Scouting

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This article is about the Scouting movement. Scouting_sentence_0

For other uses, see Scout (disambiguation). Scouting_sentence_1

Scouting_table_infobox_0

ScoutingScouting_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryScouting_header_cell_0_1_0 Worldwide

United Kingdom (origin)Scouting_cell_0_1_1

FoundedScouting_header_cell_0_2_0 1908Scouting_cell_0_2_1
FounderScouting_header_cell_0_3_0 Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-PowellScouting_cell_0_3_1
Scouting_cell_0_5_0 Scouting_cell_0_5_1

The Scout movement, also known as Scouting or the Scouts, is a voluntary non-political educational movement for young people. Scouting_sentence_2

Although it requires an oath of allegiance to a nation's leaders and, in some countries, to a god, it otherwise allows membership without distinction of gender, race or origin in accordance with the principles of its founder, Lord Baden-Powell. Scouting_sentence_3

The purpose of the Scout Movement is to contribute to the development of young people in achieving their full physical, intellectual, emotional, social and spiritual potentials as individuals, as responsible citizens and as members of their local, national and international communities. Scouting_sentence_4

During the first half of the twentieth century, the movement grew to encompass three major age groups for boys: Cub Scout, Boy Scout and Rover Scout. Scouting_sentence_5

In 1910, the Girl Guides was created, encompassing three major age groups for girls: Brownie Guide, Girl Guide and Girl Scout and Ranger Guide. Scouting_sentence_6

It is one of several worldwide youth organizations. Scouting_sentence_7

In 1906 and 1907 Robert Baden-Powell, a lieutenant general in the British Army, wrote a book for boys about reconnaissance and scouting. Scouting_sentence_8

This book, Scouting for Boys, was based on his earlier books about military scouting, with influence and support of Frederick Russell Burnham (Chief of Scouts in British Africa), Ernest Thompson Seton of the Woodcraft Indians, William Alexander Smith of the Boys' Brigade, and his publisher Pearson. Scouting_sentence_9

In mid-1907 Baden-Powell held a camp on Brownsea Island in England to test ideas for his book. Scouting_sentence_10

This camp and the publication of Scouting for Boys (London, 1908) are generally regarded as the start of the Scout movement. Scouting_sentence_11

The movement employs the Scout method, a programme of informal education with an emphasis on practical outdoor activities, including camping, woodcraft, aquatics, hiking, backpacking, and sports. Scouting_sentence_12

Another widely recognized movement characteristic is the Scout uniform, by intent hiding all differences of social standing in a country and making for equality, with neckerchief and campaign hat or comparable headwear. Scouting_sentence_13

Distinctive uniform insignia include the fleur-de-lis and the trefoil, as well as badges and other patches. Scouting_sentence_14

The two largest umbrella organizations are the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM), for boys-only and co-educational organizations, and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS), primarily for girls-only organizations but also accepting co-educational organizations. Scouting_sentence_15

The year 2007 marked the centenary of Scouting worldwide, and member organizations planned events to celebrate the occasion. Scouting_sentence_16

History Scouting_section_0

Origins Scouting_section_1

The trigger for the Scouting movement was the 1908 publication of Scouting for Boys written by Robert Baden-Powell. Scouting_sentence_17

At Charterhouse, one of England's most famous public schools, Baden-Powell had an interest in the outdoors. Scouting_sentence_18

Later, as a military officer, Baden-Powell was stationed in British India in the 1880s where he took an interest in military scouting and in 1884 he published Reconnaissance and Scouting. Scouting_sentence_19

In 1896, Baden-Powell was assigned to the Matabeleland region in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) as Chief of Staff to Gen. Frederick Carrington during the Second Matabele War. Scouting_sentence_20

In June 1896 he met here and began a lifelong friendship with Frederick Russell Burnham, the American-born Chief of Scouts for the British Army in Africa. Scouting_sentence_21

This was a formative experience for Baden-Powell not only because he had the time of his life commanding reconnaissance missions into enemy territory, but because many of his later Boy Scout ideas originated here. Scouting_sentence_22

During their joint scouting patrols into the Matobo Hills, Burnham augmented Baden-Powell's woodcraft skills, inspiring him and sowing seeds for both the programme and for the code of honour later published in Scouting for Boys. Scouting_sentence_23

Practised by frontiersmen of the American Old West and indigenous peoples of the Americas, woodcraft was generally little known to the British Army but well known to the American scout Burnham. Scouting_sentence_24

These skills eventually formed the basis of what is now called scoutcraft, the fundamentals of Scouting. Scouting_sentence_25

Both men recognised that wars in Africa were changing markedly and the British Army needed to adapt; so during their joint scouting missions, Baden-Powell and Burnham discussed the concept of a broad training programme in woodcraft for young men, rich in exploration, tracking, fieldcraft, and self-reliance. Scouting_sentence_26

