Siege of Vicksburg

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The Siege of Vicksburg (May 18 – July 4, 1863) was the final major military action in the Vicksburg campaign of the American Civil War. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_0

In a series of maneuvers, Union Maj. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_1 Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and his Army of the Tennessee crossed the Mississippi River and drove the Confederate Army of Mississippi, led by Lt. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_2 Gen. John C. Pemberton, into the defensive lines surrounding the fortress city of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_3

Vicksburg was the last major Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River; therefore, capturing it completed the second part of the Northern strategy, the Anaconda Plan. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_4

When two major assaults against the Confederate fortifications, on May 19 and 22, were repulsed with heavy casualties, Grant decided to besiege the city beginning on May 25. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_5

After holding out for more than forty days, with their supplies nearly gone, the garrison surrendered on July 4. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_6

The successful ending of the Vicksburg campaign significantly degraded the ability of the Confederacy to maintain its war effort. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_7

This action, combined with the surrender of the down-river Port Hudson to Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks on July 9, yielded command of the Mississippi River to the Union forces, who would hold it for the rest of the conflict. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_8

The Confederate surrender on July 4, 1863, is sometimes considered, when combined with Gen. Robert E. Lee's defeat at Gettysburg by Maj. Gen. George Meade the previous day, the turning point of the war. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_9

It cut off the Trans-Mississippi Department (containing the states of Arkansas, Texas and part of Louisiana) from the rest of the Confederate States, effectively splitting the Confederacy in two for the rest of the war. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_10

Lincoln called Vicksburg "The key to the south." Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_11

Background Siege of Vicksburg_section_0

Military situation Siege of Vicksburg_section_1

Main article: Vicksburg Campaign Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_12

Further information: Western Theater of the American Civil War and American Civil War Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_13

After crossing the Mississippi River south of Vicksburg at Bruinsburg and driving northeast, Grant won battles at Port Gibson and Raymond and captured Jackson, the Mississippi state capital, on May 14, 1863, forcing Pemberton to withdraw westward. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_14

Attempts to stop the Union advance at Champion Hill and Big Black River Bridge were unsuccessful. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_15

Pemberton knew that the corps under Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman was preparing to flank him from the north, and so had no choice but to withdraw or be outflanked. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_16

Pemberton burned the bridges over the Big Black River and devastated the countryside as he retreated to the well-fortified city of Vicksburg. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_17

The Confederates evacuated Hayne's Bluff, which was subsequently occupied by Sherman's cavalry on May 19, and Union steamboats no longer had to run the guns of Vicksburg, now being able to dock by the dozens up the Yazoo River. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_18

Grant could now receive supplies more directly than by the previous route, which ran through Louisiana, over the river crossing at Grand Gulf and Bruinsburg, then back up north. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_19

Over half of Pemberton's army had been lost in the two preceding battles and many in Vicksburg expected General Joseph E. Johnston, in command of the Confederate Department of the West, to relieve the city—which he never did. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_20

Large numbers of Union troops were on the march to invest the city. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_21

They repaired the bridges over the Big Black River and crossed on May 18. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_22

Johnston sent a note to his general, Pemberton, asking him to sacrifice the city and save his troops, something Pemberton would not do. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_23

(Pemberton, a Northerner by birth, was probably influenced by his fear of public condemnation if he abandoned Vicksburg.) Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_24

Fortifications Siege of Vicksburg_section_2

As the Union forces approached Vicksburg, Pemberton could put only 18,500 troops in his lines. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_25

Grant had over 35,000, with more on the way. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_26

However, Pemberton had the advantage of terrain and fortifications that made his defense nearly impregnable. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_27

The defensive line around Vicksburg ran for approximately six and a half miles (10 km), based on terrain of varying elevations that included hills and knobs with steep slopes which would require an attacker to ascend them under fire. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_28

The perimeter included many gun pits, forts, trenches, redoubts, and lunettes. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_29

The major fortifications of the line included: Fort Hill, on a high bluff north of the city; the Stockade Redan, dominating the approach to the city on Graveyard Road from the northeast; the 3rd Louisiana Redan; the Great Redoubt; the Railroad Redoubt, protecting the gap for the railroad line entering the city; the Square Fort (Fort Garrott); a salient along the Hall's Ferry Road; and the South Fort. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_30

Opposing forces Siege of Vicksburg_section_3

Union Siege of Vicksburg_section_4

Further information: Union order of battle Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_31

Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's Union Army of the Tennessee brought five corps to the siege: Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_32

