Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

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Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_table_infobox_0

Sierra Nevada de Santa MartaSierra Nevada de Santa Marta_header_cell_0_0_0
Highest pointSierra Nevada de Santa Marta_header_cell_0_1_0
PeakSierra Nevada de Santa Marta_header_cell_0_2_0 Pico Simón Bolívar and Pico Cristobal ColonSierra Nevada de Santa Marta_cell_0_2_1
ElevationSierra Nevada de Santa Marta_header_cell_0_3_0 5,710 m (18,730 ft)Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_cell_0_3_1
CoordinatesSierra Nevada de Santa Marta_header_cell_0_4_0 Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_cell_0_4_1
DimensionsSierra Nevada de Santa Marta_header_cell_0_5_0
LengthSierra Nevada de Santa Marta_header_cell_0_6_0 1,928 km (1,198 mi) 29Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_cell_0_6_1
WidthSierra Nevada de Santa Marta_header_cell_0_7_0 1,100 km (680 mi) 29Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_cell_0_7_1
AreaSierra Nevada de Santa Marta_header_cell_0_8_0 20 km (7.7 sq mi)Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_cell_0_8_1
GeographySierra Nevada de Santa Marta_header_cell_0_9_0
CountrySierra Nevada de Santa Marta_header_cell_0_10_0 ColombiaSierra Nevada de Santa Marta_cell_0_10_1

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_table_infobox_1

PNN Sierra Nevada de Santa MartaSierra Nevada de Santa Marta_header_cell_1_0_0
Nearest citySierra Nevada de Santa Marta_header_cell_1_1_0 Santa Marta,  ColombiaSierra Nevada de Santa Marta_cell_1_1_1
AreaSierra Nevada de Santa Marta_header_cell_1_2_0 3,830 km (1,480 sq mi)Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_cell_1_2_1
EstablishedSierra Nevada de Santa Marta_header_cell_1_3_0 1964Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_cell_1_3_1
Governing bodySierra Nevada de Santa Marta_header_cell_1_4_0 SINAPSierra Nevada de Santa Marta_cell_1_4_1

The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is an isolated mountain range in northern Colombia, separate from the Andes range that runs through the centre of the country. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_0

Reaching an altitude of 5,700 m (18,700 ft) just 42 km (26 mi) from the Caribbean coast, the Sierra Nevada is one of the world's highest coastal ranges, being 250m shorter than the Saint Elias Mountains in Canada. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_1

The Sierra Nevada encompasses about 17,000 km (6,600 sq mi) and serves as the source of 36 rivers. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_2

The range is in the Departments of Magdalena, Cesar and La Guajira. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_3

The highest point of the Sierra Nevada group (and Colombia in general) may be either Pico Cristóbal Colón or Pico Simón Bolívar both in the municipalities of Santa Marta and Aracataca; it has yet to be determined which is higher. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_4

SRTM data and local topographic maps show that their true elevations are approximately 5,700 m (18,700 ft), lower than the 5,775 m (18,947 ft) elevation that is often quoted. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_5

The Sierra Nevada is a compact group, relatively small in area, and completely surrounded by lands with elevations below 200 m (660 ft). Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_6

Although it is associated with the Tropical Andes, the main backbone of the Andes cannot be reached from the Sierra Nevada without dropping below this level. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_7

This makes its highest point the world's fifth most prominent summit. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_8

Several peaks in the Sierra Nevada are intervisible with Cerro Paramillo, a 3,730 m (12,240 ft) peak in Antioquia Department. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_9

This implies a theoretical direct line of sight of just over 500 km (310 mi), reported to be the longest between any two points on the surface of the Earth. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_10

Climate Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_section_0

It is calculated that the yearly average rainfall is 4,000 mm (157.5 in) at elevations of 500 to 1,500 m (1,640 to 4,921 ft). Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_11

The temperature varies between 0–27 °C (32–81 °F). Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_12

Biodiversity Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_section_1

The tropical rainforest is made up of perennial trees, with a canopy reaching between 30 to 40 m (98 to 131 ft). Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_13

There is a great variety and large populations of epiphytes and lianas, and more than 3,000 species of vascular plants are found in the area. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_14

The indigenous peoples made an alcoholic beverage from fruits of the palm Attalea maripa found at the lower elevations. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_15

Of Colombia's 340 endemic species, 44 are found in the park, for example seven species of endemic hummingbirds. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_16

Of the 3,057 endangered species, 44 are found here. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_17

The area is home to 440 species of birds, including black-fronted wood-quail, king vulture, Andean condor, Santa Marta warbler and Santa Marta parakeet. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_18

Mammals found in the park include: tapir, cougar, jaguar, squirrel, Transandinomys talamancae, otter, and brocket deer. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_19

The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is home to a number of ecoregions, which vary with elevation. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_20

The Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub region lies near the Caribbean seacoast to the north of the range. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_21

The Sinú Valley dry forests cover the range's lower slopes, up to an elevation of 500 m (1,640 ft). Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_22

The Santa Marta montane forests lie above 500 to 800 m (1,640 to 2,625 ft). Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_23

The montane forests are separated from other moist forests by the lower-elevation dry forests and xeric shrublands, and have large numbers of endemic species. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_24

The montane forest ecoregion has several distinct plant communities, distinguished by altitude and rainfall; moist lowland forests cover the windward northern and western flanks of the range between 500 and 900 m (1,640 and 2,953 ft), and the drier eastern and southern flanks from 1,000 to 5,800 m (3,281 to 19,029 ft). Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_25

Above 900 m (2,953 ft) is a transitional forest zone of smaller trees and palms. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_26

Cloud forests occur above 1,000 m (3,281 ft); the Sub-Andean forests from 1,000 to 2,500 m (3,281 to 8,202 ft) form a canopy 25 to 35 m (82 to 115 ft) tall, while the higher-elevation Andean forests, between 2,500 and 3,300 m (8,202 and 10,827 ft), grow to 15 to 20 m (49 to 66 ft) in height. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_27

The Santa Marta Páramo, a high altitude belt of montane grasslands and shrublands interspersed with marshes and acid bogs, occupies the zone between 3,300 and 5,000 m (10,827 and 16,404 ft). Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_28

The Santa Marta Páramo is the northernmost enclave of Páramo in South America, which occur along the Andes belt. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_29

Above 5,000 m (16,404 ft) lies the permanent snow cap. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_30

National Natural Park Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_section_2

The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta National Natural Park (Spanish: Parque Nacional Natural Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta) is Colombia's second oldest national park, established in 1964. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_31

It is located in the Cordillera Oriental range, between the departments of La Guajira, Magdalena and Cesar, in the mountain range of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_32

It is a sanctuary as well as a tourist attraction, because it offers different climate, terrain, flora and fauna environments, ranging from beaches to snowy mountain peaks. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_33

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta National Natural Park is considered a unique place in the world due to its isolation from the Andes and its highest peak (5700 meters above sea level) is located just 42 km away from the sea. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_34

All the water courses that originate in the national park drain to the Caribbean sea whether directly (e. g. rivers Ranchería, Don Diego, Palomino, Buritaca, Guachaca, Cañas, etc.) or through the Magdalena River system that includes the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, (e. g., rivers Cesar, Ariguaní, Fundación, Frío, Aracataca, etc.). Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_35

Roughly 1.2 million people are dependent upon the freshwater supplied by the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta rivers. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_36

There are currently about 30,000 indigenous people of the ethnic groups Koguis, Arhuacos, Kankuamos and Wiwa living in the area. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_37

This park is also home to the remnants of the Tairona Culture. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_38

In 1979 the park was designated a Biosphere reserve by UNESCO. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_39

A 2013 report by the International Union for Conservation of Nature on the world's most irreplaceable protected areas identified the park as the most irreplaceable park in the world for threatened species. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_40

Geology Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_section_3

It is composed of Cretaceous metamorphic rocks (predominantly schists and gneisses) and quartzdioritic intrusives of Tertiary age. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_41

The Quaternary of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is mainly represented by colluvial-alluvial valley fill and by recent beach deposits. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_42

The coastlines of the northwestern part of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta are indented, reflecting the alternation of rocky headlands and deep, NNW trending tectonically controlled bays. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_43

The headlands are typically 100 to 150 m (330 to 490 ft) high plunging cliffs cut into schists and granites, whereas the embayments front alluvial valley deposits. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_44

The bay shores are typically steep, reflective beaches composed of very coarse sand to granules eroded from adjacent cliffs and alluvial deposits. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_45

Wide pocket beaches and tombolos are common along sectors with abundant rocky erosional remnants and stacks. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_46

Fauna Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_section_4

Three species of reptiles which are native to the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta are named after it: Anolis santamartae, a lizard; Atractus sanctaemartae, a snake; and Lepidoblepharis sanctaemartae, a lizard. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_47

Inhabitants Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_section_5

The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is home to the remnants of the Native American Tairona Culture; Arhuacos, Koguis, Wiwas and Kankuamos, that live in Resguardos Indigenas (Indian reserves) located in the mid-highlands. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_48

Recent access problems Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_section_6

For the last ten years, access to the highest summits has been very difficult, and this situation continues, although there is a documented ascent of Pico Cristóbal Colón in December 2015. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_49

The only safe and relatively straight forward access is from Santa Marta city to Cuchillo de San Lorenzo, but that is only to 2,800 m (9,200 ft) (although it provides excellent views of the peaks). Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_sentence_50

See also Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_section_7

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Nevada de Santa Marta.