Shia Islam

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"Shia" and "Shias" redirect here. Shia Islam_sentence_0

For other uses, see Shia (disambiguation). Shia Islam_sentence_1

Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main branches of Islam. Shia Islam_sentence_2

It holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor and the Imam (leader) after him, most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm, but was prevented from the caliphate as a result of the incident of Saqifah. Shia Islam_sentence_3

This view primarily contrasts with that of Sunni Islam, whose adherents believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor and consider Abu Bakr, who was appointed caliph by a group of Muslims at Saqifah, to be the first rightful caliph after Muhammad. Shia Islam_sentence_4

A person observing Shia Islam is called a Shi'i. Shia Islam_sentence_5

Shia Islam is based on Muhammad's hadith (Ghadir Khumm). Shia Islam_sentence_6

Shia consider Ali to have been divinely appointed as the successor to Muhammad, and as the first Imam. Shia Islam_sentence_7

The Shia also extend this Imammah to Muhammad's family, the Ahl al-Bayt ("the people/family of the House"), and some individuals among his descendants, known as Imams, who they believe possess special spiritual and political authority over the community, infallibility and other divinely ordained traits. Shia Islam_sentence_8

Although there are many Shia subsects, modern Shia Islam has been divided into two main groupings: Twelvers and Ismailis, with Twelver Shia being the largest and most influential group among Shia. Shia Islam_sentence_9

Shia Islam is the second largest branch of Islam: as of the late 2000s, Shia Muslims constituted 10–15% of all Muslims. Shia Islam_sentence_10

Twelver Shia is the largest branch of Shia Islam, with 2012 estimates saying that 85% of Shias were Twelvers. Shia Islam_sentence_11

Terminology Shia Islam_section_0

Collectively, adherents of Shia Islam are called the Shīʿah (شِيعَة; /ˈʃiːə/), which is short for Shīʿatu ʿAlī (شِيعَة عَلِيّ; /ˈʃiːʕatu ˈʕaliː/) meaning "followers of Ali", "faction of Ali", or "party of Ali"; Shīʿī (شِيعِيّ) denotes both the singular noun and the adjective form, while Shīyāʿ (شِيَاع) refers to the plural noun. Shia Islam_sentence_12

Shiʻa, Shia, Shiʻism/Shiʻite or Shiism/Shiite are the forms used in English, for adherents, mosques, and things associated with the religion. Shia Islam_sentence_13

The term was first used during Muhammad's life. Shia Islam_sentence_14

At present, the word refers to the Muslims who believe that the leadership of the community after Muhammad belongs to Ali and his successors. Shia Islam_sentence_15

Nawbakhti states that the term Shia refers to a group of Muslims that at the time of Muhammad and after him regarded Ali as the Imam and Caliph. Shia Islam_sentence_16

Al-Shahrastani expresses that the term Shia refers to those who believe that Ali is designated as the Heir, Imam and caliph by Muhammad and that Ali's authority is maintained through his descendants. Shia Islam_sentence_17

For the Shia, this conviction is implicit in the Quran and the history of Islam. Shia Islam_sentence_18

Shia scholars emphasize that the notion of authority is linked to the family of the prophets as the verses 3:33,34 show: "Indeed, God chose Adam and Noah and the family of Abraham and the family of 'Imran over the worlds – (33) Descendants, some of them from others. Shia Islam_sentence_19

And God is Hearing and Knowing. Shia Islam_sentence_20

(34)" Shia Islam_sentence_21

History Shia Islam_section_1

Succession of Ali Shia Islam_section_2

Main articles: Shia view of Ali and Succession to Muhammad Shia Islam_sentence_22

See also: Ali in the Quran Shia Islam_sentence_23

Shia Muslims believe that just as a prophet is appointed by God alone, only God has the prerogative to appoint the successor to his prophet. Shia Islam_sentence_24

They believe God chose Ali to be Muhammad's successor, infallible, the first caliph (khalifah, head of state) of Islam. Shia Islam_sentence_25

The Shia believe that Muhammad designated Ali as his successor by God's command (Eid Al Ghadir). Shia Islam_sentence_26

Ali was Muhammad's first-cousin and closest living male relative as well as his son-in-law, having married Muhammad's daughter Fatimah. Shia Islam_sentence_27

The Party of Ali Shia Islam_section_3

Further information: The Four Companions Shia Islam_sentence_28

Even during the time of Muhammad, there were signs of spilt among the companions with Salman al-Farsi, Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, Miqdad, and Ammar ibn Yasir amongst the most vehement and loyal supporters of Ali. Shia Islam_sentence_29

The event of Dhul Asheera Shia Islam_section_4

Main article: Hadith of Warning Shia Islam_sentence_30

During the revelation of Ash-Shu'ara, the twenty-sixth Surah of the Quran, in c. 617, Muhammad is said to have received instructions to warn his family members against adhering to their pre-Islamic religious practices. Shia Islam_sentence_31

There are differing accounts of Muhammad's attempt to do this, with one version stating that he had invited his relatives to a meal (later termed the Feast of Dhul Asheera), during which he gave the pronouncement. Shia Islam_sentence_32

According to Ibn Ishaq, it consisted of the following speech: Shia Islam_sentence_33

Among those gathered, only Ali offered his consent. Shia Islam_sentence_34

Some sources, such as the Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, do not record Muhammad's reaction to this, though Ibn Ishaq continues that he then declared Ali to be his brother, heir and successor. Shia Islam_sentence_35

In another narration, when Muhammad accepted Ali's offer, he "threw up his arms around the generous youth, and pressed him to his bosom" and said, "Behold my brother, my vizir, my vicegerent ... let all listen to his words, and obey him." Shia Islam_sentence_36

The direct appointment of Ali as heir in this version is notable by the fact it alleges that his right to succession was established at the very beginning of Muhammad's prophetic activity. Shia Islam_sentence_37

The association with the revelation of a Quranic verse also serves the purpose of providing the nomination with authenticity as well as a divine authorisation. Shia Islam_sentence_38

Event of Ghadir Khumm Shia Islam_section_5

Main article: Event of Ghadir Khumm Shia Islam_sentence_39

The hadith of Ghadir Khumm has many different variations and is transmitted by both Sunni and Shia sources. Shia Islam_sentence_40

The narrations generally state that in March 632, Muhammad, while returning from his Farewell Pilgrimage alongside a large number of followers and companions, stopped at the oasis of Ghadir Khumm. Shia Islam_sentence_41

There, he took Ali's hand and addressed the gathering. Shia Islam_sentence_42

The point of contention between different sects is when Muhammad, whilst giving his speech, gave the proclamation "Anyone who has me as his mawla, has Ali as his mawla." Shia Islam_sentence_43

Some versions add the additional sentence "O God, befriend the friend of Ali and be the enemy of his enemy." Shia Islam_sentence_44

Mawla has a number of meanings in Arabic, with interpretations of Muhammad's use here being split along sectarian lines between the Sunni and Shia. Shia Islam_sentence_45

Among the former group, the word is translated as "friend" or "one who is loyal/close" and that Muhammad was advocating that Ali was deserving of friendship and respect. Shia Islam_sentence_46

Conversely, Shi'ites tend to view the meaning as being "master" or "ruler" and that the statement was a clear designation of Ali being Muhammad's appointed successor. Shia Islam_sentence_47

Shia sources also record further details of the event, such as stating that those present congratulated Ali and acclaimed him as Amir al-Mu'minin. Shia Islam_sentence_48

Ali's caliphate Shia Islam_section_6

When Muhammad died in 632 CE, Ali and Muhammad's closest relatives made the funeral arrangements. Shia Islam_sentence_49

While they were preparing his body, Abu Bakr, Umar, and Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah met with the leaders of Medina and elected Abu Bakr as caliph. Shia Islam_sentence_50

Ali did not accept the caliphate of Abu Bakr and refused to pledge allegiance to him. Shia Islam_sentence_51

This is indicated in both Sunni and Shia sahih and authentic Hadith. Shia Islam_sentence_52

Ibn Qutaybah, a 9th-century Sunni Islamic scholar narrates of Ali: Shia Islam_sentence_53

Ali's wife, and daughter of Muhammad, Fatimah, refused to pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr and remained angry with him until she died due to the issues of Fadak and her inheritance from her father and the situation of Umar at Fatimah's house. Shia Islam_sentence_54

This is stated in sahih Sunni Hadith, Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. Shia Islam_sentence_55

Fatimah did not at all pledge allegiance or acknowledge or accept the caliphate of Abu Bakr. Shia Islam_sentence_56

Almost all of Banu Hashim, Muhammad's clan and many of the sahaba, had supported Ali's cause after the demise of the prophet whilst others supported Abu Bakr. Shia Islam_sentence_57

It was not until the murder of the third caliph, Uthman, in 657 CE that the Muslims in Medina in desperation invited Ali to become the fourth caliph as the last source, and he established his capital in Kufah in present-day Iraq. Shia Islam_sentence_58

Ali's rule over the early Muslim community was often contested, and wars were waged against him. Shia Islam_sentence_59

As a result, he had to struggle to maintain his power against the groups who betrayed him after giving allegiance to his succession, or those who wished to take his position. Shia Islam_sentence_60

This dispute eventually led to the First Fitna, which was the first major civil war within the Islamic Caliphate. Shia Islam_sentence_61

The Fitna began as a series of revolts fought against Ali ibn Abi Talib, caused by the assassination of his political predecessor, Uthman ibn Affan. Shia Islam_sentence_62

While the rebels who accused Uthman of prejudice affirmed Ali's khilafa (caliph-hood), they later turned against him and fought him. Shia Islam_sentence_63

Ali ruled from 656 CE to 661 CE, when he was assassinated while prostrating in prayer (sujud). Shia Islam_sentence_64

Ali's main rival Muawiyah then claimed the caliphate. Shia Islam_sentence_65

Hasan ibn Ali Shia Islam_section_7

Main article: Hasan ibn Ali Shia Islam_sentence_66

Upon the death of Ali, his elder son Hasan became leader of the Muslims of Kufa, and after a series of skirmishes between the Kufa Muslims and the army of Muawiyah, Hasan agreed to cede the caliphate to Muawiyah and maintain peace among Muslims upon certain conditions: Shia Islam_sentence_67

Shia Islam_ordered_list_0

  1. The enforced public cursing of Ali, e.g. during prayers, should be abandonedShia Islam_item_0_0
  2. Muawiyah should not use tax money for his own private needsShia Islam_item_0_1
  3. There should be peace, and followers of Hasan should be given security and their rightsShia Islam_item_0_2
  4. Muawiyah will never adopt the title of Amir al-Mu'mininShia Islam_item_0_3
  5. Muawiyah will not nominate any successorShia Islam_item_0_4

Hasan then retired to Medina, where in 670 CE he was poisoned by his wife Ja'da bint al-Ash'ath ibn Qays, after being secretly contacted by Muawiyah who wished to pass the caliphate to his own son Yazid and saw Hasan as an obstacle. Shia Islam_sentence_68

Husayn ibn Ali Shia Islam_section_8

Main article: Husayn ibn Ali Shia Islam_sentence_69

Husayn, Ali's younger son and brother to Hasan, initially resisted calls to lead the Muslims against Muawiyah and reclaim the caliphate. Shia Islam_sentence_70

In 680 CE, Muawiyah died and passed the caliphate to his son Yazid, and breaking the treaty with Hasan ibn Ali. Shia Islam_sentence_71

Yazid asked Husayn to swear allegiance (bay'ah) to him. Shia Islam_sentence_72

Ali's faction, having expected the caliphate to return to Ali's line upon Muawiyah's death, saw this as a betrayal of the peace treaty and so Husayn rejected this request for allegiance. Shia Islam_sentence_73

There was a groundswell of support in Kufa for Husayn to return there and take his position as caliph and imam, so Husayn collected his family and followers in Medina and set off for Kufa. Shia Islam_sentence_74

En route to Kufa, he was blocked by an army of Yazid's men (which included people from Kufa) near Karbala (modern Iraq), and Husayn and approximately 72 of his family and followers were killed in the Battle of Karbala. Shia Islam_sentence_75

The Shia regard Husayn as a martyr (shahid), and count him as an Imam from the Ahl al-Bayt. Shia Islam_sentence_76

They view Husayn as the defender of Islam from annihilation at the hands of Yazid I. Shia Islam_sentence_77

Husayn is the last imam following Ali whom all Shiah sub-branches mutually recognize. Shia Islam_sentence_78

The Battle of Karbala is often cited as the definitive break between the Shia and Sunni sects of Islam, and is commemorated each year by Shiah Muslims on the Day of Ashura. Shia Islam_sentence_79

Imamate of the Ahl al-Bayt Shia Islam_section_9

Main article: Imamah (Shia doctrine) Shia Islam_sentence_80

Later most of the Shia, including Twelver and Ismaili, became Imamis. Shia Islam_sentence_81

Imami Shia believe that Imams are the spiritual and political successors to Muhammad. Shia Islam_sentence_82

Imams are human individuals who not only rule over the community with justice, but also are able to keep and interpret the divine law and its esoteric meaning. Shia Islam_sentence_83

The words and deeds of Muhammad and the imams are a guide and model for the community to follow; as a result, they must be free from error and sin, and must be chosen by divine decree, or nass, through Muhammad. Shia Islam_sentence_84

According to this view, there is always an Imam of the Age, who is the divinely appointed authority on all matters of faith and law in the Muslim community. Shia Islam_sentence_85

Ali was the first imam of this line, the rightful successor to Muhammad, followed by male descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah. Shia Islam_sentence_86

This difference between following either the Ahl al-Bayt (Muhammad's family and descendants) or Caliph Abu Bakr has shaped Shia and non-Shia views on some of the Quranic verses, the hadith (narrations from Muhammad) and other areas of Islam. Shia Islam_sentence_87

For instance, the collection of hadith venerated by Shia Muslims is centered on narrations by members of the Ahl al-Bayt and their supporters, while some hadith by narrators not belonging to or supporting the Ahl al-Bayt are not included. Shia Islam_sentence_88

Those of Abu Hurairah, for example, Ibn Asakir in his Ta'rikh Kabir and Muttaqi in his Kanzu'l-Umma report that Caliph Umar lashed him, rebuked him and forbade him to narrate hadith from Muhammad. Shia Islam_sentence_89

Umar said: "Because you narrate hadith in large numbers from the Holy Prophet, you are fit only for attributing lies to him. Shia Islam_sentence_90

(That is, one expects a wicked man like you to utter only lies about the Holy Prophet.) Shia Islam_sentence_91

So you must stop narrating hadith from the Prophet; otherwise, I will send you to the land of Dus." Shia Islam_sentence_92

(A clan in Yemen, to which Abu Huraira belonged.) Shia Islam_sentence_93

According to Sunnis, Ali was the fourth successor to Abu Bakr, while the Shia maintain that Ali was the first divinely sanctioned "Imam", or successor of Muhammad. Shia Islam_sentence_94

The seminal event in Shia history is the martyrdom in 680 CE at the Battle of Karbala of Ali's son Hussein ibn Ali, who led a non-allegiance movement against the defiant caliph (71 of Hussein's followers were killed as well). Shia Islam_sentence_95

It is believed in Twelver and Ismaili Shia Islam that 'aql, divine wisdom, was the source of the souls of the prophets and imams and gave them esoteric knowledge called ḥikmah and that their sufferings were a means of divine grace to their devotees. Shia Islam_sentence_96

Although the imam was not the recipient of a divine revelation, he had a close relationship with God, through which God guides him, and the imam, in turn, guides the people. Shia Islam_sentence_97

Imamate, or belief in the divine guide, is a fundamental belief in the Twelver and Ismaili Shia branches and is based on the concept that God would not leave humanity without access to divine guidance. Shia Islam_sentence_98

Imam of the time, last Imam of the Shia Shia Islam_section_10

The Mahdi is the prophesied redeemer of Islam who will rule for seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations) before the Day of Judgment and will rid the world of evil. Shia Islam_sentence_99

According to Islamic tradition, the Mahdi's tenure will coincide with the Second Coming of Jesus Christ (Isa), who is to assist the Mahdi against the Masih ad-Dajjal (literally, the "false Messiah" or Antichrist). Shia Islam_sentence_100