Siege of Vicksburg_unordered_list_0

Confederate Siege of Vicksburg_section_5

Further information: Confederate order of battle Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_33

Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton's Confederate Army of Mississippi inside the Vicksburg line consisted of four divisions, under Maj. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_34 Gens. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_35 : Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_36

Siege of Vicksburg_unordered_list_1

Siege Siege of Vicksburg_section_6

Assaults Siege of Vicksburg_section_7

Grant wanted to overwhelm the Confederates before they could fully organize their defenses and ordered an assault against the Stockade Redan for May 19. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_37

Troops from Sherman's corps had a difficult time approaching the position under rifle and artillery fire from the 36th Mississippi Infantry, Brig. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_38

Gen. Louis Hébert's brigade. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_39

They had to negotiate a steep ravine protected by abatis and cross a 6-foot-deep (1.8 m), 8-foot-wide (2.4 m) ditch before attacking the 17-foot-high (5.2 m) walls of the redan. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_40

This first attempt was easily repulsed. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_41

Grant ordered an artillery bombardment to soften the defenses and at about 2 pm, Sherman's division under Maj. Gen. Francis P. Blair tried again, but only a small number of men were able to advance even as far as the ditch below the redan. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_42

The assault collapsed in an exchange of rifle fire and hand grenades lobbing back and forth. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_43

The failed Union assaults of May 19 damaged troop morale, deflating the confidence the soldiers had felt after their string of victories across Mississippi. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_44

They were also costly, with 157 killed, 777 wounded, and eight missing, versus Confederate casualties of eight killed and 62 wounded. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_45

The Confederates, assumed to be demoralized, had regained their fighting edge. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_46

Grant planned another assault for May 22, but this time with greater care; his troops would first reconnoiter thoroughly and soften up the defenses with artillery and naval gunfire. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_47

The lead units were supplied with ladders to ascend the fortification walls. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_48

Grant did not want a long siege, and this attack was to be by the entire army across a wide front. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_49

Despite their bloody repulse on May 19, Union troops were in high spirits, now well-fed with provisions they had foraged. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_50

On seeing Grant pass by, a soldier commented, "Hardtack". Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_51

Soon all Union troops in the vicinity were yelling, "Hardtack! Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_52

Hardtack!" Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_53

The Union served hardtack, beans, and coffee the night of May 21. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_54

Everyone expected that Vicksburg would fall the next day. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_55

Union forces bombarded the city all night, from 220 artillery pieces and with naval gunfire from Rear Adm. David D. Porter's fleet in the river. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_56

While causing little property damage, they damaged Confederate civilian morale. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_57

On the morning of May 22, the defenders were bombarded again for four hours before the Union attacked once more along a 3-mile (5 km) front at 10 am. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_58

Sherman attacked once again down the Graveyard Road, with 150 volunteers (nicknamed the forlorn hope detachment) leading the way with ladders and planks, followed by the divisions of Blair and Brig. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_59

Gen. James M. Tuttle, arranged in a long column of regiments. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_60

They hoped to achieve a breakthrough by concentrating their mass on a narrow front. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_61

They were driven back in the face of heavy rifle fire. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_62

Blair's brigades under Cols. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_63

Giles A. Smith and T. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_64 Kilby Smith made it as far as a ridge 100 yards from Green's Redan, the southern edge of the Stockade Redan, from where they poured heavy fire into the Confederate position, but to no avail. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_65

Tuttle's division, waiting its turn to advance, did not have an opportunity to move forward. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_66

On Sherman's far right, the division of Brig. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_67

Gen. Frederick Steele spent the morning attempting to get into position through a ravine of the Mint Spring Bayou. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_68

McPherson's corps was assigned to attack the center along the Jackson Road. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_69

On their right flank, the brigade of Brig. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_70

Gen. Thomas E. G. Ransom advanced to within 100 yards of the Confederate line, but halted to avoid dangerous flanking fire from Green's Redan. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_71

On McPherson's left flank, the division of Maj. Gen. John A. Logan was assigned to assault the 3rd Louisiana Redan and the Great Redoubt. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_72

The brigade of Brig. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_73

Gen. John E. Smith made it as far as the slope of the redan, but huddled there, dodging grenades until dark, when they were recalled. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_74

Brig. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_75

Gen. John D. Stevenson's brigade advanced in two columns against the redoubt, but their attack also failed when they found their ladders were too short to scale the fortification. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_76

