Seattle

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This article is about the city. Seattle_sentence_0

For other uses, see Seattle (disambiguation). Seattle_sentence_1

Seattle_table_infobox_0

Seattle, WashingtonSeattle_header_cell_0_0_0
CountrySeattle_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesSeattle_cell_0_1_1
StateSeattle_header_cell_0_2_0 WashingtonSeattle_cell_0_2_1
CountySeattle_header_cell_0_3_0 KingSeattle_cell_0_3_1
FoundedSeattle_header_cell_0_4_0 1851Seattle_cell_0_4_1
IncorporatedSeattle_header_cell_0_5_0 December 2, 1869Seattle_cell_0_5_1
Named forSeattle_header_cell_0_6_0 Chief Si'ahlSeattle_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentSeattle_header_cell_0_7_0
TypeSeattle_header_cell_0_8_0 Mayor–councilSeattle_cell_0_8_1
BodySeattle_header_cell_0_9_0 Seattle City CouncilSeattle_cell_0_9_1
MayorSeattle_header_cell_0_10_0 Jenny Durkan (D)Seattle_cell_0_10_1
Deputy mayorsSeattle_header_cell_0_11_0 Michael Fong and Shefali RanganathanSeattle_cell_0_11_1
AreaSeattle_header_cell_0_12_0
CitySeattle_header_cell_0_13_0 142.07 sq mi (367.97 km)Seattle_cell_0_13_1
LandSeattle_header_cell_0_14_0 83.99 sq mi (217.54 km)Seattle_cell_0_14_1
WaterSeattle_header_cell_0_15_0 58.08 sq mi (150.43 km)Seattle_cell_0_15_1
MetroSeattle_header_cell_0_16_0 8,186 sq mi (21,202 km)Seattle_cell_0_16_1
ElevationSeattle_header_cell_0_17_0 175 ft (53 m)Seattle_cell_0_17_1
Highest elevationSeattle_header_cell_0_18_0 520 ft (158 m)Seattle_cell_0_18_1
Lowest elevationSeattle_header_cell_0_19_0 0 ft (0 m)Seattle_cell_0_19_1
Population (2010)Seattle_header_cell_0_20_0
CitySeattle_header_cell_0_21_0 608,660Seattle_cell_0_21_1
Estimate (2019)Seattle_header_cell_0_22_0 753,675Seattle_cell_0_22_1
RankSeattle_header_cell_0_23_0 US: 18thSeattle_cell_0_23_1
DensitySeattle_header_cell_0_24_0 8,973.18/sq mi (3,464.55/km)Seattle_cell_0_24_1
UrbanSeattle_header_cell_0_25_0 3,059,393 (US: 14th)Seattle_cell_0_25_1
MetroSeattle_header_cell_0_26_0 3,979,845 (US: 15th)Seattle_cell_0_26_1
CSASeattle_header_cell_0_27_0 4,903,675 (US: 14th)Seattle_cell_0_27_1
Demonym(s)Seattle_header_cell_0_28_0 Seattleite or SeattliteSeattle_cell_0_28_1
Time zoneSeattle_header_cell_0_29_0 UTC−8 (PST)Seattle_cell_0_29_1
Summer (DST)Seattle_header_cell_0_30_0 UTC−7 (PDT)Seattle_cell_0_30_1
ZIP CodesSeattle_header_cell_0_31_0 ZIP CodesSeattle_cell_0_31_1
Area codeSeattle_header_cell_0_32_0 206Seattle_cell_0_32_1
FIPS codeSeattle_header_cell_0_33_0 53-63000Seattle_cell_0_33_1
GNIS feature IDSeattle_header_cell_0_34_0 1512650Seattle_cell_0_34_1
WebsiteSeattle_header_cell_0_35_0 Q5083#P856Seattle_cell_0_35_1

Seattle (/siˈætəl/ (listen) see-AT-əl) is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. Seattle_sentence_2

It is the seat of King County, Washington. Seattle_sentence_3

Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Seattle_sentence_4

According to U.S. Seattle_sentence_5 Census data released in 2019, the Seattle metropolitan area's population stands at 3.98 million, making it the 15th-largest in the United States. Seattle_sentence_6

In July 2013, Seattle was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the top five in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. Seattle_sentence_7

In July 2016, Seattle ranked as the fastest-growing major U.S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle_sentence_8

Seattle is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington. Seattle_sentence_9

It is the northernmost large city in the United States, located about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canadian border. Seattle_sentence_10

A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015. Seattle_sentence_11

The Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Seattle_sentence_12

Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, Oregon, on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. Seattle_sentence_13

The settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named "Seattle" in 1852, in honor of Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Seattle_sentence_14

Today, Seattle has high populations of Native, Scandinavian, Asian American and African American people, as well as a thriving LGBT community that ranks sixth in the United States by population. Seattle_sentence_15

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century, the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Seattle_sentence_16

Growth after World War II was partially due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. Seattle_sentence_17

The Seattle area developed into a technology center from the 1980s onwards with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region; Microsoft founder Bill Gates is a Seattleite by birth. Seattle_sentence_18

Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle in 1994, and major airline Alaska Airlines is based in SeaTac, Washington, serving Seattle's international airport, Seattle–Tacoma International Airport. Seattle_sentence_19

The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Seattle_sentence_20

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. Seattle_sentence_21

From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. Seattle_sentence_22

The jazz scene nurtured the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, and others. Seattle_sentence_23

Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix, as well as the origin of the bands Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Soundgarden, Alice in Chains, Foo Fighters and the alternative rock movement grunge. Seattle_sentence_24

History Seattle_section_0

Main articles: History of Seattle and Timeline of Seattle Seattle_sentence_25

Founding Seattle_section_1

Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. Seattle_sentence_26

By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people (subsequently called the Duwamish tribe) occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay. Seattle_sentence_27

The first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition for the Royal Navy to chart the Pacific Northwest. Seattle_sentence_28

In 1851, a large party of American pioneers led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River; they formally claimed it on September 14, 1851. Seattle_sentence_29

Thirteen days later, members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party. Seattle_sentence_30

Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851. Seattle_sentence_31

The rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland, Oregon, and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851. Seattle_sentence_32

Duwamps Seattle_section_2

After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square, naming this new settlement Duwamps. Seattle_sentence_33

Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location, reestablished their old land claim and called it "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning, roughly, "by and by" or "someday". Seattle_sentence_34

For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers. Seattle_sentence_35

David Swinson "Doc" Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement Seattle after Chief Si'ahl (Lushootseed: siʔaɫ, anglicized as "Seattle") of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Seattle_sentence_36

A modern transliteration of the original Coast Salish settlements around Elliott Bay is rendered in Lushootseed as dᶻidᶻəlal̓ič. Seattle_sentence_37

Incorporations Seattle_section_3

The name "Seattle" appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. Seattle_sentence_38

In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. Seattle_sentence_39

On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city. Seattle_sentence_40

The Town of Seattle was disincorporated on January 18, 1867, and remained a mere precinct of King County until late 1869, when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated December 2, 1869, with a mayor–council government. Seattle_sentence_41

The corporate seal of the City of Seattle carries the date "1869" and a likeness of Chief Si'ahl in left profile. Seattle_sentence_42

Timber town Seattle_section_4

Seattle has a history of boom-and-bust cycles, like many other cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle_sentence_43

Seattle has risen several times economically, then gone into precipitous decline, but it has typically used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure. Seattle_sentence_44

The first such boom, covering the early years of the city, rode on the lumber industry. Seattle_sentence_45

During this period the road now known as Yesler Way won the nickname "Skid Road," supposedly after the timber skidding down the hill to Henry Yesler's sawmill. Seattle_sentence_46

The later dereliction of the area may be a possible origin for the term which later entered the wider American lexicon as Skid Row. Seattle_sentence_47

Like much of the American West, Seattle saw numerous conflicts between labor and management, as well as ethnic tensions that culminated in the anti-Chinese riots of 1885–1886. Seattle_sentence_48

This violence originated with unemployed whites who were determined to drive the Chinese from Seattle (anti-Chinese riots also occurred in Tacoma). Seattle_sentence_49

In 1900, Asians were 4.2% of the population. Seattle_sentence_50

Authorities declared martial law and federal troops arrived to put down the disorder. Seattle_sentence_51

Seattle had achieved sufficient economic success that when the Great Seattle Fire of 1889 destroyed the central business district, a far grander city-center rapidly emerged in its place. Seattle_sentence_52

Finance company Washington Mutual, for example, was founded in the immediate wake of the fire. Seattle_sentence_53

However, the Panic of 1893 hit Seattle hard. Seattle_sentence_54

Gold Rush, World War I, and the Great Depression Seattle_section_5

The second and most dramatic boom resulted from the Klondike Gold Rush, which ended the depression that had begun with the Panic of 1893. Seattle_sentence_55

In a short time, Seattle became a major transportation center. Seattle_sentence_56

On July 14, 1897, the S.S. Portland docked with its famed "ton of gold," and Seattle became the main transport and supply point for the miners in Alaska and the Yukon. Seattle_sentence_57

Few of those working men found lasting wealth. Seattle_sentence_58

However, it was Seattle's business of clothing the miners and feeding them salmon that panned out in the long run. Seattle_sentence_59

Along with Seattle, other cities like Everett, Tacoma, Port Townsend, Bremerton, and Olympia, all in the Puget Sound region, became competitors for exchange, rather than mother lodes for extraction, of precious metals. Seattle_sentence_60

The boom lasted well into the early part of the 20th century, and funded many new Seattle companies and products. Seattle_sentence_61

In 1907, 19-year-old James E. Casey borrowed $100 from a friend and founded the American Messenger Company (later UPS). Seattle_sentence_62

Other Seattle companies founded during this period include Nordstrom and Eddie Bauer. Seattle_sentence_63

Seattle brought in the Olmsted Brothers landscape architecture firm to design a system of parks and boulevards. Seattle_sentence_64

The Gold Rush era culminated in the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition of 1909, which is largely responsible for the layout of today's University of Washington campus. Seattle_sentence_65

A shipbuilding boom in the early part of the 20th century became massive during World War I, making Seattle somewhat of a company town. Seattle_sentence_66

The subsequent retrenchment led to the Seattle General Strike of 1919, the first general strike in the country. Seattle_sentence_67

