Senegal

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Senegal_table_infobox_0

Republic of Senegal

République du Sénégal  (French)Senegal_header_cell_0_0_0

Capital

and largest citySenegal_header_cell_0_1_0

DakarSenegal_cell_0_1_1
Official languagesSenegal_header_cell_0_2_0 FrenchSenegal_cell_0_2_1
Lingua francaSenegal_header_cell_0_3_0 Senegal_cell_0_3_1
National languagesSenegal_header_cell_0_4_0 List:Senegal_cell_0_4_1
Ethnic groupsSenegal_header_cell_0_5_0 Senegal_cell_0_5_1
Demonym(s)Senegal_header_cell_0_6_0 SenegaleseSenegal_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentSenegal_header_cell_0_7_0 Unitary presidential republicSenegal_cell_0_7_1
PresidentSenegal_header_cell_0_8_0 Macky SallSenegal_cell_0_8_1
President of the National AssemblySenegal_header_cell_0_9_0 Moustapha NiasseSenegal_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureSenegal_header_cell_0_10_0 National AssemblySenegal_cell_0_10_1
IndependenceSenegal_header_cell_0_11_0
from FranceSenegal_header_cell_0_12_0 4 April 1960Senegal_cell_0_12_1
Withdrawal from

the Mali FederationSenegal_header_cell_0_13_0

20 August 1960Senegal_cell_0_13_1
Area Senegal_header_cell_0_14_0
TotalSenegal_header_cell_0_15_0 196,712 km (75,951 sq mi) (86th)Senegal_cell_0_15_1
Water (%)Senegal_header_cell_0_16_0 2.1Senegal_cell_0_16_1
PopulationSenegal_header_cell_0_17_0
2018 estimateSenegal_header_cell_0_18_0 15,854,323 (72nd)Senegal_cell_0_18_1
2016 censusSenegal_header_cell_0_19_0 14,668,522 (73rd)Senegal_cell_0_19_1
DensitySenegal_header_cell_0_20_0 68.7/km (177.9/sq mi) (134th)Senegal_cell_0_20_1
GDP (PPP)Senegal_header_cell_0_21_0 2020 estimateSenegal_cell_0_21_1
TotalSenegal_header_cell_0_22_0 $66.438 billion (99th)Senegal_cell_0_22_1
Per capitaSenegal_header_cell_0_23_0 $3,675 (158th)Senegal_cell_0_23_1
GDP (nominal)Senegal_header_cell_0_24_0 2020 estimateSenegal_cell_0_24_1
TotalSenegal_header_cell_0_25_0 $28.02 billion (105th)Senegal_cell_0_25_1
Per capitaSenegal_header_cell_0_26_0 $1,675 (149th)Senegal_cell_0_26_1
Gini (2011)Senegal_header_cell_0_27_0 40.3

mediumSenegal_cell_0_27_1

HDI (2018)Senegal_header_cell_0_28_0 0.514

low · 166thSenegal_cell_0_28_1

CurrencySenegal_header_cell_0_29_0 West African CFA franc (XOF)Senegal_cell_0_29_1
Time zoneSenegal_header_cell_0_30_0 UTC (GMT)Senegal_cell_0_30_1
Driving sideSenegal_header_cell_0_31_0 rightSenegal_cell_0_31_1
Calling codeSenegal_header_cell_0_32_0 +221Senegal_cell_0_32_1
ISO 3166 codeSenegal_header_cell_0_33_0 SNSenegal_cell_0_33_1
Internet TLDSenegal_header_cell_0_34_0 .snSenegal_cell_0_34_1

Senegal (/ˌsɛnɪˈɡɔːl, -ˈɡɑːl/ (listen); French: Sénégal; Wolof: Senegaal; Arabic: السنغال Alsinighal), officially the Republic of Senegal (French: République du Sénégal; Wolof: Réewum Senegaal; Arabic: جمهورية السنغال Jumhuriat Alsinighal), is a country in West Africa. Senegal_sentence_0

Senegal is bordered by Mauritania in the north, Mali to the east, Guinea to the southeast, and Guinea-Bissau to the southwest. Senegal_sentence_1

Senegal nearly surrounds The Gambia, a country occupying a narrow sliver of land along the banks of the Gambia River, which separates Senegal's southern region of Casamance from the rest of the country. Senegal_sentence_2

Senegal also shares a maritime border with Cape Verde. Senegal_sentence_3

Senegal's economic and political capital is Dakar. Senegal_sentence_4

It is a unitary presidential republic and is the westernmost country in the mainland of the Old World, or Afro-Eurasia. Senegal_sentence_5

It owes its name to the Senegal River, which borders it to the east and north. Senegal_sentence_6

Senegal covers a land area of almost 197,000 square kilometres (76,000 sq mi) and has a population of around 16 million. Senegal_sentence_7

The state was formed as part of the independence of French West Africa from French colonial rule. Senegal_sentence_8

Because of this history, the official language is French. Senegal_sentence_9

Like other post-colonial African states, the country includes a wide mix of ethnic and linguistic communities, with the largest being the Wolof, Fula, and Serer people, and the Wolof and French languages acting as lingua francas. Senegal_sentence_10

Senegal is classified as a heavily indebted poor country, with a relatively low Human Development Index. Senegal_sentence_11