Brig. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_77

Gen. Isaac F. Quinby's division advanced a few hundred yards, but halted for hours while its generals engaged in confused discussions. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_78

On the Union left, McClernand's corps moved along the Baldwin Ferry Road and astride the Southern Railroad of Mississippi. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_79

The division of Brig. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_80

Gen. Eugene A. Carr was assigned to capture the Railroad Redoubt and the 2nd Texas Lunette; the division of Brig. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_81

Gen. Peter J. Osterhaus was assigned the Square Fort. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_82

Carr's men achieved a small breakthrough at the 2nd Texas Lunette and requested reinforcements. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_83

By 11 am, it was clear that a breakthrough was not forthcoming and that the advances by Sherman and McPherson were failures. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_84

Just then, Grant received a message from McClernand, which stated that he was heavily engaged, the Confederates were being reinforced, and he requested a diversion on his right from McPherson's corps. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_85

Grant initially refused the request, telling McClernand to use his own reserve forces for assistance; Grant was mistakenly under the impression that McClernand had been lightly engaged and McPherson heavily, although the reverse was true. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_86

McClernand followed up with a message that was partially misleading, implying that he had captured two forts—"The Stars and Stripes are flying over them. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_87

"—and that another push along the line would achieve victory for the Union Army. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_88

Although Grant once again demurred, he showed the dispatch to Sherman, who ordered his own corps to advance again. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_89

Grant, reconsidering, then ordered McPherson to send Quinby's division to aid McClernand. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_90

Sherman ordered two more assaults. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_91

At 2:15 pm, Giles Smith and Ransom moved out and were repulsed immediately. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_92

At 3 pm, Tuttle's division suffered so many casualties in their aborted advance that Sherman told Tuttle, "This is murder; order those troops back." Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_93

By this time, Steele's division had finally maneuvered into position on Sherman's right, and at 4 pm, Steele gave the order to charge against the 26th Louisiana Redoubt. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_94

They had no more success than any of Sherman's other assaults. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_95

In McPherson's sector, Logan's division made another thrust down the Jackson Road at about 2 pm, but met with heavy losses and the attack was called off. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_96

McClernand attacked again, reinforced by Quinby's division, but with no success. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_97

Union casualties for the day totalled 502 killed, 2,550 wounded, and 147 missing, about evenly divided across the three corps. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_98

Confederate casualties were not reported directly, but are estimated to have been under 500. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_99

Grant blamed McClernand's misleading dispatches for part of the poor results of the day, storing up another grievance against the political general who had caused him so many aggravations during the campaign. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_100

Siege operations Siege of Vicksburg_section_8

Historian Shelby Foote wrote that Grant "did not regret having made the assaults; he only regretted that they had failed." Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_101

Grant reluctantly settled into a siege. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_102

On May 25, Lt. Col. John A. Rawlins issued Special Orders No. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_103

140 for Grant: Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_104

Grant wrote in his memoirs, "I now determined upon a regular siege—to 'out-camp the enemy,' as it were, and to incur no more losses." Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_105

Federal troops began to dig in, constructing elaborate entrenchments which the soldiers of the time referred to as "ditches". Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_106

These surrounded the city and moved steadily closer to the Confederate fortifications. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_107

With their backs against the Mississippi and Union gunboats firing from the river, Confederate soldiers and citizens alike were trapped. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_108

Pemberton was determined to hold his few miles of the Mississippi as long as possible, hoping for relief from Johnston or elsewhere. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_109

A new problem confronted the Confederates. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_110

The dead and wounded of Grant's army lay in the heat of Mississippi summer, the odor of the deceased men and horses fouling the air, the wounded crying for medical help and water. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_111

Grant first refused a request of truce, thinking it a show of weakness. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_112

Finally he relented, and the Confederates held their fire while the Union recovered the wounded and dead on May 25, soldiers from both sides mingling and trading as if no hostilities existed for the moment. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_113

After this truce, Grant's army began to fill the 12-mile (19 km) ring around Vicksburg. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_114

It soon became clear that even 50,000 Union soldiers would not be able to effect a complete encirclement of the Confederate defenses. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_115

Pemberton's outlook on escape was pessimistic, but there were still roads leading south out of Vicksburg unguarded by Union troops. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_116

Grant sought help from Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, the Union general-in-chief. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_117

Halleck quickly began to shift Union troops in the West to meet Grant's needs. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_118

The first of these reinforcements was a 5,000-man division from the Department of the Missouri under Maj. Gen. Francis J. Herron on June 11. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_119

