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"Slave" and "Slaves" redirect here. Slavery_sentence_0

For other uses, see Slave (disambiguation). Slavery_sentence_1

Slavery and enslavement are the state and condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for another person and is treated like property. Slavery_sentence_2

Slavery relies heavily on the enslaved person being intimidated either by the threat of violence or some other method of abuse. Slavery_sentence_3

In chattel slavery, the enslaved person is legally rendered the personal property (chattel) of the slave owner. Slavery_sentence_4

In economics, the term de facto slavery describes the conditions of unfree labour and forced labour that most slaves endure. Slavery_sentence_5

In the course of human history, slavery was often a feature of civilisation and legal in most societies, but is now outlawed in all countries of the world, except as punishment for crime. Slavery_sentence_6

In 2019, approximately 40 million people, of whom 26 percent were children, were enslaved throughout the world despite it being illegal. Slavery_sentence_7

In the modern world, more than 50 percent of enslaved people provide forced labor, usually in the factories and sweatshops of the private sector of a country's economy. Slavery_sentence_8

In the industrialised countries, human trafficking is the modern variety of slavery; in the unindustrialised countries, enslavement by debt bondage is a common form of enslaving a person, such as captive domestic servants, forced marriage, and child soldiers. Slavery_sentence_9

Terminology Slavery_section_0

The word slave is derived from the ethnonym (ethnic name) Slav. Slavery_sentence_10

It arrived in English via the Old French sclave. Slavery_sentence_11

In Medieval Latin the word was sclavus and in Byzantine Greek σκλάβος. Slavery_sentence_12

Use of the word arose during the Early Medieval Period, when Slavs from Central and Eastern Europe (Saqaliba) were frequently enslaved by Moors from the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa. Slavery_sentence_13

An older interpretation connected slave to the Greek verb skyleúo 'to strip a slain enemy'. Slavery_sentence_14

There is a dispute among historians about whether terms such as "unfree labourer" or enslaved person, rather than "slave", should be used when describing the victims of slavery. Slavery_sentence_15

According to those proposing a change in terminology, slave perpetuates the crime of slavery in language; by reducing its victims to a nonhuman noun instead of "carry[ing] them forward as people, not the property that they were". Slavery_sentence_16

Other historians prefer slave because the term is familiar and shorter, or because it accurately reflects the inhumanity of slavery, with "person" implying a degree of autonomy that slavery does not allow. Slavery_sentence_17

Bonded labour Slavery_section_1

Main article: Debt bondage Slavery_sentence_18

Indenture, otherwise known as bonded labour or debt bondage, is a form of unfree labour under which a person pledges himself or herself against a loan. Slavery_sentence_19

The services required to repay the debt, and their duration, may be undefined. Slavery_sentence_20

Debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation, with children required to pay off their progenitors' debt. Slavery_sentence_21

It is the most widespread form of slavery today. Slavery_sentence_22

Debt bondage is most prevalent in South Asia. Slavery_sentence_23

Chattel slavery Slavery_section_2

As a social institution, chattel slavery (traditional slavery) denies the human agency of people, by legalistically dehumanising them into chattels (personal property) owned by the slaver; therefore slaves give birth to slaves; the children of slaves are born enslaved, by way of the legalistic philosophy of partus sequitur ventrem ("That which is brought forth follows the belly"). Slavery_sentence_24

They are also bought and sold at will, as a result. Slavery_sentence_25

Although chattel slavery was the usual form of enslavement in most societies that practiced slavery throughout human history, since the 19th century, this form of slavery was formally abolished. Slavery_sentence_26

Dependents Slavery_section_3

"Slavery" has also been used to refer to a legal state of dependency to somebody else. Slavery_sentence_27

For example, in Persia, the situations and lives of such slaves could be better than those of common citizens. Slavery_sentence_28

Forced labour Slavery_section_4

Main articles: Unfree labour and Child slavery Slavery_sentence_29

See also: Human trafficking, Child labour, Military use of children, and Sexual slavery Slavery_sentence_30

Forced labour, or unfree labour, is sometimes used to describe an individual who is forced to work against their own will, under threat of violence or other punishment, but the generic term unfree labour is also used to describe chattel slavery, as well as any other situation in which a person is obliged to work against their own will, and a person's ability to work productively is under the complete control of another person. Slavery_sentence_31

This may also include institutions not commonly classified as slavery, such as serfdom, conscription and penal labour. Slavery_sentence_32

While some unfree labourers, such as serfs, have substantive, de jure legal or traditional rights, they also have no ability to terminate the arrangements under which they work and are frequently subject to forms of coercion, violence, and restrictions on their activities and movement outside their place of work. Slavery_sentence_33

Human trafficking primarily involves women and children forced into prostitution and is the fastest growing form of forced labour, with Thailand, Cambodia, India, Brazil and Mexico having been identified as leading hotspots of commercial sexual exploitation of children. Slavery_sentence_34

Examples of sexual slavery, often in military contexts, include detention in "rape camps" or "comfort stations," "comfort women", forced "marriages" to soldiers and other practices involving the treatment of women or men as chattel and, as such, violations of the peremptory norm prohibiting slavery. Slavery_sentence_35

In 2007, Human Rights Watch estimated that 200,000 to 300,000 children served as soldiers in current conflicts. Slavery_sentence_36

More girls under 16 work as domestic workers than any other category of child labor, often sent to cities by parents living in rural poverty such as in restaveks in Haiti. Slavery_sentence_37

Forced marriage Slavery_section_5

See also: Marriage by abduction and Child marriage Slavery_sentence_38

Forced marriages or early marriages are often considered types of slavery. Slavery_sentence_39

Forced marriage continues to be practiced in parts of the world including some parts of Asia and Africa and in immigrant communities in the West. Slavery_sentence_40

Sacred prostitution is where girls and women are pledged to priests or those of higher castes, such as the practice of Devadasi in South Asia or fetish slaves in West Africa. Slavery_sentence_41

Marriage by abduction occurs in many places in the world today, with a national average of 69% of marriages in Ethiopia being through abduction. Slavery_sentence_42

Characteristics Slavery_section_6

Economics Slavery_section_7

Economists have attempted to model the circumstances under which slavery (and variants such as serfdom) appear and disappear. Slavery_sentence_43

One observation is that slavery becomes more desirable for landowners where land is abundant but labour is scarce, such that rent is depressed and paid workers can demand high wages. Slavery_sentence_44

If the opposite holds true, then it becomes more costly for landowners to have guards for the slaves than to employ paid workers who can only demand low wages because of the amount of competition. Slavery_sentence_45

Thus, first slavery and then serfdom gradually decreased in Europe as the population grew but were reintroduced in the Americas and in Russia as large areas of new land with few people became available. Slavery_sentence_46

Slavery is more common when the labor done is relatively simple and thus easy to supervise, such as large-scale growing of a single crop, like sugar and cotton, in which output was based on economies of scale. Slavery_sentence_47

This enables such systems of labor, such as the gang system in the United States, to become prominent on large plantations where field hands were monitored and worked with factory-like precision. Slavery_sentence_48

For example, each work gang was based on an internal division of labour that assigned every member of the gang to a precise task and simultaneously made their own performance dependent on the actions of the others. Slavery_sentence_49

The hoe hands chopped out the weeds that surrounded the cotton plants as well as excessive sprouts. Slavery_sentence_50

The plow gangs followed behind, stirring the soil near the rows of cotton plants and tossing it back around the plants. Slavery_sentence_51

Thus, the gang system worked like an assembly line. Slavery_sentence_52

Since the 18th century, critics have argued that slavery tends to retard technological advancement because the focus is on increasing the number of slaves doing simple tasks rather than upgrading the efficiency of labour. Slavery_sentence_53

For example, it is sometime argued that, because of this narrow focus, theoretical knowledge and learning in Greece – and later in Rome – was not applied to ease physical labour or improve manufacturing. Slavery_sentence_54

Scottish economist Adam Smith states that free labour was economically better than slave labour, and that it is nearly impossible to end slavery in a free, democratic, or republican form of government since many of its legislators or political figures were slave owners, and would not punish themselves. Slavery_sentence_55

He further states that slaves would be better able to gain their freedom when there was centralized government, or a central authority like a king or the church. Slavery_sentence_56

Similar arguments appear later in the works of Auguste Comte, especially when it comes to Smith's belief in the separation of powers, or what Comte called the "separation of the spiritual and the temporal" during the Middle Ages and the end of slavery, and Smith's criticism of masters, past and present. Slavery_sentence_57

As Smith states in the Lectures on Jurisprudence, "The great power of the clergy thus concurring with that of the king set the slaves at liberty. Slavery_sentence_58

But it was absolutely necessary both that the authority of the king and of the clergy should be great. Slavery_sentence_59

Where ever any one of these was wanting, slavery still continues..." Slavery_sentence_60

Worldwide, slavery is a criminal offense, but slave owners can get very high returns for their risk. Slavery_sentence_61

According to researcher Siddharth Kara, the profits generated worldwide by all forms of slavery in 2007 were $91.2 billion. Slavery_sentence_62

That is second only to drug trafficking, in terms of global criminal enterprises. Slavery_sentence_63

Currently, the weighted average global sales price of a slave is calculated to be approximately $340, with a high of $1,895 for the average trafficked sex slave, and a low of $40 to $50 for debt bondage slaves in part of Asia and Africa. Slavery_sentence_64

The weighted average annual profits generated by a slave in 2007 was $3,175, with a low of an average $950 for bonded labor and $29,210 for a trafficked sex slave. Slavery_sentence_65

Approximately 40% of slave profits each year are generated by trafficked sex slaves, representing slightly more than 4% of the world's 29 million slaves. Slavery_sentence_66

Identification Slavery_section_8

Throughout history, slaves were clothed in a distinctive fashion, particularly with respect to the frequent lack of footwear, as they were rather commonly forced to go barefoot. Slavery_sentence_67

This was partly because of economic reasons but also served as a distinguishing feature, especially in South Africa and South America. Slavery_sentence_68

For example, the Cape Town slave code stated that "Slaves must go barefoot and must carry passes." Slavery_sentence_69

It also puts slaves at a physical disadvantage because of the lack of protection against environmental adversities and also in situations of possible confrontation, thereby making it more difficult to escape or to rebel against their owners. Slavery_sentence_70

This was the case in the majority of states that abolished slavery later in history, as most images from the respective historical period suggest that slaves were barefoot. Slavery_sentence_71

To quote Brother Riemer (1779): "[the slaves] are, even in their most beautiful suit, obliged to go barefoot. Slavery_sentence_72

Slaves were forbidden to wear shoes. Slavery_sentence_73

This was a prime mark of distinction between the free and the bonded and no exceptions were permitted." Slavery_sentence_74

According to the Bible, shoes have been considered badges of freedom since antiquity: "But the father said to his servants, Bring forth the best robe, and put [it] on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on [his] feet" (). Slavery_sentence_75

This aspect can be viewed as an informal law in areas where slavery existed as any person sighted barefoot in public would be conclusively regarded as a slave. Slavery_sentence_76

In certain societies this rule is valid to this day. Slavery_sentence_77

As with the Tuareg, where slavery is still unofficially practiced, their slaves are constantly forced to remain barefoot as a recognition mark. Slavery_sentence_78

Mainly through their bare feet their societal status and rank opposite their owners is displayed to the public in a plainly visible way. Slavery_sentence_79

Another widespread practice was branding the slaves either to generally mark them as property or as punishment usually reserved for fugitives. Slavery_sentence_80

History Slavery_section_9

Some scholars differentiate between ancient forms of slavery and the large-scale, largely race-based slavery which grew to immense proportions starting in the 14th century. Slavery_sentence_81

The first type of slavery, sometimes called "just title servitude," was suffered by prisoners of war, debtors, and other vulnerable people. Slavery_sentence_82

The second, race-based type of slavery was argued even by some contemporary writers to be intrinsically immoral. Slavery_sentence_83

Early history Slavery_section_10

Main article: History of slavery Slavery_sentence_84

Evidence of slavery predates written records and has existed in many cultures. Slavery_sentence_85

Slavery is rare among hunter-gatherer populations because it requires economic surpluses and a high population density to be viable. Slavery_sentence_86

Thus, although it has existed among unusually resource-rich hunter gatherers, such as the American Indian peoples of the salmon-rich rivers of the Pacific Northwest Coast, slavery became widespread only with the invention of agriculture during the Neolithic Revolution about 11,000 years ago. Slavery_sentence_87

In the earliest known records, slavery is treated as an established institution. Slavery_sentence_88

The Code of Hammurabi (c. 1760 BC), for example, prescribed death for anyone who helped a slave escape or who sheltered a fugitive. Slavery_sentence_89

The Bible mentions slavery as an established institution. Slavery_sentence_90

Slavery was known in almost every ancient civilization and society. Slavery_sentence_91

Such institutions included debt bondage, punishment for crime, the enslavement of prisoners of war, child abandonment, and the birth of slave children to slaves. Slavery_sentence_92

Classical antiquity Slavery_section_11

Main article: Slavery in antiquity Slavery_sentence_93

Africa Slavery_section_12

Slavery existed in Pharaonic Egypt, but studying it is complicated by terminology used by the Egyptians to refer to different classes of servitude over the course of history. Slavery_sentence_94

Interpretation of the textual evidence of classes of slaves in ancient Egypt has been difficult to differentiate by word usage alone. Slavery_sentence_95

There were three apparent types of enslavement in Ancient Egypt: chattel slavery, bonded labor, and forced labor. Slavery_sentence_96

Asia Slavery_section_13

Slavery is known to have existed in ancient China as early as the Shang dynasty. Slavery_sentence_97

Slavery was largely employed by governments as a means of maintaining a public labor force. Slavery_sentence_98

Europe Slavery_section_14

Ancient Greece and Rome Slavery_section_15

Main article: Slavery in ancient Rome Slavery_sentence_99

Records of slavery in Ancient Greece date as far back as Mycenaean Greece. Slavery_sentence_100

It is certain that Classical Athens had the largest slave population, with as many as 80,000 in the 6th and 5th centuries BC. Slavery_sentence_101

As the Roman Republic expanded outward, entire populations were enslaved, thus creating an ample supply from all over Europe and the Mediterranean. Slavery_sentence_102

Slaves were used for labour, as well as for amusement (e.g. gladiators and sex slaves). Slavery_sentence_103

This oppression by an elite minority eventually led to slave revolts (see Roman Servile Wars); the Third Servile War, led by Spartacus, (a Thracian) being the most famous. Slavery_sentence_104

By the late Republican era, slavery had become a vital economic pillar in the wealth of Rome, as well as a very significant part of Roman society. Slavery_sentence_105

It is estimated that 25% or more of the population of Ancient Rome was enslaved, although the actual percentage is debated by scholars and varied from region to region. Slavery_sentence_106

Slaves represented 15–25% of Italy's population, mostly captives in war, especially from Gaul and Epirus. Slavery_sentence_107

Estimates of the number of slaves in the Roman Empire suggest that the majority of slaves were scattered throughout the provinces outside of Italy. Slavery_sentence_108

Generally, slaves in Italy were indigenous Italians, with a minority of foreigners (including both slaves and freedmen) born outside of Italy estimated at 5% of the total in the capital at its peak, where their number was largest. Slavery_sentence_109

Those from outside of Europe were predominantly of Greek descent, while the Jewish ones never fully assimilated into Roman society, remaining an identifiable minority. Slavery_sentence_110

These slaves (especially the foreigners) had higher death rates and lower birth rates than natives and were sometimes even subjected to mass expulsions. Slavery_sentence_111

The average recorded age at death for the slaves of the city of Rome was seventeen and a half years (17.2 for males; 17.9 for females). Slavery_sentence_112

Middle Ages Slavery_section_16

Africa Slavery_section_17

See also: Slavery in Africa Slavery_sentence_113

Slavery was widespread in Africa, with both internal and external slave trade. Slavery_sentence_114

In the Senegambia region, between 1300 and 1900, close to one-third of the population was enslaved. Slavery_sentence_115

In early Islamic states of the western Sahel, including Ghana, Mali, Segou, and Songhai, about a third of the population were enslaved. Slavery_sentence_116

The Arab slave trade, across the Sahara desert and across the Indian Ocean, began after Muslim Arab and Swahili traders won control of the Swahili Coast and sea routes during the 9th century (see Sultanate of Zanzibar). Slavery_sentence_117

These traders captured Bantu peoples (Zanj) from the interior in present-day Kenya, Mozambique and Tanzania and brought them to the coast. Slavery_sentence_118

There, the slaves gradually assimilated in the rural areas, particularly on the Unguja and Pemba islands. Slavery_sentence_119

Americas Slavery_section_18

Slavery in Mexico can be traced back to the Aztecs. Slavery_sentence_120

Other Amerindians, such as the Inca of the Andes, the Tupinambá of Brazil, the Creek of Georgia, and the Comanche of Texas, also owned slaves. Slavery_sentence_121

Asia Slavery_section_19

China Slavery_section_20

See also: Slavery in China Slavery_sentence_122

Many Han Chinese were enslaved in the process of the Mongol invasion of China proper. Slavery_sentence_123

According to Japanese historians Sugiyama Masaaki (杉山正明) and Funada Yoshiyuki (舩田善之), there were also a certain number of Mongolian slaves owned by Han Chinese during the Yuan dynasty. Slavery_sentence_124

Moreover, there is no evidence that the Han Chinese, who were at the bottom of Yuan society according to some research, suffered particularly cruel abuse. Slavery_sentence_125

Korea Slavery_section_21

Slavery in Korea existed since before the Three Kingdoms of Korea period, approximately 2,000 years ago. Slavery_sentence_126

Slavery has been described as "very important in medieval Korea, probably more important than in any other East Asian country, but by the 16th century, population growth was making [it] unnecessary". Slavery_sentence_127

Slavery went into decline around the 10th century but came back in the late Goryeo period when Korea also experienced a number of slave rebellions. Slavery_sentence_128

In the Joseon period of Korea, members of the slave class were known as nobi. Slavery_sentence_129

The nobi were socially indistinct from freemen (i.e., the middle and common classes) other than the ruling yangban class, and some possessed property rights, legal entities and civil rights. Slavery_sentence_130

Hence, some scholars argue that it is inappropriate to call them "slaves", while some scholars describe them as serfs. Slavery_sentence_131

The nobi population could fluctuate up to about one-third of the population, but on average the nobi made up about 10% of the total population. Slavery_sentence_132

In 1801, the vast majority of government nobi were emancipated, and by 1858 the nobi population stood at about 1.5 percent of the total population of Korea. Slavery_sentence_133

Europe Slavery_section_22

Main articles: Barbary slave trade and Slavery in the Byzantine Empire Slavery_sentence_134

Slavery largely disappeared from Western Europe in the Middle Ages but persisted longer in Eastern Europe. Slavery_sentence_135

Large-scale trading in slaves was mainly confined to the South and East of early medieval Europe: the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim world were the destinations, while pagan Central and Eastern Europe (along with the Caucasus and Tartary) were important sources. Slavery_sentence_136

Viking, Arab, Greek, and Radhanite Jewish merchants were all involved in the slave trade during the Early Middle Ages. Slavery_sentence_137

The trade in European slaves reached a peak in the 10th century following the Zanj Rebellion which dampened the use of African slaves in the Arab world. Slavery_sentence_138

Slavery in early medieval Europe was so common that the Catholic Church repeatedly prohibited it, or at least the export of Christian slaves to non-Christian lands, as for example at the Council of Koblenz (922), the Council of London (1102) (which aimed mainly at the sale of English slaves to Ireland) and the Council of Armagh (1171). Slavery_sentence_139

Serfdom, on the contrary, was widely accepted. Slavery_sentence_140

In 1452, Pope Nicholas V issued the papal bull Dum Diversas, granting the kings of Spain and Portugal the right to reduce any "Saracens (Muslims), pagans and any other unbelievers" to perpetual slavery, legitimizing the slave trade as a result of war. Slavery_sentence_141

The approval of slavery under these conditions was reaffirmed and extended in his Romanus Pontifex bull of 1455. Slavery_sentence_142

Britain Slavery_section_23

In Britain, slavery continued to be practiced following the fall of Rome, and sections of Hywel the Good's laws dealt with slaves in medieval Wales. Slavery_sentence_143

The trade particularly picked up after the Viking invasions, with major markets at Chester and Bristol supplied by Danish, Mercian, and Welsh raiding of one another's borderlands. Slavery_sentence_144

At the time of the Domesday Book, nearly 10% of the English population were slaves. Slavery_sentence_145

William the Conqueror introduced a law preventing the sale of slaves overseas. Slavery_sentence_146

According to historian John Gillingham, by 1200 slavery in the British Isles was non-existent. Slavery_sentence_147

Slavery had never been authorized by statute within England and Wales, and in 1772, in the case Somerset v Stewart, Lord Mansfield declared that it was also unsupported within England by the common law. Slavery_sentence_148

The slave trade was abolished by the Slave Trade Act 1807, although slavery remained legal in possessions outside Europe until the passage of the Slavery Abolition Act 1833 and the Indian Slavery Act, 1843. Slavery_sentence_149

However, when England began to have colonies in the Americas, and particularly from the 1640s, African slaves began to make their appearance in England and remained a presence until the eighteenth century. Slavery_sentence_150

In Scotland, slaves continued to be sold as chattels until late in the eighteenth century (on the 2nd May, 1722, an advertisement appeared in the "Edinburgh Evening Courant", announcing that a stolen slave had been found, who would be sold to pay expenses, unless claimed within two weeks). Slavery_sentence_151

For nearly two hundred years in the history of coal mining in Scotland, miners were bonded to their "maisters" by a 1606 Act "Anent Coalyers and Salters". Slavery_sentence_152

The Colliers and Salters (Scotland) Act 1775 stated that "many colliers and salters are in a state of slavery and bondage" and announced emancipation; those starting work after 1 July 1775 would not become slaves, while those already in a state of slavery could, after 7 or 10 years depending on their age, apply for a decree of the Sheriff's Court granting their freedom. Slavery_sentence_153

Few could afford this, until a further law in 1799 established their freedom and made this slavery and bondage illegal. Slavery_sentence_154

Ottoman Empire Slavery_section_24

The Byzantine-Ottoman wars and the Ottoman wars in Europe brought large numbers of slaves into the Islamic world. Slavery_sentence_155

To staff its bureaucracy, the Ottoman Empire established a janissary system which seized hundreds of thousands of Christian boys through the devşirme system. Slavery_sentence_156

They were well cared for but were legally slaves owned by the government and were not allowed to marry. Slavery_sentence_157

They were never bought or sold. Slavery_sentence_158

The empire gave them significant administrative and military roles. Slavery_sentence_159

The system began about 1365; there were 135,000 janissaries in 1826, when the system ended. Slavery_sentence_160

After the Battle of Lepanto, 12,000 Christian galley slaves were recaptured and freed from the Ottoman fleet. Slavery_sentence_161

Eastern Europe suffered a series of Tatar invasions, the goal of which was to loot and capture slaves into jasyr. Slavery_sentence_162

Seventy-five Crimean Tatar raids were recorded into Poland–Lithuania between 1474 and 1569. Slavery_sentence_163

Poland Slavery_section_25

Slavery in Poland was forbidden in the 15th century; in Lithuania, slavery was formally abolished in 1588; they were replaced by the second serfdom. Slavery_sentence_164

Spain and Portugal Slavery_section_26

Medieval Spain and Portugal were the scene of almost constant Muslim invasion of the predominantly Christian area. Slavery_sentence_165

Periodic raiding expeditions were sent from Al-Andalus to ravage the Iberian Christian kingdoms, bringing back booty and slaves. Slavery_sentence_166

In a raid against Lisbon in 1189, for example, the Almohad caliph Yaqub al-Mansur took 3,000 female and child captives, while his governor of Córdoba, in a subsequent attack upon Silves, Portugal, in 1191, took 3,000 Christian slaves. Slavery_sentence_167

From the 11th to the 19th century, North African Barbary Pirates engaged in Razzias, raids on European coastal towns, to capture Christian slaves to sell at slave markets in places such as Algeria and Morocco. Slavery_sentence_168

The maritime town of Lagos was the first slave market created in Portugal (one of the earliest colonizers of the Americas) for the sale of imported African slaves – the Mercado de Escravos, opened in 1444. Slavery_sentence_169

In 1441, the first slaves were brought to Portugal from northern Mauritania. Slavery_sentence_170

By 1552, black African slaves made up 10% of the population of Lisbon. Slavery_sentence_171

In the second half of the 16th century, the Crown gave up the monopoly on slave trade, and the focus of European trade in African slaves shifted from import to Europe to slave transports directly to tropical colonies in the Americas – especially Brazil. Slavery_sentence_172

In the 15th century one-third of the slaves were resold to the African market in exchange of gold. Slavery_sentence_173

Russia Slavery_section_27

See also: Slavery in Russia Slavery_sentence_174

In Kievan Rus and Muscovy, slaves were usually classified as kholops. Slavery_sentence_175

According to David P. Forsythe, "In 1649 up to three-quarters of Muscovy's peasants, or 13 to 14 million people, were serfs whose material lives were barely distinguishable from slaves. Slavery_sentence_176

Perhaps another 1.5 million were formally enslaved, with Russian slaves serving Russian masters." Slavery_sentence_177

Slavery remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter the Great converted the household slaves into house serfs. Slavery_sentence_178

Russian agricultural slaves were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. Slavery_sentence_179

Scandinavia Slavery_section_28

In Scandinavia, thralldom was abolished in the mid-14th century. Slavery_sentence_180

Early modern period Slavery_section_29

Africa Slavery_section_30

Main articles: Slavery in contemporary Africa and Devshirme Slavery_sentence_181

The Arab slave trade lasted more than a millennium. Slavery_sentence_182

As recently as the early 1960s, Saudi Arabia's slave population was estimated at 300,000. Slavery_sentence_183

Along with Yemen, the Saudis abolished slavery in 1962. Slavery_sentence_184

Historically, slaves in the Arab World came from many different regions, including Sub-Saharan Africa (mainly Zanj), the Caucasus (mainly Circassians), Central Asia (mainly Tartars), and Central and Eastern Europe (mainly Saqaliba). Slavery_sentence_185

Some historians assert that as many as 17 million people were sold into slavery on the coast of the Indian Ocean, the Middle East, and North Africa, and approximately 5 million African slaves were bought by Muslim slave traders and taken from Africa across the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Sahara desert between 1500 and 1900. Slavery_sentence_186

The captives were sold throughout the Middle East. Slavery_sentence_187

This trade accelerated as superior ships led to more trade and greater demand for labour on plantations in the region. Slavery_sentence_188

Eventually, tens of thousands of captives were being taken every year. Slavery_sentence_189

The Indian Ocean slave trade was multi-directional and changed over time. Slavery_sentence_190

To meet the demand for menial labor, Bantu slaves bought by Arab slave traders from southeastern Africa were sold in cumulatively large numbers over the centuries to customers in Egypt, Arabia, the Persian Gulf, India, European colonies in the Far East, the Indian Ocean islands, Ethiopia and Somalia. Slavery_sentence_191

According to the Encyclopedia of African History, "It is estimated that by the 1890s the largest slave population of the world, about 2 million people, was concentrated in the territories of the Sokoto Caliphate. Slavery_sentence_192

The use of slave labor was extensive, especially in agriculture." Slavery_sentence_193

The Anti-Slavery Society estimated there were 2 million slaves in Ethiopia in the early 1930s out of an estimated population of 8 to 16 million. Slavery_sentence_194

Slave labor in East Africa was drawn from the Zanj, Bantu peoples that lived along the East African coast. Slavery_sentence_195

The Zanj were for centuries shipped as slaves by Arab traders to all the countries bordering the Indian Ocean. Slavery_sentence_196

The Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs recruited many Zanj slaves as soldiers and, as early as 696, there were slave revolts of the Zanj against their Arab enslavers in Iraq. Slavery_sentence_197

The Zanj Rebellion, a series of uprisings that took place between 869 and 883 near Basra (also known as Basara), situated in present-day Iraq, is believed to have involved enslaved Zanj that had originally been captured from the African Great Lakes region and areas further south in East Africa. Slavery_sentence_198

It grew to involve over 500,000 slaves and free men who were imported from across the Muslim empire and claimed over "tens of thousands of lives in lower Iraq". Slavery_sentence_199

The Zanj who were taken as slaves to the Middle East were often used in strenuous agricultural work. Slavery_sentence_200

As the plantation economy boomed and the Arabs became richer, agriculture and other manual labor work was thought to be demeaning. Slavery_sentence_201

The resulting labor shortage led to an increased slave market. Slavery_sentence_202

In Algiers, the capital of Algeria, captured Christians and Europeans were forced into slavery. Slavery_sentence_203

In about 1650, there were as many as 35,000 Christian slaves in Algiers. Slavery_sentence_204

By one estimate, raids by Barbary pirates on coastal villages and ships extending from Italy to Iceland, enslaved an estimated 1 to 1.25 million Europeans between the 16th and 19th centuries. Slavery_sentence_205

However, to this estimate is extrapolated by assuming the number of European, slaves captured by Barbary pirates, was constant for 250 years period: Slavery_sentence_206

Davis' numbers have been refuted by other historians, such as David Earle, who cautions that true picture of Europeans slaves is clouded by the fact the corsairs also seized non-Christian whites from eastern Europe. Slavery_sentence_207

In addition, the number of slaves traded was hyperactive, with exaggerated estimates relying on peak years to calculate averages for entire centuries, or millennia. Slavery_sentence_208

Hence, there were wide fluctuations year-to-year, particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries, given slave imports, and also given the fact that, prior to the 1840s, there are no consistent records. Slavery_sentence_209

Middle East expert, John Wright, cautions that modern estimates are based on back-calculations from human observation. Slavery_sentence_210

Such observations, across the late 16th and early 17th century observers, account for around 35,000 European Christian slaves held throughout this period on the Barbary Coast, across Tripoli, Tunis, but mostly in Algiers. Slavery_sentence_211

The majority were sailors (particularly those who were English), taken with their ships, but others were fishermen and coastal villagers. Slavery_sentence_212

However, most of these captives were people from lands close to Africa, particularly Spain and Italy. Slavery_sentence_213

This eventually led to the bombardment of Algiers by an Anglo-Dutch fleet in 1816. Slavery_sentence_214

Under Omani Arabs, Zanzibar became East Africa's main slave port, with as many as 50,000 enslaved Africans passing through every year during the 19th century. Slavery_sentence_215

Some historians estimate that between 11 and 18 million African slaves crossed the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Sahara Desert from 650 to 1900 AD. Slavery_sentence_216

Eduard Rüppell described the losses of Sudanese slaves being transported on foot to Egypt: "after the Daftardar bey's 1822 campaign in the southern Nuba mountains, nearly 40,000 slaves were captured. Slavery_sentence_217

However, through bad treatment, disease and desert travel barely 5,000 made it to Egypt.." W.A. Slavery_sentence_218

Veenhoven wrote: "The German doctor, Gustav Nachtigal, an eye-witness, believed that for every slave who arrived at a market three or four died on the way ... Keltie (The Partition of Africa, London, 1920) believes that for every slave the Arabs brought to the coast at least six died on the way or during the slavers' raid. Slavery_sentence_219

Livingstone puts the figure as high as ten to one." Slavery_sentence_220

Systems of servitude and slavery were common in parts of Africa, as they were in much of the ancient world. Slavery_sentence_221

In many African societies where slavery was prevalent, the enslaved people were not treated as chattel slaves and were given certain rights in a system similar to indentured servitude elsewhere in the world. Slavery_sentence_222

The forms of slavery in Africa were closely related to kinship structures. Slavery_sentence_223

In many African communities, where land could not be owned, enslavement of individuals was used as a means to increase the influence a person had and expand connections. Slavery_sentence_224

This made slaves a permanent part of a master's lineage and the children of slaves could become closely connected with the larger family ties. Slavery_sentence_225

Children of slaves born into families could be integrated into the master's kinship group and rise to prominent positions within society, even to the level of chief in some instances. Slavery_sentence_226

However, stigma often remained attached and there could be strict separations between slave members of a kinship group and those related to the master. Slavery_sentence_227

Slavery was practiced in many different forms: debt slavery, enslavement of war captives, military slavery, and criminal slavery were all practiced in various parts of Africa. Slavery_sentence_228

Slavery for domestic and court purposes was widespread throughout Africa. Slavery_sentence_229

When the Atlantic slave trade began, many of the local slave systems began supplying captives for chattel slave markets outside Africa. Slavery_sentence_230

Although the Atlantic slave trade was not the only slave trade from Africa, it was the largest in volume and intensity. Slavery_sentence_231

As Elikia M’bokolo wrote in Le Monde diplomatique: Slavery_sentence_232

The trans-Atlantic slave trade peaked in the late 18th century, when the largest number of slaves were captured on raiding expeditions into the interior of West Africa. Slavery_sentence_233

These expeditions were typically carried out by African kingdoms, such as the Oyo Empire (Yoruba), the Ashanti Empire, the kingdom of Dahomey, and the Aro Confederacy. Slavery_sentence_234

It is estimated that about 15 percent of slaves died during the voyage, with mortality rates considerably higher in Africa itself in the process of capturing and transporting indigenous peoples to the ships. Slavery_sentence_235

Americas Slavery_section_31

Further information: Atlantic slave trade, Encomienda, Mita (Inca), Slavery in Brazil, and Slavery in the United States Slavery_sentence_236

Slavery in America remains a contentious issue and played a major role in the history and evolution of some countries, triggering a revolution, a civil war, and numerous rebellions. Slavery_sentence_237

In order to establish itself as an American empire, Spain had to fight against the relatively powerful civilizations of the New World. Slavery_sentence_238

The Spanish conquest of the indigenous peoples in the Americas included using the Natives as forced labour. Slavery_sentence_239

The Spanish colonies were the first Europeans to use African slaves in the New World on islands such as Cuba and Hispaniola. Slavery_sentence_240

Bartolomé de las Casas, a 16th-century Dominican friar and Spanish historian, participated in campaigns in Cuba (at Bayamo and Camagüey) and was present at the massacre of Hatuey; his observation of that massacre led him to fight for a social movement away from the use of natives as slaves. Slavery_sentence_241

Also, the alarming decline in the native population had spurred the first royal laws protecting the native population. Slavery_sentence_242

The first African slaves arrived in Hispaniola in 1501. Slavery_sentence_243

England played a prominent role in the Atlantic slave trade. Slavery_sentence_244

The "slave triangle" was pioneered by Francis Drake and his associates. Slavery_sentence_245

Many Africans who arrived in North America during the 17th and 18th centuries came under contract as indentured servants. Slavery_sentence_246

The transformation from indentured servitude to slavery was a gradual process in Virginia. Slavery_sentence_247

The earliest legal documentation of such a shift was in 1640 where a negro, John Punch, was sentenced to lifetime slavery, forcing him to serve his master, Hugh Gwyn, for the remainder of his life, for attempting to run away. Slavery_sentence_248

This case was significant because it established the disparity between his sentence as a black man and that of the two white indentured servants who escaped with him (one described as Dutch and one as a Scotchman). Slavery_sentence_249

It is the first documented case of a black man sentenced to lifetime servitude and is considered one of the first legal cases to make a racial distinction between black and white indentured servants. Slavery_sentence_250

After 1640, planters started to ignore the expiration of indentured contracts and keep their servants as slaves for life. Slavery_sentence_251

This was demonstrated by the 1655 case Johnson v. Parker, where the court ruled that a black man, Anthony Johnson of Virginia, was granted ownership of another black man, John Casor, as the result of a civil case. Slavery_sentence_252

This was the first instance of a judicial determination in the Thirteen Colonies holding that a person who had committed no crime could be held in servitude for life. Slavery_sentence_253

Barbados Slavery_section_32

In the early 17th century, the majority of the labour in Barbados was provided by European indentured servants, mainly English, Irish and Scottish, with enslaved Africans and enslaved Amerindians providing little of the workforce. Slavery_sentence_254

The introduction of sugar cane from Dutch Brazil in 1640 completely transformed society and the economy. Slavery_sentence_255

Barbados eventually had one of the world's largest sugar industries. Slavery_sentence_256

As the effects of the new crop increased, so did the shift in the ethnic composition of Barbados and surrounding islands. Slavery_sentence_257

The workable sugar plantation required a large investment and a great deal of heavy labour. Slavery_sentence_258

At first, Dutch traders supplied the equipment, financing, and enslaved Africans, in addition to transporting most of the sugar to Europe. Slavery_sentence_259

In 1644, the population of Barbados was estimated at 30,000, of which about 800 were of African descent, with the remainder mainly of English descent. Slavery_sentence_260

These English smallholders were eventually bought out, and the island filled up with large sugar plantations worked by enslaved Africans. Slavery_sentence_261

By 1660, there was near parity with 27,000 blacks and 26,000 whites. Slavery_sentence_262

By 1666, at least 12,000 white smallholders had been bought out, died, or left the island. Slavery_sentence_263

Many of the remaining whites were increasingly poor. Slavery_sentence_264

By 1680, there were 17 slaves for every indentured servant. Slavery_sentence_265

By 1700, there were 15,000 free whites and 50,000 enslaved Africans. Slavery_sentence_266

Because of the increased implementation of slave codes, which created differential treatment between Africans and the white workers and ruling planter class, the island became increasingly unattractive to poor whites. Slavery_sentence_267

Black or slave codes were implemented in 1661, 1676, 1682, and 1688. Slavery_sentence_268

In response to these codes, several slave rebellions were attempted or planned during this time, but none succeeded. Slavery_sentence_269

Nevertheless, poor whites who had or acquired the means to emigrate often did so. Slavery_sentence_270

Planters expanded their importation of enslaved Africans to cultivate sugar cane. Slavery_sentence_271

Brazil Slavery_section_33

Slavery in Brazil began long before the first Portuguese settlement was established in 1532, as members of one tribe would enslave captured members of another. Slavery_sentence_272

Later, Portuguese colonists were heavily dependent on indigenous labor during the initial phases of settlement to maintain the subsistence economy, and natives were often captured by expeditions called bandeiras. Slavery_sentence_273

The importation of African slaves began midway through the 16th century, but the enslavement of indigenous peoples continued well into the 17th and 18th centuries. Slavery_sentence_274

During the Atlantic slave trade era, Brazil imported more African slaves than any other country. Slavery_sentence_275

Nearly 5 million slaves were brought from Africa to Brazil during the period from 1501 to 1866. Slavery_sentence_276

Until the early 1850s, most enslaved Africans who arrived on Brazilian shores were forced to embark at West Central African ports, especially in Luanda (present-day Angola). Slavery_sentence_277

Today, with the exception of Nigeria, the largest population of people of African descent is in Brazil. Slavery_sentence_278

Slave labor was the driving force behind the growth of the sugar economy in Brazil, and sugar was the primary export of the colony from 1600 to 1650. Slavery_sentence_279

Gold and diamond deposits were discovered in Brazil in 1690, which sparked an increase in the importation of African slaves to power this newly profitable market. Slavery_sentence_280

Transportation systems were developed for the mining infrastructure, and population boomed from immigrants seeking to take part in gold and diamond mining. Slavery_sentence_281

Demand for African slaves did not wane after the decline of the mining industry in the second half of the 18th century. Slavery_sentence_282

Cattle ranching and foodstuff production proliferated after the population growth, both of which relied heavily on slave labor. Slavery_sentence_283

1.7 million slaves were imported to Brazil from Africa from 1700 to 1800, and the rise of coffee in the 1830s further enticed expansion of the slave trade. Slavery_sentence_284

Brazil was the last country in the Western world to abolish slavery. Slavery_sentence_285

Forty percent of the total number of slaves brought to the Americas were sent to Brazil. Slavery_sentence_286

For reference, the United States received 10 percent. Slavery_sentence_287

Despite being abolished, there are still people working in slavery-like conditions in Brazil in the 21st century. Slavery_sentence_288

Cuba Slavery_section_34

In 1789 the Spanish Crown led an effort to reform slavery, as the demand for slave labor in Cuba was growing. Slavery_sentence_289

The Crown issued a decree, Código Negro Español (Spanish Black Codex), that specified food and clothing provisions, put limits on the number of work hours, limited punishments, required religious instruction, and protected marriages, forbidding the sale of young children away from their mothers. Slavery_sentence_290

The British made other changes to the institution of slavery in Cuba. Slavery_sentence_291

But planters often flouted the laws and protested against them, considering them a threat to their authority and an intrusion into their personal lives. Slavery_sentence_292

The slaveowners did not protest against all the measures of the codex, many of which they argued were already common practices. Slavery_sentence_293

They objected to efforts to set limits on their ability to apply physical punishment. Slavery_sentence_294

For instance, the Black Codex limited whippings to 25 and required the whippings "not to cause serious bruises or bleeding". Slavery_sentence_295

The slave-owners thought that the slaves would interpret these limits as weaknesses, ultimately leading to resistance. Slavery_sentence_296

Another contested issue was the work hours that were restricted "from sunrise to sunset"; plantation owners responded by explaining that cutting and processing of cane needed 20-hour days during the harvest season. Slavery_sentence_297

Those slaves who worked on sugar plantations and in sugar mills were often subject to the harshest of conditions. Slavery_sentence_298

The field work was rigorous manual labor which the slaves began at an early age. Slavery_sentence_299

The work days lasted close to 20 hours during harvest and processing, including cultivating and cutting the crops, hauling wagons, and processing sugarcane with dangerous machinery. Slavery_sentence_300

The slaves were forced to reside in barracoons, where they were crammed in and locked in by a padlock at night, getting about three to four hours of sleep. Slavery_sentence_301

The conditions of the barracoons were harsh; they were highly unsanitary and extremely hot. Slavery_sentence_302

Typically there was no ventilation; the only window was a small barred hole in the wall. Slavery_sentence_303

Cuba's slavery system was gendered in a way that some duties were performed only by male slaves, some only by female slaves. Slavery_sentence_304

Female slaves in Havana from the 16th century onwards performed duties such as operating the town taverns, eating houses, and lodges, as well as being laundresses and domestic laborers and servants. Slavery_sentence_305

Female slaves also served as the town prostitutes. Slavery_sentence_306

Some Cuban women could gain freedom by having children with white men. Slavery_sentence_307

As in other Latin cultures, there were looser borders with the mulatto or mixed-race population. Slavery_sentence_308

Sometimes men who took slaves as wives or concubines freed both them and their children. Slavery_sentence_309

As in New Orleans and Saint-Domingue, mulattos began to be classified as a third group between the European colonists and African slaves. Slavery_sentence_310

Freedmen, generally of mixed race, came to represent 20% of the total Cuban population and 41% of the non-white Cuban population. Slavery_sentence_311

Planters encouraged Afro-Cuban slaves to have children in order to reproduce their work force. Slavery_sentence_312

The masters wanted to pair strong and large-built black men with healthy black women. Slavery_sentence_313

They were placed in the barracoons and forced to have sex and create offspring of “breed stock” children, who would sell for around 500 pesos. Slavery_sentence_314

The planters needed children to be born to replace slaves who died under the harsh regime. Slavery_sentence_315

Sometimes if the overseers did not like the quality of children, they separate the parents and sent the mother back to working in the fields. Slavery_sentence_316

Both women and men were subject to the punishments of violence and humiliating abuse. Slavery_sentence_317

Slaves who misbehaved or disobeyed their masters were often placed in stocks in the depths of the boiler houses where they were abandoned for days at a time, and oftentimes two to three months. Slavery_sentence_318

These wooden stocks were made in two types: lying-down or stand-up types. Slavery_sentence_319

women were punished, even when pregnant. Slavery_sentence_320

They were subjected to whippings: they had to lie "face down over a scooped-out piece of round [earth] to protect their bellies." Slavery_sentence_321

Some masters reportedly whipped pregnant women in the belly, often causing miscarriages. Slavery_sentence_322

The wounds were treated with “compresses of tobacco leaves, urine and salt." Slavery_sentence_323

Haiti Slavery_section_35

Slavery in Haiti started with the arrival of Christopher Columbus on the island in 1492. Slavery_sentence_324

The practice was devastating to the native population. Slavery_sentence_325

Following the indigenous Taíno's near decimation from forced labour, disease and war, the Spanish, under advisement of the Catholic priest Bartolomeu de las Casas, and with the blessing of the Catholic church began engaging in earnest in the kidnapped and forced labour of enslaved Africans. Slavery_sentence_326

During the French colonial period beginning in 1625, the economy of Haiti (then known as Saint-Domingue) was based on slavery, and the practice there was regarded as the most brutal in the world. Slavery_sentence_327

Following the Treaty of Ryswick of 1697, Hispaniola was divided between France and Spain. Slavery_sentence_328

France received the western third and subsequently named it Saint-Domingue. Slavery_sentence_329

To develop it into sugarcane plantations, the French imported thousands of slaves from Africa. Slavery_sentence_330

Sugar was a lucrative commodity crop throughout the 18th century. Slavery_sentence_331

By 1789, approximately 40,000 white colonists lived in Saint-Domingue. Slavery_sentence_332

The whites were vastly outnumbered by the tens of thousands of African slaves they had imported to work on their plantations, which were primarily devoted to the production of sugarcane. Slavery_sentence_333

In the north of the island, slaves were able to retain many ties to African cultures, religion and language; these ties were continually being renewed by newly imported Africans. Slavery_sentence_334

Blacks outnumbered whites by about ten to one. Slavery_sentence_335

The French-enacted Code Noir ("Black Code"), prepared by Jean-Baptiste Colbert and ratified by Louis XIV, had established rules on slave treatment and permissible freedoms. Slavery_sentence_336

Saint-Domingue has been described as one of the most brutally efficient slave colonies; one-third of newly imported Africans died within a few years. Slavery_sentence_337

Many slaves died from diseases such as smallpox and typhoid fever. Slavery_sentence_338

They had birth rates around 3 percent, and there is evidence that some women aborted fetuses, or committed infanticide, rather allow their children to live within the bonds of slavery. Slavery_sentence_339

As in its Louisiana colony, the French colonial government allowed some rights to free people of color: the mixed-race descendants of white male colonists and black female slaves (and later, mixed-race women). Slavery_sentence_340

Over time, many were released from slavery. Slavery_sentence_341

They established a separate social class. Slavery_sentence_342

White French Creole fathers frequently sent their mixed-race sons to France for their education. Slavery_sentence_343

Some men of color were admitted into the military. Slavery_sentence_344

More of the free people of color lived in the south of the island, near Port-au-Prince, and many intermarried within their community. Slavery_sentence_345

They frequently worked as artisans and tradesmen, and began to own some property. Slavery_sentence_346

Some became slave holders. Slavery_sentence_347

The free people of color petitioned the colonial government to expand their rights. Slavery_sentence_348

Slaves that made it to Haiti from the trans-Atlantic journey and slaves born in Haiti were first documented in Haiti's archives and transferred to France's Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Slavery_sentence_349

As of 2015, these records are in The National Archives of France. Slavery_sentence_350

According to the 1788 Census, Haiti's population consisted of nearly 40,000 whites, 30,000 free coloureds and 450,000 slaves. Slavery_sentence_351

The Haitian Revolution of 1804, the only successful slave revolt in human history, precipitated the end of slavery in all French colonies. Slavery_sentence_352

Jamaica Slavery_section_36

Jamaica was colonized by the Taino tribes prior to the arrival of Columbus in 1494. Slavery_sentence_353

The Spanish enslaved many of the Taino; some escaped, but most died from European diseases and overwork. Slavery_sentence_354

The Spaniards also introduced the first African slaves. Slavery_sentence_355

The Spanish colonists did not bring women in the first expeditions and took Taíno women for their common-law wives, resulting in mestizo children. Slavery_sentence_356

Sexual violence with the Taíno women by the Spanish was also common. Slavery_sentence_357

Although the African slave population in the 1670s and 1680s never exceeded 10,000, by 1800 it had increased to over 300,000. Slavery_sentence_358

Mexico Slavery_section_37

In 1519, Hernán Cortés brought the first modern slave to the area. Slavery_sentence_359

In the mid-16th century, the second viceroy to Mexico, Luis de Velasco, prohibited slavery of the Aztecs. Slavery_sentence_360

A labor shortage resulted as the Aztecs were either killed or died from disease. Slavery_sentence_361

This led to the African slaves being imported, as they were not susceptible to smallpox. Slavery_sentence_362

In exchange, many Africans were afforded the opportunity to buy their freedom, while eventually others were granted their freedom by their masters. Slavery_sentence_363

Puerto Rico Slavery_section_38

When Ponce de León and the Spaniards arrived on the island of Borikén (Puerto Rico), they enslaved Taíno tribes on the island, forcing them to work in the gold mines and in the construction of forts. Slavery_sentence_364

Many Taíno died, particularly from smallpox, of which they had no immunity. Slavery_sentence_365

Other Taínos committed suicide or left the island after the failed Taíno revolt of 1511. Slavery_sentence_366

The Spanish colonists, fearing the loss of their labor force, complained the courts that they needed manpower. Slavery_sentence_367

As an alternative, Las Casas suggested the importation and use of African slaves. Slavery_sentence_368

In 1517, the Spanish Crown permitted its subjects to import twelve slaves each, thereby beginning the slave trade on the colonies. Slavery_sentence_369

African slaves were legally branded with a hot iron on the forehead, prevented their "theft" or lawsuits that challenged their captivity. Slavery_sentence_370

The colonists continued this branding practice for more than 250 years. Slavery_sentence_371

They were sent to work in the gold mines, or in the island's ginger and sugar fields. Slavery_sentence_372

They were allowed to live with their families in a hut on the master's land, and given a patch of land where they could farm, but otherwise were subjected to harsh treatment; including sexual abuse as the majority of colonists had arrived without women; many of them intermarried with the Africans or Taínos. Slavery_sentence_373

Their mixed-race descendants formed the first generations of the early Puerto Rican population. Slavery_sentence_374

The slaves faced heavy discrimination and had no opportunity for advancement, though they were educated by their masters. Slavery_sentence_375

The Spaniards considered the Africans superior to the Taíno, since the latter were unwilling to assimilate. Slavery_sentence_376

The slaves, in contrast, had little choice but to adapt. Slavery_sentence_377

Many converted to Christianity and were given their masters' surnames. Slavery_sentence_378

By 1570, the colonists found that the gold mines were depleted, relegating the island to a garrison for passing ships. Slavery_sentence_379

The cultivation of crops such as tobacco, cotton, cocoa, and ginger became the cornerstone of the economy. Slavery_sentence_380

With rising demand for sugar on the international market, major planters increased their labor-intensive cultivation and processing of sugar cane. Slavery_sentence_381

Sugar plantations supplanted mining as Puerto Rico's main industry and kept demand high for African slavery. Slavery_sentence_382

After 1784, Spain provided five ways by which slaves could obtain freedom. Slavery_sentence_383

Five years later, the Spanish Crown issued the "Royal Decree of Graces of 1789", which set new rules related to the slave trade and added restrictions to the granting of freedman status. Slavery_sentence_384

The decree granted its subjects the right to purchase slaves and to participate in the flourishing slave trade in the Caribbean. Slavery_sentence_385

Later that year a new slave code, also known as El Código Negro (The Black Code), was introduced. Slavery_sentence_386

Under "El Código Negro", a slave could buy his freedom, in the event that his master was willing to sell, by paying the price sought in installments. Slavery_sentence_387

Slaves were allowed to earn money during their spare time by working as shoemakers, cleaning clothes, or selling the produce they grew on their own plots of land. Slavery_sentence_388

For the freedom of their newborn child, not yet baptized, they paid at half the going price for a baptized child. Slavery_sentence_389

Many of these freedmen started settlements in the areas which became known as Cangrejos (Santurce), Carolina, Canóvanas, Loíza, and Luquillo. Slavery_sentence_390

Some became slave owners themselves. Slavery_sentence_391

Despite these paths to freedom, from 1790 onwards, the number of slaves more than doubled in Puerto Rico as a result of the dramatic expansion of the sugar industry in the island. Slavery_sentence_392

On March 22, 1873, slavery was legally abolished in Puerto Rico. Slavery_sentence_393

However, slaves were not emancipated but rather had to buy their own freedom, at whatever price was set by their last masters. Slavery_sentence_394

They were also required to work for another three years for their former masters, for other colonists interested in their services, or for the state in order to pay some compensation. Slavery_sentence_395

Between 1527 and 1873, slaves in Puerto Rico had carried out more than twenty revolts. Slavery_sentence_396

Suriname Slavery_section_39

The planters of the Dutch colony relied heavily on African slaves to cultivate, harvest and process the commodity crops of coffee, cocoa, sugar cane and cotton plantations along the rivers. Slavery_sentence_397

Planters' treatment of the slaves was notoriously bad. Slavery_sentence_398

Historian C. Slavery_sentence_399 R. Boxer wrote that "man's inhumanity to man just about reached its limits in Surinam." Slavery_sentence_400

Many slaves escaped the plantations. Slavery_sentence_401

With the help of the native South Americans living in the adjoining rain forests, these runaway slaves established a new and unique culture in the interior that was highly successful in its own right. Slavery_sentence_402

They were known collectively in English as Maroons, in French as Nèg'Marrons (literally meaning "brown negroes", that is "pale-skinned negroes"), and in Dutch as Marrons. Slavery_sentence_403

The Maroons gradually developed several independent tribes through a process of ethnogenesis, as they were made up of slaves from different African ethnicities. Slavery_sentence_404

These tribes include the Saramaka, Paramaka, Ndyuka or Aukan, Kwinti, Aluku or Boni, and Matawai. Slavery_sentence_405

The Maroons often raided plantations to recruit new members from the slaves and capture women, as well as to acquire weapons, food and supplies. Slavery_sentence_406

They sometimes killed planters and their families in the raids. Slavery_sentence_407

The colonists also mounted armed campaigns against the Maroons, who generally escaped through the rain forest, which they knew much better than did the coloniss. Slavery_sentence_408

To end hostilities, in the 18th century the European colonial authorities signed several peace treaties with different tribes. Slavery_sentence_409

They granted the Maroons sovereign status and trade rights in their inland territories, giving them autonomy. Slavery_sentence_410

In 1861–63, President Abraham Lincoln of the United States and his administration looked abroad for places to relocate freed slaves who wanted to leave the United States. Slavery_sentence_411

It opened negotiations with the Dutch government regarding African-American emigration to and colonization of the Dutch colony of Suriname in South America. Slavery_sentence_412

Nothing came of it and after 1864, the proposal was dropped. Slavery_sentence_413

The Netherlands abolished slavery in Suriname, in 1863, under a gradual process that required slaves to work on plantations for 10 transition years for minimal pay, which was considered as partial compensation for their masters. Slavery_sentence_414

After 1873, most freedmen largely abandoned the plantations where they had worked for several generations in favor of the capital city, Paramaribo. Slavery_sentence_415

United States Slavery_section_40

Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries after it gained independence from the British and before the end of the American Civil War. Slavery_sentence_416

Slavery had been practiced in British America from early colonial days and was legal in all Thirteen Colonies at the time of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Slavery_sentence_417

By the time of the American Revolution, the status of slave had been institutionalized as a racial caste associated with African ancestry. Slavery_sentence_418

The United States became polarized over the issue of slavery, represented by the slave and free states divided by the Mason–Dixon line, which separated free Pennsylvania from slave Maryland and Delaware. Slavery_sentence_419

Congress, during the Jefferson administration prohibited the importation of slaves, effective 1808, although smuggling (illegal importing) was not unusual. Slavery_sentence_420

Domestic slave trading, however, continued at a rapid pace, driven by labor demands from the development of cotton plantations in the Deep South. Slavery_sentence_421

Those states attempted to extend slavery into the new western territories to keep their share of political power in the nation. Slavery_sentence_422

Such laws proposed to Congress to continue the spread of slavery into newly ratified states include the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Slavery_sentence_423

The treatment of slaves in the United States varied widely depending on conditions, times, and places. Slavery_sentence_424

The power relationships of slavery corrupted many whites who had authority over slaves, with children showing their own cruelty. Slavery_sentence_425

Masters and overseers resorted to physical punishments to impose their wills. Slavery_sentence_426

Slaves were punished by whipping, shackling, hanging, beating, burning, mutilation, branding and imprisonment. Slavery_sentence_427

Punishment was most often meted out in response to disobedience or perceived infractions, but sometimes abuse was carried out to re-assert the dominance of the master or overseer of the slave. Slavery_sentence_428

Treatment was usually harsher on large plantations, which were often managed by overseers and owned by absentee slaveholders. Slavery_sentence_429

William Wells Brown, who escaped to freedom, reported that on one plantation, slave men were required to pick 80 pounds of cotton per day, while women were required to pick 70 pounds per day; if any slave failed in his or her quota, they were subject to whip lashes for each pound they were short. Slavery_sentence_430

The whipping post stood next to the cotton scales. Slavery_sentence_431

A New York man who attended a slave auction in the mid-19th century reported that at least three-quarters of the male slaves he saw at sale had scars on their backs from whipping. Slavery_sentence_432

By contrast, small slave-owning families had closer relationships between the owners and slaves; this sometimes resulted in a more humane environment but was not a given. Slavery_sentence_433

More than one million slaves were sold from the Upper South, which had a surplus of labor, and taken to the Deep South in a forced migration, splitting up many families. Slavery_sentence_434

New communities of African-American culture were developed in the Deep South, and the total slave population in the South eventually reached 4 million before liberation. Slavery_sentence_435

In the 19th century, proponents of slavery often defended the institution as a "necessary evil". Slavery_sentence_436

White people of that time feared that emancipation of black slaves would have more harmful social and economic consequences than the continuation of slavery. Slavery_sentence_437

The French writer and traveler Alexis de Tocqueville, in Democracy in America (1835), expressed opposition to slavery while observing its effects on American society. Slavery_sentence_438

He felt that a multiracial society without slavery was untenable, as he believed that prejudice against black people increased as they were granted more rights. Slavery_sentence_439

Others, like James Henry Hammond argued that slavery was a "positive good" stating: "Such a class you must have, or you would not have that other class which leads progress, civilization, and refinement." Slavery_sentence_440

The Southern state governments wanted to keep a balance between the number of slave and free states to maintain a political balance of power in Congress. Slavery_sentence_441

The new territories acquired from Britain, France, and Mexico were the subject of major political compromises. Slavery_sentence_442

By 1850, the newly rich cotton-growing South was threatening to secede from the Union, and tensions continued to rise. Slavery_sentence_443

Many white Southern Christians, including church ministers, attempted to justify their support for slavery as modified by Christian paternalism. Slavery_sentence_444

The largest denominations, the Baptist, Methodist, and Presbyterian churches, split over the slavery issue into regional organizations of the North and South. Slavery_sentence_445

When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 election on a platform of halting the expansion of slavery, according to the 1860 U.S. census, roughly 400,000 individuals, representing 8% of all U.S. families, owned nearly 4,000,000 slaves. Slavery_sentence_446

One-third of Southern families owned slaves. Slavery_sentence_447

The South was heavily invested in slavery. Slavery_sentence_448

As such, upon Lincoln's election, seven states broke away to form the Confederate States of America. Slavery_sentence_449

The first six states to secede held the greatest number of slaves in the South. Slavery_sentence_450

Shortly after, over the issue of slavery, the United States erupted into an all out Civil War, with slavery legally ceasing as an institution following the war in December 1865. Slavery_sentence_451

In 2018, the Orlando Sentinel reported some private Christian schools in Florida as teaching students a creationist curriculum which includes assertions such as, “most black and white southerners had long lived together in harmony” and that “power-hungry individuals stirred up the people” leading to the Civil Rights Movement. Slavery_sentence_452

Asia Slavery_section_41

See also: History of slavery in Asia Slavery_sentence_453

Slavery has existed all throughout Asia, and forms of slavery still exist today. Slavery_sentence_454

China Slavery_section_42

Slavery has taken various forms throughout China's history. Slavery_sentence_455

It was reportedly abolished as a legally recognized institution, including in a 1909 law fully enacted in 1910, although the practice continued until at least 1949. Slavery_sentence_456

The Tang dynasty purchased Western slaves from the Radhanite Jews. Slavery_sentence_457

Tang Chinese soldiers and pirates enslaved Koreans, Turks, Persians, Indonesians, and people from Inner Mongolia, central Asia, and northern India. Slavery_sentence_458

The greatest source of slaves came from southern tribes, including Thais and aboriginals from the southern provinces of Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Guizhou. Slavery_sentence_459

Malays, Khmers, Indians, and "black skinned" peoples (who were either Austronesian Negritos of Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands, or Africans, or both) were also purchased as slaves in the Tang dynasty. Slavery_sentence_460

In the 17th century Qing Dynasty, there was a hereditarily servile people called Booi Aha (Manchu:booi niyalma; Chinese transliteration: 包衣阿哈), which is a Manchu word literally translated as "household person" and sometimes rendered as "nucai." Slavery_sentence_461

The Manchu was establishing close personal and paternalist relationship between masters and their slaves, as Nurhachi said, "The Master should love the slaves and eat the same food as him". Slavery_sentence_462

However, booi aha "did not correspond exactly to the Chinese category of "bond-servant slave" (Chinese:奴僕); instead, it was a relationship of personal dependency on a master which in theory guaranteed close personal relationships and equal treatment, even though many western scholars would directly translate "booi" as "bond-servant" (some of the "booi" even had their own servant). Slavery_sentence_463

Chinese Muslim (Tungans) Sufis who were charged with practicing xiejiao (heterodox religion), were punished by exile to Xinjiang and being sold as a slave to other Muslims, such as the Sufi begs. Slavery_sentence_464

Han Chinese who committed crimes such as those dealing with opium became slaves to the begs, this practice was administered by Qing law. Slavery_sentence_465

Most Chinese in Altishahr were exile slaves to Turkestani Begs. Slavery_sentence_466

While free Chinese merchants generally did not engage in relationships with East Turkestani women, some of the Chinese slaves belonging to begs, along with Green Standard soldiers, Bannermen, and Manchus, engaged in affairs with the East Turkestani women that were serious in nature. Slavery_sentence_467

India Slavery_section_43

Slavery in India was widespread by the 6th century BC, and perhaps even as far back as the Vedic period. Slavery_sentence_468

Slavery intensified during the Muslim domination of northern India after the 11th-century. Slavery_sentence_469

Slavery existed in Portuguese India after the 16th century. Slavery_sentence_470

The Dutch, too, largely dealt in Abyssian slaves, known in India as Habshis or Sheedes. Slavery_sentence_471

Arakan/Bengal, Malabar, and Coromandel remained the largest sources of forced labour until the 1660s. Slavery_sentence_472

Between 1626 and 1662, the Dutch exported on an average 150–400 slaves annually from the Arakan-Bengal coast. Slavery_sentence_473

During the first 30 years of Batavia's existence, Indian and Arakanese slaves provided the main labour force of the Dutch East India Company, Asian headquarters. Slavery_sentence_474

An increase in Coromandel slaves occurred during a famine following the revolt of the Nayaka Indian rulers of South India (Tanjavur, Senji, and Madurai) against Bijapur overlordship (1645) and the subsequent devastation of the Tanjavur countryside by the Bijapur army. Slavery_sentence_475

Reportedly, more than 150,000 people were taken by the invading Deccani Muslim armies to Bijapur and Golconda. Slavery_sentence_476

In 1646, 2,118 slaves were exported to Batavia, the overwhelming majority from southern Coromandel. Slavery_sentence_477

Some slaves were also acquired further south at Tondi, Adirampatnam, and Kayalpatnam. Slavery_sentence_478

Another increase in slaving took place between 1659 and 1661 from Tanjavur as a result of a series of successive Bijapuri raids. Slavery_sentence_479

At Nagapatnam, Pulicat, and elsewhere, the company purchased 8,000–10,000 slaves, the bulk of whom were sent to Ceylon, while a small portion were exported to Batavia and Malacca. Slavery_sentence_480

Finally, following a long drought in Madurai and southern Coromandel, in 1673, which intensified the prolonged Madurai-Maratha struggle over Tanjavur and punitive fiscal practices, thousands of people from Tanjavur, mostly children, were sold into slavery and exported by Asian traders from Nagapattinam to Aceh, Johor, and other slave markets. Slavery_sentence_481

In September 1687, 665 slaves were exported by the English from Fort St. George, Madras. Slavery_sentence_482

And, in 1694–96, when warfare once more ravaged South India, a total of 3,859 slaves were imported from Coromandel by private individuals into Ceylon. Slavery_sentence_483

The volume of the total Dutch Indian Ocean slave trade has been estimated to be about 15–30% of the Atlantic slave trade, slightly smaller than the trans-Saharan slave trade, and one-and-a-half to three times the size of the Swahili and Red Sea coast and the Dutch West India Company slave trades. Slavery_sentence_484

According to Sir Henry Bartle Frere (who sat on the Viceroy's Council), there were an estimated 8 or 9 million slaves in India in 1841. Slavery_sentence_485

About 15% of the population of Malabar were slaves. Slavery_sentence_486

Slavery was legally abolished in the possessions of the East India Company by the Indian Slavery Act, 1843. Slavery_sentence_487

Indochina Slavery_section_44

The hill tribe people in Indochina were "hunted incessantly and carried off as slaves by the Siamese (Thai), the Anamites (Vietnamese), and the Cambodians". Slavery_sentence_488

A Siamese military campaign in Laos in 1876 was described by a British observer as having been "transformed into slave-hunting raids on a large scale". Slavery_sentence_489

The census, taken in 1879, showed that 6% of the population in the Malay sultanate of Perak were slaves. Slavery_sentence_490

Enslaved people made up about two-thirds of the population in part of North Borneo in the 1880s. Slavery_sentence_491

Japan Slavery_section_45

After the Portuguese first made contact with Japan in 1543, a large scale slave trade developed in which Portuguese purchased Japanese as slaves in Japan and sold them to various locations overseas, including Portugal, throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. Slavery_sentence_492

Many documents mention the large slave trade along with protests against the enslavement of Japanese. Slavery_sentence_493

Japanese slaves are believed to be the first of their nation to end up in Europe, and the Portuguese purchased large numbers of Japanese slave girls to bring to Portugal for sexual purposes, as noted by the Church in 1555. Slavery_sentence_494

Japanese slave women were even sold as concubines to Asian lascar and African crew members, along with their European counterparts serving on Portuguese ships trading in Japan, mentioned by Luis Cerqueira, a Portuguese Jesuit, in a 1598 document. Slavery_sentence_495

Japanese slaves were brought by the Portuguese to Macau, where they were enslaved to Portuguese or became slaves to other slaves. Slavery_sentence_496

Some Korean slaves were bought by the Portuguese and brought back to Portugal from Japan, where they had been among the tens of thousands of Korean prisoners of war transported to Japan during the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98). Slavery_sentence_497

Historians pointed out that at the same time Hideyoshi expressed his indignation and outrage at the Portuguese trade in Japanese slaves, he was engaging in a mass slave trade of Korean prisoners of war in Japan. Slavery_sentence_498

Fillippo Sassetti saw some Chinese and Japanese slaves in Lisbon among the large slave community in 1578, although most of the slaves were black. Slavery_sentence_499

The Portuguese "highly regarded" Asian slaves from the East much more "than slaves from sub-Saharan Africa". Slavery_sentence_500

The Portuguese attributed qualities like intelligence and industriousness to Chinese and Japanese slaves. Slavery_sentence_501

King Sebastian of Portugal feared rampant slavery was having a negative effect on Catholic proselytization, so he commanded that it be banned in 1571. Slavery_sentence_502

Hideyoshi was so disgusted that his own Japanese people were being sold en masse into slavery on Kyushu, that he wrote a letter to Jesuit Vice-Provincial Gaspar Coelho on July 24, 1587, to demand the Portuguese, Siamese (Thai), and Cambodians stop purchasing and enslaving Japanese and return Japanese slaves who ended up as far as India. Slavery_sentence_503

Hideyoshi blamed the Portuguese and Jesuits for this slave trade and banned Christian proselytizing as a result. Slavery_sentence_504

In 1595, a law was passed by Portugal banning the selling and buying of Chinese and Japanese slaves. Slavery_sentence_505

Korea Slavery_section_46

During the Joseon period, the nobi population could fluctuate up to about one-third of the population, but on average the nobi made up about 10% of the total population. Slavery_sentence_506

The nobi system declined beginning in the 18th century. Slavery_sentence_507

Since the outset of the Joseon dynasty and especially beginning in the 17th century, there was harsh criticism among prominent thinkers in Korea about the nobi system. Slavery_sentence_508

Even within the Joseon government, there were indications of a shift in attitude toward the nobi. Slavery_sentence_509

King Yeongjo implemented a policy of gradual emancipation in 1775, and he and his successor King Jeongjo made many proposals and developments that lessened the burden on nobi, which led to the emancipation of the vast majority of government nobi in 1801. Slavery_sentence_510

In addition, population growth, numerous escaped slaves, growing commercialization of agriculture, and the rise of the independent small farmer class contributed to the decline in the number of nobi to about 1.5% of the total population by 1858. Slavery_sentence_511

The hereditary nobi system was officially abolished around 1886–87, and the rest of the nobi system was abolished with the Gabo Reform of 1894. Slavery_sentence_512

However, slavery did not completely disappear in Korea until 1930, during Imperial Japanese rule. Slavery_sentence_513

During the Imperial Japanese occupation of Korea around World War II, some Koreans were used in forced labor by the Imperial Japanese, in conditions which have been compared to slavery. Slavery_sentence_514

These included women forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese Army before and during World War II, known as "comfort women". Slavery_sentence_515

Oceania Slavery_section_47

Slaves (he mōkai) had a recognised social role in traditional Māori society in New Zealand. Slavery_sentence_516

Blackbirding occurred in the Pacific, especially in the 19th century. Slavery_sentence_517

Ottoman Empire and Black Sea Slavery_section_48

See also: Crimean-Nogai raids into East Slavic lands Slavery_sentence_518

In Constantinople, about one-fifth of the population consisted of slaves. Slavery_sentence_519

The city was a major centre of the slave trade in the 15th and later centuries. Slavery_sentence_520

Slaves were provided by Tatar raids on Slavic villages but also by conquest and the suppression of rebellions, in the aftermath of which entire populations were sometimes enslaved and sold across the Empire, reducing the risk of future rebellion. Slavery_sentence_521

The Ottomans also purchased slaves from traders who brought slaves into the Empire from Europe and Africa. Slavery_sentence_522

It has been estimated that some 200,000 slaves – mainly Circassians – were imported into the Ottoman Empire between 1800 and 1909. Slavery_sentence_523

As late as 1908, women slaves were still sold in the Ottoman Empire. Slavery_sentence_524

Until the late 18th century, the Crimean Khanate (a Muslim Tatar state) maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East. Slavery_sentence_525

The slaves were captured in southern Russia, Poland-Lithuania, Moldavia, Wallachia, and Circassia by Tatar horsemen and sold in the Crimean port of Kaffa. Slavery_sentence_526

About 2 million mostly Christian slaves were exported over the 16th and 17th centuries until the Crimean Khanate was destroyed by the Russian Empire in 1783. Slavery_sentence_527

A slave market for captured Russian and Persian slaves was centred in the Central Asian khanate of Khiva. Slavery_sentence_528

In the early 1840s, the population of the Uzbek states of Bukhara and Khiva included about 900,000 slaves. Slavery_sentence_529

Darrel P. Kaiser wrote, "Kazakh-Kirghiz tribesmen kidnapped 1573 settlers from colonies [German settlements in Russia] in 1774 alone and only half were successfully ransomed. Slavery_sentence_530

The rest were killed or enslaved." Slavery_sentence_531

Legal rights Slavery_section_49

Depending upon the era and the country, slaves sometimes had a limited set of legal rights. Slavery_sentence_532

For example, in the Province of New York, people who deliberately killed slaves were punishable under a 1686 statute. Slavery_sentence_533

And, as already mentioned, certain legal rights attached to the nobi in Korea, to enslaved people in various African societies, and to black female slaves in the French colony of Louisiana. Slavery_sentence_534

Giving slaves legal rights has sometimes been a matter of morality, but also sometimes a matter of self-interest. Slavery_sentence_535

For example, in ancient Athens, protecting slaves from mistreatment simultaneously protected people who might be mistaken for slaves, and giving slaves limited property rights incentivized slaves to work harder to get more property. Slavery_sentence_536

In the southern United States prior to the extirpation of slavery in 1865, a proslavery legal treatise reported that slaves accused of crimes typically had a legal right to counsel, freedom from double jeopardy, a right to trial by jury in graver cases, and the right to grand jury indictment, but they lacked many other rights such as white adults’ ability to control their own lives. Slavery_sentence_537

Late modern period Slavery_section_50

Soviet Union Slavery_section_51

See Gulag: Between 1930 and 1960, the Soviet regime created many Lagerey (labour camps) in Siberia. Slavery_sentence_538

Prisoners in Soviet labor camps were worked to death on extreme production quotas, brutality, hunger and harsh elements. Slavery_sentence_539

Fatality rate was as high as 80% during the first months in many camps. Slavery_sentence_540

Hundreds of thousands of people, possibly millions, died as a direct result of forced labor under the Soviets Slavery_sentence_541

Nazi Germany Slavery_section_52

During the Second World War Nazi Germany effectively enslaved about 12 million people, both those considered undesirable and citizens of conquered countries, with the avowed intention of treating these Untermenschen (sub-humans) as a permanent slave-class of inferior beings who could be worked until they died, and who possessed neither the rights nor the legal status of members of the Aryan race. Slavery_sentence_542

Contemporary slavery Slavery_section_53

See also: Contemporary slavery, Slavery in contemporary Africa, Child slavery, Trafficking of children, Illegal immigration § Slavery, and Slavery in the 21st century Slavery_sentence_543

Even though slavery is now outlawed in every country, the number of slaves today is estimated as between 12 million and 29.8 million. Slavery_sentence_544

According to a broad definition of slavery, there were 27 million people in slavery in 1999, spread all over the world. Slavery_sentence_545

In 2005, the International Labour Organization provided an estimate of 12.3 million forced labourers. Slavery_sentence_546

Siddharth Kara has also provided an estimate of 28.4 million slaves at the end of 2006 divided into three categories: bonded labour/debt bondage (18.1 million), forced labour (7.6 million), and trafficked slaves (2.7 million). Slavery_sentence_547

Kara provides a dynamic model to calculate the number of slaves in the world each year, with an estimated 29.2 million at the end of 2009. Slavery_sentence_548

According to a 2003 report by Human Rights Watch, an estimated 15 million children in debt bondage in India work in slavery-like conditions to pay off their family's debts. Slavery_sentence_549

Distribution Slavery_section_54

A report by the Walk Free Foundation in 2013, found India had the highest number of slaves, nearly 14 million, followed by China (2.9 million), Pakistan (2.1 million), Nigeria, Ethiopia, Russia, Thailand, Democratic Republic of Congo, Myanmar and Bangladesh; while the countries with the highest proportions of slaves were Mauritania, Haiti, Pakistan, India and Nepal. Slavery_sentence_550

In June 2013, U.S. Slavery_sentence_551 State Department released a report on slavery. Slavery_sentence_552

It placed Russia, China, and Uzbekistan in the worst offenders category. Slavery_sentence_553

Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, Syria, and Zimbabwe were at the lowest level. Slavery_sentence_554

The list also included Algeria, Libya, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait among a total of 21 countries. Slavery_sentence_555

The Walk Free Foundation reported in 2018 that slavery in wealthy Western societies is much more prevalent than previously known, in particular the United States and Great Britain, which have 403,000 (one in 800) and 136,000 slaves respectively. Slavery_sentence_556

Andrew Forrest, founder of the organization, said that "The United States is one of the most advanced countries in the world yet has more than 400,000 modern slaves working under forced labor conditions." Slavery_sentence_557

An estimated 40.3 million are enslaved globally, with North Korea having the most slaves at 2.6 million (one in 10). Slavery_sentence_558

The foundation defines contemporary slavery as "situations of exploitation that a person cannot refuse or leave because of threats, violence, coercion, abuse of power, or deception." Slavery_sentence_559

Libya Slavery_section_55

During the Second Libyan Civil War, Libyans started capturing Sub-Saharan African migrants trying to get to Europe through Libya and selling them on slave markets or holding them hostage for ransom Women are often raped, used as sex slaves, or sold to brothels. Slavery_sentence_560

Child migrants suffer from abuse and child rape in Libya. Slavery_sentence_561

Mauritania Slavery_section_56

In Mauritania, the last country to abolish slavery (in 1981), it is estimated that 20% of its 3 million population, are enslaved as bonded laborers. Slavery_sentence_562

Slavery in Mauritania was criminalized in August 2007. Slavery_sentence_563

However, although slavery, as a practice, was legally banned in 1981, it was not a crime to own a slave until 2007. Slavery_sentence_564

Although many slaves have escaped or have been freed since 2007, as of 2012, only one slave owner had been sentenced to serve time in prison. Slavery_sentence_565

Economics Slavery_section_57

While American slaves in 1809 were sold for around $40,000 (in inflation adjusted dollars), a slave nowadays can be bought for just $90, making replacement more economical than providing long-term care. Slavery_sentence_566

Slavery is a multibillion-dollar industry with estimates of up to $35 billion generated annually. Slavery_sentence_567

Trafficking Slavery_section_58

Victims of human trafficking are typically recruited through deceit or trickery (such as a false job offer, false migration offer, or false marriage offer), sale by family members, recruitment by former slaves, or outright abduction. Slavery_sentence_568

Victims are forced into a "debt slavery" situation by coercion, deception, fraud, intimidation, isolation, threat, physical force, debt bondage or even force-feeding with drugs to control their victims. Slavery_sentence_569

"Annually, according to U.S. government-sponsored research completed in 2006, approximately 800,000 people are trafficked across national borders, which does not include millions trafficked within their own countries. Slavery_sentence_570

Approximately 80% of transnational victims are women and girls, and up to 50% are minors, reports the U.S. State Department in a 2008 study. Slavery_sentence_571

While the majority of trafficking victims are women who are forced into prostitution (in which case the practice is called sex trafficking), victims also include men, women and children who are forced into manual labour. Slavery_sentence_572

Because of the illegal nature of human trafficking, its extent is unknown. Slavery_sentence_573

A U.S. government report, published in 2005, estimates that about 700,000 people worldwide are trafficked across borders each year. Slavery_sentence_574

This figure does not include those who are trafficked internally. Slavery_sentence_575

Another research effort revealed that roughly 1.5 million individuals are trafficked either internally or internationally each year, of which about 500,000 are sex trafficking victims. Slavery_sentence_576

Abolitionism Slavery_section_59

Main article: Abolitionism Slavery_sentence_577

See also: Abolition of slavery timeline Slavery_sentence_578

Slavery has existed, in one form or another, throughout recorded human history – as have, in various periods, movements to free large or distinct groups of slaves. Slavery_sentence_579

In antiquity Slavery_section_60

Ashoka, who ruled the Maurya Empire in the Indian subcontinent from 269–232 BCE, abolished the slave trade but not slavery. Slavery_sentence_580

The Qin dynasty, which ruled China from 221 to 206 BC, abolished slavery and discouraged serfdom. Slavery_sentence_581

However, many of its laws were overturned when the dynasty was overthrown. Slavery_sentence_582

Slavery was again abolished by Wang Mang in China in 17 CE but was reinstituted after his assassination. Slavery_sentence_583

North America Slavery_section_61

The Spanish colonization of the Americas sparked a discussion about the right to enslave Native Americans. Slavery_sentence_584

A prominent critic of slavery in the Spanish New World colonies was Bartolomé de las Casas, who opposed the enslavement of Native Americans, and as well as Africans in America. Slavery_sentence_585

One of the first protests against slavery came from German and Dutch Quakers in Pennsylvania in 1688. Slavery_sentence_586

In 1777, Vermont, at the time an independent nation, became the first portion of what would become the United States to abolish slavery. Slavery_sentence_587

In the United States, all of the northern states had abolished slavery by 1804, with New Jersey being the last to act. Slavery_sentence_588

Abolitionist pressure produced a series of small steps towards emancipation. Slavery_sentence_589

After the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves went into effect on January 1, 1808, the importation of slaves into the United States was prohibited, but not the internal slave trade, nor involvement in the international slave trade externally. Slavery_sentence_590

Legal slavery persisted; most of those slaves already in the U.S. were legally emancipated only in 1863. Slavery_sentence_591

Many American abolitionists took an active role in opposing slavery by supporting the Underground Railroad. Slavery_sentence_592

Violent clashes between anti-slavery and pro-slavery Americans included Bleeding Kansas, a series of political and armed disputes in 1854–1861 as to whether Kansas would join the United States as a slave or free state. Slavery_sentence_593

By 1860, the total number of slaves reached almost four million, and the American Civil War, beginning in 1861, led to the end of slavery in the United States. Slavery_sentence_594

In 1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed slaves held in the Confederate States; the 13th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution prohibited most forms of slavery throughout the country. Slavery_sentence_595

Many of the freed slaves became sharecroppers and indentured servants. Slavery_sentence_596

In this manner, some became tied to the very parcel of land into which they had been born a slave having little freedom or economic opportunity because of Jim Crow laws which perpetuated discrimination, limited education, promoted persecution without due process and resulted in continued poverty. Slavery_sentence_597

Fear of reprisals such as unjust incarcerations and lynchings deterred upward mobility further. Slavery_sentence_598

Europe Slavery_section_62

France abolished slavery in 1794. Slavery_sentence_599

One of the most significant milestones in the campaign to abolish slavery throughout the world occurred in England in 1772, with British Judge Lord Mansfield, whose opinion in Somersett's Case was widely taken to have held that slavery was illegal in England. Slavery_sentence_600

This judgement also laid down the principle that slavery contracted in other jurisdictions could not be enforced in England. Slavery_sentence_601

Sons of Africa was a late 18th-century British group that campaigned to end slavery. Slavery_sentence_602

Its members were Africans in London, freed slaves who included Ottobah Cugoano, Olaudah Equiano and other leading members of London's black community. Slavery_sentence_603

It was closely connected to the Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade, a non-denominational group founded in 1787, whose members included Thomas Clarkson. Slavery_sentence_604

British Member of Parliament William Wilberforce led the anti-slavery movement in the United Kingdom, although the groundwork was an anti-slavery essay by Clarkson. Slavery_sentence_605

Wilberforce was urged by his close friend, Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger, to make the issue his own and was also given support by reformed Evangelical John Newton. Slavery_sentence_606

The Slave Trade Act was passed by the British Parliament on March 25, 1807, making the slave trade illegal throughout the British Empire, Wilberforce also campaigned for abolition of slavery in the British Empire, which he lived to see in the Slavery Abolition Act 1833. Slavery_sentence_607

After the 1807 act abolishing the slave trade was passed, these campaigners switched to encouraging other countries to follow suit, notably France and the British colonies. Slavery_sentence_608

Between 1808 and 1860, the British West Africa Squadron seized approximately 1,600 slave ships and freed 150,000 Africans who were aboard. Slavery_sentence_609

Action was also taken against African leaders who refused to agree to British treaties to outlaw the trade, for example against "the usurping King of Lagos", deposed in 1851. Slavery_sentence_610

Anti-slavery treaties were signed with over 50 African rulers. Slavery_sentence_611

Worldwide Slavery_section_63

In 1839, the world's oldest international human rights organization, Anti-Slavery International, was formed in Britain by Joseph Sturge, which campaigned to outlaw slavery in other countries. Slavery_sentence_612

There were celebrations in 2007 to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the abolition of the slave trade in the United Kingdom through the work of the British Anti-Slavery Society. Slavery_sentence_613

In the 1860s, David Livingstone's reports of atrocities within the Arab slave trade in Africa stirred up the interest of the British public, reviving the flagging abolitionist movement. Slavery_sentence_614

The Royal Navy throughout the 1870s attempted to suppress "this abominable Eastern trade", at Zanzibar in particular. Slavery_sentence_615

In 1905, the French abolished indigenous slavery in most of French West Africa. Slavery_sentence_616

On December 10, 1948, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which declared freedom from slavery is an internationally recognized human right. Slavery_sentence_617

Article 4 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: Slavery_sentence_618

In 2014, for the first time in history, major leaders of many religions, Buddhist, Anglican, Catholic, Orthodox Christian, Hindu, Jewish, and Muslim met to sign a shared commitment against modern-day slavery; the declaration they signed calls for the elimination of slavery and human trafficking by 2020. Slavery_sentence_619

The signatories were: Pope Francis, Mātā Amṛtānandamayī, Bhikkhuni Thich Nu Chân Không (representing Zen Master Thích Nhất Hạnh), Datuk K Sri Dhammaratana, Chief High Priest of Malaysia, Rabbi Abraham Skorka, Rabbi David Rosen, Abbas Abdalla Abbas Soliman, Undersecretary of State of Al Azhar Alsharif (representing Mohamed Ahmed El-Tayeb, Grand Imam of Al-Azhar), Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi, Sheikh Naziyah Razzaq Jaafar, Special advisor of Grand Ayatollah (representing Grand Ayatollah Sheikh Basheer Hussain al Najafi), Sheikh Omar Abboud, Justin Welby, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Metropolitan Emmanuel of France (representing Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew.) Slavery_sentence_620

Groups such as the American Anti-Slavery Group, Anti-Slavery International, Free the Slaves, the Anti-Slavery Society, and the Norwegian Anti-Slavery Society continue to campaign to eliminate slavery. Slavery_sentence_621

Apologies Slavery_section_64

On May 21, 2001, the National Assembly of France passed the Taubira law, recognizing slavery as a crime against humanity. Slavery_sentence_622

Apologies on behalf of African nations, for their role in trading their countrymen into slavery, remain an open issue since slavery was practiced in Africa even before the first Europeans arrived and the Atlantic slave trade was performed with a high degree of involvement of several African societies. Slavery_sentence_623

The black slave market was supplied by well-established slave trade networks controlled by local African societies and individuals. Slavery_sentence_624

Several historians have made important contributions to the global understanding of the African side of the Atlantic slave trade. Slavery_sentence_625

By arguing that African merchants determined the assemblage of trade goods accepted in exchange for slaves, many historians argue for African agency and ultimately a shared responsibility for the slave trade. Slavery_sentence_626

In 1999, President Mathieu Kerekou of Benin issued a national apology for the central role Africans played in the Atlantic slave trade. Slavery_sentence_627

Luc Gnacadja, minister of environment and housing for Benin, later said: "The slave trade is a shame, and we do repent for it." Slavery_sentence_628

Researchers estimate that 3 million slaves were exported out of the Slave Coast bordering the Bight of Benin. Slavery_sentence_629

President Jerry Rawlings of Ghana also apologized for his country's involvement in the slave trade. Slavery_sentence_630

The issue of an apology is linked to reparations for slavery and is still being pursued by entities across the world. Slavery_sentence_631

For example, the Jamaican Reparations Movement approved its declaration and action plan. Slavery_sentence_632

In 2007, British Prime Minister Tony Blair made a formal apology for Great Britain's involvement in slavery. Slavery_sentence_633

On February 25, 2007, the Commonwealth of Virginia resolved to 'profoundly regret' and apologize for its role in the institution of slavery. Slavery_sentence_634

Unique and the first of its kind in the U.S., the apology was unanimously passed in both Houses as Virginia approached the 400th anniversary of the founding of Jamestown. Slavery_sentence_635

On August 24, 2007, Mayor Ken Livingstone of London apologized publicly for Britain's role in colonial slave trade. Slavery_sentence_636

"You can look across there to see the institutions that still have the benefit of the wealth they created from slavery," he said, pointing towards the financial district. Slavery_sentence_637

He claimed that London was still tainted by the horrors of slavery. Slavery_sentence_638

Specifically, London outfitted, financed, and insured many of the ships, which helped fund the building of London's docks. Slavery_sentence_639

Officials in Liverpool, which was a large slave trading port, apologized in 1999. Slavery_sentence_640

On July 30, 2008, the United States House of Representatives passed a resolution apologizing for American slavery and subsequent discriminatory laws. Slavery_sentence_641

In June 2009, the U.S. Slavery_sentence_642 Senate passed a resolution apologizing to African-Americans for the "fundamental injustice, cruelty, brutality, and inhumanity of slavery". Slavery_sentence_643

The news was welcomed by President Barack Obama, the nation's first president of African descent. Slavery_sentence_644

Some of President Obama's ancestors may have been slave owners. Slavery_sentence_645

In 2010, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi apologized for Arab involvement in the slave trade, saying: "I regret the behavior of the Arabs… They brought African children to North Africa, they made them slaves, they sold them like animals, and they took them as slaves and traded them in a shameful way." Slavery_sentence_646

Reparations Slavery_section_65

Main article: Reparations for slavery Slavery_sentence_647

There have been movements to achieve reparations for those formerly held as slaves or for their descendants. Slavery_sentence_648

Claims for reparations for being held in slavery are handled as a civil law matter in almost every country. Slavery_sentence_649

This is often decried as a serious problem, since former slaves' relatives lack of money means they often have limited access to a potentially expensive and futile legal process. Slavery_sentence_650

Mandatory systems of fines and reparations paid to an as yet undetermined group of claimants from fines, paid by unspecified parties, and collected by authorities have been proposed by advocates to alleviate this "civil court problem." Slavery_sentence_651

Since in almost all cases there are no living ex-slaves or living ex-slave owners these movements have gained little traction. Slavery_sentence_652

In nearly all cases the judicial system has ruled that the statute of limitations on these possible claims has long since expired. Slavery_sentence_653

Other uses of the term Slavery_section_66

The word slavery is often used as a pejorative to describe any activity in which one is coerced into performing. Slavery_sentence_654

Some argue that military drafts and other forms of coerced government labour constitute "state-operated slavery." Slavery_sentence_655

Some libertarians and anarcho-capitalists view government taxation as a form of slavery. Slavery_sentence_656

"Slavery" has been used by some anti-psychiatry proponents to define involuntary psychiatric patients, claiming there are no unbiased physical tests for mental illness and yet the psychiatric patient must follow the orders of the psychiatrist. Slavery_sentence_657

They assert that instead of chains to control the slave, the psychiatrist uses drugs to control the mind. Slavery_sentence_658

Drapetomania was a psychiatric diagnosis for a slave who did not want to be a slave. Slavery_sentence_659

Some proponents of animal rights have applied the term slavery to the condition of some or all human-owned animals, arguing that their status is comparable to that of human slaves. Slavery_sentence_660

The labor market, as institutionalized under today's market economic systems, has been criticized by mainstream socialists and by anarcho-syndicalists, who utilise the term wage slavery as a pejorative or dysphemism for wage labour. Slavery_sentence_661

Socialists draw parallels between the trade of labour as a commodity and slavery. Slavery_sentence_662

Cicero is also known to have suggested such parallels. Slavery_sentence_663

Media Slavery_section_67

Further information: List of films featuring slavery Slavery_sentence_664

Film has been the most influential medium in the presentation of the history of slavery to the general public around the world. Slavery_sentence_665

The American film industry has had a complex relationship with slavery and until recent decades often avoided the topic. Slavery_sentence_666

Films such as Birth of a Nation (1915) and Gone with the Wind (1939) became controversial because they gave a favourable depiction. Slavery_sentence_667

In 1940 The Santa Fe Trail gave a liberal but ambiguous interpretation of John Brown's attacks on slavery. Slavery_sentence_668

Song of the South gave a favorable outlook on slavery in the United States in 1946. Slavery_sentence_669

The Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s made defiant slaves into heroes. Slavery_sentence_670

The question of slavery in American memory necessarily involves its depictions in feature films. Slavery_sentence_671

Most Hollywood films used American settings, although Spartacus (1960), dealt with an actual revolt in the Roman Empire known as the Third Servile War. Slavery_sentence_672

The revolt failed, and all the rebels were executed, but their spirit lived on according to the film. Slavery_sentence_673

Spartacus stays surprisingly close to the historical record. Slavery_sentence_674

The Last Supper (La última cena in Spanish) was a 1976 film directed by Cuban Tomás Gutiérrez Alea about the teaching of Christianity to slaves in Cuba, and emphasizes the role of ritual and revolt. Slavery_sentence_675

Burn! Slavery_sentence_676

takes place on the imaginary Portuguese island of Queimada (where the locals speak Spanish) and it merges historical events that took place in Brazil, Cuba, Santo Domingo, Jamaica, and elsewhere. Slavery_sentence_677

Historians agree that films have largely shaped historical memories, but they debate issues of accuracy, plausibility, moralism, sensationalism, how facts are stretched in search of broader truths, and suitability for the classroom. Slavery_sentence_678

Berlin argues that critics complain if the treatment emphasizes historical brutality, or if it glosses over the harshness to highlight the emotional impact of slavery. Slavery_sentence_679

See also Slavery_section_68

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