Most of the population is on the coast and works in agriculture or other food industries. Senegal_sentence_12

Other major industries include mining, tourism and services. Senegal_sentence_13

The climate is typically Sahelian, though there is a rainy season. Senegal_sentence_14

Senegal is a member state of the African Union, the United Nations, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), and the Community of Sahel-Saharan States. Senegal_sentence_15

Etymology Senegal_section_0

"Senegal" probably derives from a Portuguese transliteration of the name of the Zenaga, also known as the Sanhaja, or else a combination of the supreme deity in Serer religion (Rog Sene) and o gal meaning body of water in the Serer language. Senegal_sentence_16

Alternatively, the name could derive from the Wolof phrase "Sunuu Gaal," which means "our boat." Senegal_sentence_17

History Senegal_section_1

Main article: History of Senegal Senegal_sentence_18

Early and pre-colonial eras Senegal_section_2

Archaeological findings throughout the area indicate that Senegal was inhabited in prehistoric times and has been continuously occupied by various ethnic groups. Senegal_sentence_19

Some kingdoms were created around the 7th century: Takrur in the 9th century, Namandiru [] and the Jolof Empire during the 13th and 14th centuries. Senegal_sentence_20

Eastern Senegal was once part of the Ghana Empire. Senegal_sentence_21

Islam was introduced through Toucouleur and Soninke contact with the Almoravid dynasty of the Maghreb, who in turn propagated it with the help of the Almoravids and Toucouleur allies. Senegal_sentence_22

This movement faced resistance from ethnicities of traditional religions, the Serers in particular. Senegal_sentence_23

In the 13th and 14th centuries, the area came under the influence of the empires to the east; the Jolof Empire of Senegal was also founded during this time. Senegal_sentence_24

In the Senegambia region, between 1300 and 1900, close to one-third of the population was enslaved, typically as a result of being taken captive in warfare. Senegal_sentence_25

In the 14th century the Jolof Empire grew more powerful, having united Cayor and the kingdoms of Baol, Siné, Saloum, Waalo, Futa Tooro and Bambouk, or much of present-day West Africa. Senegal_sentence_26

The empire was a voluntary confederacy of various states rather than being built on military conquest. Senegal_sentence_27

The empire was founded by Ndiadiane Ndiaye, a part Serer and part Toucouleur, who was able to form a coalition with many ethnicities, but collapsed around 1549 with the defeat and killing of Lele Fouli Fak by Amari Ngone Sobel Fall []. Senegal_sentence_28

Colonial era Senegal_section_3

Main articles: Senegambia (Dutch West India Company) and French conquest of Senegal Senegal_sentence_29

In the mid-15th century, the Portuguese landed on the Senegal coastline, followed by traders representing other countries, including the French. Senegal_sentence_30

Various European powers — Portugal, the Netherlands, and Great Britain — competed for trade in the area from the 15th century onward. Senegal_sentence_31

In 1677, France gained control of what had become a minor departure point in the Atlantic slave trade: the island of Gorée next to modern Dakar, used as a base to purchase slaves from the warring chiefdoms on the mainland. Senegal_sentence_32

European missionaries introduced Christianity to Senegal and the Casamance in the 19th century. Senegal_sentence_33

It was only in the 1850s that the French began to expand onto the Senegalese mainland, after they abolished slavery and began promoting an abolitionist doctrine, adding native kingdoms like the Waalo, Cayor, Baol, and Jolof Empire. Senegal_sentence_34

French colonists progressively invaded and took over all the kingdoms, except Siné and Saloum, under Governor Louis Faidherbe. Senegal_sentence_35

Yoro Dyao was in command of the canton of Foss-Galodjina and was set over Wâlo (Ouâlo) by Louis Faidherbe, where he served as a chief from 1861 to 1914. Senegal_sentence_36

Senegalese resistance to the French expansion and curtailing of their lucrative slave trade was led in part by Lat-Dior, Damel of Cayor, and Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof, the Maad a Sinig of Siné, resulting in the Battle of Logandème. Senegal_sentence_37

In 1915, over 300 Senegalese came under Australian command, ahead of the taking of Damascus by Australians, before the expected arrival of the famed Lawrence Of Arabia. Senegal_sentence_38

French and British diplomacy in the area were thrown into disarray. Senegal_sentence_39

Independence (1960) Senegal_section_4

On 4 April 1959 Senegal and the French Sudan merged to form the Mali Federation, which became fully independent on 20 June 1960, as a result of a transfer of power agreement signed with France on 4 April 1960. Senegal_sentence_40

Due to internal political difficulties, the Federation broke up on 20 August, when Senegal and French Sudan (renamed the Republic of Mali) each proclaimed independence. Senegal_sentence_41

Léopold Sédar Senghor was Senegal's first president in September 1960. Senegal_sentence_42

Senghor was a very well-read man, educated in France. Senegal_sentence_43

He was a poet and philosopher who personally drafted the Senegalese national anthem, "Pincez tous vos koras, frappez les balafons". Senegal_sentence_44

Pro-African, he advocated a brand of African socialism. Senegal_sentence_45

In 1980, President Senghor decided to retire from politics. Senegal_sentence_46

The next year, he transferred power in 1981 to his hand-picked successor, Abdou Diouf. Senegal_sentence_47

Former prime minister Mamadou Dia, who was Senghor's rival, ran for election in 1983 against Diouf, but lost. Senegal_sentence_48

Senghor moved to France, where he died at the age of 95. Senegal_sentence_49

In the 1980s, Boubacar Lam discovered Senegalese oral history that was initially compiled by the Tuculor noble, Yoro Dyâo, not long after World War I, which documented migrations into West Africa from the Nile Valley; ethnic groups, from the Senegal River to the Niger Delta, retained traditions of having an eastern origin. Senegal_sentence_50

Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal Senegambia Confederation on 1 February 1982. Senegal_sentence_51

However, the union was dissolved in 1989. Senegal_sentence_52

Despite peace talks, a southern separatist group (Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance or MFDC) in the Casamance region has clashed sporadically with government forces since 1982 in the Casamance conflict. Senegal_sentence_53

In the early 21st century, violence has subsided and President Macky Sall held talks with rebels in Rome in December 2012. Senegal_sentence_54

Abdou Diouf was president between 1981 and 2000. Senegal_sentence_55

He encouraged broader political participation, reduced government involvement in the economy, and widened Senegal's diplomatic engagements, particularly with other developing nations. Senegal_sentence_56

Domestic politics on occasion spilled over into street violence, border tensions, and a violent separatist movement in the southern region of the Casamance. Senegal_sentence_57

Nevertheless, Senegal's commitment to democracy and human rights strengthened. Senegal_sentence_58

Abdou Diouf served four terms as president. Senegal_sentence_59

In the presidential election of 1999, opposition leader Abdoulaye Wade defeated Diouf in an election deemed free and fair by international observers. Senegal_sentence_60

Senegal experienced its second peaceful transition of power, and its first from one political party to another. Senegal_sentence_61

On 30 December 2004 President Wade announced that he would sign a peace treaty with the separatist group in the Casamance region. Senegal_sentence_62

This, however, has yet to be implemented. Senegal_sentence_63

There was a round of talks in 2005, but the results have not yet yielded a resolution. Senegal_sentence_64

Politics Senegal_section_5

Main article: Politics of Senegal Senegal_sentence_65

Senegal is a republic with a presidency; the president is elected every five years as of 2016, previously being seven years from independence to 2001, five years from 2001 to 2008, and 7 years again from 2008 to 2016, by adult voters. Senegal_sentence_66

The first president, Léopold Sédar Senghor, was a poet and writer, and was the first African elected to the Académie française. Senegal_sentence_67

Senegal's second president, Abdou Diouf, later served as general secretary of the Organisation de la Francophonie. Senegal_sentence_68

The third president was Abdoulaye Wade, a lawyer. Senegal_sentence_69

The current president is Macky Sall, elected in March 2012 and reelected in February 2019. Senegal_sentence_70

Senegal has more than 80 political parties. Senegal_sentence_71

The unicameral parliament consists of the National Assembly, which has 150 seats (a Senate was in place from 1999 to 2001 and 2007 to 2012). Senegal_sentence_72

An independent judiciary also exists in Senegal. Senegal_sentence_73

The nation's highest courts that deal with business issues are the constitutional council and the court of justice, members of which are named by the president. Senegal_sentence_74

Political culture Senegal_section_6

Currently, Senegal has a quasi-democratic political culture, one of the more successful post-colonial democratic transitions in Africa. Senegal_sentence_75

Local administrators are appointed and held accountable by the president. Senegal_sentence_76

Marabouts, religious leaders of the various Muslim brotherhoods of Senegal, have also exercised a strong political influence in the country especially during Wade's presidency. Senegal_sentence_77

In 2009, Freedom House downgraded Senegal's status from "Free" to "Partially Free", based on increased centralisation of power in the executive. Senegal_sentence_78

By 2014, it had recovered its Free status. Senegal_sentence_79

In 2008, Senegal finished in 12th position on the Ibrahim Index of African Governance. Senegal_sentence_80

The Ibrahim Index is a comprehensive measure of African governance (limited to sub-Saharan Africa until 2008), based on a number of different variables which reflect the success with which governments deliver essential political goods to their citizens. Senegal_sentence_81

When the Northern African countries were added to the index in 2009, Senegal's 2008 position was retroactively downgraded to 15th place (with Tunisia, Egypt and Morocco placing themselves ahead of Senegal). Senegal_sentence_82

As of 2012, Senegal's rank in the Ibrahim Index has decreased another point to 16 out of 52 African countries. Senegal_sentence_83

On 22 February 2011, Senegal reportedly severed diplomatic ties with Iran, saying it supplied rebels with weapons which killed Senegalese troops in the Casamance conflict. Senegal_sentence_84

The 2012 presidential election was controversial due to President Wade's candidacy, as the opposition argued he should not be considered eligible to run again. Senegal_sentence_85

Several youth opposition movements, including M23 and Y'en a Marre, emerged in June 2011. Senegal_sentence_86

In the end, Macky Sall of the Alliance for the Republic won, and Wade conceded the election to Sall. Senegal_sentence_87

This peaceful and democratic transition was hailed by many foreign observers, such as the EU as a show of "maturity". Senegal_sentence_88

On 19 September 2012, lawmakers voted to do away with the Senate to save an estimated $15 million. Senegal_sentence_89

Administrative divisions Senegal_section_7

Main articles: Regions of Senegal, Departments of Senegal, Arrondissements of Senegal, and Communes of Senegal Senegal_sentence_90

Senegal is subdivided into 14 regions, each administered by a Conseil Régional (Regional Council) elected by population weight at the Arrondissement level. Senegal_sentence_91

The country is further subdivided by 45 Départements, 113 Arrondissements (neither of which have administrative function) and by Collectivités Locales, which elect administrative officers. Senegal_sentence_92

Regional capitals have the same name as their respective regions: Senegal_sentence_93

Foreign relations Senegal_section_8

Further information: Foreign relations of Senegal Senegal_sentence_94

Senegal has a high profile in many international organizations and was a member of the UN Security Council in 1988–89 and 2015–2016. Senegal_sentence_95

It was elected to the UN Commission on Human Rights in 1997. Senegal_sentence_96

Friendly to the West, especially to France and to the United States, Senegal also is a vigorous proponent of more assistance from developed countries to the Third World. Senegal_sentence_97

Senegal enjoys mostly cordial relations with its neighbors. Senegal_sentence_98

In spite of clear progress on other fronts with Mauritania (border security, resource management, economic integration, etc.), an estimated 35,000 Mauritanian refugees (of the estimated 40,000 who were expelled from their home country in 1989) remain in Senegal. Senegal_sentence_99

Senegal is part of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Senegal_sentence_100

Integrated with the main bodies of the international community, Senegal is also a member of the African Union (AU) and the Community of Sahel-Saharan States. Senegal_sentence_101

Military Senegal_section_9

The Armed Forces of Senegal consist of about 17,000 personnel in the army, air force, navy, and gendarmerie. Senegal_sentence_102

The Senegalese military force receives most of its training, equipment, and support from France and the United States. Senegal_sentence_103

Germany also provides support but on a smaller scale. Senegal_sentence_104

Military noninterference in political affairs has contributed to Senegal's stability since independence. Senegal_sentence_105

Senegal has participated in many international and regional peacekeeping missions. Senegal_sentence_106

Most recently, in 2000, Senegal sent a battalion to the Democratic Republic of Congo to participate in MONUC, the United Nations peacekeeping mission, and agreed to deploy a United States-trained battalion to Sierra Leone to participate in UNAMSIL, another UN peacekeeping mission. Senegal_sentence_107

In 2015, Senegal participated in the Saudi Arabian-led military intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis. Senegal_sentence_108

Law Senegal_section_10

Senegal is a secular state, as defined in its Constitution. Senegal_sentence_109

To fight corruption, the government has created the National Anti-Corruption Office (OFNAC) and the Commission of Restitution and Recovery of Illegally Acquired Assets. Senegal_sentence_110

According to Business Anti-Corruption Portal, President Sall created the OFNAC to replace the Commission Nationale de Lutte Contre la non Transparence, la Corruption et la Concussion (CNLCC). Senegal_sentence_111

It is said that the OFNAC represents a more effective tool for fighting corruption than the CNLCC established under former President Wade. Senegal_sentence_112

The mission of OFNAC is to fight corruption, embezzlement of public funds and fraud. Senegal_sentence_113

OFNAC has the power of self-referral (own initiative investigation). Senegal_sentence_114

OFNAC is composed of twelve members appointed by decree. Senegal_sentence_115

Homosexuality is illegal in Senegal. Senegal_sentence_116

According to 2013 survey by the Pew Research Center, 96% of Senegalese believe that homosexuality should not be accepted by society. Senegal_sentence_117

LGBTQ community members in Senegal report a strong feeling of being unsafe. Senegal_sentence_118

Geography Senegal_section_11

Main article: Geography of Senegal Senegal_sentence_119

Senegal is located on the west of the African continent. Senegal_sentence_120

It lies between latitudes 12° and 17°N, and longitudes 11° and 18°W. Senegal_sentence_121

Senegal is externally bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Mauritania to the north, Mali to the east, and Guinea and Guinea-Bissau to the south; internally it almost completely surrounds The Gambia, namely on the north, east and south, except for Gambia's short Atlantic coastline. Senegal_sentence_122

The Senegalese landscape consists mainly of the rolling sandy plains of the western Sahel which rise to foothills in the southeast. Senegal_sentence_123

Here is also found Senegal's highest point, an otherwise unnamed feature 2.7 km southeast of Nepen Diakha at 648 m (2,126 ft). Senegal_sentence_124

The northern border is formed by the Senegal River; other rivers include the Gambia and Casamance Rivers. Senegal_sentence_125

The capital Dakar lies on the Cap-Vert peninsula, the westernmost point of continental Africa. Senegal_sentence_126

The Cape Verde islands lie some 560 kilometres (350 mi) off the Senegalese coast, but Cap-Vert ("Cape Green") is a maritime placemark, set at the foot of "Les Mammelles", a 105-metre (344 ft) cliff resting at one end of the Cap-Vert peninsula onto which is settled Senegal's capital Dakar, and 1 kilometre (0.6 mi) south of the "Pointe des Almadies", the westernmost point in Africa. Senegal_sentence_127

Climate Senegal_section_12

Main article: Geography of Senegal § Climate Senegal_sentence_128

Senegal has a tropical climate with pleasant heat throughout the year with well-defined dry and humid seasons that result from northeast winter winds and southwest summer winds. Senegal_sentence_129

The dry season (December to April) is dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind. Senegal_sentence_130

Dakar's annual rainfall of about 600 mm (24 in) occurs between June and October when maximum temperatures average 30 °C (86.0 °F) and minimums 24.2 °C (75.6 °F); December to February maximum temperatures average 25.7 °C (78.3 °F) and minimums 18 °C (64.4 °F). Senegal_sentence_131

Interior temperatures are higher than along the coast (for example, average daily temperatures in Kaolack and Tambacounda for May are 30 °C (86.0 °F) and 32.7 °C (90.9 °F) respectively, compared to Dakar's 23.2 °C (73.8 °F) ), and rainfall increases substantially farther south, exceeding 1,500 mm (59.1 in) annually in some areas. Senegal_sentence_132

In Tambacounda in the far interior, particularly on the border of Mali where desert begins, temperatures can reach as high as 54 °C (129.2 °F). Senegal_sentence_133

The northernmost part of the country has a near hot desert climate, the central part has a hot semi-arid climate and the southernmost part has a tropical wet and dry climate. Senegal_sentence_134

Senegal is mainly a sunny and dry country. Senegal_sentence_135

Economy Senegal_section_13

Main article: Economy of Senegal Senegal_sentence_136

Industry and trade Senegal_section_14

The main industries include food processing, mining, cement, artificial fertilizer, chemicals, textiles, refining imported petroleum, and tourism. Senegal_sentence_137

Exports include fish, chemicals, cotton, fabrics, groundnuts, and calcium phosphate. Senegal_sentence_138

The principal foreign market is India with 26.7% of exports (as of 1998). Senegal_sentence_139

Other foreign markets include the United States, Italy and the United Kingdom. Senegal_sentence_140

As a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), Senegal is working toward greater regional integration with a unified external tariff. Senegal_sentence_141

Senegal is also a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa. Senegal_sentence_142

Senegal achieved full Internet connectivity in 1996, creating a mini-boom in information technology-based services. Senegal_sentence_143

Private activity now accounts for 82 percent of its GDP. Senegal_sentence_144

On the negative side, Senegal faces deep-seated urban problems of chronic high unemployment, socioeconomic disparity, juvenile delinquency, and drug addiction. Senegal_sentence_145

Senegal is a major recipient of international development assistance. Senegal_sentence_146

Donors include the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Japan, France and China. Senegal_sentence_147

Over 3,000 Peace Corps Volunteers have served in Senegal since 1963. Senegal_sentence_148

Agriculture Senegal_section_15

Fishing Senegal_section_16

Senegal has a 12-nautical-mile (22 km; 14 mi) exclusive fishing zone that has been regularly breached in recent years (as of 2014). Senegal_sentence_149

It has been estimated that the country's fishermen lose 300,000 tonnes of fish each year to illegal fishing. Senegal_sentence_150

The Senegalese government have tried to control the illegal fishing which is conducted by fishing trawlers, some of which are registered in Russia, Mauritania, Belize and Ukraine. Senegal_sentence_151

In January 2014, a Russian trawler, Oleg Naydenov, was seized by Senegalese authorities close to the maritime border with Guinea-Bissau. Senegal_sentence_152

Energy Senegal_section_17

Demographics Senegal_section_18

Main article: Demographics of Senegal Senegal_sentence_153

Senegal has a population of around 15.9 million, about 42 percent of whom live in rural areas. Senegal_sentence_154

Density in these areas varies from about 77 inhabitants per square kilometre (200/sq mi) in the west-central region to 2 per square kilometre (5.2/sq mi) in the arid eastern section. Senegal_sentence_155

Ethnic groups Senegal_section_19

Main article: Ethnic groups in Senegal Senegal_sentence_156

Senegal has a wide variety of ethnic groups and, as in most West African countries, several languages are widely spoken. Senegal_sentence_157

The Wolof are the largest single ethnic group in Senegal at 43%; the Fula and Toucouleur (also known as Halpulaar'en, literally "Pulaar-speakers") (24%) are the second biggest group, followed by the Serer (14.7%), then others such as Jola (4%), Mandinka (3%), Maures or (Naarkajors), Soninke, Bassari and many smaller communities (9%). Senegal_sentence_158

(See also the Bedick ethnic group.) Senegal_sentence_159

About 50,000 Europeans (mostly French) and Lebanese as well as smaller numbers of Mauritanians and Moroccans reside in Senegal, mainly in the cities and some retirees who reside in the resort towns around Mbour. Senegal_sentence_160

The majority of Lebanese work in commerce. Senegal_sentence_161

Most of the Lebanese originate from the Lebanese city of Tyre, which is known as "Little West Africa and has a main promenade that is called "Avenue du Senegal". Senegal_sentence_162

The country experienced a wave of immigration from France in the decades between World War II and Senegalese independence; most of these French people purchased homes in Dakar or other major urban centers. Senegal_sentence_163

Also located primarily in urban settings are small Vietnamese communities as well as a growing number of Chinese immigrant traders, each numbering perhaps a few hundred people. Senegal_sentence_164

There are also tens of thousands of Mauritanian refugees in Senegal, primarily in the country's north. Senegal_sentence_165

According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Senegal has a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 23,800 in 2007. Senegal_sentence_166

The majority of this population (20,200) is from Mauritania. Senegal_sentence_167

Refugees live in N'dioum, Dodel, and small settlements along the Senegal River valley. Senegal_sentence_168

Languages Senegal_section_20

Main article: Languages of Senegal Senegal_sentence_169

French is the official language, spoken at least by all those who enjoyed several years in the educational system that is of French origin (Koranic schools are even more popular, but Arabic is not widely spoken outside of the context of recitation). Senegal_sentence_170

During the 15th century, many European territories started to engage in trade in Senegal. Senegal_sentence_171

By the 19th century, French powers also strengthened their roots in Senegal and thus the number of French-speaking people multiplied continuously. Senegal_sentence_172

French was ratified as the official language of Senegal in 1960 when the country achieved independence. Senegal_sentence_173

Around 15 to 20% of men and 2% of women speak and understand French. Senegal_sentence_174

In addition, 21% of the population is partially fluent in the French language. Senegal_sentence_175

Most people also speak their own ethnic language while, especially in Dakar, Wolof is the lingua franca. Senegal_sentence_176

Pulaar is spoken by the Fulas and Toucouleur. Senegal_sentence_177

The Serer language is widely spoken by both Serers and non-Serers (including President Sall, whose wife is Serer); so are the Cangin languages, whose speakers are ethnically Serers. Senegal_sentence_178

Jola languages are widely spoken in the Casamance. Senegal_sentence_179

Overall Senegal is home to around 39 distinct languages. Senegal_sentence_180

Several have the legal status of "national languages": Balanta-Ganja, Hassaniya Arabic, Jola-Fonyi, Mandinka, Mandjak, Mankanya, Noon (Serer-Noon), Pulaar, Serer, Soninke, and Wolof. Senegal_sentence_181

English is taught as a foreign language in secondary schools and many graduate school programs, and it is the only subject matter that has a special office in the Ministry of Education. Senegal_sentence_182

Dakar hosts a couple of Bilingual schools which offer 50% of their syllabus in English. Senegal_sentence_183

The Senegalese American Bilingual School (SABS), Yavuz Selim, and The West African College of the Atlantic (WACA) train thousands of fluent English speakers in four-year programs. Senegal_sentence_184

English is widely used by the scientific community and in business, including by the Modou-Modou (illiterate, self-taught businessmen). Senegal_sentence_185

Portuguese Creole, locally known as Portuguese, is a prominent minority language in Ziguinchor, regional capital of the Casamance, spoken by local Portuguese creoles and immigrants from Guinea-Bissau. Senegal_sentence_186

The local Cape Verdean community speak a similar Portuguese creole, Cape Verdean Creole, and standard Portuguese. Senegal_sentence_187

Portuguese was introduced in Senegal's secondary education in 1961 in Dakar by the country's first president, Léopold Sédar Senghor. Senegal_sentence_188

It is currently available in most of Senegal and in higher education. Senegal_sentence_189

It is especially prevalent in Casamance as it relates with the local cultural identity. Senegal_sentence_190

A variety of immigrant languages are spoken, such as Bambara (70,000), Kabuverdiano (34,000), Krio (6,100), Mooré (937,000), Portuguese (1,700) and Vietnamese (2,500), mostly in Dakar. Senegal_sentence_191

While French is the sole official language, a rising Senegalese linguistic nationalist movement supports the integration of Wolof, the common vernacular language of the country, into the national constitution. Senegal_sentence_192

Senegalese regions of Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies and Ziguinchor are members of the International Association of Francophone regions. Senegal_sentence_193

Largest cities Senegal_section_21

See also: List of cities in Senegal Senegal_sentence_194

Dakar, the capital, is by far the largest city in Senegal, with over two million residents. Senegal_sentence_195

The second most populous city is Touba, a de jure communaute rurale (rural community), with half a million. Senegal_sentence_196

Religion Senegal_section_22

Main article: Religion in Senegal Senegal_sentence_197

Senegal is a secular state, although Islam is the predominant religion in the country, practiced by approximately 95.9% of the country's population; the Christian community, at 4.1% of the population, are mostly Catholics but there are also diverse Protestant denominations. Senegal_sentence_198

One percent has animist beliefs, particularly in the southeastern region of the country. Senegal_sentence_199

Some Serer people follow the Serer religion. Senegal_sentence_200

According to Pew, 55% of the Muslims in Senegal are Sunni of the Maliki madhhab with Sufi influences, whilst 27% are non-denominational Muslim. Senegal_sentence_201

Islamic communities in Senegal are generally organized around one of several Islamic Sufi orders or brotherhoods, headed by a khalif (xaliifa in Wolof, from Arabic khalīfa), who is usually a direct descendant of the group's founder. Senegal_sentence_202

The two largest and most prominent Sufi orders in Senegal are the Tijaniyya, whose largest sub-groups are based in the cities of Tivaouane and Kaolack, and the Murīdiyya (Murid), based in the city of Touba. Senegal_sentence_203

The Halpulaar (Pulaar-speakers), composed of Fula people, a widespread group found along the Sahel from Chad to Senegal, and Toucouleurs, represent 23.8 percent of the population. Senegal_sentence_204

Historically, they were the first to become Muslim. Senegal_sentence_205

Many of the Toucouleurs, or sedentary Halpulaar of the Senegal River Valley in the north, converted to Islam around a millennium ago and later contributed to Islam's propagation throughout Senegal. Senegal_sentence_206

Success was gained among the Wolofs, but repulsed by the Serers. Senegal_sentence_207

Most communities south of the Senegal River Valley, however, were not thoroughly Islamized. Senegal_sentence_208

The Serer people stood out as one of this group, who spent over one thousand years resisting Islamization (see Serer history). Senegal_sentence_209

Although many Serers are Christians or Muslim, their conversion to Islam in particular is very recent, who converted on their own free will rather than by force, although force had been tried centuries earlier unsuccessfully (see the Battle of Fandane-Thiouthioune). Senegal_sentence_210

The spread of formal Quranic school (called daara in Wolof) during the colonial period increased largely through the effort of the Tidjâniyya. Senegal_sentence_211

In Murid communities, which place more emphasis on the work ethic than on literary Quranic studies, the term daara often applies to work groups devoted to working for a religious leader. Senegal_sentence_212

Other Islamic groups include the much older Qādiriyya order and the Senegalese Laayeen order, which is prominent among the coastal Lebu. Senegal_sentence_213

Today, most Senegalese children study at daaras for several years, memorizing as much of the Qur'an as they can. Senegal_sentence_214

Some of them continue their religious studies at councils (majlis) or at the growing number of private Arabic schools and publicly funded Franco-Arabic schools. Senegal_sentence_215

Small Catholic communities are mainly found in coastal Serer, Jola, Mankanya and Balant populations, and in eastern Senegal among the Bassari and Coniagui. Senegal_sentence_216

The Protestant churches are mainly attended by immigrants but during the second half of the 20th century Protestant churches led by Senegalese leaders from different ethnic groups have evolved. Senegal_sentence_217

In Dakar Catholic and Protestant rites are practiced by the Lebanese, Cape Verdean, European, and American immigrant populations, and among certain Africans of other countries as well as by the Senegalese themselves. Senegal_sentence_218

Although Islam is Senegal's majority religion, Senegal's first president, Léopold Sédar Senghor, was a Catholic Serer. Senegal_sentence_219

Serer religion encompasses a belief in a supreme deity called Roog (Koox among the Cangin), Serer cosmogony, cosmology and divination ceremonies such as the annual Xooy (or Khoy) ceremony precided over by the Serer Saltigues (high priests and priestesses). Senegal_sentence_220

Senegambian (both Senegal and the Gambia) Muslim festivals such as Tobaski, Gamo, Koriteh, Weri Kor, etc., are all borrowed words from the Serer religion. Senegal_sentence_221

They were ancient Serer festivals rooted in Serer religion, not Islam. Senegal_sentence_222

The Boukout is one of the Jola's religious ceremonies. Senegal_sentence_223

There are a small number of members of the Bani Israel tribe in the Senegalese bush that claim Jewish ancestry, though this is disputed. Senegal_sentence_224

The Mahayana branch of Buddhism in Senegal is followed by a very tiny portion of the ex-pat Vietnamese community. Senegal_sentence_225

The Bahá'í Faith in Senegal was established after 'Abdu'l-Bahá, the son of the founder of the religion, mentioned Africa as a place that should be more broadly visited by Bahá'ís. Senegal_sentence_226

The first Bahá'is to set foot in the territory of French West Africa that would become Senegal arrived in 1953. Senegal_sentence_227

The first Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assembly of Senegal was elected in 1966 in Dakar. Senegal_sentence_228

In 1975 the Bahá'í community elected the first National Spiritual Assembly of Senegal. Senegal_sentence_229

The most recent estimate, by the Association of Religion Data Archives in a 2005 report details the population of Senegalese Bahá'ís at 22,000. Senegal_sentence_230

Health Senegal_section_23

Main articles: Health in Senegal and Child marriage in Senegal Senegal_sentence_231

Life expectancy at birth was estimated to be 66.8 years in 2016 (64.7 years male, 68.7 years female). Senegal_sentence_232

Public expenditure on health was at 2.4 percent of the GDP in 2004, whereas private expenditure was at 3.5 percent. Senegal_sentence_233

Health expenditure was at US$72 (PPP) per capita in 2004. Senegal_sentence_234

The fertility rate ranged 5 to 5.3 between 2005 and 2013, with 4.1 in urban areas and 6.3 in rural areas, as official survey (6.4 in 1986 and 5.7 in 1997) point out. Senegal_sentence_235

There were six physicians per 100,000 persons in the early 2000s (decade). Senegal_sentence_236

Infant mortality in Senegal was 157 per 1,000 live births in 1950., but since then it has declined five-fold to 32 per 1,000 in 2018. Senegal_sentence_237

In the past 5 years infant mortality rates of malaria have dropped. Senegal_sentence_238

According to a 2013 UNICEF report, 26% of women in Senegal have undergone female genital mutilation. Senegal_sentence_239

Education Senegal_section_24

Main article: Education in Senegal Senegal_sentence_240

Articles 21 and 22 of the Constitution adopted in January 2001 guarantee access to education for all children. Senegal_sentence_241

Education is compulsory and free up to the age of 16. Senegal_sentence_242

The Ministry of Labor has indicated that the public school system is unable to cope with the number of children that must enroll each year. Senegal_sentence_243

Illiteracy is high, particularly among women. Senegal_sentence_244

The net primary enrollment rate was 69 percent in 2005. Senegal_sentence_245

Public expenditure on education was 5.4 percent of the 2002–2005 GDP. Senegal_sentence_246

Culture Senegal_section_25

Senegal is well known for the West African tradition of storytelling, which is done by griots, who have kept West African history alive for thousands of years through words and music. Senegal_sentence_247

The griot profession is passed down generation to generation and requires years of training and apprenticeship in genealogy, history and music. Senegal_sentence_248

Griots give voice to generations of West African society. Senegal_sentence_249

The African Renaissance Monument built in 2010 in Dakar is the tallest statue in Africa. Senegal_sentence_250

Dakar also hosts a film festival, Recidak. Senegal_sentence_251

Cuisine Senegal_section_26

Further information: Senegalese cuisine Senegal_sentence_252

Because Senegal borders the Atlantic Ocean, fish is very important. Senegal_sentence_253

Chicken, lamb, peas, eggs, and beef are also used in Senegalese cooking, but not pork, due to the nation's largely Muslim population. Senegal_sentence_254

Peanuts, the primary crop of Senegal, as well as couscous, white rice, sweet potatoes, lentils, black-eyed peas and various vegetables, are also incorporated into many recipes. Senegal_sentence_255

Meats and vegetables are typically stewed or marinated in herbs and spices, and then poured over rice or couscous, or eaten with bread. Senegal_sentence_256

Popular fresh juices are made from bissap, ginger, buy (pronounced 'buoy', which is the fruit of the baobab tree, also known as "monkey bread fruit"), mango, or other fruit or wild trees (most famously soursop, which is called corossol in French). Senegal_sentence_257

Desserts are very rich and sweet, combining native ingredients with the extravagance and style characteristic of the French impact on Senegal's culinary methods. Senegal_sentence_258

They are often served with fresh fruit and are traditionally followed by coffee or tea. Senegal_sentence_259

Music Senegal_section_27

Further information: Music of Senegal Senegal_sentence_260

Senegal is known across Africa for its musical heritage, due to the popularity of mbalax, which originated from the Serer percussive tradition especially the Njuup, it has been popularized by Youssou N'Dour, Omar Pene and others. Senegal_sentence_261

Sabar drumming is especially popular. Senegal_sentence_262

The sabar is mostly used in special celebrations like weddings. Senegal_sentence_263

Another instrument, the tama, is used in more ethnic groups. Senegal_sentence_264

Other popular international renowned Senegalese musicians are Ismael Lô, Cheikh Lô, Orchestra Baobab, Baaba Maal, Akon Thione Seck, Viviane, Fallou Dieng Titi and Pape Diouf. Senegal_sentence_265

Cinema Senegal_section_28

Main article: Cinema of Senegal Senegal_sentence_266

Media Senegal_section_29

Main article: Media of Senegal Senegal_sentence_267

Hospitality Senegal_section_30

Hospitality, in theory, is given such importance in Senegalese culture that it is widely considered to be part of the national identity. Senegal_sentence_268

The Wolof word for hospitality is "teranga" and it is so identified with the pride of Senegal that the national football team is known as the Lions of Teranga. Senegal_sentence_269

Sport Senegal_section_31

Main article: Sports in Senegal Senegal_sentence_270

Senegalese play many sports. Senegal_sentence_271

Wrestling and football are the most popular sports in the country. Senegal_sentence_272

Senegal will host the 2022 Summer Youth Olympics in Dakar, making Senegal the first African country to host the Olympics. Senegal_sentence_273

Wrestling is Senegal's most popular sport and has become a national obsession. Senegal_sentence_274

It traditionally serves many young men to escape poverty and it is the only sport recognized as developed independently of Western culture. Senegal_sentence_275

Football is the most popular sport in Senegal. Senegal_sentence_276

In 2002 and 2019, the national team were runners-up at the Africa Cup of Nations and became one of only three African teams to ever reach the quarter-finals of the FIFA World Cup, defeating holders France in their first game. Senegal_sentence_277

Popular players for Senegal include El Hadji Diouf, Khalilou Fadiga, Henri Camara, Papa Bouba Diop, Salif Diao, Kalidou Koulibaly, Ferdinand Coly, and Sadio Mané, all of whom have played in Europe. Senegal_sentence_278

Senegal qualified for the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia, in Group H alongside Japan, Colombia, and Poland. Senegal_sentence_279

Basketball is also a popular sport in Senegal. Senegal_sentence_280

The country has traditionally been one of Africa's dominant basketball powers. Senegal_sentence_281

The men's team performed better than that of any other African nation at the 2014 FIBA World Cup, where they reached the playoffs for the first time. Senegal_sentence_282

The women's team won 19 medals at 20 African Championships, more than twice as many medals as any competitor. Senegal_sentence_283

In 2016, the NBA announced the launch of an Elite's Academy in Africa, and more precisely in Senegal. Senegal_sentence_284

The country hosted the Paris–Dakar rally from 1979 until 2007. Senegal_sentence_285

The Dakar Rally was an off-road endurance motorsport race which followed a course from Paris, France, to Dakar, Senegal. Senegal_sentence_286

The competitors used off-road vehicles to cross the difficult geography. Senegal_sentence_287

The last race was held in 2007, before the 2008 rally was canceled a day before the event due to security concerns in Mauritania. Senegal_sentence_288

See also Senegal_section_32

Senegal_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senegal.