentrated in the extreme north of Scandinavia. Scandinavia_sentence_96

Finland (sometimes included in Scandinavia in English usage) is mainly populated by speakers of Finnish, with a minority of approximately 5% of Swedish speakers. Scandinavia_sentence_97

However, Finnish is also spoken as a recognized minority language in Sweden, including in distinctive varieties sometimes known as Meänkieli. Scandinavia_sentence_98

Finnish is distantly related to the Sami languages, but these are entirely different in origin to the Scandinavian languages. Scandinavia_sentence_99

German (in Denmark), Yiddish and Romani are recognized minority languages in parts of Scandinavia. Scandinavia_sentence_100

More recent migrations has added even more languages. Scandinavia_sentence_101

Apart from Sami and the languages of minority groups speaking a variant of the majority language of a neighboring state, the following minority languages in Scandinavia are protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages: Yiddish, Romani Chib/Romanes and Romani. Scandinavia_sentence_102

North Germanic languages Scandinavia_section_8

Main article: North Germanic languages Scandinavia_sentence_103

The North Germanic languages of Scandinavia are traditionally divided into an East Scandinavian branch (Danish and Swedish) and a West Scandinavian branch (Norwegian, Icelandic and Faroese), but because of changes appearing in the languages since 1600 the East Scandinavian and West Scandinavian branches are now usually reconfigured into Insular Scandinavian (ö-nordisk/øy-nordisk) featuring Icelandic and Faroese and Continental Scandinavian (Skandinavisk), comprising Danish, Norwegian and Swedish. Scandinavia_sentence_104

The modern division is based on the degree of mutual comprehensibility between the languages in the two branches. Scandinavia_sentence_105

The populations of the Scandinavian countries, with common Scandinavian roots in language, can—at least with some training—understand each other's standard languages as they appear in print and are heard on radio and television. Scandinavia_sentence_106

The reason Danish, Swedish and the two official written versions of Norwegian (Nynorsk and Bokmål) are traditionally viewed as different languages, rather than dialects of one common language, is that each is a well-established standard language in its respective country. Scandinavia_sentence_107

Danish, Swedish and Norwegian have since medieval times been influenced to varying degrees by Middle Low German and standard German. Scandinavia_sentence_108

That influence came from not just proximity but also that Denmark and later Denmark-Norway ruling over the German speaking region of Holstein, and in Sweden with its close trade with the Hanseatic League. Scandinavia_sentence_109

Norwegians are accustomed to variation and may perceive Danish and Swedish only as slightly more distant dialects. Scandinavia_sentence_110

This is because they have two official written standards, in addition to the habit of strongly holding on to local dialects. Scandinavia_sentence_111

The people of Stockholm, Sweden and Copenhagen, Denmark have the greatest difficulty in understanding other Scandinavian languages. Scandinavia_sentence_112

In the Faroe Islands and Iceland, learning Danish is mandatory. Scandinavia_sentence_113

This causes Faroese people as well as Icelandic people to become bilingual in two very distinct North Germanic languages, making it relatively easy for them to understand the other two Mainland Scandinavian languages. Scandinavia_sentence_114

Although Iceland was under the political control of Denmark until a much later date (1918), very little influence and borrowing from Danish has occurred in the Icelandic language. Scandinavia_sentence_115

Icelandic remained the preferred language among the ruling classes in Iceland. Scandinavia_sentence_116

Danish was not used for official communications, most of the royal officials were of Icelandic descent and the language of the church and law courts remained Icelandic. Scandinavia_sentence_117

Finnish Scandinavia_section_9

The Scandinavian languages are (as a language family) unrelated to Finnish, Estonian and Sami languages, which as Uralic languages are distantly related to Hungarian. Scandinavia_sentence_118

Owing to the close proximity, there is still a great deal of borrowing from the Swedish and Norwegian languages in the Finnish and Sami languages. Scandinavia_sentence_119

The long history of linguistic influence of Swedish on Finnish is also due to the fact that Finnish, the language of the majority in Finland, was treated as a minority language while Finland was part of Sweden. Scandinavia_sentence_120

Finnish-speakers had to learn Swedish in order to advance to higher positions. Scandinavia_sentence_121

Swedish spoken in today's Finland includes a lot of words that are borrowed from Finnish, whereas the written language remains closer to that of Sweden. Scandinavia_sentence_122

Finland is officially bilingual, with Finnish and Swedish having mostly the same status at national level. Scandinavia_sentence_123

Finland's majority population are Finns, whose mother tongue is either Finnish (approximately 95%), Swedish or both. Scandinavia_sentence_124

The Swedish-speakers live mainly on the coastline starting from approximately the city of Porvoo (in the Gulf of Finland) up to the city of Kokkola (in the Bay of Bothnia). Scandinavia_sentence_125

The Åland Islands, an autonomous province of Finland situated in the Baltic Sea between Finland and Sweden, are entirely Swedish-speaking. Scandinavia_sentence_126

Children are taught the other official language at school: for Swedish-speakers this is Finnish (usually from the 3rd grade), while for Finnish-speakers it is Swedish (usually from the 3rd, 5th or 7th grade). Scandinavia_sentence_127

Finnish speakers constitute a language minority in Sweden and Norway. Scandinavia_sentence_128

Meänkieli and Kven are Finnish dialects spoken in Swedish Lapland and Norwegian Lapland. Scandinavia_sentence_129

Sami languages Scandinavia_section_10

The Sami languages are indigenous minority languages in Scandinavia. Scandinavia_sentence_130

They belong to their own branch of the Uralic language family and are unrelated to the North Germanic languages other than by limited grammatical (particularly lexical) characteristics resulting from prolonged contact. Scandinavia_sentence_131

Sami is divided into several languages or dialects. Scandinavia_sentence_132

Consonant gradation is a feature in both Finnish and northern Sami dialects, but it is not present in south Sami, which is considered to have a different language history. Scandinavia_sentence_133

According to the Sami Information Centre of the Sami Parliament in Sweden, southern Sami may have originated in an earlier migration from the south into the Scandinavian peninsula. Scandinavia_sentence_134

History Scandinavia_section_11

For a more in-depth look at the history of the region, see History of Scandinavia. Scandinavia_sentence_135

Ancient descriptions Scandinavia_section_12

A key ancient description of Scandinavia was provided by Pliny the Elder, though his mentions of Scatinavia and surrounding areas are not always easy to decipher. Scandinavia_sentence_136

Writing in the capacity of a Roman admiral, he introduces the northern region by declaring to his Roman readers that there are 23 islands "Romanis armis cognitae" ("known to Roman arms") in this area. Scandinavia_sentence_137

According to Pliny, the "clarissima" ("most famous") of the region's islands is Scatinavia, of unknown size. Scandinavia_sentence_138

There live the Hilleviones. Scandinavia_sentence_139

The belief that Scandinavia was an island became widespread among classical authors during the first century and dominated descriptions of Scandinavia in classical texts during the centuries that followed. Scandinavia_sentence_140

Pliny begins his description of the route to Scatinavia by referring to the mountain of Saevo ("mons Saevo ibi"), the Codanus Bay ("Codanus sinus") and the Cimbrian promontory. Scandinavia_sentence_141

The geographical features have been identified in various ways. Scandinavia_sentence_142

By some scholars, Saevo is thought to be the mountainous Norwegian coast at the entrance to Skagerrak and the Cimbrian peninsula is thought to be Skagen, the north tip of Jutland, Denmark. Scandinavia_sentence_143

As described, Saevo and Scatinavia can also be the same place. Scandinavia_sentence_144

Pliny mentions Scandinavia one more time: in Book VIII he says that the animal called achlis (given in the accusative, achlin, which is not Latin) was born on the island of Scandinavia. Scandinavia_sentence_145

The animal grazes, has a big upper lip and some mythical attributes. Scandinavia_sentence_146

The name Scandia, later used as a synonym for Scandinavia, also appears in Pliny's Naturalis Historia (Natural History), but is used for a group of Northern European islands which he locates north of Britannia. Scandinavia_sentence_147

Scandia thus does not appear to be denoting the island Scadinavia in Pliny's text. Scandinavia_sentence_148

The idea that Scadinavia may have been one of the Scandiae islands was instead introduced by Ptolemy (c. 90 – c. 168 AD), a mathematician, geographer and astrologer of Roman Egypt. Scandinavia_sentence_149

He used the name Skandia for the biggest, most easterly of the three Scandiai islands, which according to him were all located east of Jutland. Scandinavia_sentence_150

Neither Pliny's nor Ptolemy's lists of Scandinavian tribes include the Suiones mentioned by Tacitus. Scandinavia_sentence_151

Some early Swedish scholars of the Swedish Hyperborean school and of the ninettenth-century romantic nationalism period proceeded to synthesize the different versions by inserting references to the Suiones, arguing that they must have been referred to in the original texts and obscured over time by spelling mistakes or various alterations. Scandinavia_sentence_152

The Middle Ages Scandinavia_section_13

During a period of Christianization and state formation in the 10th–13th centuries, numerous Germanic petty kingdoms and chiefdoms were unified into three kingdoms: Scandinavia_sentence_153


The three Scandinavian kingdoms joined in 1387 in the Kalmar Union under Queen Margaret I of Denmark. Scandinavia_sentence_154

Sweden left the union in 1523 under King Gustav Vasa. Scandinavia_sentence_155

In the aftermath of Sweden's secession from the Kalmar Union, civil war broke out in Denmark and Norway—the Protestant Reformation followed. Scandinavia_sentence_156