During this time in the Matobo Hills Baden-Powell first started to wear his signature campaign hat like the one worn by Burnham, and acquired his kudu horn, the Ndebele war instrument he later used every morning at Brownsea Island to wake the first Boy Scouts and to call them together in training courses. Scouting_sentence_27

Three years later, in South Africa during the Second Boer War, Baden-Powell was besieged in the small town of Mafikeng (Mafeking) by a much larger Boer army. Scouting_sentence_28

The Mafeking Cadet Corps was a group of youths that supported the troops by carrying messages, which freed the men for military duties and kept the boys occupied during the long siege. Scouting_sentence_29

The Cadet Corps performed well, helping in the defence of the town (1899–1900), and were one of the many factors that inspired Baden-Powell to form the Scouting movement. Scouting_sentence_30

Each member received a badge that illustrated a combined compass point and spearhead. Scouting_sentence_31

The badge's logo was similar to the fleur-de-lis shaped arrowhead that Scouting later adopted as its international symbol. Scouting_sentence_32

The Siege of Mafeking was the first time since his own childhood that Baden-Powell, a regular serving soldier, had come into the same orbit as "civilians"—women and children—and discovered for himself the usefulness of well-trained boys. Scouting_sentence_33

In the United Kingdom, the public, through newspapers, followed Baden-Powell's struggle to hold Mafeking, and when the siege was broken he had become a national hero. Scouting_sentence_34

This rise to fame fuelled the sales of the small instruction book he had written in 1899 about military scouting and wilderness survival, Aids to Scouting, that owed much to what he had learned from discussions with Burnham. Scouting_sentence_35

On his return to England, Baden-Powell noticed that boys showed considerable interest in Aids to Scouting, which was unexpectedly used by teachers and youth organizations as their first Scouting handbook. Scouting_sentence_36

He was urged to rewrite this book for boys, especially during an inspection of the Boys' Brigade, a large youth movement drilled with military precision. Scouting_sentence_37

Baden-Powell thought this would not be attractive and suggested that the Boys' Brigade could grow much larger were Scouting to be used. Scouting_sentence_38

He studied other schemes, parts of which he used for Scouting. Scouting_sentence_39

In July 1906 Ernest Thompson Seton sent Baden-Powell a copy of his 1902 book The Birchbark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians. Scouting_sentence_40

Seton, a British-born Canadian-American living in the United States, met Baden-Powell in October 1906, and they shared ideas about youth training programs. Scouting_sentence_41

In 1907 Baden-Powell wrote a draft called Boy Patrols. Scouting_sentence_42

In the same year, to test his ideas, he gathered 21 boys of mixed social backgrounds (from boy's schools in the London area and a section of boys from the Poole, Parkstone, Hamworthy, Bournemouth, and Winton Boys' Brigade units) and held a week-long camp in August on Brownsea Island in Poole Harbour, Dorset. Scouting_sentence_43

His organizational method, now known as the Patrol System and a key part of Scouting training, allowed the boys to organize themselves into small groups with an elected patrol leader. Scouting_sentence_44

In late 1907, Baden-Powell went on an extensive speaking tour arranged by his publisher, Arthur Pearson, to promote his forthcoming book, Scouting for Boys. Scouting_sentence_45

He had not simply rewritten his Aids to Scouting; he omitted the military aspects and transferred the techniques (mainly survival skills) to non-military heroes: backwoodsmen, explorers (and later on, sailors and airmen). Scouting_sentence_46

He also added innovative educational principles (the Scout method) by which he extended the attractive game to a personal mental education. Scouting_sentence_47

At the beginning of 1908, Baden-Powell published Scouting for Boys in six fortnightly parts, setting out activities and programmes which existing youth organisations could use. Scouting_sentence_48

The reaction was phenomenal, and quite unexpected. Scouting_sentence_49

In a very short time, Scout Patrols were created up and down the country, all following the principles of Baden-Powell's book. Scouting_sentence_50

In 1909, the first Scout Rally was held at Crystal Palace in London, to which 11,000 Scouts came—and some girls dressed as Scouts and calling themselves "Girl Scouts". Scouting_sentence_51

Baden-Powell retired from the Army and, in 1910, he formed The Boy Scouts Association, and later The Girl Guides. Scouting_sentence_52

By the time of The Boy Scouts Association's first census in 1910, it had over 100,000 Scouts. Scouting_sentence_53

Scouting for Boys was published in England later in 1908 in book form. Scouting_sentence_54

The book is now the fourth-bestselling title of all time, and was the basis for the later American version of the Boy Scout Handbook. Scouting_sentence_55

At the time, Baden-Powell intended that the scheme would be used by established organizations, in particular the Boys' Brigade, from the founder William A. Smith. Scouting_sentence_56

However, because of the popularity of his person and the adventurous outdoor games he wrote about, boys spontaneously formed Scout patrols and flooded Baden-Powell with requests for assistance. Scouting_sentence_57

He encouraged them, and the Scouting movement developed momentum. Scouting_sentence_58

In 1910 Baden-Powell formed The Boy Scouts Association in the United Kingdom. Scouting_sentence_59

As the movement grew, Sea Scouts, Air Scouts, and other specialized units were added to the program. Scouting_sentence_60

The original Scout law Scouting_section_2

Main article: Scout law Scouting_sentence_61

The scouts law is for boys, as follows; Scouting_sentence_62

Scouting_unordered_list_0

  • A Scout's honour is to be trusted – This means the scout will try as best as he can to do what he promised, or what is asked of himScouting_item_0_0
  • A Scout is loyal – to his king or queen, his leaders and his country.Scouting_item_0_1
  • A Scout's duty is to be useful, and to help othersScouting_item_0_2
  • A Scout is a friend to all, and a brother to every other Scout – Scouts help one another, regardless of the differences in status or social class.Scouting_item_0_3
  • A Scout is courteous – He is polite and helpful to all, especially women, children and the elderly. He does not take anything for being helpful.Scouting_item_0_4
  • A Scout is a friend to animals – He does not make them suffer or kill them without need to do so.Scouting_item_0_5
  • A Scout obeys orders – Even the ones he does not like.Scouting_item_0_6
  • A Scout smiles and whistlesScouting_item_0_7
  • A Scout is thrifty – he avoids unnecessary spending of money.Scouting_item_0_8
  • A Scout is clean in thought, word and deed (added later)Scouting_item_0_9

The promise of 1907 Scouting_section_3

Main article: Scout promise Scouting_sentence_63

In his original book on boy scouting, General Baden-Powell introduced the Scout promise, as follows: “Before he becomes a scout, a boy must take the scout's oath, thus: Scouting_sentence_64

On my honour I promise that--- Scouting_sentence_65

Scouting_unordered_list_1

  • I will do my duty to God and the Queen.Scouting_item_1_10
  • I will do my best to help others, whatever it costs me.Scouting_item_1_11
  • I know the scout law, and will obey it."Scouting_item_1_12

While taking this oath the scout will stand, holding his right hand raised level with his shoulder, palm to the front, thumb resting on the nail of the little finger and the other three fingers upright, pointing upwards:--- This is the scout's salute and secret sign. Scouting_sentence_66

Movement Scouting_section_4

The Boy Scout Movement swiftly established itself throughout the British Empire soon after the publication of Scouting for Boys. Scouting_sentence_67

By 1908, Scouting was established in Gibraltar, Malta, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Malaya (YMCA Experimental Troop in Penang) and South Africa. Scouting_sentence_68

In 1909 Chile was the first country outside the British dominions to have a Scouting organization recognized by Baden-Powell. Scouting_sentence_69

The first Scout rally, held in 1909 at the Crystal Palace in London, attracted 10,000 boys and a number of girls. Scouting_sentence_70

By 1910, Argentina, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, India, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States had Boy Scouts. Scouting_sentence_71

The program initially focused on boys aged 11 to 18, but as the movement grew the need became apparent for leader training and programs for younger boys, older boys, and girls. Scouting_sentence_72

The first Cub Scout and Rover Scout programs were in place by the late 1910s. Scouting_sentence_73

They operated independently until they obtained official recognition from their home country's Scouting organization. Scouting_sentence_74

In the United States, attempts at Cub programs began as early as 1911, but official recognition was not obtained until 1930. Scouting_sentence_75

Girls wanted to become part of the movement almost as soon as it began. Scouting_sentence_76

Baden-Powell and his sister Agnes Baden-Powell introduced the Girl Guides in 1910, a parallel movement for girls, sometimes named Girl Scouts. Scouting_sentence_77

Agnes Baden-Powell became the first president of the Girl Guides when it was formed in 1910, at the request of the girls who attended the Crystal Palace Rally. Scouting_sentence_78

In 1914, she started Rosebuds—later renamed Brownies—for younger girls. Scouting_sentence_79

She stepped down as president of the Girl Guides in 1920 in favor of Robert's wife Olave Baden-Powell, who was named Chief Guide (for England) in 1918 and World Chief Guide in 1930. Scouting_sentence_80

At that time, girls were expected to remain separate from boys because of societal standards, though co-educational youth groups did exist. Scouting_sentence_81

By the 1990s, two-thirds of the Scout organizations belonging to WOSM had become co-educational. Scouting_sentence_82

Baden-Powell could not single-handedly advise all groups who requested his assistance. Scouting_sentence_83

Early Scoutmaster training camps were held in London and Yorkshire in 1910 and 1911. Scouting_sentence_84

Baden-Powell wanted the training to be as practical as possible to encourage other adults to take leadership roles, so the Wood Badge course was developed to recognize adult leadership training. Scouting_sentence_85

The development of the training was delayed by World War I, and the first Wood Badge course was not held until 1919. Scouting_sentence_86

Wood Badge is used by Boy Scout associations and combined Boy Scout and Girl Guide associations in many countries. Scouting_sentence_87

Gilwell Park near London was purchased in 1919 on behalf of The Scout Association as an adult training site and Scouting campsite. Scouting_sentence_88

Baden-Powell wrote a book, Aids to Scoutmastership, to help Scouting Leaders, and wrote other handbooks for the use of the new Scouting sections, such as Cub Scouts and Girl Guides. Scouting_sentence_89

One of these was Rovering to Success, written for Rover Scouts in 1922. Scouting_sentence_90

A wide range of leader training exists in 2007, from basic to program-specific, including the Wood Badge training. Scouting_sentence_91

Influences Scouting_section_5

Important elements of traditional Scouting have their origins in Baden-Powell's experiences in education and military training. Scouting_sentence_92

He was a 50-year-old retired army general when he founded Scouting, and his revolutionary ideas inspired thousands of young people, from all parts of society, to get involved in activities that most had never contemplated. Scouting_sentence_93

Comparable organizations in the English-speaking world are the Boys' Brigade and the non-militaristic Woodcraft Folk; however, they never matched the development and growth of Scouting. Scouting_sentence_94

Aspects of Scouting practice have been criticized as too militaristic. Scouting_sentence_95

Local influences have also been a strong part of Scouting. Scouting_sentence_96

By adopting and modifying local ideologies, Scouting has been able to find acceptance in a wide variety of cultures. Scouting_sentence_97

In the United States, Scouting uses images drawn from the U.S. frontier experience. Scouting_sentence_98

This includes not only its selection of animal badges for Cub Scouts, but the underlying assumption that American native peoples are more closely connected with nature and therefore have special wilderness survival skills which can be used as part of the training program. Scouting_sentence_99

By contrast, British Scouting makes use of imagery drawn from the Indian subcontinent, because that region was a significant focus in the early years of Scouting. Scouting_sentence_100

Baden-Powell's personal experiences in India led him to adopt Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book as a major influence for the Cub Scouts; for example, the name used for the Cub Scout leader, Akela (whose name was also appropriated for the Webelos), is that of the leader of the wolf pack in the book. Scouting_sentence_101

The name "Scouting" seems to have been inspired by the important and romantic role played by military scouts performing reconnaissance in the wars of the time. Scouting_sentence_102

In fact, Baden-Powell wrote his original military training book, Aids To Scouting, because he saw the need for the improved training of British military-enlisted scouts, particularly in initiative, self-reliance, and observational skills. Scouting_sentence_103

The book's popularity with young boys surprised him. Scouting_sentence_104

As he adapted the book as Scouting for Boys, it seems natural that the movement adopted the names Scouting and Boy Scouts. Scouting_sentence_105

"Duty to God" is a principle of Scouting, though it is applied differently in various countries. Scouting_sentence_106

The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) take a strong position, excluding atheists. Scouting_sentence_107

The Scout Association in the United Kingdom permits variations to its Promise, in order to accommodate different religious obligations. Scouting_sentence_108

While for example in the predominantly atheist Czech Republic the Scout oath doesn't mention God altogether with the organization being strictly irreligious, in 2014, United Kingdom Scouts were given the choice of being able to make a variation of the Promise that replaced "duty to God" with "uphold our Scout values", Scouts Canada defines Duty to God broadly in terms of "adherence to spiritual principles" and leaves it to the individual member or leader whether they can follow a Scout Promise that includes Duty to God. Scouting_sentence_109

Worldwide, roughly one in three Scouts are Muslim. Scouting_sentence_110

Movement characteristics Scouting_section_6

Scouting is taught using the Scout method, which incorporates an informal educational system that emphasizes practical activities in the outdoors. Scouting_sentence_111

Programs exist for Scouts ranging in age from 6 to 25 (though age limits vary slightly by country), and program specifics target Scouts in a manner appropriate to their age. Scouting_sentence_112

Scout method Scouting_section_7

Main article: Scout method Scouting_sentence_113

The Scout method is the principal method by which the Scouting organizations, boy and girl, operate their units. Scouting_sentence_114

WOSM describes Scouting as "a voluntary nonpolitical educational movement for young people open to all without distinction of origin, race or creed, in accordance with the purpose, principles and method conceived by the Founder". Scouting_sentence_115

It is the goal of Scouting "to contribute to the development of young people in achieving their full physical, intellectual, social and spiritual potentials as individuals, as responsible citizens and as members of their local, national and international communities." Scouting_sentence_116

The principles of Scouting describe a code of behavior for all members, and characterize the movement. Scouting_sentence_117

The Scout method is a progressive system designed to achieve these goals, comprising seven elements: law and promise, learning by doing, team system, symbolic framework, personal progression, nature, and adult support. Scouting_sentence_118

While community service is a major element of both the WOSM and WAGGGS programs, WAGGGS includes it as an extra element of the Scout method: service in the community. Scouting_sentence_119

The Scout Law and Promise embody the joint values of the Scouting movement worldwide, and bind all Scouting associations together. Scouting_sentence_120

The emphasis on "learning by doing" provides experiences and hands-on orientation as a practical method of learning and building self-confidence. Scouting_sentence_121

Small groups build unity, camaraderie, and a close-knit fraternal atmosphere. Scouting_sentence_122

These experiences, along with an emphasis on trustworthiness and personal honor, help to develop responsibility, character, self-reliance, self-confidence, reliability, and readiness; which eventually lead to collaboration and leadership. Scouting_sentence_123

A program with a variety of progressive and attractive activities expands a Scout's horizon and bonds the Scout even more to the group. Scouting_sentence_124

Activities and games provide an enjoyable way to develop skills such as dexterity. Scouting_sentence_125

In an outdoor setting, they also provide contact with the natural environment. Scouting_sentence_126

Since the birth of Scouting, Scouts worldwide have taken a Scout Promise to live up to ideals of the movement, and subscribe to the Scout Law. Scouting_sentence_127

The form of the promise and laws have varied slightly by country and over time, but must fulfil the requirements of the WOSM to qualify a National Scout Association for membership. Scouting_sentence_128

The Scout Motto, 'Be Prepared', has been used in various languages by millions of Scouts since 1907. Scouting_sentence_129

Less well-known is the Scout Slogan, 'Do a good turn daily'. Scouting_sentence_130

Activities Scouting_section_8

Common ways to implement the Scout method include having Scouts spending time together in small groups with shared experiences, rituals, and activities, and emphasizing 'good citizenship' and decision-making by young people in an age-appropriate manner. Scouting_sentence_131

Weekly meetings often take place in local centres known as Scout dens. Scouting_sentence_132

Cultivating a love and appreciation of the outdoors and outdoor activities is a key element. Scouting_sentence_133

Primary activities include camping, woodcraft, aquatics, hiking, backpacking, and sports. Scouting_sentence_134

Camping is most often arranged at the unit level, such as one Scout troop, but there are periodic camps (known in the US as "camporees") and "jamborees". Scouting_sentence_135

Camps occur a few times a year and may involve several groups from a local area or region camping together for a weekend. Scouting_sentence_136

The events usually have a theme, such as pioneering. Scouting_sentence_137

World Scout Moots are gatherings, originally for Rover Scouts, but mainly focused on Scout Leaders. Scouting_sentence_138

Jamborees are large national or international events held every four years, during which thousands of Scouts camp together for one or two weeks. Scouting_sentence_139

Activities at these events will include games, Scoutcraft competitions, badge, pin or patch trading, aquatics, woodcarving, archery and activities related to the theme of the event. Scouting_sentence_140

In some countries a highlight of the year for Scouts is spending at least a week in the summer engaging in an outdoor activity. Scouting_sentence_141

This can be a camping, hiking, sailing, or other trip with the unit, or a summer camp with broader participation (at the council, state, or provincial level). Scouting_sentence_142

Scouts attending a summer camp work on Scout badges, advancement, and perfecting Scoutcraft skills. Scouting_sentence_143

Summer camps can operate specialty programs for older Scouts, such as sailing, backpacking, canoeing and whitewater, caving, and fishing. Scouting_sentence_144

At an international level Scouting perceives one of its roles as the promotion of international harmony and peace. Scouting_sentence_145

Various initiatives are in train towards achieving this aim including the development of activities that benefit the wider community, challenge prejudice and encourage tolerance of diversity. Scouting_sentence_146

Such programs include co-operation with non-Scouting organisations including various NGOs, the United Nations and religious institutions as set out in The Marrakech Charter. Scouting_sentence_147

Uniforms and distinctive insignia Scouting_section_9

The Scout uniform is a widely recognized characteristic of Scouting. Scouting_sentence_148

In the words of Baden-Powell at the 1937 World Jamboree, it "hides all differences of social standing in a country and makes for equality; but, more important still, it covers differences of country and race and creed, and makes all feel that they are members with one another of the one great brotherhood". Scouting_sentence_149

The original uniform, still widely recognized, consisted of a khaki button-up shirt, shorts, and a broad-brimmed campaign hat. Scouting_sentence_150

Baden-Powell also wore shorts, because he believed that being dressed like a Scout helped to reduce the age-imposed distance between adult and youth. Scouting_sentence_151

Uniform shirts are now frequently blue, orange, red or green and shorts are frequently replaced by long trousers all year or only under cold weather. Scouting_sentence_152

While designed for smartness and equality, the Scout uniform is also practical. Scouting_sentence_153

Shirts traditionally have thick seams to make them ideal for use in makeshift stretchers—Scouts were trained to use them in this way with their staves, a traditional but deprecated item. Scouting_sentence_154

The leather straps and toggles of the campaign hats or Leaders' Wood Badges could be used as emergency tourniquets, or anywhere that string was needed in a hurry. Scouting_sentence_155

Neckerchiefs were chosen as they could easily be used as a sling or triangular bandage by a Scout in need. Scouting_sentence_156

Scouts were encouraged to use their garters for shock cord where necessary. Scouting_sentence_157

Distinctive insignia for all are Scout uniforms, recognized and worn the world over, include the Wood Badge and the World Membership Badge. Scouting_sentence_158

Scouting has two internationally known symbols: the trefoil is used by members of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) and the fleur-de-lis by member organizations of the WOSM and most other Scouting organizations. Scouting_sentence_159

The swastika was used as an early symbol by the Boy Scouts Association of the United Kingdom and others. Scouting_sentence_160

Its earliest use in Scouting was on the Thanks Badge introduced in 1911. Scouting_sentence_161

Lord Baden-Powell's 1922 design for the Medal of Merit added a swastika to the Scout Arrowhead to symbolize good luck for the recipient. Scouting_sentence_162

In 1934, Scouters requested a change to the design because of the connection of the swastika with its more recent use by the German National Socialist Workers (Nazi) Party. Scouting_sentence_163

A new Medal of Merit was issued by the Boy Scouts Association in 1935. Scouting_sentence_164

Age groups and sections Scouting_section_10

Main article: Age groups in Scouting and Guiding Scouting_sentence_165

Scouting and Guiding movements are generally divided into sections by age or school grade, allowing activities to be tailored to the maturity of the group's members. Scouting_sentence_166

These age divisions have varied over time as they adapt to the local culture and environment. Scouting_sentence_167

Scouting was originally developed for adolescents—youths between the ages of 11 and 17. Scouting_sentence_168

In most member organizations, this age group composes the Scout or Guide section. Scouting_sentence_169

Programs were developed to meet the needs of young children (generally ages 6 to 10) and young adults (originally 18 and older, and later up to 25). Scouting_sentence_170

Scouts and Guides were later split into "junior" and "senior" sections in many member organizations, and some organizations dropped the young adults' section. Scouting_sentence_171

The exact age ranges for programs vary by country and association. Scouting_sentence_172

Scouting_table_general_1

The traditional age groups as they were between 1920 and 1940 in most organizations:Scouting_table_caption_1
Age rangeScouting_header_cell_1_0_0 Boys sectionScouting_header_cell_1_0_1 Girls sectionScouting_header_cell_1_0_2
8 to 10Scouting_cell_1_1_0 Wolf CubsScouting_cell_1_1_1 Brownie GuideScouting_cell_1_1_2
11 to 17Scouting_cell_1_2_0 Boy ScoutScouting_cell_1_2_1 Girl Guide or Girl ScoutScouting_cell_1_2_2
18 and upScouting_cell_1_3_0 Rover ScoutScouting_cell_1_3_1 Ranger GuideScouting_cell_1_3_2

The national programs for younger children include Tiger Cubs, Cub Scouts, Brownies, Daisies, Rainbow Guides, Beaver Scouts, Joey Scouts, Keas, and Teddies. Scouting_sentence_173

Programs for post-adolescents and young adults include the Senior Section, Rover Scouts, Senior Scouts, Venture Scouts, Explorer Scouts, and the Scout Network. Scouting_sentence_174

Many organizations also have a program for members with special needs. Scouting_sentence_175

This is usually known as Extension Scouting, but sometimes has other names, such as Scoutlink. Scouting_sentence_176

The Scout Method has been adapted to specific programs such as Air Scouts, Sea Scouts, Rider Guides and Scoutingbands . Scouting_sentence_177

In many countries, Scouting is organized into neighborhood Scout Groups, or Districts, which contain one or more sections. Scouting_sentence_178

Under the umbrella of the Scout Group, sections are divided according to age, each having their own terminology and leadership structure. Scouting_sentence_179

Adults and leadership Scouting_section_11

Adults interested in Scouting or Guiding, including former Scouts and Guides, often join organizations such as the International Scout and Guide Fellowship. Scouting_sentence_180

In the United States and the Philippines, university students might join the co-ed service fraternity Alpha Phi Omega. Scouting_sentence_181

In the United Kingdom, university students might join the Student Scout and Guide Organisation, and after graduation, the Scout and Guide Graduate Association. Scouting_sentence_182

Scout units are usually operated by adult volunteers, such as parents and carers, former Scouts, students, and community leaders, including teachers and religious leaders. Scouting_sentence_183

Scout Leadership positions are often divided into 'uniform' and 'lay' positions. Scouting_sentence_184

Uniformed leaders have received formal training, such as the Wood Badge, and have received a warrant for a rank within the organization. Scouting_sentence_185

Lay members commonly hold part-time roles such as meeting helpers, committee members and advisors, though there are a small number of full-time lay professionals. Scouting_sentence_186

A unit has uniformed positions—such as the Scoutmaster and assistants—whose titles vary among countries. Scouting_sentence_187

In some countries, units are supported by lay members, who range from acting as meeting helpers to being members of the unit's committee. Scouting_sentence_188

In some Scout associations, the committee members may also wear uniforms and be registered Scout leaders. Scouting_sentence_189

Above the unit are further uniformed positions, called Commissioners, at levels such as district, county, council or province, depending on the structure of the national organization. Scouting_sentence_190

Commissioners work with lay teams and professionals. Scouting_sentence_191

Training teams and related functions are often formed at these levels. Scouting_sentence_192

In the UK and in other countries, the national Scout organization appoints the Chief Scout, the most senior uniformed member. Scouting_sentence_193

Around the world Scouting_section_12

Following its foundation in the United Kingdom, Scouting spread around the globe. Scouting_sentence_194

The first association outside the British Empire was founded in Chile on May 21, 1909 after a visit by Baden Powell. Scouting_sentence_195

In most countries of the world, there is now at least one Scouting (or Guiding) organization. Scouting_sentence_196

Each is independent, but international cooperation continues to be seen as part of the Scout Movement. Scouting_sentence_197

In 1922 the WOSM started as the governing body on policy for the national Scouting organizations (then male only). Scouting_sentence_198

In addition to being the governing policy body, it organizes the World Scout Jamboree every four years. Scouting_sentence_199

In 1928 the WAGGGS started as the equivalent to WOSM for the then female-only national Scouting/Guiding organizations. Scouting_sentence_200

It is also responsible for its four international centres: Our Cabaña in Mexico, Our Chalet in Switzerland, Pax Lodge in the United Kingdom, and Sangam in India. Scouting_sentence_201

Today at the international level, the two largest umbrella organizations are: Scouting_sentence_202

Scouting_unordered_list_2

Co-educational Scouting_section_13

There have been different approaches to co-educational Scouting. Scouting_sentence_203

Some countries have maintained separate Scouting organizations for boys and girls, In other countries, especially within Europe, Scouting and Guiding have merged, and there is a single organization for boys and girls, which is a member of both the WOSM and the WAGGGS. Scouting_sentence_204

The United States-based Boy Scouts of America permitted girls to join in early 2018. Scouting_sentence_205

In others, such as Australia and the United Kingdom, the national Scout association has opted to admit both boys and girls, but is only a member of the WOSM, while the national Guide association has remained as a separate movement and member of the WAGGGS. Scouting_sentence_206

In some countries like Greece, Slovenia and Spain there are separate associations of Scouts (members of WOSM) and guides (members of WAGGGS), both admitting boys and girls. Scouting_sentence_207

The Scout Association in the United Kingdom has been co-educational at all levels since 1991, and this was optional for groups until the year 2000 when new sections were required to accept girls. Scouting_sentence_208

The Scout Association transitioned all Scout groups and sections across the UK to become co-educational by January 2007, the year of Scouting's centenary. Scouting_sentence_209

The traditional Baden-Powell Scouts' Association has been co-educational since its formation in 1970. Scouting_sentence_210

In the United States, the Cub Scout and Boy Scout programs of the BSA were for boys only until 2018; it has changed its policies and is now inviting girls to join, as local packs organize all-girl dens (same uniform, same book, same activities). Scouting_sentence_211

For youths age 14 and older, Venturing has been co-educational since the 1930s. Scouting_sentence_212

The Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA) is an independent organization for girls and young women only. Scouting_sentence_213

Adult leadership positions in the BSA and GSUSA are open to both men and women. Scouting_sentence_214

In 2006, of the 155 WOSM member National Scout Organizations (representing 155 countries), 122 belonged only to WOSM, and 34 belonged to both WOSM and WAGGGS. Scouting_sentence_215

Of the 122 which belonged only to WOSM, 95 were open to boys and girls in some or all program sections, and 20 were only for boys. Scouting_sentence_216

All 34 that belonged to both WOSM and WAGGGS were open to boys and girls. Scouting_sentence_217

WAGGGS had 144 Member Organizations in 2007 and 110 of them belonged only to WAGGGS. Scouting_sentence_218

Of these 110, 17 were coeducational and 93 admitted only girls. Scouting_sentence_219

Membership Scouting_section_14

As of 2019, there are over 50 million registered Scouts and as of 2006 10 million registered Guides around the world, from 216 countries and territories. Scouting_sentence_220

Nonaligned and Scout-like organizations Scouting_section_15

Main article: Non-aligned Scouting and Scout-like organisations Scouting_sentence_221

Fifteen years passed between the first publication of Scouting for Boys and the creation of the current largest supranational Scout organization, WOSM, and millions of copies had been sold in dozens of languages. Scouting_sentence_222

By that point, Scouting was the purview of the world's youth, and several Scout associations had already formed in many countries. Scouting_sentence_223

Alternative groups have formed since the original formation of the Scouting "Boy Patrols". Scouting_sentence_224

They can be a result of groups or individuals who maintain that the WOSM and WAGGGS are more political and less youth-based than envisioned by Lord Baden-Powell. Scouting_sentence_225

They believe that Scouting in general has moved away from its original intent because of political machinations that happen to longstanding organizations, and want to return to the earliest, simplest methods. Scouting_sentence_226

Others do not want to follow all the original ideals of Scouting but still desire to participate in Scout-like activities. Scouting_sentence_227

In 2008, there were at least 539 independent Scouting organizations around the world, 367 of them were a member of either WAGGGS or WOSM. Scouting_sentence_228

About half of the remaining 172 Scouting organizations are only local or national oriented. Scouting_sentence_229

About 90 national or regional Scouting associations have created their own international Scouting organizations. Scouting_sentence_230

Those are served by five international Scouting organizations: Scouting_sentence_231

Scouting_unordered_list_3

Some Scout-like organizations are also served by international organizations, many with religious elements, for example: Scouting_sentence_232

Scouting_unordered_list_4

Influence on society Scouting_section_16

After the inception of Scouting in the early 1900s, some nations' programs have taken part in social movements such as the nationalist resistance movements in India. Scouting_sentence_233

Although Scouting was introduced to Africa by British officials as a way to strengthen their rule, the values they based Scouting on helped to challenge the legitimacy of British imperialism. Scouting_sentence_234

Likewise, African Scouts used the Scout Law's principle that a Scout is a brother to all other Scouts to collectively claim full imperial citizenship. Scouting_sentence_235

A study has found a strong link between participating in Scouting and Guiding as a young person, and having significantly better mental health. Scouting_sentence_236

The data, from almost 10,000 individuals, came from a lifelong UK-wide study of people born in November 1958, known as the National Child Development Study. Scouting_sentence_237

Controversies Scouting_section_17

Main article: Scouting controversy and conflict Scouting_sentence_238

In the United Kingdom, The Scout Association had been criticised for its insistence on the use of a religious promise, leading the organization to introduce an alternative in January 2014 for those not wanting to mention a god in their promise. Scouting_sentence_239

This change made the organisation entirely non-discriminatory on the grounds of race, gender, sexuality, and religion (or lack thereof). Scouting_sentence_240

The Boy Scouts of America was the focus of criticism in the United States for not allowing the open participation of homosexuals until removing the prohibition in 2013. Scouting_sentence_241

Authoritarian communist regimes such as the Soviet Union in 1920 and fascist regimes like Nazi Germany in 1934 often either absorbed the Scout movement into government-controlled organizations, or banned Scouting entirely. Scouting_sentence_242

In film and the arts Scouting_section_18

Main article: Scouting in popular culture Scouting_sentence_243

Scouting has been a facet of culture during most of the twentieth century in many countries; numerous films and artwork focus on the subject. Scouting_sentence_244

Movie critic Roger Ebert mentioned the scene in which the young Boy Scout, Indiana Jones, discovers the Cross of Coronado in the movie Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, as "when he discovers his life mission". Scouting_sentence_245

The works of painters Ernest Stafford Carlos, Norman Rockwell, Pierre Joubert and Joseph Csatari and the 1966 film Follow Me, Boys! Scouting_sentence_246

are prime examples of this ethos. Scouting_sentence_247

Scouting is often dealt with in a humorous manner, as in the 1989 film Troop Beverly Hills, the 2005 film Down and Derby, and the film Scout Camp. Scouting_sentence_248

In 1980, Scottish singer and songwriter Gerry Rafferty recorded I was a Boy Scout as part of his Snakes and Ladders album. Scouting_sentence_249

See also Scouting_section_19

Scouting_unordered_list_5


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scouting.