Jesus, who is considered the Masih (Messiah) in Islam, will descend at the point of a white arcade, east of Damascus, dressed in yellow robes with his head anointed. Shia Islam_sentence_101

He will then join the Mahdi in his war against the Dajjal, where Mahdi slay Dajjal and unite mankind. Shia Islam_sentence_102

Main article: History of Shia Islam Shia Islam_sentence_103

Historians dispute the origin of Shia Islam, with many Western scholars positing that Shiism began as a political faction rather than a truly religious movement. Shia Islam_sentence_104

Other scholars disagree, considering this concept of religious-political separation to be an anachronistic application of a Western concept. Shia Islam_sentence_105

Dynasties Shia Islam_section_11

Main article: List of Shia dynasties Shia Islam_sentence_106

In the century following the Battle of Karbala (680 CE), as various Shia-affiliated groups diffused in the emerging Islamic world, several nations arose based on a Shia or population. Shia Islam_sentence_107

Shia Islam_unordered_list_1

  • Idrisids (788-985 CE): a Zaydi dynasty in what is now MoroccoShia Islam_item_1_5
  • Qarmatians (899–1077 CE): an Ismaili Iranian dynasty. Their headquarters were in East Arabia and Bahrain. It was founded by Abu Sa'id al-Jannabi.Shia Islam_item_1_6
  • Buyids (934–1055 CE): a Twelver Iranian dynasty. at its peak consisted of large portions of modern Iraq and Iran.Shia Islam_item_1_7
  • Uqaylids (990-1096 CE): a Shia Arab dynasty with several lines that ruled in various parts of Al-Jazira, northern Syria and Iraq.Shia Islam_item_1_8
  • Ilkhanate (1256–1335): a Persianate Mongol khanate established in Persia in the 13th century, considered a part of the Mongol Empire. The Ilkhanate was based, originally, on Genghis Khan's campaigns in the Khwarezmid Empire in 1219–1224, and founded by Genghis's grandson, Hulagu, in territories which today comprise most of Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, and Pakistan. The Ilkhanate initially embraced many religions, but was particularly sympathetic to Buddhism and Christianity. Later Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, embraced Islam his brother Öljaitü promoted Shia Islam.Shia Islam_item_1_9
  • Bahmanis (1347–1527): a Shia Muslim state of the Deccan in southern India and one of the great medieval Indian kingdoms. Bahmanid Sultanate was the first independent Islamic Kingdom in South India.Shia Islam_item_1_10

Fatimid Caliphate Shia Islam_section_12

Shia Islam_unordered_list_2

  • Fatimids (909–1171 CE): Controlled much of North Africa, the Levant, parts of Arabia and Mecca and Medina. The group takes its name from Fatima, Muhammad's daughter, from whom they claim descent.Shia Islam_item_2_11
  • In 909 CE the Shiite military leader Abu Abdallah al-Shiʻi, overthrew the Sunni ruler in Northern Africa; which began the Fatimid regime.Shia Islam_item_2_12
  • Jawhar (general) (Arabic: جوهر‎; fl. 966–d. 992) was a Fatimid general. Under the command of Caliph Al-Mu'izz, he led the conquest of North Africa and then of Egypt, founded the city of Cairo and the great al-Azhar Mosque. A Greek slave by origin, he was freed by Al-Mu'izz.Shia Islam_item_2_13

Safavid Empire Shia Islam_section_13

Main articles: Safavid dynasty, Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam, and Ideology of Safavids Shia Islam_sentence_108

A major turning point in Shia history was the Safavid dynasty (1501–1736) in Persia. Shia Islam_sentence_109

This caused a number of changes in the Muslim world: Shia Islam_sentence_110

Shia Islam_unordered_list_3

  • The ending of the relative mutual tolerance between Sunnis and Shias that existed from the time of the Mongol conquests onwards and the resurgence of antagonism between the two groups.Shia Islam_item_3_14
  • Initial dependence of Shiite clerics on the state followed by the emergence of an independent body of ulama capable of taking a political stand different from official policies.Shia Islam_item_3_15
  • The growth in importance of Iranian centers of religious learning and change from Twelver Shiism being a predominantly Arab phenomenon.Shia Islam_item_3_16
  • The growth of the Akhbari School which preached that only the Quran, hadith are to be bases for verdicts, rejecting the use of reasoning.Shia Islam_item_3_17

With the fall of the Safavids, the state in Persia—including the state system of courts with government-appointed judges (qadis)—became much weaker. Shia Islam_sentence_111

This gave the Sharia courts of mujtahids an opportunity to fill the legal vacuum and enabled the ulama to assert their judicial authority. Shia Islam_sentence_112

The Usuli School also increased in strength at this time. Shia Islam_sentence_113

Shia Islam_unordered_list_4

  • Shia Islam_item_4_18
  • Shia Islam_item_4_19
  • Shia Islam_item_4_20

Theology Shia Islam_section_14

Main article: Shia Islamic beliefs and practices Shia Islam_sentence_114

The Shia Islamic faith is vast and inclusive of many different groups. Shia Islam_sentence_115

Shia theological beliefs and religious practises, such as prayers, slightly differ from the Sunnis'. Shia Islam_sentence_116

While all Muslims pray five times daily, Shias have the option of combining Dhuhr with Asr and Maghrib with Isha', as there are three distinct times mentioned in the Quran. Shia Islam_sentence_117

The Sunnis tend to combine only under certain circumstances. Shia Islam_sentence_118

Shia Islam embodies a completely independent system of religious interpretation and political authority in the Muslim world. Shia Islam_sentence_119

The original Shia identity referred to the followers of Imam Ali, and Shia theology was formulated in the 2nd century AH, or after Hijra (8th century CE). Shia Islam_sentence_120

The first Shia governments and societies were established by the end of the 3rd century AH/9th century CE. Shia Islam_sentence_121

The 4th century AH /10th century CE has been referred to by Louis Massignon as "the Shiite Ismaili century in the history of Islam". Shia Islam_sentence_122

Hadith Shia Islam_section_15

The Shia believe that the status of Ali is supported by numerous hadith, including the Hadith of the pond of Khumm, Hadith of the two weighty things, Hadith of the pen and paper, Hadith of the invitation of the close families, and Hadith of the Twelve Successors. Shia Islam_sentence_123

In particular, the Hadith of the Cloak is often quoted to illustrate Muhammad's feeling towards Ali and his family by both Sunni and Shia scholars. Shia Islam_sentence_124

Shias prefer hadith attributed to the Ahl al-Bayt and close associates, and have their own separate collection of hadiths. Shia Islam_sentence_125

Profession of faith Shia Islam_section_16

Infallibility Shia Islam_section_17

Main article: Ismah Shia Islam_sentence_126

Ismah is the concept of infallibility or "divinely bestowed freedom from error and sin" in Islam. Shia Islam_sentence_127

Muslims believe that Muhammad and other prophets in Islam possessed ismah. Shia Islam_sentence_128

Twelver and Ismaili Shia Muslims also attribute the quality to Imams as well as to Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad, in contrast to the Zaidi, who do not attribute 'ismah to the Imams. Shia Islam_sentence_129

Though initially beginning as a political movement, infallibility and sinlessness of the imams later evolved as a distinct belief of (non-Zaidi) Shiism. Shia Islam_sentence_130

According to Shia theologians, infallibility is considered a rational necessary precondition for spiritual and religious guidance. Shia Islam_sentence_131

They argue that since God has commanded absolute obedience from these figures they must only order that which is right. Shia Islam_sentence_132

The state of infallibility is based on the Shia interpretation of the verse of purification. Shia Islam_sentence_133

Thus, they are the most pure ones, the only immaculate ones preserved from, and immune to, all uncleanness. Shia Islam_sentence_134

It does not mean that supernatural powers prevent them from committing a sin, but due to the fact that they have absolute belief in God, they refrain from doing anything that is a sin. Shia Islam_sentence_135

They also have a complete knowledge of God's will. Shia Islam_sentence_136

They are in possession of all knowledge brought by the angels to the prophets (nabi) and the messengers (rasul). Shia Islam_sentence_137