When things had settled, the Norwegian Privy Council was abolished—it assembled for the last time in 1537. Scandinavia_sentence_157

A personal union, entered into by the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway in 1536, lasted until 1814. Scandinavia_sentence_158

Three sovereign successor states have subsequently emerged from this unequal union: Denmark, Norway and Iceland. Scandinavia_sentence_159

The borders between the three countries got the shape they have had since in the middle of the seventeenth century: In the 1645 Treaty of Brömsebro, Denmark–Norway ceded the Norwegian provinces of Jämtland, Härjedalen and Idre and Särna, as well as the Baltic Sea islands of Gotland and Ösel (in Estonia) to Sweden. Scandinavia_sentence_160

The Treaty of Roskilde, signed in 1658, forced Denmark–Norway to cede the Danish provinces Scania, Blekinge, Halland, Bornholm and the Norwegian provinces of Båhuslen and Trøndelag to Sweden. Scandinavia_sentence_161

The 1660 Treaty of Copenhagen forced Sweden to return Bornholm and Trøndelag to Denmark–Norway, and to give up its recent claims to the island Funen. Scandinavia_sentence_162

In the east, Finland was a fully incorporated part of Sweden from medieval times until the Napoleonic wars, when it was ceded to Russia. Scandinavia_sentence_163

Despite many wars over the years since the formation of the three kingdoms, Scandinavia has been politically and culturally close. Scandinavia_sentence_164

Scandinavian unions Scandinavia_section_14

Denmark–Norway as a historiographical name refers to the former political union consisting of the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway, including the Norwegian dependencies of Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. Scandinavia_sentence_165

The corresponding adjective and demonym is Dano-Norwegian. Scandinavia_sentence_166

During Danish rule, Norway kept its separate laws, coinage and army as well as some institutions such as a royal chancellor. Scandinavia_sentence_167

Norway's old royal line had died out with the death of Olav IV in 1387, but Norway's remaining a hereditary kingdom became an important factor for the Oldenburg dynasty of Denmark–Norway in its struggles to win elections as kings of Denmark. Scandinavia_sentence_168

The Treaty of Kiel (14 January 1814) formally dissolved the Dano-Norwegian union and ceded the territory of Norway proper to the King of Sweden, but Denmark retained Norway's overseas possessions. Scandinavia_sentence_169

However, widespread Norwegian resistance to the prospect of a union with Sweden induced the governor of Norway, crown prince Christian Frederick (later Christian VIII of Denmark), to call a constituent assembly at Eidsvoll in April 1814. Scandinavia_sentence_170

The assembly drew up a liberal constitution and elected Christian Frederick to the throne of Norway. Scandinavia_sentence_171

Following a Swedish invasion during the summer, the peace conditions of the Convention of Moss (14 August 1814) specified that king Christian Frederik had to resign, but Norway would keep its independence and its constitution within a personal union with Sweden. Scandinavia_sentence_172

Christian Frederik formally abdicated on 10 August 1814 and returned to Denmark. Scandinavia_sentence_173

The Norwegian parliament Storting elected king Charles XIII of Sweden as king of Norway on 4 November. Scandinavia_sentence_174

The Storting dissolved the union between Sweden and Norway in 1905, after which the Norwegians elected Prince Charles of Denmark as king of Norway: he reigned as Haakon VII. Scandinavia_sentence_175

Economy Scandinavia_section_15

See also: Economy of Sweden, Economy of Denmark, Economy of Finland, Economy of Iceland, and Economy of Norway Scandinavia_sentence_176

The economies of the countries of Scandinavia are amongst the strongest in Europe. Scandinavia_sentence_177

There is a generous welfare system in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. Scandinavia_sentence_178

Tourism Scandinavia_section_16

Various promotional agencies of the Nordic countries in the United States (such as The American-Scandinavian Foundation, established in 1910 by the Danish American industrialist Niels Poulsen) serve to promote market and tourism interests in the region. Scandinavia_sentence_179

Today, the five Nordic heads of state act as the organization's patrons and according to the official statement by the organization its mission is "to promote the Nordic region as a whole while increasing the visibility of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in New York City and the United States". Scandinavia_sentence_180

The official tourist boards of Scandinavia sometimes cooperate under one umbrella, such as the Scandinavian Tourist Board. Scandinavia_sentence_181

The cooperation was introduced for the Asian market in 1986, when the Swedish national tourist board joined the Danish national tourist board to coordinate intergovernmental promotion of the two countries. Scandinavia_sentence_182

Norway's government entered one year later. Scandinavia_sentence_183

All five Nordic governments participate in the joint promotional efforts in the United States through the Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America. Scandinavia_sentence_184

See also Scandinavia_section_17

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: