Shrubland

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Shrubland, scrubland, scrub, brush, or bush is a plant community characterized by vegetation dominated by shrubs, often also including grasses, herbs, and geophytes. Shrubland_sentence_0

Shrubland may either occur naturally or be the result of human activity. Shrubland_sentence_1

It may be the mature vegetation type in a particular region and remain stable over time, or a transitional community that occurs temporarily as the result of a disturbance, such as fire. Shrubland_sentence_2

A stable state may be maintained by regular natural disturbance such as fire or browsing. Shrubland_sentence_3

Shrubland may be unsuitable for human habitation because of the danger of fire. Shrubland_sentence_4

The term was coined in 1903. Shrubland_sentence_5

Shrubland species generally show a wide range of adaptations to fire, such as heavy seed production, lignotubers, and fire-induced germination. Shrubland_sentence_6

Botanical structural form Shrubland_section_0

In botany and ecology a shrub is defined as a much-branched woody plant less than 8 m high and usually with many stems. Shrubland_sentence_7

Tall shrubs are mostly 2–8 m high, small shrubs 1–2 m high and subshrubs less than 1 m high. Shrubland_sentence_8

A descriptive system widely adopted in Australia to describe different types of vegetation is based on structural characteristics based on plant life-form, plus the height and foliage cover of the tallest stratum or dominant species. Shrubland_sentence_9

For shrubs 2–8 m high the following structural forms result: Shrubland_sentence_10

Shrubland_unordered_list_0

  • dense foliage cover (70–100%) — closed-scrubShrubland_item_0_0
  • mid-dense foliage cover (30–70%) — open-scrubShrubland_item_0_1
  • very sparse foliage cover (<10%) — tall open shrublandShrubland_item_0_2

For shrubs <2 m high the following structural forms result: Shrubland_sentence_11

Shrubland_unordered_list_1

  • dense foliage cover (70–100%) — closed-heathShrubland_item_1_3
  • mid-dense foliage cover (30–70%) — open-heathShrubland_item_1_4
  • sparse foliage cover (10–30%) — low shrublandShrubland_item_1_5
  • very sparse foliage cover (<10%) — low open shrublandShrubland_item_1_6

Biome plant group Shrubland_section_1

Similarly, shrubland is a category used to describe a type of biome plant group. Shrubland_sentence_12

In this context, shrublands are dense thickets of evergreen sclerophyll shrubs and small trees, called: Shrubland_sentence_13

Shrubland_unordered_list_2

In some places shrubland is the mature vegetation type, and in other places the result of degradation of former forest or woodland by logging or overgrazing, or disturbance by major fires. Shrubland_sentence_14

A number of World Wildlife Fund biomes are characterized as shrublands, including: Shrubland_sentence_15

Shrubland_description_list_3

Xeric or desert scrublands occur in the world's deserts and xeric shrublands ecoregions, or in areas of fast-draining sandy soils in more humid regions. Shrubland_sentence_16

These scrublands are characterized by plants with adaptations to the dry climate, which include small leaves to limit water loss, thorns to protect them from grazing animals, succulent leaves or stems, storage organs to store water, and long taproots to reach groundwater. Shrubland_sentence_17

Shrubland_description_list_4

Mediterranean scrublands occur naturally in the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biomes, located in the five Mediterranean climate regions of the world. Shrubland_sentence_18

Scrublands are most common near the seacoast, and have often adapted to the wind and salt air of the ocean. Shrubland_sentence_19

Low, soft-leaved scrublands around the Mediterranean Basin are known as garrigue in France, phrygana in Greece, tomillares in Spain, and batha in Israel. Shrubland_sentence_20

Northern coastal scrub and coastal sage scrub occur along the California coast, strandveld in the Western Cape of South Africa, coastal matorral in central Chile, and sand-heath and kwongan in Southwest Australia. Shrubland_sentence_21

Shrubland_description_list_5

Interior scrublands occur naturally in semi-arid areas where soils are nutrient-poor, such as on the matas of Portugal which are underlain by Cambrian and Silurian schists. Shrubland_sentence_22

Florida scrub is another example of interior scrublands. Shrubland_sentence_23

Shrubland_description_list_6

Some vegetation types are formed of dwarf-shrubs: low-growing or creeping shrubs. Shrubland_sentence_24

These include the maquis and garrigues of Mediterranean climates, and the acid-loving dwarf shrubs of heathland and moorland. Shrubland_sentence_25

See also Shrubland_section_2

Shrubland_unordered_list_7


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shrubland.