Schools of Islamic theology

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Schools of Islamic theology_description_list_0

  • See Islamic schools and branches for different schools of thought; see aqidah for the concept of the different "creeds" in Islam; see Kalam for the concept of theological discourse.Schools of Islamic theology_item_0_0

Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools and branches in different schools of thought regarding aqidah (creed). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_0

According to Muhammad Abu Zahra, Qadariyah, Jahmis, Murji'ah, Muʿtazila, Batiniyya, Ash'ari, Maturidi, Athari are the ancient schools of Islamic theology. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_1

The main split between Sunni and Shia Islam was initially more political than theological, but over time theological differences have developed. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_2

Still, differences in aqidah occur as divisions orthogonal to the main divisions in Islam along political or fiqh lines, such that a Muʿtazili might, for example, belong to Ja'fari, Zaidi or even Hanafi school of jurisprudence. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_3

Divinity schools in Islam Schools of Islamic theology_section_0

Main articles: Aqidah and Islamic schools and branches Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_4

Aqidah is an Islamic term meaning "creed" or "belief". Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_5

Any religious belief system, or creed, can be considered an example of aqidah. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_6

However this term has taken a significant technical usage in Muslim history and theology, denoting those matters over which Muslims hold conviction. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_7

The term is usually translated as "theology". Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_8

Such traditions are divisions orthogonal to sectarian divisions of Islam, and a Mu'tazili may for example, belong to Jafari, Zaidi or even Hanafi school of jurisprudence. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_9

One of the earliest systematic theological school to develop, in the mid 8th-century, was Mu'tazila. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_10

It emphasized reason and rational thought, positing that the injunctions of God are accessible to rational thought and inquiry and that the Qur'an, albeit the word of God, was created rather than uncreated, which would develop into one of the most contentious questions in Islamic theology. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_11

In the 10th century, the Ash'ari school developed as a response to Mu'tazila, leading to the latter's decline. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_12

Ash'ari still taught the use of reason in understanding the Qur'an, but denied the possibility to deduce moral truths by reasoning. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_13

This was opposed by the school of Maturidi, which taught that certain moral truths may be found by the use of reason without the aid of revelation. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_14

Another point of contention was the relative position of iman ("faith") vs. taqwa ("piety"). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_15

Such schools of theology are summarized under Ilm al-Kalam, or "science of discourse", as opposed to mystical schools who deny that any theological truth may be discovered by means of discourse or reason. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_16

Sunni schools of theology Schools of Islamic theology_section_1

Main article: Sunni Islam Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_17

Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam and are known as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h or simply as Ahl as-Sunnah. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_18

The word Sunni comes from the word sunnah, which means the teachings and actions or examples of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_19

Therefore, the term "Sunni" refers to those who follow or maintain the sunnah of the prophet Muhammad. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_20

The Sunnis believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor to lead the Muslim ummah (community) before his death, and after an initial period of confusion, a group of his most prominent companions gathered and elected Abu Bakr, Muhammad's close friend and a father-in-law, as the first caliph of Islam. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_21

Sunni Muslims regard the first four caliphs (Abu Bakr, `Umar ibn al-Khattāb, Uthman Ibn Affan and Ali ibn Abu Talib) as "al-Khulafā’ur-Rāshidūn" or "The Rightly Guided Caliphs." Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_22

After the Rashidun, the position turned into a hereditary right and the caliph's role was limited to being a political symbol of Muslim strength and unity. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_23

Athari Schools of Islamic theology_section_2

Main article: Traditionalist Theology (Islam) Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_24

Atharism (Arabic: أثري‎; textualism) is a movement of Islamic scholars who reject rationalistic Islamic theology (kalam) in favor of strict textualism in interpreting the Quran. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_25

The name is derived from the Arabic word athar, literally meaning "remnant" and also referring to a "narrative". Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_26

Their disciples are called the Athariyya, or Atharis. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_27

For followers of the Athari movement, the "clear" meaning of the Qur'an, and especially the prophetic traditions, has sole authority in matters of belief, and to engage in rational disputation (kalam), even if one arrives at the truth, is absolutely forbidden. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_28

Atharis engage in an amodal reading of the Qur'an, as opposed to one engaged in Ta'wil (metaphorical interpretation). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_29

They do not attempt to conceptualize the meanings of the Qur'an rationally, and believe that the "real" meaning should be consigned to God alone (tafwid). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_30

In essence, the meaning has been accepted without asking "how" or "Bi-la kaifa". Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_31

On the other hand, the famous Hanbali scholar Ibn al-Jawzi states, in Kitab Akhbar as-Sifat, that Ahmad ibn Hanbal would have been opposed to anthropomorphic interpretations of Qur'anic texts such as those of al-Qadi Abu Ya'la, Ibn Hamid and Ibn az-Zaghuni. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_32

Based on Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi's criticism of Athari-Hanbalis, Muhammad Abu Zahra, a Professor of Islamic law at Cairo University deduced that Salafi aqidah is located somewhere between ta'tili and anthropopathy (Absolute Ẓāhirīsm in understanding the tashbih in Qur'an) in Islam. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_33

Absolute Ẓāhirīsm and total rejection of ta'wil are amongst the fundamental characteristics of this "new" Islamic school of theology. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_34

Ilm al-Kalām Schools of Islamic theology_section_3

Main article: Ilm al-Kalam Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_35

ʿIlm al-Kalām (Arabic: علم الكلام‎, literally "science of discourse"), usually foreshortened to kalam and sometimes called "Islamic scholastic theology", is a rational undertaking born out of the need to establish and defend the tenets of Islamic faith against doubters and detractors. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_36

'Ilm al-Kalam incorporates Aristotelian reasoning and logic into Islamic theology. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_37

A scholar of kalam is referred to as a mutakallim (plural mutakallimūn) as distinguished from philosophers, jurists, and scientists. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_38

There are many possible interpretations as to why this discipline was originally called "kalam"; one is that the widest controversy in this discipline has been about whether the Word of God, as revealed in the Qur'an, can be considered part of God's essence and therefore not created, or whether it was made into words in the normal sense of speech, and is therefore created. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_39

Ash'ariyyah Schools of Islamic theology_section_4

Main article: Al-Ash`ari Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_40

The Mu'tazila were challenged by Abu al-Hasan Al-Ash'ari, who famously defected from the Mu'tazila and formed the rival Ash'ari school of theology. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_41

The Ash'ari school took the opposite position of the Mu'tazila and insisted that truth cannot be known through reason alone. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_42

The Ash'ari school further claimed that truth can only be known through revelation. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_43

The Ash'ari claim that without revelation, the unaided human mind would not be able to know if something is good or evil. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_44

Today, the Ash'ari school is considered one of the Orthodox schools of theology. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_45

The Ash'ari school is the basis of the Shafi'i school of jurisprudence, which has supplied it with most of its most famous disciples. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_46

The most famous of these are Abul-Hassan Al-Bahili, Abu Bakr Al-Baqillani, al-Juwayni, Al-Razi and Al-Ghazali. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_47

Thus Al-Ash`ari’s school became, together with the Maturidi, the main schools reflecting the beliefs of the Sunnah. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_48

Mātūrīd’iyyah Schools of Islamic theology_section_5

Main article: Maturidi Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_49

The Maturidi school was founded by Abu Mansur Al Maturidi, and is the most popular theological school amongst Muslims, especially in the areas formerly controlled by the Ottomans and the Mughals. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_50

Today, the Maturidi school is the position favored by the ahl al-ra'y (people of reason), which includes only the Hanafi school of fiqh who make up the majority of sunni Muslims. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_51

The Maturidi school takes the middle position between the Ash'ari and Mu'tazili schools on the questions of knowing truth and free will. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_52

The Maturidis say that the unaided human mind is able to find out that some of the more major sins such as alcohol or murder are evil without the help of revelation, but still maintain that revelation is the ultimate source of knowledge. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_53

Additionally, the Maturidi believe that God created and can control all of His creation, but that he allows humans to make individual decisions and choices for themselves. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_54

Muʿtazila Schools of Islamic theology_section_6

Main articles: Muʿtazila and Wasil Ibn 'Ata' Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_55

The first group to pursue this undertaking were the Mu'tazila, who asserted that all truth could be known through reason alone. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_56

Mu'tazili theology originated in the 8th century in Basra when Wasil Ibn 'Ata' stormed out of a lesson of Hasan al-Basri following a theological dispute. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_57

The Mu'tazila asserted that everything in revelation could be found through rational means alone. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_58

The Mu'tazila were heavily influenced by the Greek philosophy they encountered and began to adopt the ideas of Plotinus, whose Neoplatonic theology caused an enormous backlash against them. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_59

The political backlash the Mu'tazila faced, as well as the challenged brought forth by new schools of theology caused this group to atrophy and decline into irrelevancy. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_60

They are no longer considered an Orthodox school of theology by Sunni Muslims. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_61

Bishriyya Schools of Islamic theology_section_7

Main article: Bishriyya Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_62

Bishriyya followed the teachings of Bishr ibn al-Mu'tamir which were distinct from Wasil ibn Ata. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_63

Bâ’ Hashim’iyyah Schools of Islamic theology_section_8

Main article: Bahshamiyya Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_64

Bâh’ Sham’iyyah was a school of Mu'tazili thought, rivaling the school of Qadi Abd al-Jabbar, based primarily on the earlier teaching of Abu Hashim al-Jubba'i, the son of Abu 'Ali Muhammad al-Jubba'i. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_65

Further information: Abu'l Husayn al-Basri Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_66

Jahmiyyah Schools of Islamic theology_section_9

Main article: Jahmites Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_67

Jahmis were the followers of the Islamic theologian Jahm bin Safwan who associate himself with Al-Harith ibn Surayj. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_68

He was an exponent of extreme determinism according to which a man acts only metaphorically in the same way in which the sun acts or does something when it sets. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_69

This is the position adopted by the Ash'ari school, which holds that God's omnipotence is absolute and perfect over all creation. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_70

Qadariyyah Schools of Islamic theology_section_10

Main article: Qadariyyah Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_71

Qadariyyah is an originally derogatory term designating early Islamic theologians who asserted human beings are ontologically free and have a perfect free will, whose exercise justifies divine punishment and absolving God of responsibility for evil in the world. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_72

Their doctrines were adopted by the Mu'tazilis and rejected by the Ash'aris. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_73

The tension between free will and God's omnipotence was later reconciled by the Maturidi school of theology, which asserted that God grants human beings their agency, but can remove or otherwise alter it at any time. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_74

Further information: 'Amr ibn 'Ubayd, Al-Jubba'i, Abd al-Jabbâr al-Hamadhânî, Ibrahim an-Nazzam, and Al-Jahiz Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_75

Muhakkima Schools of Islamic theology_section_11

Main article: Muhakkima Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_76

The groups that were seceded from Ali's army in the end of the Arbitration Incident constituted the branch of Muhakkima (Arabic: محكمة‎). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_77

They mainly divided into two major sects called as Kharijites and Ibadis. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_78

Khawarij Schools of Islamic theology_section_12

Main article: Khawarij Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_79

The Kharijites considered the caliphate of Abu Bakr and Umar to be rightly guided but believed that Uthman ibn Affan had deviated from the path of justice and truth in the last days of his caliphate, and hence was liable to be killed or displaced. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_80

They also believed that Ali ibn Abi Talib committed a grave sin when he agreed on the arbitration with Muʿāwiyah. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_81

In the Battle of Siffin, Ali acceded to Muawiyah's suggestion to stop the fighting and resort to negotiation. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_82

A large portion of Ali's troops (who later became the first Kharijites) refused to concede to that agreement, and they considered that Ali had breached a Qur'anic verse which states that The decision is only for Allah (Qur'an 6:57), which the Kharijites interpreted to mean that the outcome of a conflict can only be decided in battle (by God) and not in negotiations (by human beings). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_83

The Kharijites thus deemed the arbitrators (Abu Musa al-Ashʿari and Amr Ibn Al-As), the leaders who appointed these arbitrators (Ali and Muʿāwiyah) and all those who agreed on the arbitration (all companions of Ali and Muʿāwiyah) as Kuffār (disbelievers), having breached the rules of the Qur'an. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_84

They believed that all participants in the Battle of Jamal, including Talha, Zubair (both being companions of Muhammad) and Aisha had committed a Kabira (major sin in Islam). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_85

Kharijites reject the doctrine of infallibility for the leader of the Muslim community, in contrast to Shi'a but in agreement with Sunnis. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_86

Modern-day Islamic scholar Abul Ala Maududi wrote an analysis of Kharijite beliefs, marking a number of differences between Kharijism and Sunni Islam. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_87

The Kharijites believed that the act of sinning is analogous to Kufr (disbelief) and that every grave sinner was regarded as a Kāfir (disbeliever) unless he repents. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_88

With this argument, they denounced all the above-mentioned Ṣaḥābah and even cursed and used abusive language against them. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_89

Ordinary Muslims were also declared disbelievers because first, they were not free of sin; secondly they regarded the above-mentioned Ṣaḥābah as believers and considered them as religious leaders, even inferring Islamic jurisprudence from the Hadeeth narrated by them. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_90

They also believed that it is not a must for the caliph to be from the Quraysh. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_91

Any pious Muslim nominated by other Muslims could be an eligible caliph. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_92

Additionally, Kharijites believed that obedience to the caliph is binding as long as he is managing the affairs with justice and consultation, but if he deviates, then it becomes obligatory to confront him, demote him and even kill him. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_93

Ibadiyya Schools of Islamic theology_section_13

Main article: Ibadi Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_94

Ibadiyya has some common beliefs overlapping with Ashari, Mu'tazila, Sunni and some Shi'ites. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_95

Murji'ah Schools of Islamic theology_section_14

Main article: Murji'ah Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_96

Murji'ah (Arabic: المرجئة‎) is an early Islamic school whose followers are known in English as "Murjites" or "Murji'ites" (المرجئون). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_97

The Murji'ah emerged as a theological school in response to the Kharijites on the early question about the relationship between sin and apostasy (rida). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_98

The Murji'ah believed that sin did not affect a person's beliefs (iman) but rather their piety (taqwa). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_99

Therefore, they advocated the idea of "delayed judgement," (irjaa). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_100

The Murji'ah maintain that anyone who proclaims the bare minimum of faith must be considered a Muslim, and sin alone cannot cause someone to become a disbeliever (kafir). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_101

The Murjite opinion would eventually dominate that of the Kharijites and become the mainstream opinion in Sunni Islam. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_102

The later schools of Sunni theology adopted their stance while form more developed theological schools and concepts. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_103

Shia schools of theology Schools of Islamic theology_section_15

Main articles: Shi'ites, Imamah (Shia doctrine), and Shia Islamic beliefs and practices Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_104

Zaydi-Fivers Schools of Islamic theology_section_16

The Zaidi School of Divinity is close to the Mu'tazilite school. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_105

There are a few issues between both schools, most notably the Zaydi doctrine of the Imamate, which is rejected by the Mu'tazilites. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_106

Amongst the Shi'a, Zaydis are most similar to Sunnis since Zaydism shares similar doctrines and jurisprudential opinions with Sunni scholars. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_107

Bāṭen’iyyah Schools of Islamic theology_section_17

Main articles: Batin (Islam), Esoteric interpretation of the Quran, and Sufi cosmology Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_108

The Bāṭen’iyyah ʿAqīdah, was originally introduced by Abu’l-Khāttāb Muhammad ibn Abu Zaynab al-Asadī, and later developed by Maymūn al-Qaddāh and his son ʿAbd Allāh ibn Maymūn for the esoteric interpretation of the Qur'an. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_109

The members of Batiniyyah may belong to either Ismailis or Twelvers. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_110

Further information: Sevener, Qarmatians, Fatimid Islamic Caliphate, and Hashashins Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_111

Imami-Ismā'īlīs Schools of Islamic theology_section_18

Main articles: Ismā'īlī, Batiniyyah, Imamah (Ismaili doctrine), Seven pillars of Ismailism, and List of Ismāʿīlī Imams Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_112

The Ismā'īlī Imāmate differ from Twelvers because they had living imams or da'is for centuries. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_113

They followed Isma'il ibn Jafar, elder brother of Musa al-Kadhim, as the rightful Imam after his father Ja'far al-Sadiq. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_114

The Ismailis believe that whether Imam Ismail did or did not die before Imam Ja'far, he had passed on the mantle of the imāmate to his son Muḥammad ibn Ismā'īl al-Maktum as the next imam. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_115

Further information: Nizārī Ismā'īlī, Imamah (Nizari Ismaili doctrine), History of the Shī‘a Imāmī Ismā'īlī Ṭarīqah, Musta’li Ismaili, and Taiyabi Ismaili Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_116

Batini-Twelver ʿAqīdah schools Schools of Islamic theology_section_19

Main article: Batiniyyah Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_117

The followers of "Batiniyyah-Twelver" madh'hab consist of Alevis and Nusayris, who developed their own fiqh system and do not pursue the Ja'fari jurisprudence. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_118

Their combined population is nearly around 1% of World overall Muslim population. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_119

Alevism Schools of Islamic theology_section_20

Main articles: Alevism, Sufism, Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar, Qalandariyya, Haji Bektash Veli, and Bektashi Order Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_120

Alevis are sometimes categorized as part of Twelver Shia Islam, and sometimes as its own religious tradition, as it has markedly different philosophy, customs, and rituals. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_121

They have many Tasawwufī characteristics and express belief in the Qur'an and The Twelve Imams, but reject polygamy and accept religious traditions predating Islam, like Turkish shamanism. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_122

They are significant in East-Central Turkey. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_123

They are sometimes considered a Sufi sect, and have an untraditional form of religious leadership that is not scholarship oriented like other Sunni and Shia groups. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_124

Seven to Eleven Million Alevi people including the other denominations of Twelver Shi'ites live in Anatolia. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_125

Alevi Islamic school of divinity Schools of Islamic theology_section_21

Main articles: Safaviyya, Shaykh Haydar, Qizilbash, Imadaddin Nasimi, Hurufism, and Bektashism and folk religion Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_126

In Turkey, Shia Muslim people belong to the Ja'fari jurisprudence Madhhab, which tracks back to the sixth Shia Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (also known as Imam Jafar-i Sadiq), are called as the Ja'faris, who belong to Twelver Shia. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_127

Although the Alevi Turks are being considered as a part of Twelver Shia Islam, their belief is different from the Ja'fari jurisprudence in conviction. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_128

Schools of Islamic theology_unordered_list_1

Schools of Islamic theology_unordered_list_2

Further information: Al-Hallaj, Sevener, Qarmatians, Baba Ishak, Babai Revolt, Hassan II (imam), and Nur al-Din Muhammad II Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_129

ʿAqīdah of Alevi-Islam Dīn Services Schools of Islamic theology_section_22

Main articles: ʿAqīdah, Dīn, and Buyruks Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_130

Schools of Islamic theology_unordered_list_3

  • Some of the differences that mark Alevis from Shi'a Islam are the non-observance of the five daily prayers and prostrations (they only bow twice in the presence of their spiritual leader), Ramadan, and the Hajj (they consider the pilgrimage to Mecca an external pretense, the real pilgrimage being internal in one's heart); and non-attendance of mosques.Schools of Islamic theology_item_3_10
  • Some of their members (or sub-groups) claim that God takes abode in the bodies of the human-beings (ḥulūl), believe in metempsychosis (tanāsukh), and consider Islamic law to be not obligatory (ibāḥa), similar to antinomianism.Schools of Islamic theology_item_3_11
  • Some of the Alevis criticizes the course of Islam as it is being practiced overwhelmingly by more than 99% of Sunni and Shia population.Schools of Islamic theology_item_3_12
  • They believe that major additions had been implemented during the time of Ummayads, and easily refuse some basic principles on the grounds that they believe it contradicts with the holy book of Islam, namely the Qur'an.Schools of Islamic theology_item_3_13
  • Regular daily salat and fasting in the holy month of Ramadan are officially not accepted by some members of Alevism.Schools of Islamic theology_item_3_14
  • Some of their sub-groups like Ishikists and Bektashis, who portrayed themselves as Alevis, neither comprehend the essence of the regular daily salat (prayers) and fasting in the holy month of Ramadan that is frequently accentuated at many times in Quran, nor admits that these principles constitute the ineluctable foundations of the Dīn of Islam as they had been laid down by Allah and they had been practised in an uninterruptible manner during the period of Prophet Muhammad.Schools of Islamic theology_item_3_15
  • Furthermore, during the period of Ottoman Empire, Alevis were forbidden to proselytise, and Alevism regenerated itself internally by paternal descent. To prevent penetration by hostile outsiders, the Alevis insisted on strict endogamy which eventually made them into a quasi-ethnic group. Alevi taboos limited interaction with the dominant Sunni political-religious centre. Excommunication was the ultimate punishment threatening those who married outsiders, cooperated with outsiders economically, or ate with outsiders. It was also forbidden to use the state (Sunni) courts.Schools of Islamic theology_item_3_16
Baktāshism (Bektaşilik) Schools of Islamic theology_section_23

Main article: Bektashism Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_131

Baktāshi Islamic School of Divinity Schools of Islamic theology_section_24

Main articles: Bektashiyyah and Wahdat-ul-Wujood Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_132

The Bektashiyyah is a Shia Sufi order founded in the 13th century by Haji Bektash Veli, a dervish who escaped Central Asia and found refuge with the Seljuks in Anatolia at the time of the Mongol invasions (1219–23). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_133

This order gained a great following in rural areas and it later developed in two branches: the Çelebi clan, who claimed to be physical descendants of Haji Bektash Veli, were called "Bel evladları" (children of the loins), and became the hereditary spiritual leaders of the rural Alevis; and the Babağan, those faithful to the path "Yol evladları" (children of the way), who dominated the official Bektashi Sufi order with its elected leadership. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_134

Bektashism places much emphasis on the concept of Wahdat-ul-Wujood وحدة الوجود, the "Unity of Being" that was formulated by Ibn Arabi. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_135

This has often been labeled as pantheism, although it is a concept closer to panentheism. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_136

Bektashism is also heavily permeated with Shiite concepts, such as the marked veneration of Ali, The Twelve Imams, and the ritual commemoration of Ashurah marking the Battle of Karbala. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_137

The old Persian holiday of Nowruz is celebrated by Bektashis as Imam Ali's birthday. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_138

In keeping with the central belief of Wahdat-ul-Wujood the Bektashi see reality contained in Haqq-Muhammad-Ali, a single unified entity. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_139

Bektashi do not consider this a form of trinity. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_140

There are many other practices and ceremonies that share similarity with other faiths, such as a ritual meal (muhabbet) and yearly confession of sins to a baba (magfirat-i zunub مغفرة الذنوب). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_141

Bektashis base their practices and rituals on their non-orthodox and mystical interpretation and understanding of the Qur'an and the prophetic practice (Sunnah). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_142

They have no written doctrine specific to them, thus rules and rituals may differ depending on under whose influence one has been taught. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_143

Bektashis generally revere Sufi mystics outside of their own order, such as Ibn Arabi, Al-Ghazali and Jelalludin Rumi who are close in spirit to them. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_144

The Baktāshi ʿaqīdah Schools of Islamic theology_section_25

Main articles: Mysticism, Four Doors, Hajji Bektash Wali, Sharia, Tariqa, Haqiqa, and Marifa Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_145

The Bektashi Order is a Sufi order and shares much in common with other Islamic mystical movements, such as the need for an experienced spiritual guide — called a baba in Bektashi parlance — as well as the doctrine of "the four gates that must be traversed": the "Sharia" (religious law), "Tariqah" (the spiritual path), "Haqiqah" (truth), and "Marifa" (true knowledge). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_146

Bektashis hold that the Qur'an has two levels of meaning: an outer (Zāher ظاهر) and an inner (bāṭen باطن). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_147

They hold the latter to be superior and eternal and this is reflected in their understanding of both the universe and humanity, which is a view that can also be found in Ismailism and Batiniyya. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_148

Bektashism is also initiatic and members must traverse various levels or ranks as they progress along the spiritual path to the Reality. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_149

First level members are called aşıks عاشق. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_150

They are those who, while not having taken initiation into the order, are nevertheless drawn to it. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_151

Following initiation (called nasip) one becomes a mühip محب. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_152

After some time as a mühip, one can take further vows and become a dervish. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_153

The next level above dervish is that of baba. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_154

The baba (lit. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_155

father) is considered to be the head of a tekke and qualified to give spiritual guidance (irshad إرشاد). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_156

Above the baba is the rank of halife-baba (or dede, grandfather). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_157

Traditionally there were twelve of these, the most senior being the dedebaba (great-grandfather). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_158

The dedebaba was considered to be the highest ranking authority in the Bektashi Order. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_159

Traditionally the residence of the dedebaba was the Pir Evi (The Saint's Home) which was located in the shrine of Hajji Bektash Wali in the central Anatolian town of Hacıbektaş (Solucakarahüyük). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_160

Further information: Alians, Arabati Baba Teḱe, Bektashism, Demir Baba Teke, and Hurufism Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_161

Ithnā'ashariyyah Schools of Islamic theology_section_26

Main articles: Twelvers and Imamah (Shia Twelver doctrine) Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_162

Twelvers believe in twelve Imams. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_163

The twelfth Imam is believed to be in occultation, and will appear again just before the Qiyamah (Islamic view of the Last Judgment). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_164

The Shia hadiths include the sayings of the Imams. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_165

Many Muslims criticise the Shia for certain beliefs and practices, including practices such as the Mourning of Muharram (Mätam). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_166

They are the largest Shia school of thought (93%), predominant in Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon and Bahrain and have a significant population in Pakistan, India, Afghanistan Kuwait and the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_167

The Twelver Shia are followers of either the Jaf'ari or Batiniyyah madh'habs. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_168

Imami-Ja'faris Schools of Islamic theology_section_27

Main articles: Ja'fari jurisprudence and Theology of Twelvers Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_169

Followers of the Jaf'ari madh'hab are divided into the following sub-divisions, all of them are the followers of the Theology of Twelvers: Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_170

Usulism Schools of Islamic theology_section_28

The Usuli form the overwhelming majority within the Twelver Shia denomination. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_171

They follow a Marja-i Taqlid on the subject of taqlid and fiqh. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_172

They are concentrated in Iran, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, India, Iraq, and Lebanon. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_173

Further information: Usulism Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_174

Akhbarism Schools of Islamic theology_section_29

Akhbari, similar to Usulis, however reject ijtihad in favor of hadith. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_175

Concentrated in Bahrain. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_176

Further information: Akhbarism Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_177

Shaykhism Schools of Islamic theology_section_30

Shaykhism is an Islamic religious movement founded by Shaykh Ahmad in the early 19th century Qajar dynasty, Iran, now retaining a minority following in Iran and Iraq. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_178

It began from a combination of Sufi and Shia and Akhbari doctrines. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_179

In the mid 19th-century many Shaykhis converted to the Bábí and Baháʼí religions, which regard Shaykh Ahmad highly. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_180

Further information: Shaykhism Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_181

Ghulāt-Imamis Schools of Islamic theology_section_31

Main articles: Ghulāt and imami Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_182

‘Alawism Schools of Islamic theology_section_32

Main articles: Al-Khaṣībī, Ibn Nusayr, and Alawites Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_183

Alawites are also called Nusayris, Nusairis, Namiriya or Ansariyya. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_184

Their madhhab is established by Ibn Nusayr, and their aqidah is developed by Al-Khaṣībī. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_185

They follow Cillī aqidah of "Maymūn ibn Abu’l-Qāsim Sulaiman ibn Ahmad ibn at-Tabarānī fiqh" of the ‘Alawis. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_186

One million three hundred and fifty thousand of them lived in Syria and Lebanon in 1970. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_187

It is estimated they are 10–12% of the population of Syria of 23 million in 2013. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_188

‘Alawite Islamic School of Divinity Schools of Islamic theology_section_33

Alawites consider themselves to be Muslims, although some Sunnis dispute that they are. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_189

Alawite doctrine incorporates Gnostic, neo-Platonic, Islamic, Christian and other elements and has, therefore, been described as syncretistic. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_190

Their theology is based on a divine triad, or trinity, which is the core of Alawite belief. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_191

The triad comprises three emanations of the one God: the supreme aspect or entity called the "Essence" or the "Meaning" (both being translations of ma'na), together with two lesser emanations known as his "Name" (ism), or "Veil" (hijab), and his "Gate" (bab). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_192

These emanations have manifested themselves in different human forms over several cycles in history, the last cycle of which was as Ali (the Essence/Meaning), Muhammad (the Name) and Salman the Persian (the Gate). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_193

Alawite belief is summarised in the formula: "I turn to the Gate; I bow before the Name; I adore the Meaning". Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_194

The claim that Alawites believe Ali is a deity has been contested by some scholars as a misrepresentation on the basis that Ali is, in fact, considered an "essence or form", not a human being, by which believers can "grasp God". Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_195

Alawites also hold that they were originally stars or divine lights that were cast out of heaven through disobedience and must undergo repeated reincarnation (or metempsychosis) before returning to heaven. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_196

They can be reincarnated as Christians or others through sin and as animals if they become infidels. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_197

Alawite beliefs have never been confirmed by their modern religious authorities. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_198

Alawites tend to conceal their beliefs (taqiyya) due to historical persecution. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_199

Some tenets of the faith are secret, known only to a select few; therefore, they have been described as a mystical sect. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_200

In addition to Islamic festivals, the Alawites have been reported to celebrate or honor certain Christian festivals such as the birth of Jesus and Palm Sunday. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_201

Their most-important feast is Eid al-Ghadeer. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_202

The ‘Alawite ʿaqīdah Schools of Islamic theology_section_34

Alawites have always described themselves as being Twelver Shi'ite Muslims and have been recognized as such by the prominent Lebanese Shi'ite cleric Musa al-Sadr. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_203

The Sunni Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Haj Amin al-Husseini issued a fatwa recognising them as part of the Muslim community in the interest of Arab nationalism. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_204

However, Athari Sunni (modern day Salafis) scholars such as Ibn Kathir (a disciple of Ibn Taymiyya) have categorised Alawites as pagans in their writings. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_205

Barry Rubin has suggested that Syrian leader Hafiz al-Assad and his son and successor Bashar al-Assad pressed their fellow Alawites "to behave like regular Muslims, shedding (or at least concealing) their distinctive aspects". Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_206

During the early 1970s a booklet, al-`Alawiyyun Shi'atu Ahl al-Bait ("The Alawites are Followers of the Household of the Prophet") was published, which was "signed by numerous 'Alawi' men of religion", described the doctrines of the Imami Shia as Alawite. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_207

Additionally, there has been a recent movement to unite Alawism and the other branches of Twelver Islam through educational exchange programs in Syria and Qom. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_208

Some sources have discussed the "Sunnification" of Alawites under the al-Assad regime. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_209

Joshua Landis, director of the Center for Middle East Studies, writes that Hafiz al-Assad "tried to turn Alawites into 'good' (read Sunnified) Muslims in exchange for preserving a modicum of secularism and tolerance in society". Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_210

On the other hand, Al-Assad "declared the Alawites to be nothing but Twelver Shiites". Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_211

In a paper, "Islamic Education in Syria", Landis wrote that "no mention" is made in Syrian textbooks (controlled by the Al-Assad regime) of Alawites, Druze, Ismailis or Shia Islam; Islam was presented as a monolithic religion. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_212

Ali Sulayman al-Ahmad, chief judge of the Baathist Syrian state, has said: Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_213

Kızılbaşlık Schools of Islamic theology_section_35

Main articles: Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam and Qizilbash Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_214

The Qizilbash ʿaqīdah Schools of Islamic theology_section_36

Qizilbash and Bektashi tariqah shared common religious beliefs and practices becoming intermingled as Alevis in spite of many local variations. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_215

Isolated from both the Sunni Ottomans and the Twelver Shi`a Safavids, Qizilbash and Bektashi developed traditions, practices, and doctrines by the early 17th century which marked them as a closed autonomous religious community. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_216

As a result of the immense pressures to conform to Sunni Islam, all members of Alevism developed a tradition of opposition (ibāḥa) to all forms of external religion. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_217

The doctrine of Qizilbashism is well explained in the following poem written by the Shaykh of Safaviyya tariqah Shāh Ismāʿil Khatai: Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_218

The lines of poetry above may easily be judged as an act of "Shirk" (polytheism) by the Sunni Ulama, but they have a bāṭenī taʾwīl (inner explanation) in Qizilbashism. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_219

Further information: Khatai, Muhammad-Ali, and Haqq-Muhammad-Ali Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_220

Tashbih Schools of Islamic theology_section_37

Main articles: Tashbih and Anthropopathy Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_221

Karram’iyyah Schools of Islamic theology_section_38

Main article: Karramiyya Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_222

Anthropomorphic-Anthropopathic Karram’iyyah was founded by Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Karrām. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_223

Ibn Karram considered that God was a substance and that He had a body (jism) finite in certain directions when He comes into contact with the Throne. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_224

Further information: Anthropomorphism Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_225

Anthropopathy in the history of Ghulāt Shia Schools of Islamic theology_section_39

Main articles: Anthropopathism, Anthropotheism, and Incarnation (Christianity) Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_226

The belief of Incarnation was first emerged in Sabaʾiyya, and later some personalities like Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, Abu Muslim, Sunpadh, Ishaq al-Turk, Al-Muqanna, Babak Khorramdin, Maziar and Ismail I had become the subject of God incarnates. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_227

Further information: Ghulāt, List of extinct Shia sects, Kaysanites Shia, and Khurramites Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_228

Ahmad’iyyah Schools of Islamic theology_section_40

The Ahmadis' beliefs are more aligned with the Sunni tradition, such as The Five Pillars of Islam and The Six articles of Islamic Faith. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_229

Likewise, Ahmadis accept the Qur'an as their holy text, face the Kaaba during prayer, accept the authority of Hadiths (reported sayings of and stories about Muhammad) and practice the Sunnah (traditions) of Muhammad. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_230

However, many Muslims consider Ahmadis as either kafirs or heretics. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_231

Ahmadi teachings state that the founders of all the major world religions had divine origins. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_232

God was working towards the establishment of Islam as the final religion, because it was the most complete and included all the previous teachings of other religion (but they believe that all other religions have gone astray in their present form). Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_233

The completion and consummation of the development of religion came about with the coming of Muhammad; and that the perfection of the ‘manifestation’ of Muhammad's prophethood and of the conveyance of his message was destined to occur with the coming of the Mahdi. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_234

The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community regard Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, who claimed to be the promised Messiah ("Second Coming of Christ") the Mahdi awaited by the Muslims and a 'subordinate' prophet to Muhammad whose job was to restore the Sharia given to Muhammad by guiding or rallying disenchanted Ummah back to Islam and thwart attacks on Islam by its opponents, as the "Promised One" of all religions fulfilling eschatological prophecies found in the scriptures of the Abrahamic religions, as well as Zoroastrianism, the Indian religions, Native American traditions and others. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_235

Ahmadi Muslims believe that Ahmad was divinely commissioned as a true reflection of Muhammad's prophethood to establish the unity of God and to remind mankind of their duties towards God and God's creation. Schools of Islamic theology_sentence_236

See also Schools of Islamic theology_section_41

Schools of Islamic theology_unordered_list_4

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: of Islamic theology.