Herron's troops, remnants of the Army of the Frontier, were attached to McPherson's corps and took up position on the far south. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_120

Next came a three division detachment from XVI Corps led by Brig. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_121

Gen. Cadwallader C. Washburn on June 12, assembled from troops at the nearby posts of Corinth, Memphis, and LaGrange. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_122

The final significant group of reinforcements to join was the 8,000-man strong IX Corps from the Department of the Ohio, led by Maj. Gen. John G. Parke, arriving on June 14. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_123

With the arrival of Parke, Grant had 77,000 men around Vicksburg. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_124

In an effort to cut Grant's supply line, Confederates in Louisiana under Major General John G. Walker attacked Milliken's Bend up the Mississippi on June 7. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_125

This was largely defended by recently enlisted United States colored troops. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_126

Despite having inferior weaponry, they fought bravely and repulsed the Confederates with help from gunboats, although at heavy cost; the defenders lost 652 to the Confederate 185. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_127

The loss at Milliken's Bend left the Confederates with no hope for relief other than from the cautious Johnston. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_128

Pemberton was boxed in with plentiful munitions but little food. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_129

The poor diet was telling on the Confederate soldiers. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_130

By the end of June, half were sick or hospitalized. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_131

Scurvy, malaria, dysentery, diarrhea, and other diseases cut their ranks. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_132

At least one city resident had to stay up at night to keep starving soldiers out of his vegetable garden. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_133

The constant shelling did not bother him as much as the loss of his food. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_134

As the siege wore on, fewer and fewer horses, mules, and dogs were seen wandering about Vicksburg. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_135

Shoe leather became a last resort of sustenance for many adults. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_136

During the siege, Union gunboats lobbed over 22,000 shells into the town and army artillery fire was even heavier. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_137

As the barrages continued, suitable housing in Vicksburg was reduced to a minimum. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_138

A ridge, located between the main town and the rebel defense line, provided lodging for the duration. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_139

Over 500 caves, known locally as "bombproofs", were dug into the yellow clay hills of Vicksburg. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_140

Whether houses were structurally sound or not, it was deemed safer to occupy these dugouts. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_141

People did their best to make them comfortable, with rugs, furniture, and pictures. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_142

They tried to time their movements and foraging with the rhythm of the cannonade, sometimes unsuccessfully. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_143

Because of the citizens' burrowing, the Union soldiers gave the town the nickname of "Prairie Dog Village". Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_144

Despite the ferocity of the Union fire, fewer than a dozen civilians are known to have been killed during the siege. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_145

Command changes Siege of Vicksburg_section_9

One of Grant's actions during the siege was to settle a lingering rivalry. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_146

On May 30, General McClernand wrote a self-adulatory note to his troops, claiming much of the credit for the soon-to-be victory. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_147

Grant had been waiting six months for him to slip, ever since they clashed early in the campaign, around the Battle of Arkansas Post. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_148

He had received permission to relieve McClernand in January 1863 but waited for an unequivocal provocation; McClernand was relieved on June 18. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_149

Grant so carefully prepared his action that McClernand was left without recourse. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_150

McClernand's XIII Corps was turned over to Maj. Gen. Edward Ord, who had recovered from an October 1862 wound sustained at Hatchie's Bridge. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_151

In May 1864, McClernand would be given a command in a remote area of Texas. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_152

Another command change occurred on June 22. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_153

In addition to Pemberton in Vicksburg, Grant had to be aware of Confederate forces in his rear under the command of Joseph E. Johnston. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_154

He stationed one division in the vicinity of the Big Black River Bridge and another reconnoitered as far north as Mechanicsburg; both acted as covering forces. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_155

By June 10, the IX Corps, under Maj. Gen. John G. Parke, was transferred to Grant's command. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_156

This corps became the nucleus of a special task force whose mission was to prevent Johnston, who was gathering his forces at Canton, from interfering with the siege. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_157

Sherman was given command of this task force and Brig. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_158

Gen. Frederick Steele replaced him at XV Corps. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_159

Johnston eventually began moving to relieve Pemberton and reached the Big Black River on July 1, but he delayed a potentially difficult encounter with Sherman until it was too late for the Vicksburg garrison, and then fell back to Jackson. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_160

Sherman would pursue Johnston and recapture Jackson on July 17. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_161

Louisiana operations Siege of Vicksburg_section_10

Throughout the siege Union and Confederate forces kept busy in a supporting role on the Louisiana side of the Mississippi River. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_162

Lt. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith, commander of the Trans-Mississippi Department, received a telegraph from Pemberton on May 9 requesting that he move against Grant's communication lines along the Mississippi River. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_163

Grant had established important supply depots at Milliken's Bend, Young's Point, and Lake Providence, all within Smith's jurisdiction, but Smith failed to recognize the importance of Pemberton's situation. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_164

It was not until June when Smith finally took action on Pemberton's request, directing Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor to "do something" in support of the Vicksburg garrison. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_165

Taylor commanded the District of Western Louisiana and developed a three-pronged campaign against Grant's three supply depots. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_166

All three of Taylor's assaults were defeated at the Battle of Milliken's Bend, the Battle of Young's Point, and the Battle of Lake Providence. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_167

In response to the growing Confederate activity in the area, Grant decided to dispatch troops from the Vicksburg trenches across the river. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_168

The presence of Maj. Gen. John G. Walker's Confederate division on the Louisiana side was of particular concern; its presence could possibly aid any Confederate attempt to escape from Vicksburg. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_169

Therefore, Brig. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_170

Gen. Alfred W. Ellet's Mississippi Marine Brigade and Joseph A. Mower's brigade from Sherman's corps were ordered to the vicinity of Milliken's Bend. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_171

Mower and Ellet were to cooperate against Walker's division, which was stationed in the vicinity of Richmond, Louisiana. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_172

Richmond was also an important supply line providing Vicksburg with food from Louisiana. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_173

On June 15, Ellet and Mower defeated Walker and destroyed Richmond. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_174

Ellet's men returned to De Soto Point and constructed an artillery battery targeting an iron foundry recasting spent Union artillery shells. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_175

Construction was begun on June 19, which placed a 20-pounder Parrott rifle in a casemate of railroad iron. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_176

The targeted foundry was destroyed on June 25 and the next day a second Parrott gun was added to the battery, which continued to harass the defenders until the garrison's surrender. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_177

Additional Confederate activity in Louisiana occurred on June 29 at Goodrich's Landing when they attacked a plantation and an army training center run by former slaves. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_178

The Confederates destroyed the plantations and captured over a hundred former slaves before disengaging in the face of Ellet's Marines. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_179

Confederate raids such as these were disruptive and caused damage, but they were only minor setbacks and demonstrated that the Confederates could cause only momentary disturbances in the area. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_180

Crater at the Third Louisiana Redan Siege of Vicksburg_section_11

Late in the siege, Union troops tunneled under the 3rd Louisiana Redan and packed the mine with 2,200 pounds of gunpowder. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_181

The explosion blew apart the Confederate lines on June 25, while an infantry attack made by troops from Logan's XVII Corps division followed the blast. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_182

The 45th Illinois Regiment (known as the "Lead Mine Regiment"), under Col. Jasper A. Maltby, charged into the 40-foot (12 m) diameter, 12-foot (3.7 m) deep crater with ease, but were stopped by recovering Confederate infantry. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_183

The Union soldiers became pinned down and the defenders rolled artillery shells with short fuses into the pit with deadly results. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_184

Union engineers worked to set up a casemate in the crater in order to extricate the infantry, and soon the soldiers fell back to a new defensive line. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_185

From the crater left by the explosion, Union miners worked to dig a new mine to the south. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_186

On July 1, this mine was detonated but no infantry attack followed. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_187

Pioneers worked throughout July 2 and 3 to widen the initial crater to be large enough for an infantry column of four to pass through for any future assault. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_188

However, events the following day negated the need for any further assaults. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_189

Capture Siege of Vicksburg_section_12

On July 3, Pemberton sent a note to Grant regarding the possibility of negotiations for peace. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_190

Grant, as he had done at Fort Donelson, first demanded unconditional surrender. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_191

He then reconsidered, not wanting to feed 30,000 Confederates in Union prison camps, and offered to parole all prisoners. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_192

Considering their destitute and starving state, he never expected them to fight again; he hoped they would carry home the stigma of defeat to the rest of the Confederacy. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_193

In any event, shipping that many prisoners north would have occupied his army and taken months. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_194

Pemberton officially surrendered his army on July 4. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_195

Most of the men who were paroled on July 6 were exchanged and received back into the Confederate Army on August 4, 1863, at Mobile Harbor, Alabama. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_196

They were back in Chattanooga, Tennessee, by September and some fought in the Battles for Chattanooga in November and against Sherman's invasion of Georgia in May 1864. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_197

The Confederate government protested the validity of the paroles on technical grounds and the issue was referred to Grant who, in April 1864, was general in chief of the army. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_198

The dispute effectively ended all further prisoner exchanges during the war except for hardship cases. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_199

Surrender was formalized by an old oak tree, "made historical by the event". Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_200

In his Personal Memoirs, Grant described the fate of this luckless tree: Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_201

The surrender was finalized on July 4, Independence Day, a day Pemberton had hoped would bring more sympathetic terms from the United States. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_202

Although the Vicksburg campaign continued with some minor actions, the fortress city had fallen and, with the surrender of Port Hudson on July 9, the Mississippi River was firmly in Union hands and the Confederacy split in two. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_203

President Lincoln famously announced, "The Father of Waters again goes unvexed to the sea." Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_204

Union casualties for the battle and siege of Vicksburg were 4,835; Confederate were 32,697, of whom 29,495 had surrendered. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_205

The full campaign, since March 29, claimed 10,142 Union and 9,091 Confederate killed and wounded. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_206

In addition to the men under his command, Pemberton turned over to Grant 172 cannons and 50,000 rifles. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_207

Aftermath Siege of Vicksburg_section_13

Siege of Vicksburg_table_infobox_0

LocationSiege of Vicksburg_header_cell_0_0_0 Vicksburg, Mississippi & Delta, Louisiana, USASiege of Vicksburg_cell_0_0_1
AreaSiege of Vicksburg_header_cell_0_1_0 1,852.75 acres (749.78 ha)Siege of Vicksburg_cell_0_1_1
BuiltSiege of Vicksburg_header_cell_0_2_0 February 21, 1899 (February 21, 1899)Siege of Vicksburg_cell_0_2_1
Architectural styleSiege of Vicksburg_header_cell_0_3_0 Greek RevivalSiege of Vicksburg_cell_0_3_1
VisitationSiege of Vicksburg_header_cell_0_4_0 703,484 (2005)Siege of Vicksburg_cell_0_4_1
NRHP reference No.Siege of Vicksburg_header_cell_0_5_0 Siege of Vicksburg_cell_0_5_1
Added to NRHPSiege of Vicksburg_header_cell_0_6_0 October 15, 1966Siege of Vicksburg_cell_0_6_1

Further information: Vicksburg campaign § Aftermath Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_208

Vicksburg was the last major Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River; therefore, capturing it completed the second part of the Northern strategy, the Anaconda Plan. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_209

The successful ending of the Vicksburg campaign significantly degraded the ability of the Confederacy to maintain its war effort. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_210

This action, combined with the surrender of Port Hudson to Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks on July 9, yielded command of the Mississippi River to the Union forces, who would hold it for the rest of the conflict. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_211

The Confederate surrender on July 4, 1863 is sometimes considered, when combined with Gen. Robert E. Lee's July 3rd defeat at Gettysburg by Maj. Gen. George Meade, the turning point of the war. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_212

It cut off the states of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas from the rest of the Confederate States, effectively splitting the Confederacy in two for the duration of the war. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_213

The Union victory also permanently severed communication between the Trans-Mississippi Department and the balance of the Confederacy. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_214

Folk tradition holds that the Fourth of July (Independence Day) holiday was not celebrated by Vicksburg until World War II. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_215

This claim is inaccurate, for large Independence Day celebrations were held as early as 1907. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_216

Battlefield preservation Siege of Vicksburg_section_14

The works around Vicksburg are now maintained by the National Park Service as part of Vicksburg National Military Park. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_217

The park, located in Vicksburg, Mississippi, and Delta, Louisiana (flanking the Mississippi River), also commemorates the greater Vicksburg campaign which led up to the battle and includes reconstructed forts and trenches. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_218

The park includes 1,325 historic monuments and markers, 20 miles (32 km) of historic trenches and earthworks, a 16-mile (26 km) tour road, a 12.5-mile (20 km) walking trail, two antebellum homes, 144 emplaced cannons, the restored gunboat USS Cairo (sunk on December 12, 1862, on the Yazoo River), and the Grant's Canal site, where the Union Army attempted to build a canal to let their ships bypass Confederate artillery fire. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_219

The Civil War Trust (a division of the American Battlefield Trust) and its partners have acquired and preserved 12 acres (0.049 km) of the Vicksburg battlefield. Siege of Vicksburg_sentence_220

See also Siege of Vicksburg_section_15

Siege of Vicksburg_unordered_list_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: of Vicksburg.