A 1912 city development plan by Virgil Bogue went largely unused. Seattle_sentence_68

Seattle was mildly prosperous in the 1920s but was particularly hard hit in the Great Depression, experiencing some of the country's harshest labor strife in that era. Seattle_sentence_69

Violence during the Maritime Strike of 1934 cost Seattle much of its maritime traffic, which was rerouted to the Port of Los Angeles. Seattle_sentence_70

The Great Depression in Seattle affected many minority groups, one being the Asian Pacific Americans; they were subject to racism, loss of property, and failed claims of unemployment due to citizenship status. Seattle_sentence_71

Seattle was one of the major cities that benefited from programs such as the WPA, CCC, UCL, and PWA. Seattle_sentence_72

The workers, mostly men, built roads, parks, dams, schools, railroads, bridges, docks, and even historical and archival record sites and buildings. Seattle_sentence_73

However, Seattle faced massive unemployment, loss of lumber and construction industries as Los Angeles prevailed as the bigger West Coast city. Seattle_sentence_74

Seattle had building contracts that rivaled New York City and Chicago, but lost to LA as well. Seattle_sentence_75

Seattle's eastern farm land faded due to Oregon's and the Midwest's, forcing people into town. Seattle_sentence_76

The famous Hooverville arose during the Depression, leading to Seattle's growing homeless population. Seattle_sentence_77

Stationed outside Seattle, the Hooverville housed thousands of men but very very few children and no women. Seattle_sentence_78

With work projects close to the city, Hooverville grew and the WPA settled into the city. Seattle_sentence_79

A movement by women arose from Seattle during the Depression. Seattle_sentence_80

Fueled by Eleanor Roosevelt's book It's Up to the Women, women pushed for recognition, not just as housewives, but as the backbone to family. Seattle_sentence_81

Using newspapers and journals Working Woman and The Woman Today, women pushed to be seen as equal and receive some recognition. Seattle_sentence_82

Seattle's University of Washington was greatly affected during the Depression era. Seattle_sentence_83

As schools across Washington lost funding and attendance, the UW actually prospered during the time period. Seattle_sentence_84

While Seattle public schools were influenced by Washington's superintendent Worth McClure, they still struggled to pay teachers and maintain attendance. Seattle_sentence_85

The UW, despite academic challenges that plagued the college due to differing views on teaching and learning, focused on growth in student enrollment rather than improving the existing school. Seattle_sentence_86

Seattle was also the home base of impresario Alexander Pantages who, starting in 1902, opened a number of theaters in the city exhibiting vaudeville acts and silent movies. Seattle_sentence_87

His activities soon expanded, and the thrifty Greek went on and became one of America's greatest theater and movie tycoons. Seattle_sentence_88

Between Pantages and his rival John Considine, Seattle was for a while the western United States' vaudeville mecca. Seattle_sentence_89

B. Seattle_sentence_90 Marcus Priteca, the Scottish-born and Seattle-based architect, built several theaters for Pantages, including some in Seattle. Seattle_sentence_91

The theaters he built for Pantages in Seattle have been either demolished or converted to other uses, but many other theaters survive in other cities of the U.S., often retaining the Pantages name. Seattle_sentence_92

Seattle's surviving Paramount Theatre, on which he collaborated, was not a Pantages theater. Seattle_sentence_93

Post-war years: aircraft and software Seattle_section_6

War work again brought local prosperity during World War II, this time centered on Boeing aircraft. Seattle_sentence_94

The war dispersed the city's numerous Japanese-American businessmen due to the Japanese American internment. Seattle_sentence_95

After the war, the local economy dipped. Seattle_sentence_96

It rose again with Boeing's growing dominance in the commercial airliner market. Seattle_sentence_97

Seattle celebrated its restored prosperity and made a bid for world recognition with the Century 21 Exposition, the 1962 World's Fair, for which the iconic Space Needle was built. Seattle_sentence_98

Another major local economic downturn was in the late 1960s and early 1970s, at a time when Boeing was heavily affected by the oil crises, loss of government contracts, and costs and delays associated with the Boeing 747. Seattle_sentence_99

Many people left the area to look for work elsewhere, and two local real estate agents put up a billboard reading "Will the last person leaving Seattle – Turn out the lights." Seattle_sentence_100

Seattle remained the corporate headquarters of Boeing until 2001, when the company separated its headquarters from its major production facilities; the headquarters were moved to Chicago. Seattle_sentence_101

The Seattle area is still home to Boeing's Renton narrow-body plant (where the 707, 720, 727, and 757 were assembled, and the 737 is assembled today) and Everett wide-body plant (assembly plant for the 747, 767, 777, and 787). Seattle_sentence_102

The company's credit union for employees, BECU, remains based in the Seattle area, though it is now open to all residents of Washington. Seattle_sentence_103

On 20 March 1970, twenty-eight people were killed when the Ozark Hotel was burned by an unknown arsonist. Seattle_sentence_104

As prosperity began to return in the 1980s, the city was stunned by the Wah Mee massacre in 1983, when thirteen people were killed in an illegal gambling club in the Seattle Chinatown-International District. Seattle_sentence_105

Beginning with Microsoft's 1979 move from Albuquerque, New Mexico, to nearby Bellevue, Washington, Seattle and its suburbs became home to a number of technology companies including Amazon.com, F5 Networks, RealNetworks, Nintendo of America, McCaw Cellular (now part of AT&T Mobility), VoiceStream (now T-Mobile), and biomedical corporations such as HeartStream (later purchased by Philips), Heart Technologies (later purchased by Boston Scientific), Physio-Control (later purchased by Medtronic), ZymoGenetics, ICOS (later purchased by Eli Lilly and Company) and Immunex (later purchased by Amgen). Seattle_sentence_106

This success brought an influx of new residents with a population increase within city limits of almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000, and saw Seattle's real estate become some of the most expensive in the country. Seattle_sentence_107

In 1993, the movie Sleepless in Seattle brought the city further national attention, as did the television sitcom Frasier. Seattle_sentence_108

The dot-com boom caused a great frenzy among the technology companies in Seattle but the bubble ended in early 2001. Seattle_sentence_109

Seattle in this period attracted widespread attention as home to these many companies, but also by hosting the 1990 Goodwill Games and the APEC leaders conference in 1993, as well as through the worldwide popularity of grunge, a sound that had developed in Seattle's independent music scene. Seattle_sentence_110

Another bid for worldwide attention—hosting the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 1999—garnered visibility, but not in the way its sponsors desired, as related protest activity and police reactions to those protests overshadowed the conference itself. Seattle_sentence_111

The city was further shaken by the Mardi Gras Riots in 2001, and then literally shaken the following day by the Nisqually earthquake. Seattle_sentence_112

Another boom began as the city emerged from the Great Recession which commenced when Amazon.com moved its headquarters from North Beacon Hill to South Lake Union. Seattle_sentence_113

This initiated a historic construction boom which resulted in the completion of almost 10,000 apartments in Seattle in 2017, which is more than any previous year and nearly twice as many as were built in 2016. Seattle_sentence_114

Beginning in 2010, and for the next five years, Seattle gained an average of 14,511 residents per year, with the growth strongly skewed toward the center of the city, as unemployment dropped from roughly 9 percent to 3.6 percent. Seattle_sentence_115

The city has found itself "bursting at the seams", with over 45,000 households spending more than half their income on housing and at least 2,800 people homeless, and with the country's sixth-worst rush hour traffic. Seattle_sentence_116

Geography Seattle_section_7

Situated at latitude 47°36'35"N, Seattle is the northernmost U.S. city with at least 500,000 people, farther north than Canadian cities such as Toronto, Ottawa, and Montreal, and at about the same latitude as Salzburg, Austria. Seattle_sentence_117

It has a land area of 83.9 square miles (217.3 km). Seattle_sentence_118

The topography of Seattle is hilly. Seattle_sentence_119

The city lies on several hills, including Capitol Hill, First Hill, West Seattle, Beacon Hill, Magnolia, Denny Hill, and Queen Anne. Seattle_sentence_120

The Kitsap and the Olympic peninsulas along with the Olympic mountains lie to the west of Puget Sound, while the Cascade Range and Lake Sammamish lie to the east of Lake Washington. Seattle_sentence_121

The city has over 5,540 acres (2,242 ha) of parkland. Seattle_sentence_122

Cityscape Seattle_section_8

Further information: List of tallest buildings in Seattle and Architecture of Seattle Seattle_sentence_123

Topography Seattle_section_9

See also: Bodies of water of Seattle, List of parks in Seattle, List of earthquakes in Washington (state), and Regrading in Seattle Seattle_sentence_124

Seattle is located between the saltwater Puget Sound (an arm of the Pacific Ocean) to the west and Lake Washington to the east. Seattle_sentence_125

The city's chief harbor, Elliott Bay, is part of Puget Sound, which makes the city an oceanic port. Seattle_sentence_126

To the west, beyond Puget Sound, are the Kitsap Peninsula and Olympic Mountains on the Olympic Peninsula; to the east, beyond Lake Washington and the Eastside suburbs, are Lake Sammamish and the Cascade Range. Seattle_sentence_127

Lake Washington's waters flow to Puget Sound through the Lake Washington Ship Canal (consisting of two man-made canals, Lake Union, and the Hiram M. Chittenden Locks at Salmon Bay, ending in Shilshole Bay on Puget Sound). Seattle_sentence_128

The sea, rivers, forests, lakes, and fields surrounding Seattle were once rich enough to support one of the world's few sedentary hunter-gatherer societies. Seattle_sentence_129

The surrounding area lends itself well to sailing, skiing, bicycling, camping, and hiking year-round. Seattle_sentence_130

The city itself is hilly, though not uniformly so. Seattle_sentence_131

Like Rome, the city is said to lie on seven hills; the lists vary but typically include Capitol Hill, First Hill, West Seattle, Beacon Hill, Queen Anne, Magnolia, and the former Denny Hill. Seattle_sentence_132

The Wallingford, Delridge, Mount Baker, Seward Park, Washington Park, Broadmoor, Madrona, Phinney Ridge, Sunset Hill, Blue Ridge, Broadview, Laurelhurst, Hawthorne Hills, Maple Leaf, and Crown Hill neighborhoods are all located on hills as well. Seattle_sentence_133

Many of the hilliest areas are near the city center, with Capitol Hill, First Hill, and Beacon Hill collectively constituting something of a ridge along an isthmus between Elliott Bay and Lake Washington. Seattle_sentence_134

The break in the ridge between First Hill and Beacon Hill is man-made, the result of two of the many regrading projects that reshaped the topography of the city center. Seattle_sentence_135

The topography of the city center was also changed by the construction of a seawall and the artificial Harbor Island (completed 1909) at the mouth of the city's industrial Duwamish Waterway, the terminus of the Green River. Seattle_sentence_136

The highest point within city limits is at High Point in West Seattle, which is roughly located near 35th Ave SW and SW Myrtle St. Other notable hills include Crown Hill, View Ridge/Wedgwood/Bryant, Maple Leaf, Phinney Ridge, Mt. Seattle_sentence_137

Baker Ridge, and Highlands/Carkeek/Bitterlake. Seattle_sentence_138

North of the city center, Lake Washington Ship Canal connects Puget Sound to Lake Washington. Seattle_sentence_139

It incorporates four natural bodies of water: Lake Union, Salmon Bay, Portage Bay, and Union Bay. Seattle_sentence_140

Due to its location in the Pacific Ring of Fire, Seattle is in a major earthquake zone. Seattle_sentence_141

On February 28, 2001, the magnitude 6.8 Nisqually earthquake did significant architectural damage, especially in the Pioneer Square area (built on reclaimed land, as are the Industrial District and part of the city center), but caused only one fatality. Seattle_sentence_142

Other strong quakes occurred on January 26, 1700 (estimated at 9 magnitude), December 14, 1872 (7.3 or 7.4), April 13, 1949 (7.1), and April 29, 1965 (6.5). Seattle_sentence_143

The 1965 quake caused three deaths in Seattle directly and one more by heart failure. Seattle_sentence_144

Although the Seattle Fault passes just south of the city center, neither it nor the Cascadia subduction zone has caused an earthquake since the city's founding. Seattle_sentence_145

The Cascadia subduction zone poses the threat of an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 or greater, capable of seriously damaging the city and collapsing many buildings, especially in zones built on fill. Seattle_sentence_146

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 142.5 square miles (369 km), 83.9 square miles (217 km) of which is land and 58.7 square miles (152 km), water (41.16% of the total area). Seattle_sentence_147

Climate Seattle_section_10

Seattle has a temperate climate, classified in the Mediterranean zone by the main climatic classification (Köppen: Csb) but some sources put the city in the oceanic zone (Cfb). Seattle_sentence_148

It has cool, wet winters and mild, relatively dry summers, covering characteristics of both. Seattle_sentence_149

The climate is sometimes characterized as a "modified Mediterranean" climate because it is cooler and wetter than a "true" Mediterranean climate, but shares the characteristic dry summer (which has a strong influence on the region's vegetation). Seattle_sentence_150

The city and environs are part of USDA hardiness zone 8b, with isolated coastal pockets falling under 9a. Seattle_sentence_151

Temperature extremes are moderated by the adjacent Puget Sound, greater Pacific Ocean, and Lake Washington. Seattle_sentence_152

Thus extreme heat waves are rare in the Seattle area, as are very cold temperatures (below about 15 °F (−9 °C)). Seattle_sentence_153

The Seattle area is the cloudiest region of the United States, due in part to frequent storms and lows moving in from the adjacent Pacific Ocean. Seattle_sentence_154

With many more "rain days" than other major American cities, Seattle has a well-earned reputation for frequent rain. Seattle_sentence_155

In an average year, at least 0.01 inches (0.25 mm) of precipitation falls on 150 days, more than nearly all U.S. cities east of the Rocky Mountains. Seattle_sentence_156

However, due to the fact that Seattle often has merely a light drizzle falling from the sky for many days, Seattle actually receives significantly less rainfall (or other precipitation) overall than many other U.S. cities like New York City, Miami, or Houston. Seattle_sentence_157

Seattle is cloudy 201 days out of the year and partly cloudy 93 days. Seattle_sentence_158

(Official weather and climatic data is collected at Seattle–Tacoma International Airport, located about 19 km (12 mi) south of downtown in the city of SeaTac, which is at a higher elevation, and records more cloudy days and fewer partly cloudy days per year.) Seattle_sentence_159

Hot temperature extremes are enhanced by dry, compressed wind from the west slopes of the Cascades, while cold temperatures are generated mainly from the Fraser Valley in British Columbia. Seattle_sentence_160

From 1981 to 2010, the average annual precipitation measured at Seattle–Tacoma International Airport was 37.49 inches (952 mm). Seattle_sentence_161

Annual precipitation has ranged from 23.78 in (604 mm) in 1952 to 55.14 in (1,401 mm) in 1950; for water year (October 1 – September 30) precipitation, the range is 23.16 in (588 mm) in 1976–77 to 51.82 in (1,316 mm) in 1996–97. Seattle_sentence_162

Due to local variations in microclimate, Seattle also receives significantly lower precipitation than some other locations west of the Cascades. Seattle_sentence_163

Around 80 mi (129 km) to the west, the Hoh Rain Forest in Olympic National Park on the western flank of the Olympic Mountains receives an annual average precipitation of 142 in (3.61 m). Seattle_sentence_164

Sixty miles (95 km) to the south of Seattle, the state capital Olympia, which is out of the Olympic Mountains' rain shadow, receives an annual average precipitation of 50 in (1,270 mm). Seattle_sentence_165

The city of Bremerton, about 15 mi (24 km) west of downtown Seattle on the other side of the Puget Sound, receives 56.4 in (1,430 mm) of precipitation annually. Seattle_sentence_166

Conversely, the northeastern portion of the Olympic Peninsula, which lies east of the Olympic Mountains is located within the Olympic rain shadow and receives significantly less precipitation than its surrounding areas. Seattle_sentence_167

Prevailing airflow from the west expands and cools as it goes over the mountain range, resulting in high levels of precipitation within the mountains and its western slopes. Seattle_sentence_168

Once the airflow reaches the leeward side of the mountains, it then compresses and warms, and is significantly dryer. Seattle_sentence_169

Sequim, Washington, nicknamed "Sunny Sequim," is located approximately 40 mi (64 km) northwest of downtown Seattle and receives just 16.51 inches (419 mm) of annual precipitation, more comparable to that of Los Angeles. Seattle_sentence_170

Often an area devoid of cloud cover can be seen extending out over the Puget Sound to the north and east of Sequim. Seattle_sentence_171

On average Sequim observes 127 sunny days per year in addition to 127 days with partial cloud cover. Seattle_sentence_172

Other areas influenced by the Olympic rain shadow include Port Angeles, Port Townsend, extending as far north as Victoria, British Columbia. Seattle_sentence_173

In November, Seattle averages more rainfall than any other U.S. city of more than 250,000 people; it also ranks highly in winter precipitation. Seattle_sentence_174

Conversely, the city receives some of the lowest precipitation amounts of any large city from June to September. Seattle_sentence_175

Seattle is one of the five rainiest major U.S. cities as measured by the number of days with precipitation, and it receives some of the lowest amounts of annual sunshine among major cities in the lower 48 states, along with some cities in the Northeast, Ohio, and Michigan. Seattle_sentence_176

Thunderstorms are rare, as the city reports thunder on just seven days per year. Seattle_sentence_177

By comparison, Fort Myers, Florida, reports thunder on 93 days per year, Kansas City on 52, and New York City on 25. Seattle_sentence_178

Seattle experiences its heaviest rainfall during November, December, and January, receiving roughly half of its annual rainfall (by volume) during this period. Seattle_sentence_179

In late fall and early winter, atmospheric rivers (also known as "Pineapple Express" systems), strong frontal systems, and Pacific low-pressure systems are common. Seattle_sentence_180

Light rain and drizzle are the predominant forms of precipitation during the remainder of the year. Seattle_sentence_181

For instance, on average, less than 1.6 in (41 mm) of rain falls in July and August combined when rain is less common. Seattle_sentence_182

On occasion, Seattle experiences somewhat more significant weather events. Seattle_sentence_183

One such event occurred on December 2–4, 2007, when sustained hurricane-force winds and widespread heavy rainfall associated with a strong Pineapple Express event occurred in the greater Puget Sound area and the western parts of Washington and Oregon. Seattle_sentence_184

Precipitation totals exceeded 13.8 in (350 mm) in some areas with winds topping out at 209 km/h (130 mph) along coastal Oregon. Seattle_sentence_185

It became the second wettest event in Seattle history when a little over 130 mm (5.1 in) of rain fell on Seattle in a 24-hour period. Seattle_sentence_186

Lack of adaptation to the heavy rain contributed to five deaths, widespread flooding and damage. Seattle_sentence_187

Autumn, winter, and early spring are frequently characterized by rain. Seattle_sentence_188

Winters are cool and wet with December, the coolest month, averaging 40.6 °F (4.8 °C), with 28 annual days with lows that reach the freezing mark, and 2.0 days where the temperature stays at or below freezing all day; the temperature rarely lowers to 20 °F (−7 °C). Seattle_sentence_189

Summers are sunny, dry and warm, with August, the warmest month, with high temperatures averaging 76.1 °F (24.5 °C), and reaching 90 °F (32 °C) on 3.1 days per year. Seattle_sentence_190

In 2015 the city recorded 13 days over 90 °F. Seattle_sentence_191

The hottest officially recorded temperature was 103 °F (39 °C) on July 29, 2009; the coldest recorded temperature was 0 °F (−18 °C) on January 31, 1950; the record cold daily maximum is 16 °F (−9 °C) on January 14, 1950, while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is 71 °F (22 °C) the day the official record high was set. Seattle_sentence_192

The average window for freezing temperatures is November 16 through March 10, allowing a growing season of 250 days. Seattle_sentence_193

Seattle typically receives some snowfall on an annual basis but heavy snow is rare. Seattle_sentence_194

Average annual snowfall, as measured at Sea-Tac Airport, is 6.8 inches (17.3 cm). Seattle_sentence_195

From winter season to winter season, amounts can be extremely variable. Seattle_sentence_196

A single calendar-day snowfall of six inches (15 cm) or greater has occurred on only 17 days since 1948, and only three times since February 17, 1990; 6.8 in (17.3 cm) of snow officially fell at Sea-Tac airport on January 18, 2012. Seattle_sentence_197

This 2012 moderate snow event was officially the 12th snowiest calendar day at the airport since 1948 and snowiest since November 1985. Seattle_sentence_198

Locations to the south of Seattle received more, with Olympia and Chehalis receiving 14 to 18 in (36 to 46 cm). Seattle_sentence_199

Much of the city of Seattle proper received somewhat lesser snowfall accumulations. Seattle_sentence_200

Another moderate snow event occurred from December 12–25, 2008, when over one foot (30 cm) of snow fell and stuck on much of the roads over those two weeks, when temperatures remained below 32 °F (0 °C), causing widespread difficulties in a city not equipped for clearing snow. Seattle_sentence_201

In February 2019, Seattle experienced its snowiest month in 50 years (since January 1969), with 20.2 inches of snow, all from February 3–11, with 6.4 inches on Feb. 8 and 6.1 more inches on Feb. 11. Seattle_sentence_202

The largest documented snowstorm occurred from January 5–9, 1880, with snow drifting to 6 feet (1.8 m) in places at the end of the snow event. Seattle_sentence_203

From January 31 to February 2, 1916, another heavy snow event occurred with 29 in (74 cm) of snow on the ground by the time the event was over. Seattle_sentence_204

With official records dating to 1948, the largest single-day snowfall is 20.0 in (51 cm) on January 13, 1950. Seattle_sentence_205

Seasonal snowfall has ranged from zero in 1991–92 to 67.5 in (171 cm) in 1968–69, with trace amounts having occurred as recently as 2009–10. Seattle_sentence_206

The month of January 1950 was particularly severe, bringing 57.2 in (145 cm) of snow, the most of any month along with the aforementioned record cold. Seattle_sentence_207

The Puget Sound Convergence Zone is an important feature of Seattle's weather. Seattle_sentence_208

In the convergence zone, air arriving from the north meets air flowing in from the south. Seattle_sentence_209

Both streams of air originate over the Pacific Ocean; airflow is split by the Olympic Mountains to Seattle's west, then reunited to the east. Seattle_sentence_210

When the air currents meet, they are forced upward, resulting in convection. Seattle_sentence_211

Thunderstorms caused by this activity are usually weak and can occur north and south of town, but Seattle itself rarely receives more than occasional thunder and small hail showers. Seattle_sentence_212

The Hanukkah Eve Wind Storm in December 2006 is an exception that brought heavy rain and winds gusting up to 69 mph (111 km/h), an event that was not caused by the Puget Sound Convergence Zone and was widespread across the Pacific Northwest. Seattle_sentence_213

One of many exceptions to Seattle's reputation as a damp location occurs in El Niño years, when marine weather systems track as far south as California and less than the usual precipitation falls in the Puget Sound area. Seattle_sentence_214

Since the region's water comes from mountain snow packs during the dry summer months, El Niño winters can not only produce substandard skiing but can result in water rationing and a shortage of hydroelectric power the following summer. Seattle_sentence_215

Demographics Seattle_section_11

According to the 2012-2016 American Community Survey (ACS), the racial makeup of the city was 65.7% White Non-Hispanic, 14.1% Asian, 7.0% Black or African American, 6.6% Hispanic or Latino of any race, 0.4% Native American, 0.9% Pacific Islander, 0.2% other races, and 5.6% two or more races. Seattle_sentence_216

Main article: Demographics of Seattle Seattle_sentence_217

Seattle_table_general_1

Racial compositionSeattle_header_cell_1_0_0 2010Seattle_header_cell_1_0_1 1990Seattle_header_cell_1_0_2 1970Seattle_header_cell_1_0_3 1940Seattle_header_cell_1_0_4
WhiteSeattle_cell_1_1_0 69.5%Seattle_cell_1_1_1 75.3%Seattle_cell_1_1_2 87.4%Seattle_cell_1_1_3 96.1%Seattle_cell_1_1_4
—Non-HispanicSeattle_cell_1_2_0 66.3%Seattle_cell_1_2_1 73.7%Seattle_cell_1_2_2 85.3%Seattle_cell_1_2_3 n/aSeattle_cell_1_2_4
Black or African AmericanSeattle_cell_1_3_0 7.9%Seattle_cell_1_3_1 10.1%Seattle_cell_1_3_2 7.1%Seattle_cell_1_3_3 1.0%Seattle_cell_1_3_4
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)Seattle_cell_1_4_0 6.6%Seattle_cell_1_4_1 3.6%Seattle_cell_1_4_2 2.0%Seattle_cell_1_4_3 n/aSeattle_cell_1_4_4
AsianSeattle_cell_1_5_0 13.8%Seattle_cell_1_5_1 11.8%Seattle_cell_1_5_2 4.2%Seattle_cell_1_5_3 2.8%Seattle_cell_1_5_4
Other raceSeattle_cell_1_6_0 2.4%Seattle_cell_1_6_1 n/aSeattle_cell_1_6_2 n/aSeattle_cell_1_6_3 n/aSeattle_cell_1_6_4
Two or more racesSeattle_cell_1_7_0 5.1%Seattle_cell_1_7_1 n/aSeattle_cell_1_7_2 n/aSeattle_cell_1_7_3 n/aSeattle_cell_1_7_4

According to the 2010 United States Census, Seattle had a population of 608,660 with a racial and ethnic composition as follows: Seattle_sentence_218

Seattle_unordered_list_0

Seattle's population historically has been predominantly white. Seattle_sentence_219

The 2010 census showed that Seattle was one of the whitest big cities in the country, although its proportion of white residents has been gradually declining. Seattle_sentence_220

In 1960, whites constituted 91.6% of the city's population, while in 2010 they constituted 69.5%. Seattle_sentence_221

According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, approximately 78.9% of residents over the age of five spoke only English at home. Seattle_sentence_222

Those who spoke Asian languages other than Indo-European languages made up 10.2% of the population, Spanish was spoken by 4.5% of the population, speakers of other Indo-European languages made up 3.9%, and speakers of other languages made up 2.5%. Seattle_sentence_223

Seattle's foreign-born population grew 40% between the 1990 and 2000 censuses. Seattle_sentence_224

The Chinese population in the Seattle area has origins in mainland China, Hong Kong, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan. Seattle_sentence_225

The earliest Chinese-Americans that came in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were almost entirely from Guangdong Province. Seattle_sentence_226

The Seattle area is also home to a large Vietnamese population of more than 55,000 residents, as well as over 30,000 Somali immigrants. Seattle_sentence_227

The Seattle-Tacoma area is also home to one of the largest Cambodian communities in the United States, numbering about 19,000 Cambodian Americans, and one of the largest Samoan communities in the mainland U.S., with over 15,000 people having Samoan ancestry. Seattle_sentence_228

Additionally, the Seattle area had the highest percentage of self-identified mixed-race people of any large metropolitan area in the United States, according to the 2000 United States Census Bureau. Seattle_sentence_229

According to a 2012 HistoryLink study, Seattle's 98118 ZIP code (in the Columbia City neighborhood) was one of the most diverse ZIP Code Tabulation Areas in the United States. Seattle_sentence_230

According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, the largest religious groupings are Christians (52%), followed by those of no religion (37%), Hindus (2%), Buddhists (2%), Jews (1%), Muslims (1%) and a variety of other religions have smaller followings. Seattle_sentence_231

According to the same study by the Pew Research Center, about 34% of Seattleites are Protestant, and 15% are Roman Catholic. Seattle_sentence_232

Meanwhile, 6% of the residents in Seattle call themselves agnostics, while 10% call themselves atheists. Seattle_sentence_233

According to the ACS 1-year estimates, in 2018, the median income of a city household was $93,481, and the median income for a family was $130,656. Seattle_sentence_234

11.0% of the population and 6.6% of families were below the poverty line. Seattle_sentence_235

Of people living in poverty, 11.4% were under the age of 18 and 10.9% were 65 or older. Seattle_sentence_236

It is estimated that King County has 8,000 homeless people on any given night, and many of those live in Seattle. Seattle_sentence_237

In September 2005, King County adopted a "Ten-Year Plan to End Homelessness", one of the near-term results of which is a shift of funding from homeless shelter beds to permanent housing. Seattle_sentence_238

In recent years, the city has experienced steady population growth, and has been faced with the issue of accommodating more residents. Seattle_sentence_239

In 2006, after growing by 4,000 citizens per year for the previous 16 years, regional planners expected the population of Seattle to grow by 200,000 people by 2040. Seattle_sentence_240

However, former mayor Greg Nickels supported plans that would increase the population by 60%, or 350,000 people, by 2040 and worked on ways to accommodate this growth while keeping Seattle's single-family housing zoning laws. Seattle_sentence_241

The Seattle City Council later voted to relax height limits on buildings in the greater part of Downtown, partly with the aim to increase residential density in the city center. Seattle_sentence_242

As a sign of increasing downtown core growth, the Downtown population crested to over 60,000 in 2009, up 77% since 1990. Seattle_sentence_243

Seattle has a relatively high number of adults living alone. Seattle_sentence_244

According to the 2000 U.S. Census interim measurements of 2004, Seattle has the fifth highest proportion of single-person households nationwide among cities of 100,000 or more residents, at 40.8%. Seattle_sentence_245

Seattle has a notably large lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community. Seattle_sentence_246

According to a 2006 study by UCLA, 12.9% of city residents polled identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. Seattle_sentence_247

This was the second-highest proportion of any major U.S. city, behind San Francisco. Seattle_sentence_248

Greater Seattle also ranked second among major U.S. metropolitan areas, with 6.5% of the population identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. Seattle_sentence_249

According to 2012 estimates from the United States Census Bureau, Seattle has the highest percentage of same-sex households in the United States, at 2.6 percent, surpassing San Francisco (2.5 percent). Seattle_sentence_250

The Capitol Hill district has historically been the center of LGBT culture in Seattle. Seattle_sentence_251

Economy Seattle_section_12

See also: List of companies based in Seattle Seattle_sentence_252

Seattle's economy is driven by a mix of older industrial companies, and "new economy" Internet and technology companies, service, design, and clean technology companies. Seattle_sentence_253

The city's gross metropolitan product (GMP) was $231 billion in 2010, making it the 11th largest metropolitan economy in the United States. Seattle_sentence_254

The Port of Seattle, which also operates Seattle–Tacoma International Airport, is a major gateway for trade with Asia and cruises to Alaska. Seattle_sentence_255

It also is the 8th largest port in the United States when measured by container capacity. Seattle_sentence_256

Its maritime cargo operations merged with the Port of Tacoma in 2015 to form the Northwest Seaport Alliance. Seattle_sentence_257

Although it was affected by the Great Recession, Seattle has retained a comparatively strong economy, and is noted for start-up businesses, especially in green building and clean technologies. Seattle_sentence_258

In February 2010, the city government committed Seattle to become North America's first "climate neutral" city, with a goal of reaching zero net per capita greenhouse gas emissions by 2030. Seattle_sentence_259

Large companies continue to dominate the business landscape. Seattle_sentence_260

Five companies on Fortune 500's 2017 list of the United States' largest companies (based on total revenue) are headquartered in Seattle: Internet retailer Amazon.com (#12), coffee chain Starbucks (#131), department store Nordstrom (#188), forest products company Weyerhaeuser (#341) and freight forwarder Expeditors International of Washington (#429). Seattle_sentence_261

Other Fortune 500 companies commonly associated with Seattle are based in nearby Puget Sound cities. Seattle_sentence_262

Warehouse club chain Costco (#16), the largest retail company in Washington, is based in Issaquah. Seattle_sentence_263

Microsoft (#28) is located in Redmond. Seattle_sentence_264

Furthermore, Bellevue is home to truck manufacturer Paccar (#164). Seattle_sentence_265

Other major companies headquartered in the area include Nintendo of America in Redmond, T-Mobile US in Bellevue, Expedia Inc. in Bellevue, and Providence Health & Services (the state's largest health care system and fifth largest employer) in Renton. Seattle_sentence_266

The city has a reputation for heavy coffee consumption; coffee companies founded or based in Seattle include Starbucks, Seattle's Best Coffee, and Tully's. Seattle_sentence_267

There are also many successful independent artisanal espresso roasters and cafés. Seattle_sentence_268

Before moving its headquarters to Chicago, aerospace manufacturer Boeing (#24) was the largest company based in Seattle. Seattle_sentence_269

Its largest division, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, is still headquartered in nearby Renton. Seattle_sentence_270

The company also has large aircraft manufacturing plants in Everett and Renton; it remains the largest private employer in the Seattle metropolitan area. Seattle_sentence_271

In 2006 former Seattle Mayor Greg Nickels announced a desire to spark a new economic boom driven by the biotechnology industry. Seattle_sentence_272

Major redevelopment of the South Lake Union neighborhood is underway in an effort to attract new and established biotech companies to the city, joining biotech companies Corixa (acquired by GlaxoSmithKline), Immunex (now part of Amgen), Trubion, and ZymoGenetics. Seattle_sentence_273

Vulcan Inc., the holding company of billionaire Paul Allen, is behind most of the development projects in the region. Seattle_sentence_274

While some see the new development as an economic boon, others have criticized Nickels and the Seattle City Council for pandering to Allen's interests at taxpayers' expense. Seattle_sentence_275

In 2005, Forbes ranked Seattle as the most expensive American city for buying a house based on the local income levels. Seattle_sentence_276

Owing largely to the rapidly increasing cost of living, Seattle and Washington State have some of the highest minimum wages in the country, at $15 per hour for smaller businesses and $16 for the city's largest employers. Seattle_sentence_277

Operating a hub at Seattle–Tacoma International Airport, Alaska Airlines maintains its headquarters in the city of SeaTac, next to the airport. Seattle_sentence_278

Seattle is a hub for global health with the headquarters of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, PATH, Infectious Disease Research Institute, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Seattle_sentence_279

In 2015, the Washington Global Health Alliance counted 168 global health organizations in Washington state. Seattle_sentence_280

Many are headquartered in Seattle. Seattle_sentence_281

Culture Seattle_section_13

Many of Seattle's neighborhoods host one or more street fairs or parades. Seattle_sentence_282

Nicknames Seattle_section_14

From 1869 until 1982, Seattle was known as the "Queen City". Seattle_sentence_283

Seattle's official nickname is the "Emerald City", the result of a contest held in 1981; the reference is to the lush evergreen forests of the area. Seattle_sentence_284

Seattle is also referred to informally as the "Gateway to Alaska" for being the nearest major city in the contiguous U.S. to Alaska, "Rain City" for its frequent cloudy and rainy weather, and "Jet City" from the local influence of Boeing. Seattle_sentence_285

The city has two official slogans or mottos: "The City of Flowers", meant to encourage the planting of flowers to beautify the city, and "The City of Goodwill", adopted prior to the 1990 Goodwill Games. Seattle_sentence_286

Seattle residents are known as Seattleites. Seattle_sentence_287

Performing arts Seattle_section_15

Main article: Arts in Seattle Seattle_sentence_288

Seattle has been a regional center for the performing arts for many years. Seattle_sentence_289

The century-old Seattle Symphony Orchestra has won many awards and performs primarily at Benaroya Hall. Seattle_sentence_290

The Seattle Opera and Pacific Northwest Ballet, which perform at McCaw Hall (opened in 2003 on the site of the former Seattle Opera House at Seattle Center), are comparably distinguished, with the Opera being particularly known for its performances of the works of Richard Wagner and the PNB School (founded in 1974) ranking as one of the top three ballet training institutions in the United States. Seattle_sentence_291

The Seattle Youth Symphony Orchestras (SYSO) is the largest symphonic youth organization in the United States. Seattle_sentence_292

The city also boasts lauded summer and winter chamber music festivals organized by the Seattle Chamber Music Society. Seattle_sentence_293

The 5th Avenue Theatre, built in 1926, stages Broadway-style musical shows featuring both local talent and international stars. Seattle_sentence_294

Seattle has "around 100" theatrical production companies and over two dozen live theatre venues, many of them associated with fringe theatre; Seattle is probably second only to New York for number of equity theaters (28 Seattle theater companies have some sort of Actors' Equity contract). Seattle_sentence_295

In addition, the 900-seat Romanesque Revival Town Hall on First Hill hosts numerous cultural events, especially lectures and recitals. Seattle_sentence_296

Between 1918 and 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, running from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. Seattle_sentence_297

The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Bumps Blackwell, Ernestine Anderson, and others. Seattle_sentence_298

Early popular musical acts from the Seattle/Puget Sound area include the collegiate folk group The Brothers Four, vocal group The Fleetwoods, 1960s garage rockers The Wailers and The Sonics, and instrumental surf group The Ventures, some of whom are still active. Seattle_sentence_299

Seattle is considered the home of grunge music, having produced artists such as Nirvana, Soundgarden, Alice in Chains, Pearl Jam, and Mudhoney, all of whom reached international audiences in the early 1990s. Seattle_sentence_300

The city is also home to such varied artists as avant-garde jazz musicians Bill Frisell and Wayne Horvitz, hot jazz musician Glenn Crytzer, hip hop artists Sir Mix-a-Lot, Macklemore, Blue Scholars, and Shabazz Palaces, smooth jazz saxophonist Kenny G, classic rock staples Heart and Queensrÿche, and alternative rock bands such as Foo Fighters, Harvey Danger, The Presidents of the United States of America, The Posies, Modest Mouse, Band of Horses, Death Cab for Cutie, and Fleet Foxes. Seattle_sentence_301

Rock musicians such as Jimi Hendrix, Duff McKagan, and Nikki Sixx spent their formative years in Seattle. Seattle_sentence_302

The Seattle-based Sub Pop record company continues to be one of the world's best-known independent/alternative music labels. Seattle_sentence_303

Over the years, a number of songs have been written about Seattle. Seattle_sentence_304

Seattle annually sends a team of spoken word slammers to the National Poetry Slam and considers itself home to such performance poets as Buddy Wakefield, two-time Individual World Poetry Slam Champ; Anis Mojgani, two-time National Poetry Slam Champ; and Danny Sherrard, 2007 National Poetry Slam Champ and 2008 Individual World Poetry Slam Champ. Seattle_sentence_305

Seattle also hosted the 2001 national Poetry Slam Tournament. Seattle_sentence_306

The Seattle Poetry Festival is a biennial poetry festival that (launched first as the Poetry Circus in 1997) has featured local, regional, national, and international names in poetry. Seattle_sentence_307

The city also has movie houses showing both Hollywood productions and works by independent filmmakers. Seattle_sentence_308

Among these, the Seattle Cinerama stands out as one of only three movie theaters in the world still capable of showing three-panel Cinerama films. Seattle_sentence_309

Tourism Seattle_section_16

See also: Museums and galleries of Seattle Seattle_sentence_310

Among Seattle's prominent annual fairs and festivals are the 24-day Seattle International Film Festival, Northwest Folklife over the Memorial Day weekend, numerous Seafair events throughout July and August (ranging from a Bon Odori celebration to the Seafair Cup hydroplane races), the Bite of Seattle, one of the largest Gay Pride festivals in the United States, and the art and music festival Bumbershoot, which programs music as well as other art and entertainment over the Labor Day weekend. Seattle_sentence_311

All are typically attended by 100,000 people annually, as are the Seattle Hempfest and two separate Independence Day celebrations. Seattle_sentence_312

Other significant events include numerous Native American pow-wows, a Greek Festival hosted by St. Demetrios Greek Orthodox Church in Montlake, and numerous ethnic festivals (many associated with Festál at Seattle Center). Seattle_sentence_313

There are other annual events, ranging from the Seattle Antiquarian Book Fair & Book Arts Show; an anime convention, Sakura-Con; Penny Arcade Expo, a gaming convention; a two-day, 9,000-rider Seattle to Portland Bicycle Classic; and specialized film festivals, such as the Maelstrom International Fantastic Film Festival, the Seattle Asian American Film Festival (formerly known as the Northwest Asian American Film Festival), Children's Film Festival Seattle, Translation: the Seattle Transgender Film Festival, the Seattle Gay and Lesbian Film Festival, Seattle Latino Film Festival, and the Seattle Polish Film Festival. Seattle_sentence_314

The Henry Art Gallery opened in 1927, the first public art museum in Washington. Seattle_sentence_315

The Seattle Art Museum (SAM) opened in 1933 and moved to their current downtown location in 1991 (expanded and reopened in 2007); since 1991, the 1933 building has been SAM's Seattle Asian Art Museum (SAAM). Seattle_sentence_316

SAM also operates the Olympic Sculpture Park (opened in 2007) on the waterfront north of the downtown piers. Seattle_sentence_317

The Frye Art Museum is a free museum on First Hill. Seattle_sentence_318

Regional history collections are at the Log House Museum in Alki, Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, the Museum of History and Industry, and the Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture. Seattle_sentence_319

Industry collections are at the Center for Wooden Boats and the adjacent Northwest Seaport, the Seattle Metropolitan Police Museum, and the Museum of Flight. Seattle_sentence_320

Regional ethnic collections include the Nordic Heritage Museum, the Wing Luke Asian Museum, and the Northwest African American Museum. Seattle_sentence_321

Seattle has artist-run galleries, including ten-year veteran Soil Art Gallery, and the newer Crawl Space Gallery. Seattle_sentence_322

The Seattle Great Wheel, one of the largest Ferris wheels in the US, opened in June 2012 as a new, permanent attraction on the city's waterfront, at Pier 57, next to Downtown Seattle. Seattle_sentence_323

The city also has many community centers for recreation, including Rainier Beach, Van Asselt, Rainier, and Jefferson south of the Ship Canal and Green Lake, Laurelhurst, Loyal Heights north of the Canal, and Meadowbrook. Seattle_sentence_324

Woodland Park Zoo opened as a private menagerie in 1889 but was sold to the city in 1899. Seattle_sentence_325

The Seattle Aquarium has been open on the downtown waterfront since 1977 (undergoing a renovation in 2006). Seattle_sentence_326

The Seattle Underground Tour is an exhibit of places that existed before the Great Fire. Seattle_sentence_327

Since the middle 1990s, Seattle has experienced significant growth in the cruise industry, especially as a departure point for Alaska cruises. Seattle_sentence_328

In 2008, a record total of 886,039 cruise passengers passed through the city, surpassing the number for Vancouver, BC, the other major departure point for Alaska cruises. Seattle_sentence_329

Professional sports Seattle_section_17

Main article: Sports in Seattle Seattle_sentence_330

Seattle_table_general_2

ClubSeattle_header_cell_2_0_0 SportSeattle_header_cell_2_0_1 LeagueSeattle_header_cell_2_0_2 Venue (capacity)Seattle_header_cell_2_0_3 FoundedSeattle_header_cell_2_0_4 TitlesSeattle_header_cell_2_0_5 Record
AttendanceSeattle_header_cell_2_0_6
Seattle SeahawksSeattle_cell_2_1_0 American footballSeattle_cell_2_1_1 NFLSeattle_cell_2_1_2 Lumen Field (69,000)Seattle_cell_2_1_3 1976Seattle_cell_2_1_4 1Seattle_cell_2_1_5 69,005Seattle_cell_2_1_6
Seattle MarinersSeattle_cell_2_2_0 BaseballSeattle_cell_2_2_1 MLBSeattle_cell_2_2_2 T-Mobile Park (47,574)Seattle_cell_2_2_3 1977Seattle_cell_2_2_4 0Seattle_cell_2_2_5 46,596Seattle_cell_2_2_6
Seattle KrakenSeattle_cell_2_3_0 Ice hockeySeattle_cell_2_3_1 NHLSeattle_cell_2_3_2 Climate Pledge Arena (TBD)Seattle_cell_2_3_3 2021Seattle_cell_2_3_4 Seattle_cell_2_3_5 Seattle_cell_2_3_6
Seattle Sounders FCSeattle_cell_2_4_0 SoccerSeattle_cell_2_4_1 MLSSeattle_cell_2_4_2 Lumen Field (69,000)Seattle_cell_2_4_3 2007Seattle_cell_2_4_4 2Seattle_cell_2_4_5 69,274Seattle_cell_2_4_6
Seattle SeawolvesSeattle_cell_2_5_0 RugbySeattle_cell_2_5_1 MLRSeattle_cell_2_5_2 Starfire Sports (4,500)Seattle_cell_2_5_3 2017Seattle_cell_2_5_4 2Seattle_cell_2_5_5 4,500Seattle_cell_2_5_6
Seattle DragonsSeattle_cell_2_6_0 American footballSeattle_cell_2_6_1 XFLSeattle_cell_2_6_2 Lumen Field (69,000)Seattle_cell_2_6_3 2018Seattle_cell_2_6_4 Seattle_cell_2_6_5 Seattle_cell_2_6_6
Seattle StormSeattle_cell_2_7_0 Women's basketballSeattle_cell_2_7_1 WNBASeattle_cell_2_7_2 Climate Pledge Arena (TBD)Seattle_cell_2_7_3 2000Seattle_cell_2_7_4 4Seattle_cell_2_7_5 7,486Seattle_cell_2_7_6

Seattle has four major men's professional sports teams: the National Football League (NFL)'s Seattle Seahawks, Major League Baseball (MLB)'s Seattle Mariners, and Major League Soccer (MLS)'s Seattle Sounders FC playing currently, and the National Hockey League (NHL)'s Seattle Kraken beginning play in 2021. Seattle_sentence_331

Other professional sports teams include the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA)'s Seattle Storm, who won the WNBA championship on four occasions in 2004, 2010, 2018, and 2020; and Major League Rugby (MLR)'s Seattle Seawolves, who won back-to-back championships in 2018 and 2019. Seattle_sentence_332

The Seattle Seahawks entered the National Football League in 1976 as an expansion team and have advanced to the Super Bowl three times: 2005, 2013 and 2014. Seattle_sentence_333

The team played in the Kingdome until it was imploded in 2000 and moved into Qwest Field (now Lumen Field) at the same site in 2003. Seattle_sentence_334

The Seahawks lost Super Bowl XL in 2005 to the Pittsburgh Steelers in Detroit, but won Super Bowl XLVIII in 2013 by defeating the Denver Broncos 43–8 at MetLife Stadium. Seattle_sentence_335

The team advanced to the Super Bowl the following year, but lost to the New England Patriots in Super Bowl XLIX on a last-minute play. Seattle_sentence_336

Seahawks fans have set stadium noise records on several occasions and are collectively known as the "12th Man". Seattle_sentence_337

Seattle Sounders FC has played in Major League Soccer since 2009, sharing Lumen Field with the Seahawks, as a continuation of earlier teams in the lower divisions of American soccer. Seattle_sentence_338

The team set various attendance records in its first few seasons, averaging over 43,000 per match and placing themselves among the top 30 teams internationally. Seattle_sentence_339

The Sounders have won the MLS Supporters' Shield in 2014 and the U.S. Seattle_sentence_340 Open Cup on four occasions: 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2014. Seattle_sentence_341

The Sounders won their first MLS Cup after defeating Toronto FC 5–4 in a penalty shootout, in MLS Cup 2016; the team would go on to finish as runners-up to Toronto FC in the following cup. Seattle_sentence_342

Lumen Field hosted the 2009 MLS Cup, played between Real Salt Lake and the Los Angeles Galaxy in front of 46,011 spectators. Seattle_sentence_343

The Sounders would play their first MLS Cup at Lumen Field in 2019, once again against Toronto FC, and won the game 3–1, earning their second MLS Cup title in front of a club-record attendance of 69,274. Seattle_sentence_344

Seattle's Major League Rugby team, the Seattle Seawolves, play at Starfire Sports Complex in nearby Tukwila, a small stadium that is also used by the Sounders for their U.S. Seattle_sentence_345 Open Cup matches. Seattle_sentence_346

The team began play in 2018 and won the league's inaugural championship. Seattle_sentence_347

They successfully defended the title in the 2019 season. Seattle_sentence_348

Seattle's professional sports history began at the start of the 20th century with the PCHA's Seattle Metropolitans, which in 1917 became the first American hockey team to win the Stanley Cup. Seattle_sentence_349

Seattle was awarded a Major League Baseball franchise, the Seattle Pilots, in 1969. Seattle_sentence_350

The team played at Sick's Stadium in Mount Baker for one season before relocating to Milwaukee and becoming the Milwaukee Brewers. Seattle_sentence_351

The city, alongside the county and state governments, sued the league and was offered a second expansion team, the Seattle Mariners, as settlement. Seattle_sentence_352

The Mariners began play in 1977 at the Kingdome, where the team struggled for most of its time. Seattle_sentence_353

Finding success in the mid-to-late 1990s saved the team from being relocated and allowed them to move to a purpose-built baseball stadium, T-Mobile Park (formerly Safeco Field), in 1999. Seattle_sentence_354

The Mariners have never reached a World Series and only appeared in the MLB playoffs four times, all between 1995 and 2001, despite having Hall of Fame players and candidates like Ken Griffey Jr., Randy Johnson, Ichiro Suzuki, and Alex Rodriguez. Seattle_sentence_355

The team tied the all-time single regular season wins record in 2001 with 116 wins. Seattle_sentence_356

Since 2001, the Mariners have failed to qualify for the playoffs—the longest active postseason drought in North American sports, at 18 seasons. Seattle_sentence_357

From 1967 to 2008, Seattle was home to a National Basketball Association (NBA) franchise: the Seattle SuperSonics, who were the 1978–79 NBA champions. Seattle_sentence_358

A frequent playoff participant, the Sonics also contended for the championship in 1978 and 1996. Seattle_sentence_359

Following a team sale in 2006, a failed effort to replace the aging KeyArena, and settlement of a lawsuit to hold the team to the final two years of its lease with the city, the SuperSonics relocated to Oklahoma City and became the Oklahoma City Thunder ahead of the 2008–09 season. Seattle_sentence_360

An effort in 2013 to purchase the Sacramento Kings franchise and relocate it to Seattle as a resurrected Sonics squad was denied by the NBA board of governors. Seattle_sentence_361

The city hosted the Seattle Reign FC, a founding member of the National Women's Soccer League, from 2014 to 2018. Seattle_sentence_362

Formed in 2012, it was named in honor of the Seattle Reign, a women's professional basketball team that played from 1996 to 1998 in the American Basketball League, a precursor to the WNBA. Seattle_sentence_363

The club played at Starfire Sports Complex in Tukwila for the league's inaugural 2013 season before moving to Seattle Center's Memorial Stadium in 2014. Seattle_sentence_364

Under new management, the team moved to Tacoma's Cheney Stadium in 2019, playing as the Reign FC. Seattle_sentence_365

In 2020, OL Groupe, the parent company of French clubs Olympique Lyonnais and Olympique Lyonnais Féminin, became the team's majority owner and rebranded the club as OL Reign. Seattle_sentence_366

Seattle also fielded the Seattle Dragons of the XFL, who played at Lumen Field in 2020. Seattle_sentence_367

The league suspended operations five weeks into its inaugural season due to the COVID-19 pandemic, eventually filed for bankruptcy, and had its assets sold. Seattle_sentence_368

Though the league plans to return in 2022, it has not announced if the Dragons or any of the seven other charter teams will resume play. Seattle_sentence_369

The Major League Baseball All-Star Game was held in Seattle twice, first at the Kingdome in 1979 and again at Safeco Field in 2001. Seattle_sentence_370

The NBA All-Star Game was also held in Seattle twice: the first in 1974 at the Seattle Center Coliseum and the second in 1987 at the Kingdome. Seattle_sentence_371

Seattle also boasts two collegiate sports teams based at the University of Washington and Seattle University, both competing in NCAA Division I for various sports. Seattle_sentence_372

The University of Washington's athletic program, nicknamed the Huskies, competes in the Pac-12 Conference, and Seattle University's athletic program, nicknamed the Redhawks, mostly competes in the Western Athletic Conference. Seattle_sentence_373

The Huskies teams use several facilities, including the 70,000-seat Husky Stadium for football and the Hec Edmundson Pavilion for basketball and volleyball. Seattle_sentence_374

The two schools have basketball and soccer teams that compete against each other in non-conference games and have formed a local rivalry due to their sporting success. Seattle_sentence_375

The Seattle Thunderbirds hockey team plays in the Canadian major-junior Western Hockey League and are based in the Seattle suburb of Kent. Seattle_sentence_376

Seattle successfully applied for a new expansion team with the National Hockey League called the Seattle Kraken, which will make its first appearance in 2021. Seattle_sentence_377

A major renovation of what was KeyArena (now Climate Pledge Arena) began in 2018 to accommodate the NHL team. Seattle_sentence_378

The NHL ownership group reached its goal of 10,000 deposits within 12 minutes of opening a ticket drive, which later increased to 25,000 in 75 minutes. Seattle_sentence_379

Parks and recreation Seattle_section_18

Main article: Seattle Parks and Recreation Seattle_sentence_380

Seattle's mild, temperate, marine climate allows year-round outdoor recreation, including walking, cycling, hiking, skiing, snowboarding, kayaking, rock climbing, motor boating, sailing, team sports, and swimming. Seattle_sentence_381

In town, many people walk around Green Lake, through the forests and along the bluffs and beaches of 535-acre (2.2 km) Discovery Park (the largest park in the city) in Magnolia, along the shores of Myrtle Edwards Park on the Downtown waterfront, along the shoreline of Lake Washington at Seward Park, along Alki Beach in West Seattle, or along the Burke-Gilman Trail. Seattle_sentence_382

Gas Works Park features the preserved superstructure of a coal gasification plant closed in 1956. Seattle_sentence_383

Located across Lake Union from downtown, the park provides panoramic views of the Seattle skyline. Seattle_sentence_384

Also popular are hikes and skiing in the nearby Cascade or Olympic Mountains and kayaking and sailing in the waters of Puget Sound, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Strait of Georgia. Seattle_sentence_385

In 2005, Men's Fitness magazine named Seattle the fittest city in the United States. Seattle_sentence_386

Government and politics Seattle_section_19

Main articles: Government and politics of Seattle and Mayor of Seattle Seattle_sentence_387

Seattle is a charter city, with a mayor–council form of government. Seattle_sentence_388

From 1911 to 2013, Seattle's nine city councillors were elected at large, rather than by geographic subdivisions. Seattle_sentence_389

For the 2015 election, this changed to a hybrid system of seven district members and two at-large members as a result of a ballot measure passed on November 5, 2013. Seattle_sentence_390

The only other elected offices are the city attorney and Municipal Court judges. Seattle_sentence_391

All city offices are officially non-partisan. Seattle_sentence_392

Like some other parts of the United States, government and laws are also run by a series of ballot initiatives (allowing citizens to pass or reject laws), referenda (allowing citizens to approve or reject legislation already passed), and propositions (allowing specific government agencies to propose new laws or tax increases directly to the people). Seattle_sentence_393

Jenny Durkan was elected as mayor in the 2017 mayoral election and took office on November 28, 2017. Seattle_sentence_394

The mayor's office also includes two deputy mayors, appointed to advise the mayor on policies. Seattle_sentence_395

As of 2017, the city's deputy mayors are Michael Fong and Shefali Ranganathan. Seattle_sentence_396

Seattle's political culture is very liberal and progressive for the United States, with over 80% of the population voting for the Democratic Party. Seattle_sentence_397

All precincts in Seattle voted for Democratic Party candidate Barack Obama in the 2012 presidential election. Seattle_sentence_398

In partisan elections for the Washington State Legislature and United States Congress, nearly all elections are won by Democrats. Seattle_sentence_399

Although local elections are nonpartisan, most of the city's elected officials are known to be Democrats. Seattle_sentence_400

In 1926, Seattle became the first major American city to elect a female mayor, Bertha Knight Landes. Seattle_sentence_401

It has also elected an openly gay mayor, Ed Murray, and a third-party socialist councillor, Kshama Sawant. Seattle_sentence_402

For the first time in United States history, an openly gay black woman was elected to public office when Sherry Harris was elected as a Seattle city councillor in 1991. Seattle_sentence_403

The majority of the city council is female. Seattle_sentence_404

Federally, Seattle is split between two congressional districts. Seattle_sentence_405

Most of the city is in Washington's 7th congressional district, represented by Democrat Pramila Jayapal, the first Indian-American woman elected to Congress. Seattle_sentence_406

She succeeded 28-year incumbent and fellow Democrat Jim McDermott. Seattle_sentence_407

Part of southwestern Seattle is in the 9th District, represented by Democrat Adam Smith. Seattle_sentence_408

Seattle is widely considered one of the most socially liberal cities in the United States, even surpassing Portland. Seattle_sentence_409

In the 2012 U.S. general election, a majority of Seattleites voted to approve Referendum 74 and legalize gay marriage in Washington state. Seattle_sentence_410

In the same election, an overwhelming majority of Seattleites also voted to approve the legalization of the recreational use of cannabis in the state. Seattle_sentence_411

Like much of the Pacific Northwest (which has the lowest rate of church attendance in the United States and consistently reports the highest percentage of atheism), church attendance, religious belief, and political influence of religious leaders are much lower than in other parts of America. Seattle_sentence_412

In July 2012, Seattle banned plastic shopping bags. Seattle_sentence_413

In June 2014 the city passed a local ordinance to increase the minimum wage to $15 an hour on a staged basis from 2015 to 2021. Seattle_sentence_414

When fully implemented the $15 hourly rate will be the highest minimum wage in the nation. Seattle_sentence_415

On October 6, 2014, Seattle officially replaced Columbus Day with Indigenous Peoples' Day, honoring Seattle's Native American community and acknowledging the controversies surrounding the legacy of Christopher Columbus. Seattle_sentence_416

On May 9, 2017, Mayor Murray announced he would not seek re-election following a lawsuit alleging sexual abuse of several teenaged boys in the 1980s. Seattle_sentence_417

Murray resigned as mayor on September 12, 2017, effective at 5 p.m. on September 13, 2017, hours after The Seattle Times reported a fifth allegation of child sexual abuse. Seattle_sentence_418

In July 2017, the Seattle City Council unanimously approved an income tax on Seattle residents, making the city the only one in the state with an income tax. Seattle_sentence_419

The new income tax was ruled unconstitutional by the King County Superior Court. Seattle_sentence_420

The Court of Appeals upheld that ruling. Seattle_sentence_421

The Washington Supreme Court declined to hear the case, maintaining the tax as unconstitutional and unenforceable. Seattle_sentence_422

Education Seattle_section_20

Main article: Education in Seattle Seattle_sentence_423

Of the city's population over the age of 25, 53.8% (vs. a national average of 27.4%) hold a bachelor's degree or higher, and 91.9% (vs. 84.5% nationally) have a high school diploma or equivalent. Seattle_sentence_424

A 2008 United States Census Bureau survey showed that Seattle had the highest percentage of college and university graduates of any major U.S. city. Seattle_sentence_425

The city was listed as the most literate of the country's 69 largest cities in 2005 and 2006, the second most literate in 2007 and the most literate in 2008 in studies conducted by Central Connecticut State University. Seattle_sentence_426

Seattle Public Schools desegregated without a court order but continue to struggle to achieve racial balance in a somewhat ethnically divided city (the south part of town having more ethnic minorities than the north). Seattle_sentence_427

In 2007, Seattle's racial tie-breaking system was struck down by the United States Supreme Court, but the ruling left the door open for desegregation formulae based on other indicators (e.g., income or socioeconomic class). Seattle_sentence_428

The public school system is supplemented by a moderate number of private schools: Five of the private high schools are Catholic, one is Lutheran, and six are secular. Seattle_sentence_429

Seattle is home to the University of Washington, as well as the institution's professional and continuing education unit, the University of Washington Educational Outreach. Seattle_sentence_430

The 2017 U.S. News & World Report ranked the University of Washington at No. Seattle_sentence_431

11 in the world, tied with Johns Hopkins University. Seattle_sentence_432

The UW receives more federal research and development funding than any public institution. Seattle_sentence_433

Over the last 10 years, it has also produced more Peace Corps volunteers than any other U.S. university. Seattle_sentence_434

Seattle also has a number of smaller private universities including Seattle University and Seattle Pacific University, the former a Jesuit Catholic institution, the latter a Free Methodist institution. Seattle_sentence_435

Universities aimed at the working adult are the City University and Antioch University. Seattle_sentence_436

The Seattle Colleges District system comprises three colleges - North, Central, and South. Seattle_sentence_437

Seminaries include Western Seminary and a number of arts colleges, such as Cornish College of the Arts, Pratt Fine Arts Center, and The Art Institute of Seattle. Seattle_sentence_438

In 2001, Time magazine selected Seattle Central Community College as community college of the year, saying that the school "pushes diverse students to work together in small teams". Seattle_sentence_439

Media Seattle_section_21

Main article: Media in Seattle Seattle_sentence_440

As of 2019, Seattle has one major daily newspaper, The Seattle Times. Seattle_sentence_441

The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, known as the P-I, published a daily newspaper from 1863 to March 17, 2009, before switching to a strictly on-line publication. Seattle_sentence_442

There is also the Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce, and the University of Washington publishes The Daily, a student-run publication, when school is in session. Seattle_sentence_443

The most prominent weeklies are the Seattle Weekly and The Stranger; both consider themselves "alternative" papers. Seattle_sentence_444

The weekly LGBT newspaper is the Seattle Gay News. Seattle_sentence_445

Real Change is a weekly street newspaper that is sold mainly by homeless persons as an alternative to panhandling. Seattle_sentence_446

There are also several ethnic newspapers, including The Facts, Northwest Asian Weekly and the International Examiner as well as numerous neighborhood newspapers. Seattle_sentence_447

Seattle is also well served by television and radio, with all major U.S. networks represented, along with at least five other English-language stations and two Spanish-language stations. Seattle_sentence_448

Seattle cable viewers also receive CBUT 2 (CBC) from Vancouver, British Columbia. Seattle_sentence_449

Non-commercial radio stations include NPR affiliates KUOW-FM 94.9 and KNKX 88.5 (Tacoma), as well as classical music station KING-FM 98.1. Seattle_sentence_450

Other non-commercial stations include KEXP-FM 90.3 (affiliated with the UW), community radio KBCS-FM 91.3 (affiliated with Bellevue College), and high school radio KNHC-FM 89.5, which broadcasts an electronic dance music radio format, is owned by the public school system and operated by students of Nathan Hale High School. Seattle_sentence_451

Many Seattle radio stations are available through Internet radio, with KEXP in particular being a pioneer of Internet radio. Seattle_sentence_452

Seattle also has numerous commercial radio stations. Seattle_sentence_453

In a March 2012 report by the consumer research firm Arbitron, the top FM stations were KRWM (adult contemporary format), KIRO-FM (news/talk), and KISW (active rock) while the top AM stations were KOMO (AM) (all news), KJR (AM) (all sports), KIRO (AM) (all sports). Seattle_sentence_454

Seattle-based online magazines Worldchanging and Grist.org were two of the "Top Green Websites" in 2007 according to TIME. Seattle_sentence_455

Seattle also has many online news media websites. Seattle_sentence_456

The two largest are The Seattle Times and the Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Seattle_sentence_457

Infrastructure Seattle_section_22

Health systems Seattle_section_23

Main article: Medical facilities of Seattle Seattle_sentence_458

The University of Washington is consistently ranked among the country's leading institutions in medical research, earning special merits for programs in neurology and neurosurgery. Seattle_sentence_459

Seattle has seen local developments of modern paramedic services with the establishment of Medic One in 1970. Seattle_sentence_460

In 1974, a 60 Minutes story on the success of the then four-year-old Medic One paramedic system called Seattle "the best place in the world to have a heart attack". Seattle_sentence_461

Three of Seattle's largest medical centers are located on First Hill. Seattle_sentence_462

Harborview Medical Center, the public county hospital, is the only Level I trauma hospital in a region that includes Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho. Seattle_sentence_463

Virginia Mason Medical Center and Swedish Medical Center's two largest campuses are also located in this part of Seattle, including the Virginia Mason Hospital. Seattle_sentence_464

This concentration of hospitals resulted in the neighborhood's nickname "Pill Hill". Seattle_sentence_465

Located in the Laurelhurst neighborhood, Seattle Children's, formerly Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center, is the pediatric referral center for Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho. Seattle_sentence_466

The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center has a campus in the Eastlake neighborhood. Seattle_sentence_467

The University District is home to the University of Washington Medical Center which, along with Harborview, is operated by the University of Washington. Seattle_sentence_468

Seattle is also served by a Veterans Affairs hospital on Beacon Hill, a third campus of Swedish in Ballard, and Northwest Hospital and Medical Center near Northgate Mall. Seattle_sentence_469

Transportation Seattle_section_24

Main article: Transportation in Seattle Seattle_sentence_470

Further information: Street layout of Seattle Seattle_sentence_471

The first streetcars appeared in 1889 and were instrumental in the creation of a relatively well-defined downtown and strong neighborhoods at the end of their lines. Seattle_sentence_472

The advent of the automobile sounded the death knell for rail in Seattle. Seattle_sentence_473

Tacoma–Seattle railway service ended in 1929 and the Everett–Seattle service came to an end in 1939, replaced by automobiles running on the recently developed highway system. Seattle_sentence_474

Rails on city streets were paved over or removed, and the opening of the Seattle trolleybus system brought the end of streetcars in Seattle in 1941. Seattle_sentence_475

This left an extensive network of privately owned buses (later public) as the only mass transit within the city and throughout the region. Seattle_sentence_476

King County Metro provides frequent stop bus service within the city and surrounding county, as well as the South Lake Union Streetcar line and the First Hill Streetcar line. Seattle_sentence_477

Seattle is one of the few cities in North America whose bus fleet includes electric trolleybuses. Seattle_sentence_478

Sound Transit provides an express bus service within the metropolitan area, two Sounder commuter rail lines between the suburbs and downtown, and its Central Link light rail line between the University of Washington and Angle Lake. Seattle_sentence_479

Washington State Ferries, which manages the largest network of ferries in the United States and third largest in the world, connects Seattle to Bainbridge and Vashon Islands in Puget Sound and to Bremerton and Southworth on the Kitsap Peninsula. Seattle_sentence_480

King Street Station in Pioneer Square serves Amtrak intercity trains and Sounder commuter trains, and is located adjacent to the International District/Chinatown light rail station. Seattle_sentence_481

According to the 2007 American Community Survey, 18.6% of Seattle residents used one of the three public transit systems that serve the city, giving it the highest transit ridership of all major cities without heavy or light rail prior to the completion of Sound Transit's Central Link line. Seattle_sentence_482

The city has also been described by Bert Sperling as the fourth most walkable U.S. city and by Walk Score as the sixth most walkable of the fifty largest U.S. cities. Seattle_sentence_483

Seattle–Tacoma International Airport, locally known as Sea-Tac Airport and located just south in the neighboring city of SeaTac, is operated by the Port of Seattle and provides commercial air service to destinations throughout the world. Seattle_sentence_484

Closer to downtown, Boeing Field is used for general aviation, cargo flights, and testing/delivery of Boeing airliners. Seattle_sentence_485

A secondary passenger airport, Paine Field, opened in 2019 and is located in Everett, 25 miles (40 km) north of Seattle. Seattle_sentence_486

It is predominantly used by Boeing and their large assembly plant located nearby. Seattle_sentence_487

The main mode of transportation, however, is Seattle's streets, which are laid out in a cardinal directions grid pattern, except in the central business district where early city leaders Arthur Denny and Carson Boren insisted on orienting their plats relative to the shoreline rather than to true North. Seattle_sentence_488

Only two roads, Interstate 5 and State Route 99 (both limited-access highways) run uninterrupted through the city from north to south. Seattle_sentence_489

From 1953 to 2019, State Route 99 ran through downtown Seattle on the Alaskan Way Viaduct, an elevated freeway on the waterfront. Seattle_sentence_490

However, due to damage sustained during the 2001 Nisqually earthquake the viaduct will be replaced by a tunnel. Seattle_sentence_491

The 2-mile (3.2 km) Alaskan Way Viaduct replacement tunnel was originally scheduled to be completed in December 2015 at a cost of US$4.25 billion. Seattle_sentence_492

The world's largest tunnel boring machine, named "Bertha", was commissioned for the project, measuring 57 feet (17 m) in diameter. Seattle_sentence_493

The tunnel's opening was delayed to February 2019 due to issues with the tunnel boring machine, which included a two-year halt in excavation. Seattle_sentence_494

Seattle has the 8th worst traffic congestion of all American cities, and is 10th among all North American cities according to Inrix. Seattle_sentence_495

The city has started moving away from the automobile and towards mass transit. Seattle_sentence_496

From 2004 to 2009, the annual number of unlinked public transportation trips increased by approximately 21%. Seattle_sentence_497

In 2006, voters in King County passed the Transit Now proposition, which increased bus service hours on high ridership routes and paid for five limited-stop bus lines called RapidRide. Seattle_sentence_498

After rejecting a roads and transit measure in 2007, Seattle-area voters passed a transit only measure in 2008 to increase ST Express bus service, extend the Link light rail system, and expand and improve Sounder commuter rail service. Seattle_sentence_499

A light rail line from downtown heading south to Sea-Tac Airport began service on December 19, 2009, giving the city its first rapid transit line with intermediate stations within the city limits. Seattle_sentence_500

An extension north to the University of Washington opened on March 19, 2016 and further extensions are planned to reach Northgate and Lynnwood to the north, Federal Way to the south, and Bellevue and Redmond to the east by 2024. Seattle_sentence_501

Voters in the Puget Sound region approved an additional tax increase in November 2016 to expand light rail to West Seattle and Ballard as well as Tacoma, Everett, and Issaquah. Seattle_sentence_502

Utilities Seattle_section_25

Main article: Utilities of Seattle Seattle_sentence_503

Water and electric power are municipal services, provided by Seattle Public Utilities and Seattle City Light respectively. Seattle_sentence_504

Other utility companies serving Seattle include Puget Sound Energy (natural gas, electricity), Seattle Steam Company (steam), Waste Management, Inc and Recology CleanScapes (curbside recycling, composting, and solid waste removal), CenturyLink, Frontier Communications, Wave Broadband, and Comcast (telecommunications and television). Seattle_sentence_505

About 90% of Seattle's electricity is produced using hydropower. Seattle_sentence_506

Less than 2% of electricity is produced using fossil fuels. Seattle_sentence_507

Notable people Seattle_section_26

Main article: List of people from Seattle Seattle_sentence_508

Sister cities Seattle_section_27

See also: List of Seattle sister cities Seattle_sentence_509

Seattle is partnered with: Seattle_sentence_510

See also Seattle_section_28

Seattle_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle.