Shafiʽi school

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"Shafi" redirects here. Shafiʽi school_sentence_0

For other uses, see Shafi (disambiguation). Shafiʽi school_sentence_1

The Shafiʽi (Arabic: شَافِعِي‎ Shāfiʿī, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam. Shafiʽi school_sentence_2

It was founded by the Arab scholar Muhammad ibn Idris Al-Shafiʽi, a pupil of Malik, in the early 9th century. Shafiʽi school_sentence_3

The school rejected "provincial dependence on traditional community practice" as the source of legal precedent, and "argued for the unquestioning acceptance of the Hadith" as "the major basis for legal and religious judgments". Shafiʽi school_sentence_4

The other three schools of Sunni jurisprudence are Hanafi, Maliki and Hanbali. Shafiʽi school_sentence_5

Like the other schools of fiqh, Shafiʽi relies predominantly on the Quran and the hadiths for Sharia. Shafiʽi school_sentence_6

Where passages of Quran and hadiths are ambiguous, the school first seeks religious law guidance from ijma – the consensus of Islamic scholars (according to Syafiq Hasyim). Shafiʽi school_sentence_7

If there was no consensus, the Shafiʽi school relies on qiyās (analogical reasoning) next as a source. Shafiʽi school_sentence_8

The Shafiʽi school was widely followed in the early history of Islam, but the Ottoman Empire favored the Hanafi school when it became the dominant Sunni Muslim power. Shafiʽi school_sentence_9

One of the many differences between the Shafiʽi and Hanafi schools is that the Shafiʽi school does not consider istihsan (judicial discretion by suitably qualified legal scholars) as an acceptable source of religious law because it amounts to "human legislation" of Islamic law. Shafiʽi school_sentence_10

The Shafiʽi school is now predominantly found in Somalia, Somaliland, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, eastern Egypt, the Swahili coast, Hijaz, Yemen, Kurdish regions of the Middle East, Dagestan, Chechen and Ingush regions of the Caucasus, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Kerala, Hyderabad Deccan and some other coastal regions in India, Singapore, Myanmar, Thailand, Brunei, and the Philippines. Shafiʽi school_sentence_11

Principles Shafiʽi school_section_0

The Shafiʽi school of thought regards five sources of jurisprudence as having binding authority. Shafiʽi school_sentence_12

In hierarchical order, these are: the Quran, the hadiths—that is, sayings, customs and practices of Muhammad—the ijmā' (consensus of Sahabah, the community of Muhammad's companions), the individual opinions of Sahaba with preference to one closest to the issue as ijtihad, and finally qiyas (analogy). Shafiʽi school_sentence_13

Although al-Shafiʽi's legal methodology rejected custom or local practice as a constitutive source of law, this did not mean that he or his followers denied any elasticity in the Shariah. Shafiʽi school_sentence_14

The Shafiʽi school also rejects two sources of Sharia that are accepted in other major schools of Islam—Istihsan (juristic preference, promoting the interest of Islam) and Istislah (public interest). Shafiʽi school_sentence_15

The jurisprudence principle of Istihsan and Istislah admitted religious laws that had no textual basis in either the Quran or Hadiths, but were based on the opinions of Islamic scholars as promoting the interest of Islam and its universalization goals. Shafiʽi school_sentence_16

The Shafiʽi school rejected these two principles, stating that these methods rely on subjective human opinions, and have potential for corruption and adjustment to political context and time. Shafiʽi school_sentence_17

The foundational text for the Shafiʽi school is Al-Risala ("The Message") by the founder of the school, Al-Shafiʽi. Shafiʽi school_sentence_18

It outlines the principles of Shafiʽi fiqh as well as the derived jurisprudence. Shafiʽi school_sentence_19

Al-Risala became an influential book to other Sunni Islam fiqhs as well, as the oldest surviving Arabic work on Islamic legal theory. Shafiʽi school_sentence_20

History Shafiʽi school_section_1

Imam ash-Shafi'i was reportedly a teacher of the Sunni Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, and a student of Imam Malik ibn Anas, who was a student of Ja'far al-Sadiq (a descendant of the Islamic Nabi (Prophet) Muhammad), like Imam Abu Hanifah. Shafiʽi school_sentence_21

Thus all of the four great Imams of Sunni Fiqh are connected to Imam Ja'far from the Bayt (Household) of Muhammad, whether directly or indirectly. Shafiʽi school_sentence_22

The Shafiʽi madhhab was spread by Al-Shafiʽi students in Cairo, Mecca and Baghdad. Shafiʽi school_sentence_23

It became widely accepted in early history of Islam. Shafiʽi school_sentence_24

The chief representative of the Iraqi school was Abu Ishaq al-Shirazi, whilst in Khorasan, the Shafiʽi school was spread by al-Juwayni and al-Iraqi. Shafiʽi school_sentence_25

These two branches merged around Ibn al-Salah and his father. Shafiʽi school_sentence_26

The Shafiʽi jurisprudence was adopted as the official law during the Great Seljuq Empire, Zengid dynasty, Ayyubid dynasty and later the Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), where it saw its widest application. Shafiʽi school_sentence_27

It was also adopted by the Kathiri state in Hadhramawt and most of rule of the Sharif of Mecca. Shafiʽi school_sentence_28

With the establishment and expansion of Ottoman Empire in West Asia and Turkic Sultanates in Central and South Asia, Shafiʽi school was replaced with Hanafi school, in part because Hanafites allowed Istihsan (juristic preference) that allowed the rulers flexibility in interpreting the religious law to their administrative preferences. Shafiʽi school_sentence_29

The Sultanates along the littoral regions of the Horn of Africa and the Arabian peninsula adhered to the Shafiʽi school and were the primary drivers of its maritime military expansion into many Asian and East African coastal regions of the Indian Ocean, particularly from the 12th through the 18th century. Shafiʽi school_sentence_30

In the late 19th century, knowledge of Shafiʽi sciences was spread by a network of seagoing sharif merchants. Shafiʽi school_sentence_31

Demographics Shafiʽi school_section_2

The Shafiʽi school is presently predominant in the following parts of the Muslim world: Shafiʽi school_sentence_32

Shafiʽi school_unordered_list_0

Shafiʽi school is the second largest school of Sunni madhhabs by number of adherents, states Saeed in his 2008 book. Shafiʽi school_sentence_33

However, a UNC publication considers the Maliki school as second largest, and the Hanafi madhhab the largest, with Shafiʽi as third largest. Shafiʽi school_sentence_34

The demographic data by each fiqh, for each nation, is unavailable and the relative demographic size are estimates. Shafiʽi school_sentence_35

Notable Shafiʽis Shafiʽi school_section_3

Contemporary Shafiʽi scholars Shafiʽi school_section_4

See also Shafiʽi school_section_5

Shafiʽi school_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shafiʽi school.