Their knowledge encompasses the totality of all times. Shia Islam_sentence_138

They thus act without fault in religious matters. Shia Islam_sentence_139

Shias regard Ali as the successor of Muhammad not only ruling over the community in justice, but also interpreting Islamic practices and its esoteric meaning. Shia Islam_sentence_140

Hence he was regarded as being free from error and sin (infallible), and appointed by God by divine decree (nass) to be the first Imam. Shia Islam_sentence_141

Ali is known as "perfect man" (al-insan al-kamil) similar to Muhammad, according to Shia viewpoint. Shia Islam_sentence_142

Occultation Shia Islam_section_18

Main article: The Occultation Shia Islam_sentence_143

The Occultation is a belief in some forms of Shia Islam that a messianic figure, a hidden imam known as the Mahdi, will one day return and fill the world with justice. Shia Islam_sentence_144

According to the Twelver Shia, the main goal of Mahdi will be to establish an Islamic state and to apply Islamic laws that were revealed to Muhammad. Shia Islam_sentence_145

The Quran does not have the verses on Imamate, which is the basic doctrine of Shia Islam. Shia Islam_sentence_146

Some Shia, such as the Zaidi and Nizari Ismaili, do not believe in the idea of the Occultation. Shia Islam_sentence_147

The groups which do believe in it differ as to which lineage of the Imamate is valid, and therefore which individual has gone into occultation. Shia Islam_sentence_148

They believe there are many signs that will indicate the time of his return. Shia Islam_sentence_149

Twelver Shia Muslims believe that the Mahdi (the twelfth imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi) is already on Earth, is in occultation and will return at the end of time. Shia Islam_sentence_150

Fatimid/ Bohra/ Dawoodi Bohra believe the same but for their 21st Tayyib, whereas Sunnis believe the future Mahdi has not yet arrived on Earth. Shia Islam_sentence_151

Inheritance Shia Islam_section_19

It is believed that the armaments and sacred items of all of the Prophets, including Muhammad, were handed down in succession to the Imams of Ahl al-Bayt. Shia Islam_sentence_152

In Kitab al-Kafi, Ja'far al-Sadiq mentions that "with me are the arms of the Messenger of Allah. Shia Islam_sentence_153

It is not disputable." Shia Islam_sentence_154

Further, he claims that with him is the sword of the Messenger of God, his coat of arms, his Lamam (pennon) and his helmet. Shia Islam_sentence_155

In addition, he mentions that with him is the flag of the Messenger of God, the victorious. Shia Islam_sentence_156

With him is the Staff of Moses, the ring of Solomon, son of David, and the tray on which Moses used to offer his offerings. Shia Islam_sentence_157

With him is the name that whenever the Messenger of God would place it between the Muslims and pagans no arrow from the pagans would reach the Muslims. Shia Islam_sentence_158

With him is the similar object that angels brought. Shia Islam_sentence_159

Al-Sadiq also narrates that the passing down of armaments is synonymous to receiving the Imamat (leadership), similar to how the Ark in the house of the Israelites signaled prophet-hood. Shia Islam_sentence_160

Imam Ali al-Ridha narrates that wherever the armaments among us would go, knowledge would also follow and the armaments would never depart from those with knowledge (Imamat). Shia Islam_sentence_161

Community Shia Islam_section_20

Demographics Shia Islam_section_21

Main article: List of countries by Muslim population Shia Islam_sentence_162

According to Shia Muslims, one of the lingering problems in estimating Shia population is that unless Shia form a significant minority in a Muslim country, the entire population is often listed as Sunni. Shia Islam_sentence_163

The reverse, however, has not held true, which may contribute to imprecise estimates of the size of each sect. Shia Islam_sentence_164

For example, the 1926 rise of the House of Saud in Arabia brought official discrimination against Shia. Shia Islam_sentence_165

Shiites are estimated to be 21% of the Muslim population in South Asia, although the total number is difficult to estimate due to that reason. Shia Islam_sentence_166

It is estimated that 15% of the world's Muslims are Shia. Shia Islam_sentence_167

They may number up to 200 million as of 2009. Shia Islam_sentence_168

Shias form a majority of the population in Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Iran, and Iraq, as well as a plurality in Lebanon. Shia Islam_sentence_169

Shias constitute 36.3% of the entire population (and 38.6% of the Muslim population) of the Middle East. Shia Islam_sentence_170

Shia Muslims constitute 27-35% of the population in Lebanon, and as per some estimates from 35% to over 35–40% of the population in Yemen, 30%–35% of the citizen population in Kuwait (no figures exist for the non-citizen population), over 20% in Turkey, 5–20% of the population in Pakistan, and 10–19% of Afghanistan's population. Shia Islam_sentence_171

Saudi Arabia hosts a number of distinct Shia communities, including the Twelver Baharna in the Eastern Province and Nakhawila of Medina, and the Ismaili Sulaymani and Zaidiyyah of Najran. Shia Islam_sentence_172

Estimations put the number of Shiite citizens at 2–4 million, accounting for roughly 15% of the local population. Shia Islam_sentence_173

Significant Shia communities exist in the coastal regions of West Sumatra and Aceh in Indonesia (see Tabuik). Shia Islam_sentence_174

The Shia presence is negligible elsewhere in Southeast Asia, where Muslims are predominantly Shafi'i Sunnis. Shia Islam_sentence_175

A significant Shia minority is present in Nigeria, made up of modern-era converts to a Shia movement centered around Kano and Sokoto states. Shia Islam_sentence_176

Several African countries like Kenya, South Africa, Somalia, etc. hold small minority populations of various Shia denominations, primarily descendants of immigrants from South Asia during the colonial period, such as the Khoja. Shia Islam_sentence_177

Significant populations worldwide Shia Islam_section_22

Figures indicated in the first three columns below are based on the October 2009 demographic study by the Pew Research Center report, Mapping the Global Muslim Population. Shia Islam_sentence_178

Shia Islam_table_general_0

Nations with over 100,000 ShiaShia Islam_table_caption_0
CountryShia Islam_header_cell_0_0_0 ArticleShia Islam_header_cell_0_0_1 Shia population in 2009 (Pew)Shia Islam_header_cell_0_0_2 Percent of Muslim population that is Shia in 2009 (Pew)Shia Islam_header_cell_0_0_3 Percent of global Shia population in 2009 (Pew)Shia Islam_header_cell_0_0_4 Population estimate ranges and notesShia Islam_header_cell_0_0_5
IranShia Islam_cell_0_1_0 Islam in IranShia Islam_cell_0_1_1 66,000,000–69,500,000Shia Islam_cell_0_1_2 90–95Shia Islam_cell_0_1_3 37–40Shia Islam_cell_0_1_4 Shia Islam_cell_0_1_5
PakistanShia Islam_cell_0_2_0 Shia Islam in the Indian subcontinentShia Islam_cell_0_2_1 26,000,000Shia Islam_cell_0_2_2 15Shia Islam_cell_0_2_3 15Shia Islam_cell_0_2_4 A 2010 estimate was that Shia made up about 10-15% of Pakistan's population.Shia Islam_cell_0_2_5
IraqShia Islam_cell_0_3_0 Shi'a Islam in IraqShia Islam_cell_0_3_1 19,000,000–24,000,000Shia Islam_cell_0_3_2 55–65Shia Islam_cell_0_3_3 10–11Shia Islam_cell_0_3_4 Shia Islam_cell_0_3_5
IndiaShia Islam_cell_0_4_0 Shia Islam in the Indian subcontinentShia Islam_cell_0_4_1 12,300,000–18,500,000Shia Islam_cell_0_4_2 10–15Shia Islam_cell_0_4_3 9–14Shia Islam_cell_0_4_4 Shia Islam_cell_0_4_5
YemenShia Islam_cell_0_5_0 Shia Islam in YemenShia Islam_cell_0_5_1 7,000,000–8,000,000Shia Islam_cell_0_5_2 35–40Shia Islam_cell_0_5_3 ~5Shia Islam_cell_0_5_4 Majority following Zaydi Shia sect.Shia Islam_cell_0_5_5
TurkeyShia Islam_cell_0_6_0 Shi'a Islam in TurkeyShia Islam_cell_0_6_1 6,000,000–9,000,000Shia Islam_cell_0_6_2 ~10–15Shia Islam_cell_0_6_3 ~3–4Shia Islam_cell_0_6_4 Majority following Qizilbash Alevi Shia sect.Shia Islam_cell_0_6_5
AzerbaijanShia Islam_cell_0_7_0 Islam in AzerbaijanShia Islam_cell_0_7_1 5,000,000–7,000,000Shia Islam_cell_0_7_2 50–65Shia Islam_cell_0_7_3 2–3Shia Islam_cell_0_7_4 Azerbaijan is majority Shia. An estimate in 2004 assumed the Azerbaijan's population to be 65% Shia, while a 2013 estimate suggested 55% Shia. A 2012 work noted that in Azerbaijan, among believers of all faiths, 10% identified as Sunni, 30% identified as Shia, and the remainder of followers of Islam simply identified as Muslim.Shia Islam_cell_0_7_5
AfghanistanShia Islam_cell_0_8_0 Shi'a Islam in AfghanistanShia Islam_cell_0_8_1 3,000,000–4,000,000Shia Islam_cell_0_8_2 15–20Shia Islam_cell_0_8_3 ~2Shia Islam_cell_0_8_4 A reliable census has not been taken in Afghanistan in decades, but about 20% of Afghan population is Shia, mostly among ethnic Tajik and Hazara minorities.Shia Islam_cell_0_8_5
SyriaShia Islam_cell_0_9_0 Islam in SyriaShia Islam_cell_0_9_1 3,000,000–4,000,000Shia Islam_cell_0_9_2 10–15Shia Islam_cell_0_9_3 ~2Shia Islam_cell_0_9_4 Majority following Alawites Shia sect.Shia Islam_cell_0_9_5
LebanonShia Islam_cell_0_10_0 Shi'a Islam in LebanonShia Islam_cell_0_10_1 2,000,000Shia Islam_cell_0_10_2 30.5Shia Islam_cell_0_10_3 <1Shia Islam_cell_0_10_4 Estimated, no official census. In 2017, the CIA World Factbook stated that Shia Muslims constitute 25.4% of Lebanon's population.Shia Islam_cell_0_10_5
Saudi ArabiaShia Islam_cell_0_11_0 Shi'a Islam in Saudi ArabiaShia Islam_cell_0_11_1 2,000,000Shia Islam_cell_0_11_2 ~10Shia Islam_cell_0_11_3 Shia Islam_cell_0_11_4 Shia Islam_cell_0_11_5
NigeriaShia Islam_cell_0_12_0 Shi'a Islam in NigeriaShia Islam_cell_0_12_1 <2,000,000Shia Islam_cell_0_12_2 <3Shia Islam_cell_0_12_3 <1Shia Islam_cell_0_12_4 Estimates range from as low as 2% of Nigeria's Muslim population to as high as 17% of Nigeria's Muslim population. Some, but not all, Nigerian Shia are affiliated with the banned Islamic Movement in Nigeria, an Iranian-inspired Shia organization led by Ibrahim Zakzaky.Shia Islam_cell_0_12_5
TanzaniaShia Islam_cell_0_13_0 Islam in TanzaniaShia Islam_cell_0_13_1 ~1,500,000Shia Islam_cell_0_13_2 ~5Shia Islam_cell_0_13_3 <1Shia Islam_cell_0_13_4 Shia Islam_cell_0_13_5
KuwaitShia Islam_cell_0_14_0 Shi'a Islam in KuwaitShia Islam_cell_0_14_1 500,000–700,000Shia Islam_cell_0_14_2 20–25Shia Islam_cell_0_14_3 <1Shia Islam_cell_0_14_4 Among Kuwait's estimated 1.4 million citizens, about 30% are Shia (including Ismaili and Ahmadi, whom the Kuwaiti government count as Shia). Among Kuwait's large expatriate community of 3.3 million noncitizens, about 64% are Muslim, and among expatriate Muslims, about 5% are Shia.Shia Islam_cell_0_14_5
BahrainShia Islam_cell_0_15_0 Islam in BahrainShia Islam_cell_0_15_1 400,000–500,000Shia Islam_cell_0_15_2 65–70Shia Islam_cell_0_15_3 <1Shia Islam_cell_0_15_4 Shia Islam_cell_0_15_5
GermanyShia Islam_cell_0_16_0 Islam in GermanyShia Islam_cell_0_16_1 ~400,000Shia Islam_cell_0_16_2 ~10Shia Islam_cell_0_16_3 <1Shia Islam_cell_0_16_4 Shia Islam_cell_0_16_5
TajikistanShia Islam_cell_0_17_0 Shi'a Islam in TajikistanShia Islam_cell_0_17_1 ~400,000Shia Islam_cell_0_17_2 ~5Shia Islam_cell_0_17_3 <1Shia Islam_cell_0_17_4 Shia Islam_cell_0_17_5
United Arab EmiratesShia Islam_cell_0_18_0 Islam in the United Arab EmiratesShia Islam_cell_0_18_1 ~300,000Shia Islam_cell_0_18_2 ~10Shia Islam_cell_0_18_3 <1Shia Islam_cell_0_18_4 Shia Islam_cell_0_18_5
United StatesShia Islam_cell_0_19_0 Islam in the United States

Shia Islam in the AmericasShia Islam_cell_0_19_1

~225,000Shia Islam_cell_0_19_2 ~10Shia Islam_cell_0_19_3 <1Shia Islam_cell_0_19_4 Shia Islam_cell_0_19_5
United KingdomShia Islam_cell_0_20_0 Islam in the United KingdomShia Islam_cell_0_20_1 ~125,000Shia Islam_cell_0_20_2 ~10Shia Islam_cell_0_20_3 <1Shia Islam_cell_0_20_4 Shia Islam_cell_0_20_5
QatarShia Islam_cell_0_21_0 Islam in QatarShia Islam_cell_0_21_1 ~100,000Shia Islam_cell_0_21_2 ~10Shia Islam_cell_0_21_3 <1Shia Islam_cell_0_21_4 Shia Islam_cell_0_21_5
OmanShia Islam_cell_0_22_0 Islam in OmanShia Islam_cell_0_22_1 ~100,000Shia Islam_cell_0_22_2 ~5Shia Islam_cell_0_22_3 <1Shia Islam_cell_0_22_4 As of 2015, about 5% of Omanis are Shia (compared to about 50% Ibadi and 45% Sunni).Shia Islam_cell_0_22_5

Persecution Shia Islam_section_23

Main articles: Anti-Shiism and Shia–Sunni relations Shia Islam_sentence_179

The history of Sunni-Shia relations has often involved violence, dating back to the earliest development of the two competing sects. Shia Islam_sentence_180

At various times Shia groups have faced persecution. Shia Islam_sentence_181

Militarily established and holding control over the Umayyad government, many Sunni rulers perceived the Shia as a threat—to both their political and their religious authority. Shia Islam_sentence_182

The Sunni rulers under the Umayyads sought to marginalize the Shia minority, and later the Abbasids turned on their Shia allies and imprisoned, persecuted, and killed them. Shia Islam_sentence_183

The persecution of the Shia throughout history by Sunni co-religionists has often been characterized by brutal and genocidal acts. Shia Islam_sentence_184

Comprising only about 10–15% of the entire Muslim population, the Shia remain a marginalized community to this day in many Sunni Arab dominant countries without the rights to practice their religion and organize. Shia Islam_sentence_185

In 1514 the Ottoman sultan, Selim I, ordered the massacre of 40,000 Anatolian Shia. Shia Islam_sentence_186

According to Jalal Al-e-Ahmad, "Sultan Selim I carried things so far that he announced that the killing of one Shiite had as much otherworldly reward as killing 70 Christians." Shia Islam_sentence_187

In 1801 the Al Saud-Wahhabi armies attacked and sacked Karbala, the Shia shrine in eastern Iraq that commemorates the death of Husayn. Shia Islam_sentence_188

Under Saddam Hussein's regime, 1968 to 2003, in Iraq, Shia Muslims were heavily arrested, tortured and killed. Shia Islam_sentence_189

In March 2011, the Malaysian government declared the Shia a "deviant" sect and banned Shia from promoting their faith to other Muslims, but left them free to practice it themselves privately. Shia Islam_sentence_190

Holidays Shia Islam_section_24

Main article: Shia days of remembrance Shia Islam_sentence_191

Shias celebrate the following annual holidays: Shia Islam_sentence_192

Shia Islam_unordered_list_5

  • Eid ul-Fitr, which marks the end of fasting during the month of RamadanShia Islam_item_5_21
  • Eid al-Adha, which marks the end of the Hajj or pilgrimage to MeccaShia Islam_item_5_22
  • Eid al-Ghadeer, which is the anniversary of the Ghadir Khum, the occasion when Muhammad announced Ali's Imamate before a multitude of Muslims. Eid al-Ghadeer is held on the 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah.Shia Islam_item_5_23
  • The Mourning of Muharram and the Day of Ashura for Shia commemorates Husayn ibn Ali's martyrdom. Husayn was a grandson of Muhammad who was killed by Yazid ibn Muawiyah. Ashurah is a day of deep mourning which occurs on the 10th of Muharram.Shia Islam_item_5_24
  • Arba'een commemorates the suffering of the women and children of Husayn ibn Ali's household. After Husayn was killed, they were marched over the desert, from Karbala (central Iraq) to Shaam (Damascus, Syria). Many children (some of whom were direct descendants of Muhammad) died of thirst and exposure along the route. Arbaein occurs on the 20th of Safar, 40 days after Ashurah.Shia Islam_item_5_25
  • Mawlid, Muhammad's birth date. Unlike Sunni Muslims, who celebrate the 12th of Rabi' al-awwal as Muhammad's birthday or deathday (because they assert that his birth and death both occur in this week), Shia Muslims celebrate Muhammad's birthday on the 17th of the month, which coincides with the birth date of the sixth imam, Ja'far al-Saadiq. Wahhabis do not celebrate Muhammad's birthday, believing that such celebrations constitute a bidʻah.Shia Islam_item_5_26
  • Fatimah's birthday on 20th of Jumada al-Thani. This day is also considered as the "'women and mothers' day"Shia Islam_item_5_27
  • Ali's birthday on 13th of Rajab.Shia Islam_item_5_28
  • Mid-Sha'ban is the birth date of the 12th and final Twelver imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi. It is celebrated by Shia Muslims on the 15th of Sha'aban.Shia Islam_item_5_29
  • Laylat al-Qadr, anniversary of the night of the revelation of the Quran.Shia Islam_item_5_30
  • Eid al-Mubahila celebrates a meeting between the Ahl al-Bayt (household of Muhammad) and a Christian deputation from Najran. Al-Mubahila is held on the 24th of Dhu al-Hijjah.Shia Islam_item_5_31

Holy sites Shia Islam_section_25

Main article: Holiest sites in Islam (Shia) Shia Islam_sentence_193

The four holiest sites to Muslims are Mecca (Al-Haram Mosque), Medina (Al-Nabbawi Mosque), Jerusalem (Al-Aqsa Mosque), and Kufa (Kufa Mosque). Shia Islam_sentence_194

In addition for Shias, the Imam Husayn Shrine, Al Abbas Mosque in Karbala, and Imam Ali Mosque in Najaf are also highly revered. Shia Islam_sentence_195

Other venerated sites include Wadi-us-Salaam cemetery in Najaf, Al-Baqi' cemetery in Medina, Imam Reza shrine in Mashhad, Kadhimiya Mosque in Kadhimiya, Al-Askari Mosque in Samarra, Sahla Mosque and Great Mosque of Kufa in Kufa and several other sites in the cities of Qom, Susa and Damascus. Shia Islam_sentence_196

Most of the Shia holy places in Saudi Arabia have been destroyed by the warriors of the Ikhwan, the most notable being the tombs of the Imams in the Al-Baqi' cemetery in 1925. Shia Islam_sentence_197

In 2006, a bomb destroyed the shrine of Al-Askari Mosque. Shia Islam_sentence_198

Branches Shia Islam_section_26

The Shia belief throughout its history split over the issue of the Imamate. Shia Islam_sentence_199

The largest branch are the Twelvers, followed by the Zaidi, and the Ismaili. Shia Islam_sentence_200

All three groups follow a different line of Imamate. Shia Islam_sentence_201

Twelver Shia Islam_section_27

Main article: Twelver Shia Islam_sentence_202

Twelver Shia or the Ithnā'ashariyyah' is the largest branch of Shia Islam, and the term Shia Muslim often refers to the Twelvers by default. Shia Islam_sentence_203

The term Twelver is derived from the doctrine of believing in twelve divinely ordained leaders, known as The Twelve Imams. Shia Islam_sentence_204

Twelver Shia are also known as Imami or Ja'fari, originated from the name of the 6th Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq, who elaborated the Twelver jurisprudence. Shia Islam_sentence_205

Twelvers constitute the majority of the population in Iran (90%), Azerbaijan (85%), Bahrain (70%), Iraq (65%), Lebanon (65% of Muslims). Shia Islam_sentence_206

Doctrine Shia Islam_section_28

Twelver doctrine is based on five principles. Shia Islam_sentence_207

These five principles known as Usul ad-Din are as follow: Shia Islam_sentence_208

Shia Islam_ordered_list_6

  1. Monotheism, God is one and unique.Shia Islam_item_6_32
  2. Justice, the concept of moral rightness based on ethics, fairness, and equity, along with the punishment of the breach of these ethics.Shia Islam_item_6_33
  3. Prophethood, the institution by which God sends emissaries, or prophets, to guide mankind.Shia Islam_item_6_34
  4. Leadership, a divine institution which succeeded the institution of Prophethood. Its appointees (imams) are divinely appointed.Shia Islam_item_6_35
  5. Last Judgment, God's final assessment of humanity.Shia Islam_item_6_36

More specifically, these principles are known as Usul al-Madhhab (principles of the Shia sect) according to Twelver Shias which differ from Daruriyat al-Din (Necessities of Religion) which are principles in order for one to be a Muslim. Shia Islam_sentence_209

The Necessities of Religion do not include Leadership (Imamah) as it is not a requirement in order for one to be recognized as a Muslim. Shia Islam_sentence_210

However, this category, according to Twelver scholars like Ayatollah al-Khoei, does include belief in God, Prophethood, the Day of Resurrection and other "necessities" (like belief in angels). Shia Islam_sentence_211

In this regard, Twelver Shias draw a distinction in terms of believing in the main principles of Islam on the one hand, and specifically Shia doctrines like Imamah on the other. Shia Islam_sentence_212

Books Shia Islam_section_29

Besides the Quran which is common to all Muslims, the Shia derive guidance from books of traditions ("ḥadīth") attributed to Muhammad and the Twelve Imams. Shia Islam_sentence_213

Below is a list of some of the most prominent of these books: Shia Islam_sentence_214

Shia Islam_unordered_list_7

The Twelve Imams Shia Islam_section_30

See also: The Twelve Imams and Sunni reports about there being 12 successors to the Prophet Shia Islam_sentence_215

The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to Muhammad for the Twelvers. Shia Islam_sentence_216

According to the theology of Twelvers, the successor of Muhammad is an infallible human individual who not only rules over the community with justice but also is able to keep and interpret the divine law and its esoteric meaning. Shia Islam_sentence_217

The words and deeds of Muhammad and the imams are a guide and model for the community to follow; as a result, they must be free from error and sin, and Imams must be chosen by divine decree, or nass, through Muhammad. Shia Islam_sentence_218

Each imam was the son of the previous imam, with the exception of Hussein ibn Ali, who was the brother of Hasan ibn Ali. Shia Islam_sentence_219

The twelfth and final imam is Muhammad al-Mahdi, who is believed by the Twelvers to be currently alive and in occultation. Shia Islam_sentence_220

Jurisprudence Shia Islam_section_31

Main article: Ja'fari jurisprudence Shia Islam_sentence_221

See also: Shia clergy Shia Islam_sentence_222

The Twelver jurisprudence is called Ja'fari jurisprudence. Shia Islam_sentence_223

In this jurisprudence Sunnah is considered to be the oral traditions of Muhammad and their implementation and interpretation by the twelve Imams. Shia Islam_sentence_224

There are three schools of Ja'fari jurisprudence: Usuli, Akhbari, and Shaykhi. Shia Islam_sentence_225

The Usuli school is by far the largest of the three. Shia Islam_sentence_226

Twelver groups that do not follow Ja'fari jurisprudence include Alevi, Bektashi, and Qizilbash. Shia Islam_sentence_227

The five primary pillars of Islam to the Ja'fari jurisprudence, known as Usul' ad-Din. Shia Islam_sentence_228

They are at variance with the standard Sunni "five pillars of religion." Shia Islam_sentence_229

The Shia's primary "pillars" are: Shia Islam_sentence_230

Shia Islam_ordered_list_8

  1. Tawhid or oneness of God.Shia Islam_item_8_40
  2. Nubuwa prophethood of Muhammad.Shia Islam_item_8_41
  3. Mu'ad resurrection.Shia Islam_item_8_42
  4. Adl justice (of God)Shia Islam_item_8_43
  5. Imama the rightful place of the Shia ImamsShia Islam_item_8_44

In Ja'fari jurisprudence, there are eight secondary pillars, known as Furu' ad-Din, which are as follows: Shia Islam_sentence_231

Shia Islam_ordered_list_9

  1. PrayerShia Islam_item_9_45
  2. FastingShia Islam_item_9_46
  3. Pilgrimage to MeccaShia Islam_item_9_47
  4. Alms givingShia Islam_item_9_48
  5. Struggle for the righteous causeShia Islam_item_9_49
  6. Directing others towards goodShia Islam_item_9_50
  7. Directing others away from evilShia Islam_item_9_51
  8. Khums (20% tax on savings yearly, {after deduction of commercial expenses.})Shia Islam_item_9_52

According to Twelvers, defining and interpretation of Islamic jurisprudence is the responsibility of Muhammad and the twelve Imams. Shia Islam_sentence_232

As the 12th Imam is in occultation, it is the duty of clerics to refer to the Islamic literature such as the Quran and hadith and identify legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law to provide means to deal with current issues from an Islamic perspective. Shia Islam_sentence_233

In other words, Twelver clerics provide Guardianship of the Islamic Jurisprudence, which was defined by Muhammad and his twelve successors. Shia Islam_sentence_234

This process is known as Ijtihad and the clerics are known as Marja', meaning reference. Shia Islam_sentence_235

The labels Allamah and Ayatollah are in use for Twelver clerics. Shia Islam_sentence_236

Zaidi (Fiver) Shia Islam_section_32

Main article: Zaidiyyah Shia Islam_sentence_237

Zaidiyya, Zaidism or Zaydi is a Shia school named after Zayd ibn Ali. Shia Islam_sentence_238

Followers of the Zaidi fiqh are called Zaidis (or occasionally Fivers). Shia Islam_sentence_239

However, there is also a group called Zaidi Wasītīs who are Twelvers (see below). Shia Islam_sentence_240

Zaidis constitute roughly 42–47% of the population of Yemen. Shia Islam_sentence_241

Doctrine Shia Islam_section_33

The Zaydis, Twelvers, and Ismailis all recognize the same first four Imams; however, the Zaidis consider Zayd ibn Ali as the fifth. Shia Islam_sentence_242

After the time of Zayd ibn Ali, the Zaidis believed that any descendant of Hasan ibn Ali or Hussein ibn Ali could be imam after fulfilling certain conditions. Shia Islam_sentence_243

Other well-known Zaidi Imams in history were Yahya ibn Zayd, Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya and Ibrahim ibn Abdullah. Shia Islam_sentence_244

The Zaidi doctrine of Imamah does not presuppose the infallibility of the imam nor that the Imams receive divine guidance. Shia Islam_sentence_245

Zaidis also do not believe that the Imamate must pass from father to son but believe it can be held by any Sayyid descended from either Hasan ibn Ali or Hussein ibn Ali (as was the case after the death of Hasan ibn Ali). Shia Islam_sentence_246

Historically, Zaidis held that Zayd was the rightful successor of the 4th imam since he led a rebellion against the Umayyads in protest of their tyranny and corruption. Shia Islam_sentence_247

Muhammad al-Baqir did not engage in political action, and the followers of Zayd believed that a true imam must fight against corrupt rulers. Shia Islam_sentence_248

Jurisprudence Shia Islam_section_34

In matters of Islamic jurisprudence, the Zaydis follow Zayd ibn Ali's teachings which are documented in his book Majmu'l Fiqh (in Arabic: مجموع الفِقه). Shia Islam_sentence_249

Al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya, founder of the Zaydi state in Yemen, is seen as the codifier of Zaydi fiqh and as such most Zaydis today are known as Hadawis. Shia Islam_sentence_250

Timeline Shia Islam_section_35

The Idrisids (Arabic: الأدارسة‎) were Arab Zaydi Shia dynasty in the western Maghreb ruling from 788 to 985 CE, named after its first sultan, Idris I. Shia Islam_sentence_251

A Zaydi state was established in Gilan, Deylaman and Tabaristan (northern Iran) in 864 CE by the Alavids; it lasted until the death of its leader at the hand of the Samanids in 928 CE. Shia Islam_sentence_252

Roughly forty years later the state was revived in Gilan and survived under Hasanid leaders until 1126 CE. Shia Islam_sentence_253

Afterwards, from the 12th to 13th centuries, the Zaydis of Deylaman, Gilan and Tabaristan then acknowledged the Zaydi Imams of Yemen or rival Zaydi Imams within Iran. Shia Islam_sentence_254

The Buyids were initially Zaidi as were the Banu Ukhaidhir rulers of al-Yamama in the 9th and 10th centuries. Shia Islam_sentence_255

The leader of the Zaydi community took the title of Caliph. Shia Islam_sentence_256

As such, the ruler of Yemen was known as the Caliph, al-Hadi Yahya bin al-Hussain bin al-Qasim ar-Rassi Rassids (a descendant of Hasan ibn Ali the son of Ali) who, at Sa'dah, in 893–7 CE, founded the Zaydi Imamate, and this system continued until the middle of the 20th century, when the revolution of 1962 CE deposed the Zaydi Imam. Shia Islam_sentence_257

The founding Zaidism of Yemen was of the Jarudiyya group; however, with increasing interaction with Hanafi and Shafi'i rites of Sunni Islam, there was a shift from the Jarudiyya group to the Sulaimaniyya, Tabiriyya, Butriyya or Salihiyya groups. Shia Islam_sentence_258

Zaidis form the second dominant religious group in Yemen. Shia Islam_sentence_259

Currently, they constitute about 40–45% of the population in Yemen. Shia Islam_sentence_260

Ja'faris and Isma'ilis are 2–5%. Shia Islam_sentence_261

In Saudi Arabia, it is estimated that there are over 1 million Zaydis (primarily in the western provinces). Shia Islam_sentence_262

Currently the most prominent Zaydi movement is the Houthis movement, known by the name of Shabab Al Mu'mineen (Believing Youth) or AnsarAllah (Partisans of God). Shia Islam_sentence_263

In 2014–2015 Houthis took over the government in Sana'a, which led to the fall of the Saudi Arabian-backed government of Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi. Shia Islam_sentence_264

Houthis and their allies gained control of a significant part of Yemen's territory and were resisting the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen seeking to restore Hadi in power. Shia Islam_sentence_265

Both the Houthis and the Saudi Arabian-led coalition were being attacked by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Shia Islam_sentence_266

Ismaili Shia Islam_section_36

Main article: Isma'ilism Shia Islam_sentence_267

Ismailis gain their name from their acceptance of Isma'il ibn Jafar as the divinely appointed spiritual successor (Imam) to Ja'far al-Sadiq, wherein they differ from the Twelvers, who accept Musa al-Kadhim, younger brother of Isma'il, as the true Imam. Shia Islam_sentence_268

After the death or Occultation of Muhammad ibn Ismaill in the 8th century, the teachings of Ismailism further transformed into the belief system as it is known today, with an explicit concentration on the deeper, esoteric meaning (bāṭin) of the faith. Shia Islam_sentence_269

With the eventual development of Twelverism into the more literalistic (zahir) oriented Akhbari and later Usuli schools of thought, Shi'ism developed in two separate directions: the metaphorical Ismailli group focusing on the mystical path and nature of God and the divine manifestation in the personage of the "Imam of the Time" as the "Face of God", with the more literalistic Twelver group focusing on divine law (sharī'ah) and the deeds and sayings (sunnah) of Muhammad and his successors (the Ahlu l-Bayt), who as A'immah were guides and a light to God. Shia Islam_sentence_270

In the Nizari Ismaili interpretation of Shia Islam, the Imam is the guide and the intercessor between humans and God, and the individual through whom God is recognized. Shia Islam_sentence_271

He is also responsible for the interpretation (ta’wil) of the Quran. Shia Islam_sentence_272

He is the possessor of divine knowledge and therefore the “Prime Teacher”. Shia Islam_sentence_273

According to the “Epistle of the Right Path”, a Persian Ismaili prose text from the post-Mongol period of Ismaili history, by an anonymous author, there has been a chain of Imams since the beginning of time, and there will continue to be an Imam present on the Earth until the end of time. Shia Islam_sentence_274

The worlds would not exist in perfection without this uninterrupted chain of Imamate. Shia Islam_sentence_275

The proof (hujja) and gate (bāb) of the Imam are always aware of his presence and are witness to this uninterrupted chain. Shia Islam_sentence_276

Though there are several sub-groupings within the Ismailis, the term in today's vernacular generally refers to the Shia Imami Ismaili Muslim (Nizari community), generally known as the Ismailis, who are followers of the Aga Khan and the largest group among the Ismailiyyah. Shia Islam_sentence_277

Another community which falls under the Isma'il's are the Dawoodi Bohras, led by a Da'i al-Mutlaq as representative of a hidden imam. Shia Islam_sentence_278

While there are many other branches with extremely differing exterior practices, much of the spiritual theology has remained the same since the days of the faith's early Imams. Shia Islam_sentence_279

In recent centuries Ismailis have largely been an Indo-Iranian community, but they are found in India, Pakistan, Syria, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, China, Jordan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, East Africa and South Africa, and have in recent years emigrated to Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and North America. Shia Islam_sentence_280

Ismaili imams Shia Islam_section_37

Main article: List of Ismaili imams Shia Islam_sentence_281

After the death of Isma'il ibn Jafar, many Ismailis believed that one day the messianic Mahdi, whom they believed to be Muhammad ibn Ismail, would return and establish an age of justice. Shia Islam_sentence_282

One group included the violent Qarmatians, who had a stronghold in Bahrain. Shia Islam_sentence_283

In contrast, some Ismailis believed the Imamate did continue, and that the Imams were in occultation and still communicated and taught their followers through a network of dawah "Missionaries". Shia Islam_sentence_284

In 909, Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah, a claimant to the Ismaili Imamate, established the Fatimid Caliphate. Shia Islam_sentence_285

During this period, three lineages of imams formed. Shia Islam_sentence_286

The first branch, known today as the Druze, began with Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. Shia Islam_sentence_287

Born in 386 AH (985), he ascended as ruler at the age of eleven. Shia Islam_sentence_288

The typical religiously tolerant Fatimid Empire saw much persecution under his reign. Shia Islam_sentence_289

When in 411 AH (1021) his mule returned without him, soaked in blood, a religious group that was forming in his lifetime broke off from mainstream Ismailism and did not acknowledge his successor. Shia Islam_sentence_290

Later to be known as the Druze, they believe al-Hakim to be the incarnation of God and the prophesied Mahdi who would one day return and bring justice to the world. Shia Islam_sentence_291

The faith further split from Ismailism as it developed very unusual doctrines which often class it separately from both Ismailiyyah and Islam, and today most Druze do not identify themselves as Muslims. Shia Islam_sentence_292

The second split occurred following the death of Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah in 487 AH (1094). Shia Islam_sentence_293

His rule was the longest of any caliph in any Islamic empire. Shia Islam_sentence_294

Upon his passing away, his sons, Nizar the older, and Al-Musta'li, the younger, fought for political and spiritual control of the dynasty. Shia Islam_sentence_295

Nizar was defeated and jailed, but according to Nizari tradition, his son escaped to Alamut, where the Iranian Ismaili had accepted his claim. Shia Islam_sentence_296

From here on, the Nizari Ismaili community has continued with a present, living Imam. Shia Islam_sentence_297

The Mustaali line split again between the Taiyabi (Dawoodi Bohra is its main branch) and the Hafizi. Shia Islam_sentence_298

The former claim that At-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim (son of Al-Amir bi-Ahkami l-Lah) and the imams following him went into a period of anonymity (Dawr-e-Satr) and appointed a Da'i al-Mutlaq to guide the community, in a similar manner as the Ismaili had lived after the death of Muhammad ibn Ismail. Shia Islam_sentence_299

The latter (Hafizi) claimed that the ruling Fatimid Caliph was the Imam, and they died out with the fall of the Fatimid Empire. Shia Islam_sentence_300

Pillars Shia Islam_section_38

Ismailis have categorized their practices which are known as seven pillars: Shia Islam_sentence_301

The Shahada (profession of faith) of the Shia differs from that of Sunnis due to mention of Ali. Shia Islam_sentence_302

Contemporary leadership Shia Islam_section_39

The Nizaris place importance on a scholarly institution because of the existence of a present Imam. Shia Islam_sentence_303

The Imam of the Age defines the jurisprudence, and his guidance may differ with Imams previous to him because of different times and circumstances. Shia Islam_sentence_304

For Nizari Ismailis, the Imam is Karim al-Husayni Aga Khan IV. Shia Islam_sentence_305

The Nizari line of Imams has continued to this day as an unending line. Shia Islam_sentence_306

Divine leadership has continued in the Bohra branch through the institution of the "Unrestricted Missionary" Dai. Shia Islam_sentence_307

According to Bohra tradition, before the last Imam, At-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim, went into seclusion, his father, the 20th Al-Amir bi-Ahkami l-Lah, had instructed Al-Hurra Al-Malika the Malika (Queen consort) in Yemen to appoint a vicegerent after the seclusion—the Unrestricted Missionary, who as the Imam's vicegerent has full authority to govern the community in all matters both spiritual and temporal while the lineage of Mustaali-Tayyibi Imams remains in seclusion (Dawr-e-Satr). Shia Islam_sentence_308

The three branches of the Mustaali, the Alavi Bohra, Sulaimani Bohra and Dawoodi Bohra, differ on who the current Unrestricted Missionary is. Shia Islam_sentence_309

Other doctrines Shia Islam_section_40

Doctrine about necessity of acquiring knowledge Shia Islam_section_41

According to Allameh Muzaffar God gives humans the faculty of reason and argument. Shia Islam_sentence_310

Also, God orders humans to spend time thinking carefully on creation while he refers to all creations as his signs of power and glory. Shia Islam_sentence_311

These signs encompass all of the universe. Shia Islam_sentence_312

Furthermore, there is a similarity between humans as the little world and the universe as the large world. Shia Islam_sentence_313

God does not accept the faith of those who follow him without thinking and only with imitation, but also God blames them for such actions. Shia Islam_sentence_314

In other words, humans have to think about the universe with reason and intellect, a faculty bestowed on us by God. Shia Islam_sentence_315

Since there is more insistence on the faculty of intellect among Shia, even evaluating the claims of someone who claims prophecy is on the basis of intellect. Shia Islam_sentence_316

Doctrine concerning Du'a Shia Islam_section_42

Praying or Duʼa in Shia has an important place as Muhammad described it as a weapon of the believer. Shia Islam_sentence_317

In fact, Duʼa considered as something that is a feature of Shia community in a sense. Shia Islam_sentence_318

Performing Duʼa in Shia has a special ritual. Shia Islam_sentence_319

Because of this, there are many books written on the conditions of praying among Shia. Shia Islam_sentence_320

Most of adʼayieh transferred from Muhammad's household and then by many books in which we can observe the authentic teachings of Muhammad and his household according to Shia. Shia Islam_sentence_321

The leaderships of Shia always invited their followers to recite Duʼa. Shia Islam_sentence_322

For instance, Ali has considered with the subject of Duʼa because of his leadership in monotheism. Shia Islam_sentence_323

See also Shia Islam_section_43

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shia Islam.