Slavery in the United States

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This article is about slavery from the founding of the United States in 1776. Slavery in the United States_sentence_0

For for the colonial period, see Slavery in the colonial history of the United States. Slavery in the United States_sentence_1

Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America from its founding in 1776 until passage of the Thirteenth Amendment in 1865. Slavery in the United States_sentence_2

Slavery was established throughout European colonization in the Americas. Slavery in the United States_sentence_3

From early colonial days, it was practiced in Britain's colonies, including the Thirteen Colonies which formed the United States. Slavery in the United States_sentence_4

Under the law, an enslaved person was treated as property and could be bought, sold, or given away. Slavery in the United States_sentence_5

Slavery lasted in about half of U.S. states until 1865. Slavery in the United States_sentence_6

As an economic system, slavery was largely replaced by sharecropping and convict leasing. Slavery in the United States_sentence_7

By the time of the American Revolution (1775–1783), the status of enslaved people had been institutionalized as a racial caste associated with African ancestry. Slavery in the United States_sentence_8

During and immediately following the Revolution, abolitionist laws were passed in most Northern states and a movement developed to abolish slavery. Slavery in the United States_sentence_9

The role of slavery under the U.S. Slavery in the United States_sentence_10 Constitution (1789) was the most contentious issue during its drafting. Slavery in the United States_sentence_11

Although the creators of the Constitution never used the word "slavery", the final document, through the three-fifths clause, gave slave-owners disproportionate political power. Slavery in the United States_sentence_12

All Northern states had abolished slavery in some way by 1805; sometimes, abolition was a gradual process, and hundreds of people were still enslaved in the Northern states as late as the 1840 Census. Slavery in the United States_sentence_13

Some slaveowners—primarily in the Upper South—freed their slaves, and philanthropists and charitable groups bought and freed other slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_14

The Atlantic slave trade was outlawed by individual states beginning during the American Revolution. Slavery in the United States_sentence_15

The import-trade was banned by Congress in 1808, although smuggling was common thereafter. Slavery in the United States_sentence_16

The rapid expansion of the cotton industry in the Deep South after the invention of the cotton gin greatly increased demand for slave labor, and the Southern states continued as slave societies. Slavery in the United States_sentence_17

The United States became ever more polarized over the issue of slavery, split into slave and free states. Slavery in the United States_sentence_18

Driven by labor demands from new cotton plantations in the Deep South, the Upper South sold over a million slaves who were taken to the Deep South. Slavery in the United States_sentence_19

The total slave population in the South eventually reached four million. Slavery in the United States_sentence_20

As the United States expanded, the Southern states attempted to extend slavery into the new western territories to allow proslavery forces to maintain their power in the country. Slavery in the United States_sentence_21

The new territories acquired by the Louisiana purchase and the Mexican cession were the subject of major political crises and compromises. Slavery in the United States_sentence_22

By 1850, the newly rich, cotton-growing South was threatening to secede from the Union, and tensions continued to rise. Slavery in the United States_sentence_23

Slavery was defended in the South as a "positive good", and the largest religious denominations split over the slavery issue into regional organizations of the North and South. Slavery in the United States_sentence_24

When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 election on a platform of halting the expansion of slavery, seven slave states broke away to form the Confederacy. Slavery in the United States_sentence_25

Shortly afterward, the Civil War began when Confederate forces attacked the US Army's Fort Sumter. Slavery in the United States_sentence_26

Four additional slave states then joined the confederacy after Lincoln requested arms from them to make a retaliatory strike. Slavery in the United States_sentence_27

Due to Union measures such as the Confiscation Acts and the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, the war effectively ended slavery, even before the institution was banned by constitutional amendment. Slavery in the United States_sentence_28

Following the Union victory in the Civil War, slavery was made illegal in the United States upon the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment in December 1865. Slavery in the United States_sentence_29

Origins Slavery in the United States_section_0

Main article: Slavery in the colonial history of the United States Slavery in the United States_sentence_30

Further information: Indian slave trade and Slavery in New France Slavery in the United States_sentence_31

First enslavements Slavery in the United States_section_1

Main article: Slavery among Native Americans in the United States Slavery in the United States_sentence_32

In 1508, Ponce de León established the Spanish settlement in Puerto Rico (now, a territory of the United States), which used the native Taínos for labor. Slavery in the United States_sentence_33

The Taínos were largely exterminated by war, overwork, and disease brought by the Spanish. Slavery in the United States_sentence_34

In 1513, to supplement the dwindling Taíno population, the first enslaved African people were imported to Puerto Rico. Slavery in the United States_sentence_35

Indian slavery was abolished in Spanish territories in 1542 with the New Laws. Slavery in the United States_sentence_36

British colonists conducted enslaving raids in what is now Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, and possibly Alabama. Slavery in the United States_sentence_37

The Carolina slave trade, which included both trading and direct raids by colonists, was the largest among the British colonies in North America. Slavery in the United States_sentence_38

Between 1670 and 1715, between 24,000 and 51,000 captive Native Americans were exported from South Carolina—more than the number of Africans imported to the colonies of the future United States during the same period. Slavery in the United States_sentence_39

Additional enslaved Native Americans were exported from South Carolina to Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts. Slavery in the United States_sentence_40

The historian Alan Gallay says, "the trade in Indian slaves was at the center of the English empire's development in the American South. Slavery in the United States_sentence_41

The trade in Indian slaves was the most important factor affecting the South in the period 1670 to 1715"; intertribal wars to capture slaves destabilized English colonies, Florida and Louisiana. Slavery in the United States_sentence_42

First continental African enslaved people Slavery in the United States_section_2

Main article: Slavery in the colonial history of the United States Slavery in the United States_sentence_43

The first Africans enslaved within the continental United States arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony (most likely located in the Winyah Bay area of present-day South Carolina), founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. Slavery in the United States_sentence_44

The ill-fated colony was almost immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the enslaved people revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. Slavery in the United States_sentence_45

De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned. Slavery in the United States_sentence_46

The settlers and the enslaved people who had not escaped returned to Santo Domingo. Slavery in the United States_sentence_47

On August 28, 1565, St. Augustine, Florida was founded by the Spanish conquistador Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles and he brought three enslaved Africans with him. Slavery in the United States_sentence_48

During the 16th and 17th centuries, St. Augustine was the hub of the trade in enslaved people in Spanish colonial Florida and the first permanent settlement in what would become the continental United States to include enslaved Africans. Slavery in the United States_sentence_49

The first birth of an enslaved African in what is now the United States was Agustin, who was born there in 1606. Slavery in the United States_sentence_50

Indentured servants Slavery in the United States_section_3

Further information: Indentured servitude in British America Slavery in the United States_sentence_51

Decades later, in the early years of the Chesapeake Bay settlements, colonial officials found it difficult to attract and retain laborers under the harsh frontier conditions, and there was a high mortality rate. Slavery in the United States_sentence_52

Most laborers came from Britain as indentured laborers, signing contracts of indenture to pay with work for their passage, their upkeep, and their training, usually on a farm. Slavery in the United States_sentence_53

The colonies had agricultural economies. Slavery in the United States_sentence_54

These indentured laborers were often young people who intended to become permanent residents. Slavery in the United States_sentence_55

In some cases, convicted criminals were transported to the colonies as indentured laborers, rather than being imprisoned. Slavery in the United States_sentence_56

The indentured laborers were not slaves, but were required to work for four to seven years in Virginia to pay the cost of their passage and maintenance. Slavery in the United States_sentence_57

Many Germans, Scots-Irish, and Irish came to the colonies in the 18th century, settling in the backcountry of Pennsylvania and further south. Slavery in the United States_sentence_58

Slavery in the United States_table_general_0

Destination of enslaved Africans (1519–1867)Slavery in the United States_table_caption_0
DestinationSlavery in the United States_header_cell_0_0_0 PercentSlavery in the United States_header_cell_0_0_1
British mainland North AmericaSlavery in the United States_cell_0_1_0 3.7%Slavery in the United States_cell_0_1_1
British Leeward IslandsSlavery in the United States_cell_0_2_0 3.2%Slavery in the United States_cell_0_2_1
British Windward Islands and Trinidad (British 1797–1867)Slavery in the United States_cell_0_3_0 3.8%Slavery in the United States_cell_0_3_1
Jamaica (Spanish 1519–1655, British 1655–1867)Slavery in the United States_cell_0_4_0 11.2%Slavery in the United States_cell_0_4_1
Barbados (British)Slavery in the United States_cell_0_5_0 5.1%Slavery in the United States_cell_0_5_1
The Guianas (British, Dutch, French)Slavery in the United States_cell_0_6_0 4.2%Slavery in the United States_cell_0_6_1
French Windward IslandsSlavery in the United States_cell_0_7_0 3.1%Slavery in the United States_cell_0_7_1
Saint-Domingue (French)Slavery in the United States_cell_0_8_0 8.2%Slavery in the United States_cell_0_8_1
Spanish mainland North and South AmericaSlavery in the United States_cell_0_9_0 4.4%Slavery in the United States_cell_0_9_1
Spanish Caribbean islandsSlavery in the United States_cell_0_10_0 8.2%Slavery in the United States_cell_0_10_1
Dutch Caribbean islandsSlavery in the United States_cell_0_11_0 1.3%Slavery in the United States_cell_0_11_1
Northeast Brazil (Portuguese)Slavery in the United States_cell_0_12_0 9.3%Slavery in the United States_cell_0_12_1
Bahia, Brazil (Portuguese)Slavery in the United States_cell_0_13_0 10.7%Slavery in the United States_cell_0_13_1
Southeast Brazil (Portuguese)Slavery in the United States_cell_0_14_0 21.1%Slavery in the United States_cell_0_14_1
Elsewhere in the AmericasSlavery in the United States_cell_0_15_0 1.1%Slavery in the United States_cell_0_15_1
AfricaSlavery in the United States_cell_0_16_0 1.4%Slavery in the United States_cell_0_16_1

The first 19 or so Africans to reach the colonies England was struggling to establish arrived in Point Comfort, Virginia, near Jamestown, in 1619, brought by British privateers who had seized them from a captured Portuguese slave ship. Slavery in the United States_sentence_59

Slaves were usually baptized in Africa before embarking. Slavery in the United States_sentence_60

As English custom then considered baptized Christians exempt from slavery, colonists treated these Africans as indentured servants, and they joined about 1,000 English indentured servants already in the colony. Slavery in the United States_sentence_61

At least some Africans were freed after a prescribed period and given the use of land and supplies by their former masters. Slavery in the United States_sentence_62

The historian Ira Berlin noted that what he called the "charter generation" in the colonies was sometimes made up of mixed-race men (Atlantic Creoles) who were indentured servants, and whose ancestry was African and Iberian. Slavery in the United States_sentence_63

They were descendants of African women and Portuguese or Spanish men who worked in African ports as traders or facilitators in the trade of enslaved people. Slavery in the United States_sentence_64

For example, Anthony Johnson arrived in Virginia in 1621 from Angola as an indentured servant; he became free and a property owner, eventually buying and enslaving people himself. Slavery in the United States_sentence_65

The transformation of the status of Africans, from indentured servitude to slaves in a racial caste which they could not leave or escape, happened over the next generation. Slavery in the United States_sentence_66

First slave laws Slavery in the United States_section_4

There were no laws regarding slavery early in Virginia's history. Slavery in the United States_sentence_67

But, in 1640, a Virginia court sentenced John Punch, an African, to life in servitude after he attempted to flee his service. Slavery in the United States_sentence_68

The two whites with whom he fled were sentenced only to an additional year of their indenture, and three years' service to the colony. Slavery in the United States_sentence_69

This marked the first de facto legal sanctioning of slavery in the English colonies, and was one of the first legal distinctions made between Europeans and Africans. Slavery in the United States_sentence_70

Slavery in the United States_table_general_1

Slaves shipped to those regions that are part of the present-day United StatesSlavery in the United States_table_caption_1
DateSlavery in the United States_header_cell_1_0_0 SlavesSlavery in the United States_header_cell_1_0_1
1620–1650Slavery in the United States_cell_1_1_0 141Slavery in the United States_cell_1_1_1
1651–1675Slavery in the United States_cell_1_2_0 5,508Slavery in the United States_cell_1_2_1
1676–1700Slavery in the United States_cell_1_3_0 14,306Slavery in the United States_cell_1_3_1
1701–1725Slavery in the United States_cell_1_4_0 49,096Slavery in the United States_cell_1_4_1
1726–1750Slavery in the United States_cell_1_5_0 129,004Slavery in the United States_cell_1_5_1
1751–1775Slavery in the United States_cell_1_6_0 144,468Slavery in the United States_cell_1_6_1
1776–1800Slavery in the United States_cell_1_7_0 36,277Slavery in the United States_cell_1_7_1
1801–1825Slavery in the United States_cell_1_8_0 93,000Slavery in the United States_cell_1_8_1
1826–1850Slavery in the United States_cell_1_9_0 105Slavery in the United States_cell_1_9_1
1851–1866Slavery in the United States_cell_1_10_0 476Slavery in the United States_cell_1_10_1
TotalSlavery in the United States_cell_1_11_0 472,381Slavery in the United States_cell_1_11_1

In 1641, Massachusetts became the first colony to authorize slavery through enacted law. Slavery in the United States_sentence_71

Massachusetts passed the Body of Liberties, which prohibited slavery in many instances but allowed people to be enslaved if they were captives of war, if they sold themselves into slavery or were purchased elsewhere, or if they were sentenced to slavery as punishment by the governing authority. Slavery in the United States_sentence_72

The Body of Liberties used the word "strangers" to refer to people bought and sold as slaves; they were generally not English subjects. Slavery in the United States_sentence_73

Colonists came to equate this term with Native Americans and Africans. Slavery in the United States_sentence_74

In 1654, John Casor, a black indentured servant in colonial Virginia, was the first man to be declared a slave in a civil case. Slavery in the United States_sentence_75

He had claimed to an officer that his master, Anthony Johnson, himself a free black, had held him past his indenture term. Slavery in the United States_sentence_76

A neighbor, Robert Parker, told Johnson that if he did not release Casor, he would testify in court to this fact. Slavery in the United States_sentence_77

Under local laws, Johnson was at risk for losing some of his headright lands for violating the terms of indenture. Slavery in the United States_sentence_78

Under duress, Johnson freed Casor. Slavery in the United States_sentence_79

Casor entered into a seven years' indenture with Parker. Slavery in the United States_sentence_80

Feeling cheated, Johnson sued Parker to repossess Casor. Slavery in the United States_sentence_81

A Northampton County, Virginia court ruled for Johnson, declaring that Parker illegally was detaining Casor from his rightful master who legally held him "for the duration of his life". Slavery in the United States_sentence_82

First inherited status laws Slavery in the United States_section_5

During the colonial period, the status of enslaved people was affected by interpretations related to the status of foreigners in England. Slavery in the United States_sentence_83

England had no system of naturalizing immigrants to its island or its colonies. Slavery in the United States_sentence_84

Since persons of African origins were not English subjects by birth, they were among those peoples considered foreigners and generally outside English common law. Slavery in the United States_sentence_85

The colonies struggled with how to classify people born to foreigners and subjects. Slavery in the United States_sentence_86

In 1656 Virginia, Elizabeth Key Grinstead, a mixed-race woman, successfully gained her freedom and that of her son in a challenge to her status by making her case as the baptized Christian daughter of the free Englishman Thomas Key. Slavery in the United States_sentence_87

Her attorney was an English subject, which may have helped her case. Slavery in the United States_sentence_88

(He was also the father of her mixed-race son, and the couple married after Key was freed.) Slavery in the United States_sentence_89

Shortly after the Elizabeth Key trial and similar challenges, in 1662 the Virginia royal colony approved a law adopting the principle of partus sequitur ventrem (called partus, for short), stating that any children born in the colony would take the status of the mother. Slavery in the United States_sentence_90

A child of an enslaved mother would be born into slavery, regardless if the father were a freeborn Englishman or Christian. Slavery in the United States_sentence_91

This was a reversal of common law practice in England, which ruled that children of English subjects took the status of the father. Slavery in the United States_sentence_92

The change institutionalized the skewed power relationships between those who enslaved people and enslaved women, freed white men from the legal responsibility to acknowledge or financially support their mixed-race children, and somewhat confined the open scandal of mixed-race children and miscegenation to within the slave quarters. Slavery in the United States_sentence_93

Increasing slave trade Slavery in the United States_section_6

In 1672, King Charles II rechartered the Royal African Company (it had initially been set up in 1660), as an English monopoly for the African slave and commodities trade—thereafter in 1698, by statute, the English parliament opened the trade to all English subjects. Slavery in the United States_sentence_94

The trade of enslaved people to the mid-Atlantic colonies increased substantially in the 1680s, and by 1710 the African population in Virginia had increased to 23,100 (42% of total); Maryland contained 8,000 Africans (14.5% of total). Slavery in the United States_sentence_95

In the early 18th century, England passed Spain and Portugal to become the world's leading trader of enslaved people. Slavery in the United States_sentence_96

From the early 18th century American merchants, especially in Charleston, South Carolina, challenged the monopoly of the Royal African Company, and Joseph Wragg and Benjamin Savage became the first independent traders of enslaved people to break through the monopoly by the 1730s. Slavery in the United States_sentence_97

First religious status laws Slavery in the United States_section_7

The Virginia Slave codes of 1705 further defined as slaves those people imported from nations that were not Christian. Slavery in the United States_sentence_98

Native Americans who were sold to colonists by other Native Americans (from rival tribes), or captured by Europeans during village raids, were also defined as slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_99

This codified the earlier principle of non-Christian foreigner enslavement. Slavery in the United States_sentence_100

First anti-slavery causes Slavery in the United States_section_8

In 1735, the Georgia Trustees enacted a law prohibiting slavery in the new colony, which had been established in 1733 to enable the "worthy poor" as well as persecuted European Protestants to have a new start. Slavery in the United States_sentence_101

Slavery was then legal in the other twelve English colonies. Slavery in the United States_sentence_102

Neighboring South Carolina had an economy based on the use of enslaved labor. Slavery in the United States_sentence_103

The Georgia Trustees wanted to eliminate the risk of slave rebellions and make Georgia better able to defend against attacks from the Spanish to the south, who offered freedom to escaped enslaved people. Slavery in the United States_sentence_104

James Edward Oglethorpe was the driving force behind the colony, and the only trustee to reside in Georgia. Slavery in the United States_sentence_105

He opposed slavery on moral grounds as well as for pragmatic reasons, and vigorously defended the ban on slavery against fierce opposition from Carolina merchants of enslaved people and land speculators. Slavery in the United States_sentence_106

The Protestant Scottish highlanders who settled what is now Darien, Georgia, added a moral anti-slavery argument, which became increasingly rare in the South, in their 1739 "Petition of the Inhabitants of New Inverness". Slavery in the United States_sentence_107

By 1750 Georgia authorized slavery in the colony because it had been unable to secure enough indentured servants as laborers. Slavery in the United States_sentence_108

As economic conditions in England began to improve in the first half of the 18th century, workers had no reason to leave, especially to face the risks in the colonies. Slavery in the United States_sentence_109

Slavery in British colonies Slavery in the United States_section_9

During most of the British colonial period, slavery existed in all the colonies. Slavery in the United States_sentence_110

People enslaved in the North typically worked as house servants, artisans, laborers and craftsmen, with the greater number in cities. Slavery in the United States_sentence_111

Many men worked on the docks and in shipping. Slavery in the United States_sentence_112

In 1703, more than 42 percent of New York City households enslaved people, the second-highest proportion of any city in the colonies, behind only Charleston, South Carolina. Slavery in the United States_sentence_113

But enslaved people were also used as agricultural workers in farm communities, including in areas of upstate New York and Long Island, Connecticut, and New Jersey. Slavery in the United States_sentence_114

By 1770 there were 397,924 Blacks in a population of 2.17 million. Slavery in the United States_sentence_115

They were unevenly distributed. Slavery in the United States_sentence_116

There were 14,867 in New England where they were 2.7% of the population; 34,679 in the mid-Atlantic colonies where they were 6% of the population (19,000 were in New York or 11%); and 347,378 in the five southern Colonies where they were 31% of the population Slavery in the United States_sentence_117

The South developed an agricultural economy dependent on commodity crops. Slavery in the United States_sentence_118

Its planters rapidly acquired a significantly higher number and proportion of enslaved people in the population overall, as its commodity crops were labor-intensive. Slavery in the United States_sentence_119

Early on, enslaved people in the South worked primarily on farms and plantations growing indigo, rice, and tobacco; cotton did not become a major crop until after the American Revolution and after the 1790s. Slavery in the United States_sentence_120

Before then long-staple cotton was cultivated primarily on the Sea Islands of Georgia and South Carolina. Slavery in the United States_sentence_121

The invention of the cotton gin in 1793 enabled the cultivation of short-staple cotton in a wide variety of mainland areas, leading to the development of large areas of the Deep South as cotton country in the 19th century. Slavery in the United States_sentence_122

Rice cultivation and tobacco were very labor-intensive. Slavery in the United States_sentence_123

In 1720, about 65% of South Carolina's population was enslaved. Slavery in the United States_sentence_124

Planters (defined by historians in the Upper South as those who held 20 enslaved people or more) used enslaved workers to cultivate commodity crops. Slavery in the United States_sentence_125

They also worked in the artisanal trades on large plantations and in many southern port cities. Slavery in the United States_sentence_126

Backwoods subsistence farmers, the later wave of settlers in the 18th century who settled along the Appalachian Mountains and backcountry, seldom held enslaved people. Slavery in the United States_sentence_127

Some of the British colonies attempted to abolish the international slave trade, fearing that the importation of new Africans would be disruptive. Slavery in the United States_sentence_128

Virginia bills to that effect were vetoed by the British Privy Council. Slavery in the United States_sentence_129

Rhode Island forbade the import of enslaved people in 1774. Slavery in the United States_sentence_130

All of the colonies except Georgia had banned or limited the African slave trade by 1786; Georgia did so in 1798. Slavery in the United States_sentence_131

Some of these laws were later repealed. Slavery in the United States_sentence_132

About 600,000 slaves were transported to America, or 5% of the 12 million slaves taken from Africa. Slavery in the United States_sentence_133

About 310,000 of these persons were imported into the Thirteen Colonies before 1776: 40% directly and the rest from the Caribbean. Slavery in the United States_sentence_134

Slaves transported to America: Slavery in the United States_sentence_135

Slavery in the United States_unordered_list_0

  • 1620–1700......21,000Slavery in the United States_item_0_0
  • 1701–1760....189,000Slavery in the United States_item_0_1
  • 1761–1770......63,000Slavery in the United States_item_0_2
  • 1771–1790......56,000Slavery in the United States_item_0_3
  • 1791–1800......79,000Slavery in the United States_item_0_4
  • 1801–1810....124,000Slavery in the United States_item_0_5
  • 1810–1865......51,000Slavery in the United States_item_0_6
  • Total .............597,000Slavery in the United States_item_0_7

They constituted less than 5% of the twelve million enslaved people brought from Africa to the Americas. Slavery in the United States_sentence_136

The great majority of enslaved Africans were transported to sugar colonies in the Caribbean and to Brazil. Slavery in the United States_sentence_137

As life expectancy was short, their numbers had to be continually replenished. Slavery in the United States_sentence_138

Life expectancy was much higher in the U.S., and the enslaved population was successful in reproduction. Slavery in the United States_sentence_139

The number of enslaved people in the U.S. grew rapidly, reaching 4 million by the 1860 Census. Slavery in the United States_sentence_140

From 1770 to 1860, the rate of natural growth of North American enslaved people was much greater than for the population of any nation in Europe, and it was nearly twice as rapid as that of England. Slavery in the United States_sentence_141

The number of enslaved and free blacks rose from 759,000 (60,000 free) in the 1790 US Census to 4,450,000 (11% free or 480,000), a 580% increase in the 1860 US Census. Slavery in the United States_sentence_142

The white population grew from 3.2 million to 27 million, an increase of 1180% due to high birth rates and 4.5 million immigrants, overwhelmingly from Europe, 70% of whom arrived in the years 1840–1860. Slavery in the United States_sentence_143

The percentage of the Black population went from 19.3% to 14.1%, as follows: 1790: 757,208 .. 19.3% of population, of whom 697,681 (92%) were enslaved. Slavery in the United States_sentence_144

1860: 4,441,830 .. 14.1% of population, of whom 3,953,731 (89%) were enslaved. Slavery in the United States_sentence_145

Slavery in French Louisiana Slavery in the United States_section_10

Louisiana was founded as a French colony. Slavery in the United States_sentence_146

Colonial officials in 1724 implemented Louis XIV of France's Code Noir, which regulated the slave trade and the institution of slavery in New France and French Caribbean colonies. Slavery in the United States_sentence_147

This resulted in a different pattern of slavery in Louisiana, purchased in 1803, compared to the rest of the United States. Slavery in the United States_sentence_148

As written, the Code Noir gave some rights to slaves, including the right to marry. Slavery in the United States_sentence_149

Although it authorized and codified cruel corporal punishment against slaves under certain conditions, it forbade slave owners from torturing them or separating married couples (or separating young children from their mothers). Slavery in the United States_sentence_150

It also required the owners to instruct slaves in the Catholic faith. Slavery in the United States_sentence_151

Together with a more permeable historic French system that allowed certain rights to gens de couleur libres (free people of color), who were often born to white fathers and their mixed-race concubines, a far higher percentage of African Americans in Louisiana were free as of the 1830 census (13.2% in Louisiana compared to 0.8% in Mississippi, whose population was dominated by white Anglo-Americans). Slavery in the United States_sentence_152

Most of Louisiana's "third class" of free people of color, situated between the native-born French and mass of African slaves, lived in New Orleans. Slavery in the United States_sentence_153

The Louisiana free people of color were often literate and educated, with a significant number owning businesses, properties, and even slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_154

Although Code Noir forbade interracial marriages, interracial unions were widespread under the system known as plaçage. Slavery in the United States_sentence_155

The mixed-race offspring (creoles of color) from these unions were among those in the intermediate social caste of free people of color. Slavery in the United States_sentence_156

The English colonies, in contrast, insisted on a binary system that treated mulatto and black slaves equally under the law, and discriminated against equally if free. Slavery in the United States_sentence_157

But many free people of African descent were mixed race. Slavery in the United States_sentence_158

When the U.S. took over Louisiana, Americans from the Protestant South entered the territory and began to impose their norms. Slavery in the United States_sentence_159

They officially discouraged interracial relationships (although white men continued to have unions with black women, both enslaved and free.) Slavery in the United States_sentence_160

The Americanization of Louisiana gradually resulted in a binary system of race, causing free people of color to lose status as they were grouped with the slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_161

They lost certain rights as they became classified by American whites as officially "black". Slavery in the United States_sentence_162

Revolutionary era Slavery in the United States_section_11

Slavery in the United States_table_general_2

Origins and percentages of Africans

imported into British North America and Louisiana (1700–1820)Slavery in the United States_header_cell_2_0_0

Amount %
 (exceeds 100%)Slavery in the United States_header_cell_2_0_1
West-central Africa (Kongo, N. Mbundu, S. Mbundu)Slavery in the United States_cell_2_1_0 26.1Slavery in the United States_cell_2_1_1
Bight of Biafra (Igbo, Tikar, Ibibio, Bamileke, Bubi)Slavery in the United States_cell_2_2_0 24.4Slavery in the United States_cell_2_2_1
Sierra Leone (Mende, Temne)Slavery in the United States_cell_2_3_0 15.8Slavery in the United States_cell_2_3_1
Senegambia (Mandinka, Fula, Wolof)Slavery in the United States_cell_2_4_0 14.5Slavery in the United States_cell_2_4_1
Gold Coast (Akan, Fon)Slavery in the United States_cell_2_5_0 13.1Slavery in the United States_cell_2_5_1
Windward Coast (Mandé, Kru)Slavery in the United States_cell_2_6_0 5.2Slavery in the United States_cell_2_6_1
Bight of Benin (Yoruba, Ewe, Fon, Allada and Mahi)Slavery in the United States_cell_2_7_0 4.3Slavery in the United States_cell_2_7_1
Southeast Africa (Macua, Malagasy)Slavery in the United States_cell_2_8_0 1.8Slavery in the United States_cell_2_8_1

The American Revolution not only got rid of a king, it profoundly changed society itself. Slavery in the United States_sentence_163

Prior to the Revolution, everyone except the king had their "betters." Slavery in the United States_sentence_164

Society was layered, with the king at the top, then the peerage (those with titles of nobility), gentlemen, common people, and slaves at the bottom. Slavery in the United States_sentence_165

One's life was determined by one's birth. Slavery in the United States_sentence_166

The American Revolution got rid of this entire system of aristocracy. Slavery in the United States_sentence_167

There is even a clause in the Constitution prohibiting the granting of titles of nobility in America. Slavery in the United States_sentence_168

It got rid of all the layers, except for the bottom one, the slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_169

Slavery had existed for 3,000 years. Slavery in the United States_sentence_170

It was legal and normal - it fits in with a layered society. Slavery in the United States_sentence_171

The American Revolution changed that. Slavery in the United States_sentence_172

As historian Christopher L. Brown put it, slavery "had never been on the agenda in a serious way before," but the Revolution "forced it to be a public question from there forward." Slavery in the United States_sentence_173

In the first two decades after the American Revolution, state legislatures and individuals took actions to free slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_174

Northern states passed new constitutions that contained language about equal rights or specifically abolished slavery; some states, such as New York and New Jersey, where slavery was more widespread, passed laws by the end of the 18th century to abolish slavery by a gradual method. Slavery in the United States_sentence_175

By 1804, all the northern states had passed laws outlawing slavery, either immediately or over time. Slavery in the United States_sentence_176

In New York, the last slaves were freed in 1827. Slavery in the United States_sentence_177

Indentured servitude (temporary slavery), which had been widespread in the colonies (Half the population of Philadelphia had once been bonded servants) dropped dramatically, and disappeared by 1800. Slavery in the United States_sentence_178

No southern state abolished slavery, but individual owners could free their slaves by personal decision, often providing for manumission in wills but sometimes filing deeds or court papers to free individuals. Slavery in the United States_sentence_179

Numerous slaveholders who freed their slaves cited revolutionary ideals in their documents; others freed slaves as a reward for service. Slavery in the United States_sentence_180

The number of free blacks as a proportion of the black population in the upper South increased from less than 1 percent to nearly 10 percent between 1790 and 1810 as a result of these actions. Slavery in the United States_sentence_181

While a smaller number of African slaves were kept and sold in England, slavery in Great Britain had not been authorized by statute there. Slavery in the United States_sentence_182

In 1772, it was made unenforceable at common law in England and Wales by a legal decision. Slavery in the United States_sentence_183

The British role in the international slave trade continued until it abolished its slave trade in 1807. Slavery in the United States_sentence_184

Slavery flourished in most of Britain's colonies, with many wealthy slave owners living in England and holding considerable power. Slavery in the United States_sentence_185

In early 1775 Lord Dunmore, royal governor of Virginia and a slave-owner, wrote to Lord Dartmouth of his intent to free slaves owned by patriots in case of rebellion. Slavery in the United States_sentence_186

On November 7, 1775, Lord Dunmore issued Lord Dunmore's Proclamation which declared martial law in Virginia and promised freedom for any slaves of American patriots who would leave their masters and join the royal forces. Slavery in the United States_sentence_187

Slaves owned by Loyalist masters, however, were unaffected by Dunmore's Proclamation. Slavery in the United States_sentence_188

About 1500 slaves owned by Patriots escaped and joined Dunmore's forces. Slavery in the United States_sentence_189

Most died of disease before they could do any fighting. Slavery in the United States_sentence_190

Three hundred of these freed slaves made it to freedom in Britain. Slavery in the United States_sentence_191

Many slaves used the very disruption of war to escape their plantations and fade into cities or woods. Slavery in the United States_sentence_192

For instance, in South Carolina, nearly 25,000 slaves (30% of the total enslaved population) fled, migrated, or died during the war. Slavery in the United States_sentence_193

Throughout the South, losses of slaves were high, with many due to escapes. Slavery in the United States_sentence_194

Slaves also escaped throughout New England and the mid-Atlantic, with many joining the British who had occupied New York. Slavery in the United States_sentence_195

In the closing months of the war, the British evacuated 20,000 freedmen from major coastal cities, transporting more than 3,000 for resettlement in Nova Scotia, where they were registered as Black Loyalists and eventually granted land. Slavery in the United States_sentence_196

They transported others to the Caribbean islands, and some to England. Slavery in the United States_sentence_197

The British transported Loyalists and their slaves, primarily to the Caribbean, but some to Nova Scotia. Slavery in the United States_sentence_198

For example, over 5,000 enslaved Africans owned by Loyalists were transported in 1782 with their owners from Savannah to Jamaica and St. Slavery in the United States_sentence_199 Augustine, Florida (then controlled by Britain). Slavery in the United States_sentence_200

Similarly, over half of the black people evacuated in 1782 from Charleston by the British to the West Indies and Florida were slaves owned by white Loyalists. Slavery in the United States_sentence_201

Slaves and free blacks also fought on the side of rebels during the Revolutionary War. Slavery in the United States_sentence_202

Washington authorized slaves to be freed who fought with the American Continental Army. Slavery in the United States_sentence_203

Rhode Island started enlisting slaves in 1778, and promised compensation to owners whose slaves enlisted and survived to gain freedom. Slavery in the United States_sentence_204

During the course of the war, about one fifth of the northern army was black. Slavery in the United States_sentence_205

In 1781, Baron Closen, a German officer in the French Royal Deux-Ponts Regiment at the Battle of Yorktown, estimated the American army to be about one-quarter black. Slavery in the United States_sentence_206

These men included both former slaves and free blacks. Slavery in the United States_sentence_207

Thousands of free blacks in the northern states fought in the state militias and Continental Army. Slavery in the United States_sentence_208

In the south, both sides offered freedom to slaves who would perform military service. Slavery in the United States_sentence_209

Roughly 20,000 slaves fought in the American Revolution. Slavery in the United States_sentence_210

Starting in 1777, the Patriots outlawed the importation of slaves state by state. Slavery in the United States_sentence_211

They all acted to end the international trade, but after the war it was later reopened in South Carolina and Georgia. Slavery in the United States_sentence_212

In 1807 Congress acted on President Jefferson's advice and made importing slaves from abroad a federal crime, as the Constitution permitted, starting January 1, 1808. Slavery in the United States_sentence_213

During the revolution and in the following years, all states north of Maryland took steps towards abolishing slavery. Slavery in the United States_sentence_214

In 1777, the Vermont Republic, which was still unrecognized by the United States, passed a state constitution abolishing slavery. Slavery in the United States_sentence_215

The Pennsylvania Abolition Society, led in part by Benjamin Franklin, was founded in 1775, and in 1780, Pennsylvania began gradual abolition. Slavery in the United States_sentence_216

In 1783, the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts ruled in Commonwealth v. Jennison that slavery was unconstitutional under the state's new 1780 constitution. Slavery in the United States_sentence_217

New Hampshire began gradual emancipation in 1783, while Connecticut and Rhode Island followed in 1784. Slavery in the United States_sentence_218

The New York Manumission Society was founded in 1785, and was led by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr. Slavery in the United States_sentence_219

New York state began gradual emancipation in 1799, and New Jersey followed in 1804. Slavery in the United States_sentence_220

Shortly after the Revolution, the Northwest Territory was established, by Manasseh Cutler and Rufus Putnam (who had been George Washington's chief engineer). Slavery in the United States_sentence_221

Both Cutler and Putnam came from Puritan New England. Slavery in the United States_sentence_222

The Puritans strongly believed that slavery was morally wrong. Slavery in the United States_sentence_223

Their influence on the issue of slavery was long-lasting, and this was provided significantly greater impetus by the Revolution. Slavery in the United States_sentence_224

The Northwest Territory (which became Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and part of Minnesota) doubled the size of the United States, and it was established at the insistence of Cutler and Putnam as "free soil" - no slavery. Slavery in the United States_sentence_225

This was to prove crucial a few decades later. Slavery in the United States_sentence_226

Had those states been slave states, and their electoral votes gone to Abraham Lincoln's main opponent, Lincoln would not have become president. Slavery in the United States_sentence_227

The Civil War would not have been fought. Slavery in the United States_sentence_228

Even if it eventually had been, the North might well have lost. Slavery in the United States_sentence_229

Constitution of the United States Slavery in the United States_section_12

Slavery was a contentious issue in the writing and approval of the Constitution of the United States. Slavery in the United States_sentence_230

In it the words "slave" and "slavery" do not appear, although several provisions clearly refer to it. Slavery in the United States_sentence_231

The Constitution did not prohibit slavery. Slavery in the United States_sentence_232

Section 9 of Article I forbade the Federal government from preventing the importation of slaves, described as "such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit", for 20 years after the Constitution's ratification (until January 1, 1808). Slavery in the United States_sentence_233

The delegates approved Section 2 of Article IV, which prohibited states from freeing slaves who fled to them from another state, and required the return of chattel property to owners. Slavery in the United States_sentence_234

Three-Fifths Compromise Slavery in the United States_section_13

Main article: Three-Fifths Compromise Slavery in the United States_sentence_235

In a section negotiated by James Madison of Virginia, Section 2 of Article I designated "other persons" (slaves) to be added to the total of the state's free population, at the rate of three-fifths of their total number, to establish the state's official population for the purposes of apportionment of Congressional representation and federal taxation. Slavery in the United States_sentence_236

This disproportionately strengthened the political power of Southern representatives, as three-fifths of the (non-voting) slave population was counted for Congressional apportionment and in the Electoral College. Slavery in the United States_sentence_237

In addition, many parts of the country were tied to the Southern economy. Slavery in the United States_sentence_238

As the historian James Oliver Horton noted, prominent slaveholder politicians and the commodity crops of the South had a strong influence on United States politics and economy. Slavery in the United States_sentence_239

Horton said, Slavery in the United States_sentence_240

The power of Southern states in Congress lasted until the Civil War, affecting national policies, legislation, and appointments. Slavery in the United States_sentence_241

One result was that justices appointed to the Supreme Court were also primarily slave owners. Slavery in the United States_sentence_242

The planter elite dominated the Southern Congressional delegations and the United States presidency for nearly 50 years. Slavery in the United States_sentence_243

1790 to 1860 Slavery in the United States_section_14

Further information: Slave and free states Slavery in the United States_sentence_244

Slave trade Slavery in the United States_section_15

Main article: Domestic slave trade Slavery in the United States_sentence_245

The U.S. Slavery in the United States_sentence_246 Constitution barred the federal government from prohibiting the importation of slaves for 20 years. Slavery in the United States_sentence_247

Various states passed different restrictions on the international slave trade during that period; by 1808, the only state still allowing the importation of African slaves was South Carolina. Slavery in the United States_sentence_248

After 1808, legal importation of slaves ceased, although there was smuggling via lawless Spanish Florida and the disputed Gulf Coast to the west. Slavery in the United States_sentence_249

This route all but ended after Florida became a U.S. territory in 1821 (but see Wanderer and Clotilda). Slavery in the United States_sentence_250

The replacement for the importation of slaves from abroad was increased domestic production. Slavery in the United States_sentence_251

Virginia and Maryland had little new agricultural development, and their need for slaves was mostly for replacements for decedents. Slavery in the United States_sentence_252

Normal reproduction more than supplied these: Virginia and Maryland had surpluses of slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_253

Their tobacco farms were "worn out" and the climate was not suitable for cotton or sugar cane. Slavery in the United States_sentence_254

The surplus was even greater because slaves were encouraged to reproduce (though they could not marry). Slavery in the United States_sentence_255

The white supremacist Virginian Thomas Roderick Dew wrote in 1832 that Virginia was a "negro-raising state"; i.e. Virginia "produced" slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_256

According to him, in 1832 Virginia exported "upwards of 6,000 slaves" per year, "a source of wealth to Virginia". Slavery in the United States_sentence_257

Another writer gives the figure in 1836 as 40,000, earning for Virginia an estimated $24,000,000 per year. Slavery in the United States_sentence_258

Where demand for slaves was the strongest in what was then the southwest of the country: Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, and later Texas, Arkansas, and Missouri. Slavery in the United States_sentence_259

Here there was abundant land suitable for plantation agriculture, which young men with some capital established. Slavery in the United States_sentence_260

This was expansion of the white, monied population: younger men seeking their fortune. Slavery in the United States_sentence_261

The most valuable crop that could be grown on a plantation in that climate was cotton. Slavery in the United States_sentence_262

That crop was labor-intensive, and the least-costly laborers were slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_263

Demand for slaves exceeded the supply in the southwest; therefore slaves, never cheap if they were productive, went for a higher price. Slavery in the United States_sentence_264

As portrayed in Uncle Tom's Cabin (the "original" cabin was in Maryland), "selling South" was greatly feared. Slavery in the United States_sentence_265

A recently (2018) publicized example of the practice of "selling South" is the 1838 sale by Jesuits of 272 slaves from Maryland, to plantations in Louisiana, to benefit Georgetown University, which "owes its existence" to this transaction. Slavery in the United States_sentence_266

Traders responded to the demand, including John Armfield and his uncle Isaac Franklin, who were "reputed to have made over half a million dollars (in 19th-century value)" in the slave trade. Slavery in the United States_sentence_267

(They did not handle the Jesuit transaction just mentioned.) Slavery in the United States_sentence_268

Setting up an office in what was then the District of Columbia, regional center of the slave trade, in Alexandria, "a major slave trading port for more than a century", the two men went into business in 1828 buying slaves in the North and selling them in the South: Slavery in the United States_sentence_269

This house on Duke Street houses the Freedom House Museum, with exhibits on the slave trade and the lives of slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_270

Armfield remained in Alexandria doing the purchasing, with agents in Richmond and Warrenton, Virginia, and Baltimore, Frederick, and Easton, Maryland (on Maryland's Eastern Shore, near Delaware). Slavery in the United States_sentence_271

Franklin handled the selling out of New Orleans and Natchez, Mississippi, with offices in St. Slavery in the United States_sentence_272 Francisville and Vidalia, Louisiana. Slavery in the United States_sentence_273

Their partnership grew to the point that when the partnership was dissolved in 1836 and the business sold, they owned six ships for the sole purpose of transporting slaves, with monthly and then biweekly sailings. Slavery in the United States_sentence_274

(The ships carried agricultural products on the return trips.) Slavery in the United States_sentence_275

One of them, the Isaac Franklin, was built for them. Slavery in the United States_sentence_276

Franklin and Armfield's Alexandria site was visited by various abolitionists, who have left detailed descriptions of it. Slavery in the United States_sentence_277

They concur in that Armfield, in contrast with Robert Lumpkin among others, was the most scrupulous of the major slave traders, who would not knowingly purchase kidnapped slaves or freedmen, and whose slaves were reasonably well treated while he owned them, at least at the Duke Street facility. Slavery in the United States_sentence_278

Slaves appeared to concur in this relatively positive picture, asking that if they were to be sold, that they be sold to Armfield. Slavery in the United States_sentence_279

However, Armfield frequently took children from their parents and sold them South. Slavery in the United States_sentence_280

"Fancy ladies" Slavery in the United States_section_16

See also: Children of the plantation and Enslaved women's resistance in the United States and Caribbean Slavery in the United States_sentence_281

In the United States in the early nineteenth century, owners of female slaves could freely and legally use them as sexual objects. Slavery in the United States_sentence_282

This follows free use of female slaves on slaving vessels by the crews. Slavery in the United States_sentence_283

"This vice, this bane of society, has already become so common, that it is scarcely esteemed a disgrace." Slavery in the United States_sentence_284

"Fancy" was a code word which indicated that the girl or young woman was suitable for or trained for sexual use. Slavery in the United States_sentence_285

In some cases, children were also abused in this manner. Slavery in the United States_sentence_286

The sale of a 13-year-old "nearly a fancy" is documented. Slavery in the United States_sentence_287

Zephaniah Kingsley, Jr., bought his wife when she was 13. Slavery in the United States_sentence_288

Furthermore, enslaved women who were old enough to bear children were encouraged to procreate, which raised their value as slaves, since their children would eventually provide labor or be sold, enriching the owners. Slavery in the United States_sentence_289

Enslaved women were sometimes medically treated in order to enable or encourage their fertility. Slavery in the United States_sentence_290

The variations in skin color found in the United States make it obvious how often black women were impregnated by whites. Slavery in the United States_sentence_291

For example, in the 1850 Census, 75.4% of "free negros" in Florida were described as mulattos, of mixed race. Slavery in the United States_sentence_292

Nevertheless, it is only very recently, with DNA studies, that any sort of reliable number can be provided, and the research has only begun. Slavery in the United States_sentence_293

Light-skinned girls, who contrasted with the darker field workers, were preferred. Slavery in the United States_sentence_294

The sexual use of black slaves by either slave owners or by those who could purchase the temporary services of a slave, took various forms. Slavery in the United States_sentence_295

A slaveowner, or his teenage sons, could go to the slave quarters area of the plantation and do what he wanted, usually in front of the rest of the slaves, or with minimal privacy. Slavery in the United States_sentence_296

It was common for a "house" female – a housekeeper, maid, cook, laundress, or nanny – to be raped by one or more members of the household. Slavery in the United States_sentence_297

Houses of prostitution throughout the slave states were largely staffed by female slaves providing sexual services, to their owners' profit. Slavery in the United States_sentence_298

There were a small number of free black females engaged in prostitution, or concubinage, especially in New Orleans. Slavery in the United States_sentence_299

Slave owners who engaged in sexual activity with female slaves "were often the elite of the community. Slavery in the United States_sentence_300

They had little need to worry about public scorn." Slavery in the United States_sentence_301

These relationships "appear to have been tolerated and in some cases even quietly accepted." Slavery in the United States_sentence_302

"Southern women…do not trouble themselves about it". Slavery in the United States_sentence_303

Light-skinned young girls were sold openly for sexual use; their price was much higher than that of a field hand. Slavery in the United States_sentence_304

Special markets for the fancy girl trade existed in New Orleans and Lexington, Kentucky. Slavery in the United States_sentence_305

Historian Philip Shaw describes an occasion when Abraham Lincoln and Allen Gentry witnessed such sales in New Orleans in 1828: Slavery in the United States_sentence_306

Those girls who were "considered educated and refined, were purchased by the wealthiest clients, usually plantation owners, to become personal sexual companions." Slavery in the United States_sentence_307

"There was a great demand in New Orleans for 'fancy girls'." Slavery in the United States_sentence_308

The issue which did come up frequently was the threat of sexual intercourse between black males and white females. Slavery in the United States_sentence_309

Just as the black women were perceived as having "a trace of Africa, that supposedly incited passion and sexual wantonness", the men were perceived as savages, unable to control their lust, given an opportunity. Slavery in the United States_sentence_310

Another approach to the question was offered by Quaker and Florida planter Zephaniah Kingsley, Jr. He advocated, and personally practiced, deliberate racial mixing through marriage, as part of his proposed solution to the slavery issue: racial integration, called "amalgamation" at the time. Slavery in the United States_sentence_311

In an 1829 Treatise, he stated that mixed-race people were healthier and often more beautiful, that interracial sex was hygienic, and slavery made it convenient. Slavery in the United States_sentence_312

Because of these views, tolerated in Spanish Florida, he found it impossible to remain long in Territorial Florida, and moved with his slaves and multiple wives to a plantation in Haiti (now in the Dominican Republic). Slavery in the United States_sentence_313

There were many others who less flagrantly practiced interracial, common-law marriages with slaves (see Partus sequitur ventrem). Slavery in the United States_sentence_314

Justifications in the South Slavery in the United States_section_17

See also: Proslavery and Fire-Eaters Slavery in the United States_sentence_315

"A necessary evil" Slavery in the United States_section_18

In the 19th century, proponents of slavery often defended the institution as a "necessary evil". Slavery in the United States_sentence_316

At that time it was feared that emancipation of black slaves would have more harmful social and economic consequences than the continuation of slavery. Slavery in the United States_sentence_317

On April 22, 1820, Thomas Jefferson, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, wrote in a letter to John Holmes, that with slavery, Slavery in the United States_sentence_318

The French writer and traveler Alexis de Tocqueville, in his influential Democracy in America (1835), expressed opposition to slavery while observing its effects on American society. Slavery in the United States_sentence_319

He felt that a multiracial society without slavery was untenable, as he believed that prejudice against blacks increased as they were granted more rights (for example, in northern states). Slavery in the United States_sentence_320

He believed that the attitudes of white Southerners, and the concentration of the black population in the South, were bringing the white and black populations to a state of equilibrium, and were a danger to both races. Slavery in the United States_sentence_321

Because of the racial differences between master and slave, he believed that the latter could not be emancipated. Slavery in the United States_sentence_322

In a letter to president Franklin Pierce, dated December 27, 1856, Robert E. Lee wrote, Slavery in the United States_sentence_323

"A positive good" Slavery in the United States_section_19

Main article: Slavery as a positive good in the United States Slavery in the United States_sentence_324

See also: Mudsill theory Slavery in the United States_sentence_325

However, as the abolitionist movement's agitation increased and the area developed for plantations expanded, apologies for slavery became more faint in the South. Slavery in the United States_sentence_326

Leaders then described slavery as a beneficial scheme of labor management. Slavery in the United States_sentence_327

John C. Calhoun, in a famous speech in the Senate in 1837, declared that slavery was "instead of an evil, a good—a positive good". Slavery in the United States_sentence_328

Calhoun supported his view with the following reasoning: in every civilized society one portion of the community must live on the labor of another; learning, science, and the arts are built upon leisure; the African slave, kindly treated by his master and mistress and looked after in his old age, is better off than the free laborers of Europe; and under the slave system conflicts between capital and labor are avoided. Slavery in the United States_sentence_329

The advantages of slavery in this respect, he concluded, "will become more and more manifest, if left undisturbed by interference from without, as the country advances in wealth and numbers". Slavery in the United States_sentence_330

South Carolina Army officer, planter, and railroad executive James Gadsden called slavery "a social blessing" and abolitionists "the greatest curse of the nation". Slavery in the United States_sentence_331

Gadsden was in favor of South Carolina's secession in 1850, and was a leader in efforts to split California into two states, one slave and one free. Slavery in the United States_sentence_332

Other Southern writers who also began to portray slavery as a positive good were James Henry Hammond and George Fitzhugh. Slavery in the United States_sentence_333

They presented several arguments to defend the practice of slavery in the South. Slavery in the United States_sentence_334

Hammond, like Calhoun, believed that slavery was needed to build the rest of society. Slavery in the United States_sentence_335

In a speech to the Senate on March 4, 1858, Hammond developed his "Mudsill Theory," defending his view on slavery stating: "Such a class you must have, or you would not have that other class which leads progress, civilization, and refinement. Slavery in the United States_sentence_336

It constitutes the very mud-sill of society and of political government; and you might as well attempt to build a house in the air, as to build either the one or the other, except on this mud-sill." Slavery in the United States_sentence_337

Hammond believed that in every class one group must accomplish all the menial duties, because without them the leaders in society could not progress. Slavery in the United States_sentence_338

He argued that the hired laborers of the North were slaves too: "The difference… is, that our slaves are hired for life and well compensated; there is no starvation, no begging, no want of employment," while those in the North had to search for employment. Slavery in the United States_sentence_339

George Fitzhugh used assumptions about white superiority to justify slavery, writing that, "the Negro is but a grown up child, and must be governed as a child." Slavery in the United States_sentence_340

In The Universal Law of Slavery, Fitzhugh argues that slavery provides everything necessary for life and that the slave is unable to survive in a free world because he is lazy, and cannot compete with the intelligent European white race. Slavery in the United States_sentence_341

He states that "The negro slaves of the South are the happiest, and in some sense, the freest people in the world." Slavery in the United States_sentence_342

Without the South, "He (slave) would become an insufferable burden to society" and "Society has the right to prevent this, and can only do so by subjecting him to domestic slavery." Slavery in the United States_sentence_343

On March 21, 1861, Alexander Stephens, Vice President of the Confederacy, delivered his Cornerstone Speech. Slavery in the United States_sentence_344

He explained the differences between the Constitution of the Confederate States and the United States Constitution, laid out the cause for the American Civil War, as he saw it, and defended slavery: Slavery in the United States_sentence_345

This view of the negro "race" was backed by pseudo-science. Slavery in the United States_sentence_346

The leading researcher was Dr. Samuel A. Cartwright, inventor of the mental illnesses of drapetomania—the desire of a slave to run away—and dysaesthesia aethiopica—"rascality", cured by whipping. Slavery in the United States_sentence_347

The Medical Association of Louisiana set up a committee, of which he was chair, to investigate "The Diseases and Physical Peculiarities of the Negro Race". Slavery in the United States_sentence_348

Their report, first delivered to the Medical Association in an address, was published in their journal, and then reprinted in part in the widely circulated DeBow's Review. Slavery in the United States_sentence_349

Proposed expansion of slavery Slavery in the United States_section_20

Whether or not slavery was to be limited to the Southern states that already had it, or whether it was to be permitted in new states made from the lands of the Louisiana Purchase and Mexican Cession, was a major issue in the 1840s and 1850s. Slavery in the United States_sentence_350

Results included the Compromise of 1850 and the Bleeding Kansas period. Slavery in the United States_sentence_351

Also relatively well known are the proposals, including the Ostend Manifesto, to annex Cuba as a slave state. Slavery in the United States_sentence_352

There was also talk of making slave states of Mexico, Nicaragua (see Walker affair), and other lands around the so-called Golden Circle. Slavery in the United States_sentence_353

Less well known today (2019), though well known at the time, is that pro-slavery Southerners: Slavery in the United States_sentence_354

Slavery in the United States_unordered_list_1

Slavery in the United States_unordered_list_2

  • Wanted to reintroduce slavery in the Northern states, through federal action or Constitutional amendment making slavery legal nationwide, thus overriding state anti-slavery laws. (See Crittenden Compromise.)Slavery in the United States_item_2_9
  • Said openly that slavery should by no means be limited to negros, since in their view it was beneficial. Northern white workers, who were allegedly "wage slaves" already, would allegedly have better lives if they were enslaved.Slavery in the United States_item_2_10

While these ideas never got off the ground, they alarmed Northerners and contributed to the growing polarization of the country. Slavery in the United States_sentence_355

Abolitionism in the North Slavery in the United States_section_21

Main article: Abolitionism in the United States § Abolition in the North Slavery in the United States_sentence_356

Beginning during the revolution and in the first two decades of the postwar era, every state in the North abolished slavery. Slavery in the United States_sentence_357

These were the first abolitionist laws in the Atlantic World. Slavery in the United States_sentence_358

However, the abolition of slavery did not necessarily mean that existing slaves became free. Slavery in the United States_sentence_359

In some states they were forced to remain with their former owners as indentured servants: free in name only, although they could not be sold and thus families could not be split, and their children were born free. Slavery in the United States_sentence_360

The end of slavery did not come in New York until July 4, 1827, when it was celebrated with a big parade. Slavery in the United States_sentence_361

However, in the 1830 census, the only state with no slaves was Vermont. Slavery in the United States_sentence_362

In the 1840 census, there were still slaves in New Hampshire (1), Rhode Island (5), Connecticut (17), New York (4), Pennsylvania (64), Ohio (3), Indiana (3), Illinois (331), Iowa (16), and Wisconsin (11). Slavery in the United States_sentence_363

There were none in these states in the 1850 census. Slavery in the United States_sentence_364

In Massachusetts, slavery was successfully challenged in court in 1783 in a freedom suit by Quock Walker; he said that slavery was in contradiction to the state's new constitution of 1780 providing for equality of men. Slavery in the United States_sentence_365

Freed slaves were subject to racial segregation and discrimination in the North, and in many cases they did not have the right to vote until ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment in 1870. Slavery in the United States_sentence_366

Most Northern states passed legislation for gradual abolition, first freeing children born to slave mothers (and requiring them to serve lengthy indentures to their mother's owners, often into their 20s as young adults). Slavery in the United States_sentence_367

Pennsylvania's last ex-slaves were freed in 1847, Connecticut's in 1848, and while neither New Hampshire nor New Jersey had any slaves in the 1850 Census, and New Jersey only 1 and New Hampshire none in the 1860 Census, slavery was never prohibited in either state until ratification of the 13th Amendment in 1865 (and New Jersey was one of the last states to ratify it). Slavery in the United States_sentence_368

None of the Southern states abolished slavery before 1865, but it was not unusual for individual slaveholders in the South to free numerous slaves, often citing revolutionary ideals, in their wills. Slavery in the United States_sentence_369

Methodist, Quaker, and Baptist preachers traveled in the South, appealing to slaveholders to manumit their slaves, and there were "manumission societies" in some Southern states. Slavery in the United States_sentence_370

By 1810, the number and proportion of free blacks in the population of the United States had risen dramatically. Slavery in the United States_sentence_371

Most free blacks lived in the North, but even in the Upper South, the proportion of free blacks went from less than one percent of all blacks to more than 10 percent, even as the total number of slaves was increasing through imports. Slavery in the United States_sentence_372

Thomas Jefferson proposed in 1784 to end slavery in all the territories, but his bill lost in the Congress by one vote. Slavery in the United States_sentence_373

The territories south of the Ohio River (and Missouri) had authorized slavery. Slavery in the United States_sentence_374

One of the early Puritan writings on this subject was "The Selling of Joseph," by Samuel Sewall in 1700. Slavery in the United States_sentence_375

In it, Sewall condemned slavery and the slave trade and refuted many of the era's typical justifications for slavery. Slavery in the United States_sentence_376

The Puritan influence on slavery was still strong at the time of the American Revolution and up until the Civil War. Slavery in the United States_sentence_377

Of America's first seven presidents, the two who did not own slaves, John Adams and John Quincy Adams, came from Puritan New England. Slavery in the United States_sentence_378

They were wealthy enough to own slaves, but they chose not to because they felt it was morally wrong. Slavery in the United States_sentence_379

In 1765, colonial leader Samuel Adams and his wife were given a slave girl as a gift. Slavery in the United States_sentence_380

They immediately freed her. Slavery in the United States_sentence_381

Just after the Revolution, in 1787, the Northwest Territory (which became the states of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota) was opened up for settlement. Slavery in the United States_sentence_382

The two men responsible for establishing this territory were Manasseh Cutler and Rufus Putnam. Slavery in the United States_sentence_383

They came from Puritan New England, and they insisted that this new territory, which doubled the size of the United States, was going to be "free soil" - no slavery. Slavery in the United States_sentence_384

This was to prove crucial in the coming decades. Slavery in the United States_sentence_385

If those states had become slave states, and their electoral votes had gone to Abraham Lincoln's main opponent, Lincoln would not have been elected president. Slavery in the United States_sentence_386

The Civil War would not have been fought. Slavery in the United States_sentence_387

Even if it eventually had been, the North would likely have lost. Slavery in the United States_sentence_388

In the decades leading up to the Civil War, the abolitionists, such as Theodore Parker, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau and Frederick Douglass, repeatedly used the Puritan heritage of the country to bolster their cause. Slavery in the United States_sentence_389

The most radical anti-slavery newspaper, The Liberator, invoked the Puritans and Puritan values over a thousand times. Slavery in the United States_sentence_390

Parker, in urging New England Congressmen to support the abolition of slavery, wrote that "The son of the Puritan ... is sent to Congress to stand up for Truth and Right..." Slavery in the United States_sentence_391

Northerners predominated in the westward movement into the Midwestern territory after the American Revolution; as the states were organized, they voted to prohibit slavery in their constitutions when they achieved statehood: Ohio in 1803, Indiana in 1816, and Illinois in 1818. Slavery in the United States_sentence_392

What developed was a Northern block of free states united into one contiguous geographic area that generally shared an anti-slavery culture. Slavery in the United States_sentence_393

The exceptions were the areas along the Ohio River settled by Southerners: the southern portions of Indiana, Ohio, and Illinois. Slavery in the United States_sentence_394

Residents of those areas generally shared in Southern culture and attitudes. Slavery in the United States_sentence_395

In addition, these areas were devoted to agriculture longer than the industrializing northern parts of these states, and some farmers used slave labor. Slavery in the United States_sentence_396

In Illinois, for example, while the trade in slaves was prohibited, it was legal to bring slaves from Kentucky into Illinois and use them there, as long as the slaves left Illinois one day per year (they were "visiting"). Slavery in the United States_sentence_397

The emancipation of slaves in the North led to the growth in the population of Northern free blacks, from several hundred in the 1770s to nearly 50,000 by 1810. Slavery in the United States_sentence_398

Agitation against slavery Slavery in the United States_section_22

Main article: Abolitionism in the United States Slavery in the United States_sentence_399

There was legal agitation against slavery in the 13 colonies starting in 1752 by lawyer Benjamin Kent, whose cases were recorded by one of his understudies, the future president John Adams. Slavery in the United States_sentence_400

Kent represented numerous slaves in their attempts to gain their freedom. Slavery in the United States_sentence_401

He handled the case of a slave, Pompey, suing his master. Slavery in the United States_sentence_402

In 1766, Kent was the first lawyer in the United States to win a case to free a slave, Jenny Slew. Slavery in the United States_sentence_403

He also won a trial in the Old County Courthouse for a slave named Ceasar Watson (1771). Slavery in the United States_sentence_404

Kent also handled Lucy Pernam's divorce and the freedom suits of Rose and Salem Orne. Slavery in the United States_sentence_405

Throughout the first half of the 19th century, abolitionism, a movement to end slavery, grew in strength; most abolitionist societies and supporters were in the North. Slavery in the United States_sentence_406

They worked to raise awareness about the evils of slavery, and to build support for abolition. Slavery in the United States_sentence_407

This struggle took place amid strong support for slavery among white Southerners, who profited greatly from the system of enslaved labor. Slavery in the United States_sentence_408

But slavery was entwined with the national economy; for instance, the banking, shipping, and manufacturing industries of New York City all had strong economic interests in slavery, as did similar industries in other major port cities in the North. Slavery in the United States_sentence_409

The northern textile mills in New York and New England processed Southern cotton and manufactured clothes to outfit slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_410

By 1822 half of New York City's exports were related to cotton. Slavery in the United States_sentence_411

Slaveholders began to refer to slavery as the "peculiar institution" to differentiate it from other examples of forced labor. Slavery in the United States_sentence_412

They justified it as less cruel than the free labor of the North. Slavery in the United States_sentence_413

The principal organized bodies to advocate abolition and anti-slavery reforms in the north were the Pennsylvania Abolition Society and the New York Manumission Society. Slavery in the United States_sentence_414

Before the 1830s the antislavery groups called for gradual emancipation. Slavery in the United States_sentence_415

By the late 1820s, under the impulse of religious evangelicals such as Beriah Green, the sense emerged that owning slaves was a sin and the owner had to immediately free himself from this grave sin by immediate emancipation. Slavery in the United States_sentence_416

Colonization movement Slavery in the United States_section_23

Main article: American Colonization Society Slavery in the United States_sentence_417

In the early part of the 19th century, other organizations were founded to take action on the future of black Americans. Slavery in the United States_sentence_418

Some advocated removing free black people from the United States to places where they would enjoy greater freedom; some endorsed colonization in Africa, while others advocated emigration, usually to Haiti. Slavery in the United States_sentence_419

During the 1820s and 1830s, the American Colonization Society (ACS) was the primary organization to implement the "return" of black Americans to Africa. Slavery in the United States_sentence_420

The ACS was made up mostly of Quakers and slaveholders, who found uneasy common ground in support of what was incorrectly called "repatriation". Slavery in the United States_sentence_421

But by this time most black Americans were native-born and did not want to emigrate, saying they were no more African than white Americans were British. Slavery in the United States_sentence_422

Rather, they wanted full rights in the United States, where their families had lived and worked for generations. Slavery in the United States_sentence_423

In 1822 the ACS and affiliated state societies established what would become the colony of Liberia, in West Africa. Slavery in the United States_sentence_424

The ACS assisted thousands of freedmen and free blacks (with legislated limits) to emigrate there from the United States. Slavery in the United States_sentence_425

Many white people considered this preferable to emancipation in the United States. Slavery in the United States_sentence_426

Henry Clay, one of the founders and a prominent slaveholder politician from Kentucky, said that blacks faced Slavery in the United States_sentence_427

Deportation would also be a way to prevent reprisals against former slaveholders and white people in general, as had occurred in the 1804 Haiti massacre. Slavery in the United States_sentence_428

After 1830, abolitionist and newspaper publisher William Lloyd Garrison promoted emancipation, characterizing slaveholding as a personal sin. Slavery in the United States_sentence_429

He demanded that slaveowners repent and start the process of emancipation. Slavery in the United States_sentence_430

His position increased defensiveness on the part of some Southerners, who noted the long history of slavery among many cultures. Slavery in the United States_sentence_431

A few abolitionists, such as John Brown, favored the use of armed force to foment uprisings among the slaves, as he attempted to do at Harper's Ferry. Slavery in the United States_sentence_432

Most abolitionists tried to raise public support to change laws and to challenge slave laws. Slavery in the United States_sentence_433

Abolitionists were active on the lecture circuit in the North, and often featured escaped slaves in their presentations. Slavery in the United States_sentence_434

Writer and orator Frederick Douglass became an important abolitionist leader after escaping from slavery. Slavery in the United States_sentence_435

Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) was an international bestseller and aroused popular sentiment against slavery. Slavery in the United States_sentence_436

It also provoked the publication of numerous anti-Tom novels by Southerners in the years before the American Civil War. Slavery in the United States_sentence_437

Prohibiting the international trade Slavery in the United States_section_24

While under the Constitution, Congress could not prohibit the import slave trade until 1808, the third Congress regulated it in the Slave Trade Act of 1794, which prohibited shipbuilding and outfitting for the trade. Slavery in the United States_sentence_438

Subsequent acts in 1800 and 1803 sought to discourage the trade by limiting investment in import trading and prohibiting importation into states that had abolished slavery, which most in the North had by that time. Slavery in the United States_sentence_439

The final Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves was adopted in 1807, effective in 1808. Slavery in the United States_sentence_440

However, illegal importation of African slaves (smuggling) was common. Slavery in the United States_sentence_441

After Great Britain and the United States outlawed the international slave trade in 1807, British slave trade suppression activities began in 1808 through diplomatic efforts and formation of the Royal Navy's West Africa Squadron. Slavery in the United States_sentence_442

From 1819, they were assisted by forces from the United States Navy. Slavery in the United States_sentence_443

With the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842, the relationship with Britain was formalized, and the two countries jointly ran the Blockade of Africa with their navies. Slavery in the United States_sentence_444

Post-revolution Southern manumissions Slavery in the United States_section_25

Although Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware were slave states, the latter two already had a high proportion of free blacks by the outbreak of war. Slavery in the United States_sentence_445

Following the Revolution, the three legislatures made manumission easier, allowed by deed or will. Slavery in the United States_sentence_446

Quaker and Methodist ministers particularly urged slaveholders to free their slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_447

The number and proportion of freed slaves in these states rose dramatically until 1810. Slavery in the United States_sentence_448

More than half of the number of free blacks in the United States were concentrated in the Upper South. Slavery in the United States_sentence_449

The proportion of free blacks among the black population in the Upper South rose from less than 1% in 1792 to more than 10% by 1810. Slavery in the United States_sentence_450

In Delaware, nearly 75% of blacks were free by 1810. Slavery in the United States_sentence_451

In the US as a whole, by 1810 the number of free blacks reached 186,446, or 13.5% of all blacks. Slavery in the United States_sentence_452

After that period few slaves were freed, as the development of cotton plantations featuring short-staple cotton in the Deep South drove up the internal demand for slaves in the domestic slave trade and high prices were paid. Slavery in the United States_sentence_453

South Carolina made manumission more difficult, requiring legislative approval of every instance of manumission. Slavery in the United States_sentence_454

Several Southern states required manumitted slaves to leave the state within 30 days. Slavery in the United States_sentence_455

Domestic slave trade and forced migration Slavery in the United States_section_26

The growing international demand for cotton led many plantation owners further west in search of suitable land. Slavery in the United States_sentence_456

In addition, the invention of the cotton gin in 1793 enabled profitable processing of short-staple cotton, which could readily be grown in the uplands. Slavery in the United States_sentence_457

The invention revolutionized the cotton industry by increasing fifty-fold the quantity of cotton that could be processed in a day. Slavery in the United States_sentence_458

At the end of the War of 1812, fewer than 300,000 bales of cotton were produced nationally. Slavery in the United States_sentence_459

By 1820 the amount of cotton produced had increased to 600,000 bales, and by 1850 it had reached 4,000,000. Slavery in the United States_sentence_460

There was an explosive growth of cotton cultivation throughout the Deep South and greatly increased demand for slave labor to support it. Slavery in the United States_sentence_461

As a result, manumissions decreased dramatically in the South. Slavery in the United States_sentence_462

Most of the slaves sold from the Upper South were from Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas, where changes in agriculture decreased the need for their labor and the demand for slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_463

Before 1810, primary destinations for the slaves who were sold were Kentucky and Tennessee, but after 1810 Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, Deep South states, received the most slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_464

This is where cotton became king. Slavery in the United States_sentence_465

Kentucky and Tennessee joined the slave exporting states. Slavery in the United States_sentence_466

By 1815, the domestic slave trade had become a major economic activity in the United States; it lasted until the 1860s. Slavery in the United States_sentence_467

Between 1830 and 1840 nearly 250,000 slaves were taken across state lines. Slavery in the United States_sentence_468

In the 1850s more than 193,000 were transported, and historians estimate nearly one million in total took part in the forced migration of this new Middle Passage. Slavery in the United States_sentence_469

By 1860 the slave population in the United States had reached 4 million. Slavery in the United States_sentence_470

Of all 1,515,605 free families in the fifteen slave states in 1860, nearly 400,000 held slaves (roughly one in four, or 25%), amounting to 8% of all American families. Slavery in the United States_sentence_471

The historian Ira Berlin called this forced migration of slaves the "Second Middle Passage", because it reproduced many of the same horrors as the Middle Passage (the name given to the transportation of slaves from Africa to North America). Slavery in the United States_sentence_472

These sales of slaves broke up many families and caused much hardship. Slavery in the United States_sentence_473

Characterizing it as the "central event" in the life of a slave between the American Revolution and the Civil War, Berlin wrote that whether slaves were directly uprooted or lived in fear that they or their families would be involuntarily moved, "the massive deportation traumatized black people, both slave and free." Slavery in the United States_sentence_474

Individuals lost their connection to families and clans. Slavery in the United States_sentence_475

Added to the earlier colonists combining slaves from different tribes, many ethnic Africans lost their knowledge of varying tribal origins in Africa. Slavery in the United States_sentence_476

Most were descended from families who had been in the United States for many generations. Slavery in the United States_sentence_477

In the 1840s, almost 300,000 slaves were transported, with Alabama and Mississippi receiving 100,000 each. Slavery in the United States_sentence_478

During each decade between 1810 and 1860, at least 100,000 slaves were moved from their state of origin. Slavery in the United States_sentence_479

In the final decade before the Civil War, 250,000 were moved. Slavery in the United States_sentence_480

Michael Tadman wrote in Speculators and Slaves: Masters, Traders, and Slaves in the Old South (1989) that 60–70% of inter-regional migrations were the result of the sale of slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_481

In 1820 a child in the Upper South had a 30% chance of being sold south by 1860. Slavery in the United States_sentence_482

The death rate for the slaves on their way to their new destination across the American South was less than that suffered by captives shipped across the Atlantic Ocean, but mortality was higher than the normal death rate. Slavery in the United States_sentence_483

Slave traders transported two-thirds of the slaves who moved west. Slavery in the United States_sentence_484

Only a minority moved with their families and existing master. Slavery in the United States_sentence_485

Slave traders had little interest in purchasing or transporting intact slave families; in the early years, planters demanded only the young male slaves needed for heavy labor. Slavery in the United States_sentence_486

Later, in the interest of creating a "self-reproducing labor force", planters purchased nearly equal numbers of men and women. Slavery in the United States_sentence_487

Berlin wrote: Slavery in the United States_sentence_488

The expansion of the interstate slave trade contributed to the "economic revival of once depressed seaboard states" as demand accelerated the value of slaves who were subject to sale. Slavery in the United States_sentence_489

Some traders moved their "chattels" by sea, with Norfolk to New Orleans being the most common route, but most slaves were forced to walk overland. Slavery in the United States_sentence_490

Others were shipped downriver from such markets as Louisville on the Ohio River, and Natchez on the Mississippi. Slavery in the United States_sentence_491

Traders created regular migration routes served by a network of slave pens, yards, and warehouses needed as temporary housing for the slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_492

In addition, other vendors provided clothes, food, and supplies for slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_493

As the trek advanced, some slaves were sold and new ones purchased. Slavery in the United States_sentence_494

Berlin concluded, "In all, the slave trade, with its hubs and regional centers, its spurs and circuits, reached into every cranny of southern society. Slavery in the United States_sentence_495

Few southerners, black or white, were untouched." Slavery in the United States_sentence_496

Once the trip ended, slaves faced a life on the frontier significantly different from most labor in the Upper South. Slavery in the United States_sentence_497

Clearing trees and starting crops on virgin fields was harsh and backbreaking work. Slavery in the United States_sentence_498

A combination of inadequate nutrition, bad water, and exhaustion from both the journey and the work weakened the newly arrived slaves and produced casualties. Slavery in the United States_sentence_499

New plantations were located at rivers' edges for ease of transportation and travel. Slavery in the United States_sentence_500

Mosquitoes and other environmental challenges spread disease, which took the lives of many slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_501

They had acquired only limited immunities to lowland diseases in their previous homes. Slavery in the United States_sentence_502

The death rate was so high that, in the first few years of hewing a plantation out of the wilderness, some planters preferred whenever possible to use rented slaves rather than their own. Slavery in the United States_sentence_503

The harsh conditions on the frontier increased slave resistance and led owners and overseers to rely on violence for control. Slavery in the United States_sentence_504

Many of the slaves were new to cotton fields and unaccustomed to the "sunrise-to-sunset gang labor" required by their new life. Slavery in the United States_sentence_505

Slaves were driven much harder than when they had been in growing tobacco or wheat back east. Slavery in the United States_sentence_506

Slaves had less time and opportunity to improve the quality of their lives by raising their own livestock or tending vegetable gardens, for either their own consumption or trade, as they could in the east. Slavery in the United States_sentence_507

In Louisiana, French colonists had established sugar cane plantations and exported sugar as the chief commodity crop. Slavery in the United States_sentence_508

After the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, Americans entered the state and joined the sugar cultivation. Slavery in the United States_sentence_509

Between 1810 and 1830, planters bought slaves from the North and the number of slaves increased from less than 10,000 to more than 42,000. Slavery in the United States_sentence_510

Planters preferred young males, who represented two-thirds of the slave purchases. Slavery in the United States_sentence_511

Dealing with sugar cane was even more physically demanding than growing cotton. Slavery in the United States_sentence_512

The largely young, unmarried male slave force made the reliance on violence by the owners "especially savage". Slavery in the United States_sentence_513

New Orleans became nationally important as a slave market and port, as slaves were shipped from there upriver by steamboat to plantations on the Mississippi River; it also sold slaves who had been shipped downriver from markets such as Louisville. Slavery in the United States_sentence_514

By 1840, it had the largest slave market in North America. Slavery in the United States_sentence_515

It became the wealthiest and the fourth-largest city in the nation, based chiefly on the slave trade and associated businesses. Slavery in the United States_sentence_516

The trading season was from September to May, after the harvest. Slavery in the United States_sentence_517

Slave traders were men of low reputation, even in the South. Slavery in the United States_sentence_518

In the 1828 presidential election, candidate Andrew Jackson was strongly criticized by opponents as a slave trader who transacted in slaves in defiance of modern standards or morality. Slavery in the United States_sentence_519

Treatment Slavery in the United States_section_27

Main article: Treatment of the enslaved in the United States Slavery in the United States_sentence_520

The treatment of slaves in the United States varied widely depending on conditions, time, and place, but in general it was brutal, especially on plantations. Slavery in the United States_sentence_521

Whippings and rape were routine. Slavery in the United States_sentence_522

The power relationships of slavery corrupted many whites who had authority over slaves, with children showing their own cruelty. Slavery in the United States_sentence_523

Masters and overseers resorted to physical punishments to impose their wills. Slavery in the United States_sentence_524

Slaves were punished by whipping, shackling, hanging, beating, burning, mutilation, branding and imprisonment. Slavery in the United States_sentence_525

Punishment was most often meted out in response to disobedience or perceived infractions, but sometimes abuse was carried out to re-assert the dominance of the master or overseer of the slave. Slavery in the United States_sentence_526

Treatment was usually harsher on large plantations, which were often managed by overseers and owned by absentee slaveholders, conditions permitting abuses. Slavery in the United States_sentence_527

William Wells Brown, who escaped to freedom, reported that on one plantation, slave men were required to pick 80 pounds per day of cotton, while women were required to pick 70 pounds; if any slave failed in his or her quota, they were subject to whip lashes for each pound they were short. Slavery in the United States_sentence_528

The whipping post stood next to the cotton scales. Slavery in the United States_sentence_529

A New York man who attended a slave auction in the mid-19th century reported that at least three-quarters of the male slaves he saw at sale had scars on their backs from whipping. Slavery in the United States_sentence_530

By contrast, small slave-owning families had closer relationships between the owners and slaves; this sometimes resulted in a more humane environment but was not a given. Slavery in the United States_sentence_531

Historian Lawrence M. Friedman wrote: "Ten Southern codes made it a crime to mistreat a slave. Slavery in the United States_sentence_532

… Under the Louisiana Civil Code of 1825 (art. Slavery in the United States_sentence_533

192), if a master was "convicted of cruel treatment," the judge could order the sale of the mistreated slave, presumably to a better master." Slavery in the United States_sentence_534

Masters and overseers were seldom prosecuted under these laws. Slavery in the United States_sentence_535

No slave could give testimony in the courts. Slavery in the United States_sentence_536

According to Adalberto Aguirre, there were 1,161 slaves executed in the U.S. between the 1790s and 1850s. Slavery in the United States_sentence_537

Quick executions of innocent slaves as well as suspects typically followed any attempted slave rebellions, as white militias overreacted with widespread killings that expressed their fears of rebellions, or suspected rebellions. Slavery in the United States_sentence_538

Although most slaves had lives that were very restricted in terms of their movements and agency, exceptions existed to virtually every generalization; for instance, there were also slaves who had considerable freedom in their daily lives: slaves allowed to rent out their labor and who might live independently of their master in cities, slaves who employed white workers, and slave doctors who treated upper-class white patients. Slavery in the United States_sentence_539

After 1820, in response to the inability to import new slaves from Africa and in part to abolitionist criticism, some slaveholders improved the living conditions of their slaves, to encourage them to be productive and to try to prevent escapes. Slavery in the United States_sentence_540

It was part of a paternalistic approach in the antebellum era that was encouraged by ministers trying to use Christianity to improve the treatment of slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_541

Slaveholders published articles in southern agricultural journals to share best practices in treatment and management of slaves; they intended to show that their system was better than the living conditions of northern industrial workers. Slavery in the United States_sentence_542

Medical care for slaves was limited in terms of the medical knowledge available to anyone. Slavery in the United States_sentence_543

It was generally provided by other slaves or by slaveholders' family members, although sometimes "plantation physicians", like J. Slavery in the United States_sentence_544 Marion Sims, were called by the owners to protect their investment by treating sick slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_545

Many slaves possessed medical skills needed to tend to each other, and used folk remedies brought from Africa. Slavery in the United States_sentence_546

They also developed new remedies based on American plants and herbs. Slavery in the United States_sentence_547

According to Andrew Fede, an owner could be held criminally liable for killing a slave only if the slave he killed was "completely submissive and under the master's absolute control". Slavery in the United States_sentence_548

For example, in 1791 the North Carolina legislature defined the willful killing of a slave as criminal murder, unless done in resisting or under moderate correction (that is, corporal punishment). Slavery in the United States_sentence_549

Because of the power relationships at work, slave women in the United States were at high risk for rape and sexual abuse. Slavery in the United States_sentence_550

Their children were repeatedly taken away from them and sold as farm animals; usually they never saw each other again. Slavery in the United States_sentence_551

Many slaves fought back against sexual attacks, and some died resisting. Slavery in the United States_sentence_552

Others carried psychological and physical scars from the attacks. Slavery in the United States_sentence_553

Sexual abuse of slaves was partially rooted in a patriarchal Southern culture which treated black women as property or chattel. Slavery in the United States_sentence_554

Southern culture strongly policed against sexual relations between white women and black men on the purported grounds of racial purity but, by the late 18th century, the many mixed-race slaves and slave children showed that white men had often taken advantage of slave women. Slavery in the United States_sentence_555

Wealthy planter widowers, notably such as John Wayles and his son-in-law Thomas Jefferson, took slave women as concubines; each had six children with his partner: Elizabeth Hemings and her daughter Sally Hemings (the half-sister of Jefferson's late wife), respectively. Slavery in the United States_sentence_556

Both Mary Chesnut and Fanny Kemble, wives of planters, wrote about this issue in the antebellum South in the decades before the Civil War. Slavery in the United States_sentence_557

Sometimes planters used mixed-race slaves as house servants or favored artisans because they were their children or other relatives. Slavery in the United States_sentence_558

As a result of centuries of slavery and such relationships, DNA studies have shown that the vast majority of African Americans also have historic European ancestry, generally through paternal lines. Slavery in the United States_sentence_559

While slaves' living conditions were poor by modern standards, Robert Fogel argued that all workers, free or slave, during the first half of the 19th century were subject to hardship. Slavery in the United States_sentence_560

Unlike free individuals, however, enslaved people were far more likely to be underfed, physically punished, sexually abused, or killed, with no recourse, legal or otherwise, against those who perpetrated these crimes against them. Slavery in the United States_sentence_561

Slave codes Slavery in the United States_section_28

Main article: Slave codes Slavery in the United States_sentence_562

To help regulate the relationship between slave and owner, including legal support for keeping the slave as property, states established slave codes, most based on laws existing since the colonial era. Slavery in the United States_sentence_563

The code for the District of Columbia defined a slave as "a human being, who is by law deprived of his or her liberty for life, and is the property of another". Slavery in the United States_sentence_564

While each state had its own slave code, many concepts were shared throughout the slave states. Slavery in the United States_sentence_565

According to the slave codes, some of which were passed in reaction to slave rebellions, teaching a slave to read or write was illegal. Slavery in the United States_sentence_566

This prohibition was unique to American slavery, believed to reduce slaves forming aspirations that could lead to escape or rebellion. Slavery in the United States_sentence_567

Informal education occurred when white children taught slave companions what they were learning; in other cases, adult slaves learned from free artisan workers, especially if located in cities, where there was more freedom of movement. Slavery in the United States_sentence_568

In Alabama, slaves were not allowed to leave their master's premises without written consent or passes. Slavery in the United States_sentence_569

This was a common requirement in other states as well, and locally run patrols (known to slaves as pater rollers) often checked the passes of slaves who appeared to be away from their plantations. Slavery in the United States_sentence_570

In Alabama slaves were prohibited from trading goods among themselves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_571

In Virginia, a slave was not permitted to drink in public within one mile of his master or during public gatherings. Slavery in the United States_sentence_572

Slaves were not permitted to carry firearms in any of the slave states. Slavery in the United States_sentence_573

Slaves were generally prohibited by law from associating in groups, with the exception of worship services (a reason why the Black church is such a notable institution in black communities today). Slavery in the United States_sentence_574

Following Nat Turner's rebellion in 1831, which raised white fears throughout the South, some states also prohibited or restricted religious gatherings of slaves, or required that they be officiated by white men. Slavery in the United States_sentence_575

Planters feared that group meetings would facilitate communication among slaves that could lead to rebellion. Slavery in the United States_sentence_576

Slaves held private, secret "brush meetings" in the woods. Slavery in the United States_sentence_577

In Ohio, an emancipated slave was prohibited from returning to the state in which he or she had been enslaved. Slavery in the United States_sentence_578

Other Northern states discouraged the settling of free blacks within their boundaries. Slavery in the United States_sentence_579

Fearing the influence of free blacks, Virginia and other Southern states passed laws to require blacks who had been freed to leave the state within a year (or sometimes less time) unless granted a stay by an act of the legislature. Slavery in the United States_sentence_580

High demand and smuggling Slavery in the United States_section_29

The United States Constitution, adopted in 1787, prevented Congress from completely banning the importation of slaves until 1808, although Congress regulated it in the Slave Trade Act of 1794, and in subsequent Acts in 1800 and 1803. Slavery in the United States_sentence_581

During and after the Revolution, the states individually passed laws against importing slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_582

By contrast, the states of Georgia and South Carolina reopened their trade due to demand by their upland planters, who were developing new cotton plantations: Georgia from 1800 until December 31, 1807, and South Carolina from 1804. Slavery in the United States_sentence_583

In that period, Charleston traders imported about 75,000 slaves, more than were brought to South Carolina in the 75 years before the Revolution. Slavery in the United States_sentence_584

Approximately 30,000 were imported to Georgia. Slavery in the United States_sentence_585

By January 1, 1808, when Congress banned further imports, South Carolina was the only state that still allowed importation of enslaved people. Slavery in the United States_sentence_586

The domestic trade became extremely profitable as demand rose with the expansion of cultivation in the Deep South for cotton and sugar cane crops. Slavery in the United States_sentence_587

Slavery in the United States became, more or less, self-sustaining by natural increase among the current slaves and their descendants. Slavery in the United States_sentence_588

Maryland and Virginia viewed themselves as slave producers, seeing "producing slaves" as resembling animal husbandry. Slavery in the United States_sentence_589

Workers, including many children, were relocated by force from the upper to the lower South. Slavery in the United States_sentence_590

Despite the ban, slave imports continued through smugglers bringing in slaves past the U.S. Navy's African Slave Trade Patrol to South Carolina, and overland from Texas and Florida, both under Spanish control. Slavery in the United States_sentence_591

Congress increased the punishment associated with importing slaves, classifying it in 1820 as an act of piracy, with smugglers subject to harsh penalties, including death if caught. Slavery in the United States_sentence_592

After that, "it is unlikely that more than 10,000 [slaves] were successfully landed in the United States." Slavery in the United States_sentence_593

But, some smuggling of slaves into the United States continued until just before the start of the Civil War; see slave ships Wanderer and Clotilda. Slavery in the United States_sentence_594

War of 1812 Slavery in the United States_section_30

During the War of 1812, British Royal Navy commanders of the blockading fleet, were instructed to offer freedom to defecting American slaves, as the Crown had during the Revolutionary War. Slavery in the United States_sentence_595

Thousands of escaped slaves went over to the Crown with their families. Slavery in the United States_sentence_596

Men were recruited into the Corps of Colonial Marines on occupied Tangier Island, in the Chesapeake Bay. Slavery in the United States_sentence_597

Many freed American slaves were recruited directly into existing West Indian regiments, or newly created British Army units The British later resettled a few thousand freed slaves at Nova Scotia, as they had for freedmen after the Revolution. Slavery in the United States_sentence_598

Some of the earlier freedmen had migrated to Sierra Leone in the late 18th century, when it was established as a British colony. Slavery in the United States_sentence_599

Descendants have established the Black Loyalist Heritage Museum and website. Slavery in the United States_sentence_600

Slaveholders, primarily in the South, had considerable "loss of property" as thousands of slaves escaped to British lines or ships for freedom, despite the difficulties. Slavery in the United States_sentence_601

The planters' complacency about slave "contentment" was shocked by seeing that slaves would risk so much to be free. Slavery in the United States_sentence_602

Afterward, when some freed slaves had been settled at Bermuda, slaveholders such as Major Pierce Butler of South Carolina tried to persuade them to return to the United States, to no avail. Slavery in the United States_sentence_603

The Americans protested that Britain's failure to return all slaves violated the Treaty of Ghent. Slavery in the United States_sentence_604

After arbitration by the Tsar of Russia, the British paid $1,204,960 in damages (about $27.2 million in today's money) to Washington, which reimbursed the slaveowners. Slavery in the United States_sentence_605

Religion Slavery in the United States_section_31

Prior to the American Revolution, masters and revivalists spread Christianity to slave communities, supported by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. Slavery in the United States_sentence_606

In the First Great Awakening of the mid-18th century, Baptists and Methodists from New England preached a message against slavery, encouraged masters to free their slaves, converted both slaves and free blacks, and gave them active roles in new congregations. Slavery in the United States_sentence_607

The first independent black congregations were started in the South before the Revolution, in South Carolina and Georgia. Slavery in the United States_sentence_608

Over the decades and with the growth of slavery throughout the South, Baptist and Methodist ministers gradually changed their messages to accommodate the institution. Slavery in the United States_sentence_609

After 1830, white Southerners argued for the compatibility of Christianity and slavery, with a multitude of both Old and New Testament citations. Slavery in the United States_sentence_610

They promoted Christianity as encouraging better treatment of slaves and argued for a paternalistic approach. Slavery in the United States_sentence_611

In the 1840s and 1850s, the issue of accepting slavery split the nation's largest religious denominations (the Methodist, Baptist and Presbyterian churches) into separate Northern and Southern organizations see Methodist Episcopal Church, South, Southern Baptist Convention, and Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States of America). Slavery in the United States_sentence_612

Southern slaves generally attended their masters' white churches, where they often outnumbered the white congregants. Slavery in the United States_sentence_613

They were usually permitted to sit only in the back or in the balcony. Slavery in the United States_sentence_614

They listened to white preachers, who emphasized the obligation of slaves to keep in their place, and acknowledged the slave's identity as both person and property. Slavery in the United States_sentence_615

Preachers taught the master's responsibility and the concept of appropriate paternal treatment, using Christianity to improve conditions for slaves, and to treat them "justly and fairly" (Col. 4:1). Slavery in the United States_sentence_616

This included masters having self-control, not disciplining under anger, not threatening, and ultimately fostering Christianity among their slaves by example. Slavery in the United States_sentence_617

Slaves also created their own religious observances, meeting alone without the supervision of their white masters or ministers. Slavery in the United States_sentence_618

The larger plantations with groups of slaves numbering twenty, or more, tended to be centers of nighttime meetings of one or several plantation slave populations. Slavery in the United States_sentence_619

These congregations revolved around a singular preacher, often illiterate with limited knowledge of theology, who was marked by his personal piety and ability to foster a spiritual environment. Slavery in the United States_sentence_620

African Americans developed a theology related to Biblical stories having the most meaning for them, including the hope for deliverance from slavery by their own Exodus. Slavery in the United States_sentence_621

One lasting influence of these secret congregations is the African-American spiritual. Slavery in the United States_sentence_622

Slave rebellions Slavery in the United States_section_32

Further information: Slavery in the colonial United States § Slave rebellions Slavery in the United States_sentence_623

According to Herbert Aptheker, "there were few phases of ante-bellum Southern life and history that were not in some way influenced by the fear of, or the actual outbreak of, militant concerted slave action." Slavery in the United States_sentence_624

Historians in the 20th century identified 250 to 311 slave uprisings in U.S. and colonial history. Slavery in the United States_sentence_625

Those after 1776, include: Slavery in the United States_sentence_626

Slavery in the United States_unordered_list_3

In 1831, Nat Turner, a literate slave who claimed to have spiritual visions, organized a slave rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia; it was sometimes called the Southampton Insurrection. Slavery in the United States_sentence_627

Turner and his followers killed nearly 60 white inhabitants, mostly women and children. Slavery in the United States_sentence_628

Many of the men in the area were attending a religious event in North Carolina. Slavery in the United States_sentence_629

Eventually Turner was captured with 17 other rebels, who were subdued by the militia. Slavery in the United States_sentence_630

Turner and his followers were hanged, and Turner's body was flayed. Slavery in the United States_sentence_631

In a frenzy of fear and retaliation, the militia killed more than 100 slaves who had not been involved in the rebellion. Slavery in the United States_sentence_632

Planters whipped hundreds of innocent slaves to ensure resistance was quelled. Slavery in the United States_sentence_633

This rebellion prompted Virginia and other slave states to pass more restrictions on slaves and free people of color, controlling their movement and requiring more white supervision of gatherings. Slavery in the United States_sentence_634

In 1835 North Carolina withdrew the franchise for free people of color, and they lost their vote. Slavery in the United States_sentence_635

Anti-literacy laws Slavery in the United States_section_33

Main article: Anti-literacy laws in the United States Slavery in the United States_sentence_636

In a feature unique to American slavery, legislatures across the South enacted new laws to curtail the already limited rights of African Americans. Slavery in the United States_sentence_637

For example, Virginia prohibited blacks, free or slave, from practicing preaching, prohibited them from owning firearms, and forbade anyone to teach slaves or free blacks how to read. Slavery in the United States_sentence_638

It specified heavy penalties for both student and teacher if slaves were taught, including whippings or jail. Slavery in the United States_sentence_639

Unlike in the South, slave owners in Utah were required to send their slaves to school. Slavery in the United States_sentence_640

Black slaves did not have to spend as much time in school as Indian slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_641

Economics Slavery in the United States_section_34

There were approximately 15,000 slaves in New England in 1770 of 650,000 inhabitants. Slavery in the United States_sentence_642

35,000 slaves lived in the Mid-Atlantic States of 600,000 inhabitants of whom 19,000 lived in New York where they made up 11% of the population. Slavery in the United States_sentence_643

By 1790 Virginia held 44% (315,000 in a total population of 750,000 the State). Slavery in the United States_sentence_644

It was common in agriculture, with a more massive presence in the South – the region where climate was more propitious for widescale agricultural activity. Slavery in the United States_sentence_645

By 1790 slavery in the New England States was abolished in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont and phased out in Rhode Island and Connecticut. Slavery in the United States_sentence_646

New York introduced gradual emancipation in 1799 (completed in 1827). Slavery in the United States_sentence_647

Pennsylvania abolished slavery during the War for Independence. Slavery in the United States_sentence_648

Robert Fogel and Stanley Engerman, in their 1974 book Time on the Cross, argued that the rate of return of slavery at the market price was close to 10 percent, a number close to investment in other assets. Slavery in the United States_sentence_649

The transition from indentured servants to slaves is cited to show that slaves offered greater profits to their owners. Slavery in the United States_sentence_650

A qualified consensus among economic historians and economists is that "Slave agriculture was efficient compared with free agriculture. Slavery in the United States_sentence_651

Economies of scale, effective management, and intensive utilization of labor and capital made southern slave agriculture considerably more efficient than nonslave southern farming", and it is the near-universal consensus among economic historians and economists that slavery was not "a system irrationally kept in existence by plantation owners who failed to perceive or were indifferent to their best economic interests". Slavery in the United States_sentence_652

The relative price of slaves and indentured servants in the antebellum period did decrease. Slavery in the United States_sentence_653

Indentured servants became more costly with the increase in the demand of skilled labor in England. Slavery in the United States_sentence_654

At the same time, slaves were mostly supplied from within the United States and thus language was not a barrier, and the cost of transporting slaves from one state to another was relatively low. Slavery in the United States_sentence_655

However, as in Brazil and Europe, slavery at its end in the United States tended to be concentrated in the poorest regions of the United States, with a qualified consensus among economists and economic historians concluding that the "modern period of the South's economic convergence to the level of the North only began in earnest when the institutional foundations of the southern regional labor market were undermined, largely by federal farm and labor legislation dating from the 1930s." Slavery in the United States_sentence_656

In the decades preceding the Civil War, the black population of the United States experienced a rapid natural increase. Slavery in the United States_sentence_657

Unlike the Arab slave trade with Africa, the slave population transported by the Atlantic slave trade to the United States was sex-balanced. Slavery in the United States_sentence_658

The slave population multiplied nearly fourfold between 1810 and 1860, despite the passage of the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves signed into law by President Thomas Jefferson in 1807 banning the international slave trade. Slavery in the United States_sentence_659

Thus, it is also the universal consensus among modern economic historians and economists that slavery in the United States was not "economically moribund on the eve of the Civil War". Slavery in the United States_sentence_660

In the 2010s, several historians, among them Edward E. Baptist, Sven Beckert, Walter Johnson and Calvin Schermerhorn, have posited that slavery was integral in the development of American capitalism. Slavery in the United States_sentence_661

Other economic historians have rejected that thesis. Slavery in the United States_sentence_662

Efficiency of slaves Slavery in the United States_section_35

Scholars disagree on how to quantify efficiency of slavery. Slavery in the United States_sentence_663

In Time on the Cross, Fogel and Engerman equate efficiency to total factor productivity (TFP)—the output per average unit of input on a farm. Slavery in the United States_sentence_664

Using this measurement, Southern farms that enslaved black people using the gang system were 35% more efficient than Northern farms which used free labor. Slavery in the United States_sentence_665

Under the gang system, groups of slaves perform synchronized tasks under the constant vigilance of an overseer. Slavery in the United States_sentence_666

Each group was like a part of a machine. Slavery in the United States_sentence_667

If perceived to be working below his capacity, a slave could be punished. Slavery in the United States_sentence_668

Fogel argues that this kind of negative enforcement was not frequent and that slaves and free laborers had similar quality of life; however, there is controversy on this last point. Slavery in the United States_sentence_669

A critique of Fogel and Engerman's view was published by Paul A. David in 1976. Slavery in the United States_sentence_670

In 1995, a random survey of 178 members of the Economic History Association sought to study the views of economists and economic historians on the debate. Slavery in the United States_sentence_671

The study found that 72 percent of economists and 65 percent of economic historians would generally agree that "Slave agriculture was efficient compared with free agriculture. Slavery in the United States_sentence_672

Economies of scale, effective management, and intensive utilization of labor and capital made southern slave agriculture considerably more efficient than nonslave southern farming." Slavery in the United States_sentence_673

48 percent of the economists agreed without provisos, while 24 percent agreed when provisos were included in the statement. Slavery in the United States_sentence_674

On the other hand, 58 percent of economic historians and 42 percent of economists disagreed with Fogel and Engerman's "proposition that the material (not psychological) conditions of the lives of slaves compared favorably with those of free industrial workers in the decades before the Civil War". Slavery in the United States_sentence_675

Prices of slaves Slavery in the United States_section_36

Controlling for inflation, prices of slaves rose dramatically in the six decades prior to Civil War, reflecting demand due to commodity cotton, as well as use of slaves in shipping and manufacturing. Slavery in the United States_sentence_676

Although the prices of slaves relative to indentured servants declined, both got more expensive. Slavery in the United States_sentence_677

Cotton production was rising and relied on the use of slaves to yield high profits. Slavery in the United States_sentence_678

Fogel and Engeman initially argued that if the Civil War had not happened, the slave prices would have increased even more, an average of more than 50 percent by 1890. Slavery in the United States_sentence_679

Prices reflected the characteristics of the slave—such factors as sex, age, nature, and height were all taken into account to determine the price of a slave. Slavery in the United States_sentence_680

Over the life-cycle, the price of enslaved women was higher than their male counterparts up to puberty age, as they would likely bear children and produce more slaves, in addition to serving as laborers. Slavery in the United States_sentence_681

Men around the age of 25 were the most valued, as they were at the highest level of productivity and still had a considerable life-span. Slavery in the United States_sentence_682

If slaves had a history of fights or escapes, their price was lowered reflecting what planters believed was risk of repeating such behavior. Slavery in the United States_sentence_683

Slave traders and buyers would examine a slave's back for whipping scars—a large number of injuries would be seen as evidence of laziness or rebelliousness, rather than the previous master's brutality, and would lower the slave's price. Slavery in the United States_sentence_684

Taller male slaves were priced at a higher level, as height was viewed as a proxy for fitness and productivity. Slavery in the United States_sentence_685

The conditions of the market led to shocks in the supply and demand of slaves, which in turn changed prices. Slavery in the United States_sentence_686

For example, slaves became more expensive after 1808, when no more could be imported. Slavery in the United States_sentence_687

The market for the products of their work also affected slaves' economic value: demand for slaves fell with the price of cotton in 1840. Slavery in the United States_sentence_688

Anticipation of changes also had a huge influence on prices. Slavery in the United States_sentence_689

As the Civil War progressed, there was great doubt that slavery would continue to be legal, and prime males in New Orleans were sold at $1,116 by 1862 as opposed to $1,381 in 1861. Slavery in the United States_sentence_690

Effects on Southern economic development Slavery in the United States_section_37

While slavery brought profits in the short run, discussion continues on the economic benefits of slavery in the long run. Slavery in the United States_sentence_691

In 1995, a random anonymous survey of 178 members of the Economic History Association found that out of the 40 propositions about American economic history that were surveyed, the group of propositions most disputed by economic historians and economists were those about the postbellum economy of the American South (along with the Great Depression). Slavery in the United States_sentence_692

The only exception was the proposition initially put forward by historian Gavin Wright that the "modern period of the South's economic convergence to the level of the North only began in earnest when the institutional foundations of the southern regional labor market were undermined, largely by federal farm and labor legislation dating from the 1930s." Slavery in the United States_sentence_693

62 percent of economists (24 percent with and 38 percent without provisos) and 73 percent of historians (23 percent with and 50 percent without provisos) agreed with this statement. Slavery in the United States_sentence_694

Wright has also argued that the private investment of monetary resources in the cotton industry, among others, delayed development in the South of commercial and industrial institutions. Slavery in the United States_sentence_695

There was little public investment in railroads or other infrastructure. Slavery in the United States_sentence_696

Wright argues that agricultural technology was far more developed in the South, representing an economic advantage of the South over the North of the United States. Slavery in the United States_sentence_697

In Democracy in America, Alexis de Tocqueville noted that "the colonies in which there were no slaves became more populous and more rich than those in which slavery flourished." Slavery in the United States_sentence_698

Economists Peter H. Lindert and Jeffrey G. Williamson, in a pair of articles published in 2012 and 2013, found that, despite the American South initially having per capita income roughly double that of the North in 1774, incomes in the South had declined 27% by 1800 and continued to decline over the next four decades, while the economies in New England and the Mid-Atlantic states vastly expanded. Slavery in the United States_sentence_699

By 1840, per capita income in the South was well behind the Northeast and the national average. Slavery in the United States_sentence_700

(Note: This is also true of in the early 21st century.) Slavery in the United States_sentence_701

Lindert and Williamson argue that this antebellum period is an example of what economists Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson call "a reversal of fortune". Slavery in the United States_sentence_702

In his essay "The Real History of Slavery", economist Thomas Sowell reiterated and augmented the observation made by de Tocqueville by comparing slavery in the United States to slavery in Brazil. Slavery in the United States_sentence_703

He notes that slave societies reflected similar economic trends in those and other parts of the world, suggesting that the trend Lindert and Williamson identify may have continued until the American Civil War: Slavery in the United States_sentence_704

Sowell also notes in Ethnic America: A History, citing historians Clement Eaton and Eugene Genovese, that three-quarters of Southern white families owned no slaves at all. Slavery in the United States_sentence_705

Most slaveholders lived on farms rather than plantations, and few plantations were as large as the fictional ones depicted in Gone with the Wind. Slavery in the United States_sentence_706

In "The Real History of Slavery," Sowell also notes in comparison to slavery in the Arab world and the Middle East (where slaves were seldom used for productive purposes) and China (where the slaves consumed the entire output they created), Sowell observes that many commercial slaveowners in the antebellum South tended to be spendthrift and many lost their plantations due to creditor foreclosures, and in Britain, profits by British slave traders only amounted to 2 percent of British domestic investment in the 18th century. Slavery in the United States_sentence_707

Sowell draws the following conclusion regarding the macroeconomic value of slavery: Slavery in the United States_sentence_708

Eric Hilt noted that while some historians have suggested slavery was necessary for the Industrial Revolution (on the grounds that American slave plantations produced most of the raw cotton for the British textiles market and the British textiles market was the vanguard of the Industrial Revolution), it is not clear if this is actually true; there is no evidence that cotton could not have been mass-produced by yeoman farmers rather than slave plantations if the latter had not existed (as their existence tended to force yeoman farmers into subsistence farming) and there is some evidence that they certainly could have. Slavery in the United States_sentence_709

The soil and climate of the American South were excellent for growing cotton, so it is not unreasonable to postulate that farms without slaves could have produced substantial amounts of cotton; even if they did not produce as much as the plantations did, it could still have been enough to serve the demand of British producers. Slavery in the United States_sentence_710

Similar arguments have been made by other historians. Slavery in the United States_sentence_711

Sexual economy of American slavery Slavery in the United States_section_38

Scholar Adrienne Davis articulates how the economics of slavery also can be defined as a sexual economy, specifically focusing on how black women were expected to perform physical, sexual, and reproductive labor to provide a consistent enslaved workforce and increase the profits of white slavers. Slavery in the United States_sentence_712

Davis writes that black women were needed for their “sexual and reproductive labor to satisfy the economic, political, and personal interest of white men of the elite class” articulating that black women's reproductive capacity was important in the maintenance of the system of slavery due to its ability to perpetuate an enslaved workforce. Slavery in the United States_sentence_713

She is also drawing attention to black women's labor being needed to maintain the aristocracy of a white ruling class, due to the intimate nature of reproduction and its potential for producing more enslaved peoples. Slavery in the United States_sentence_714

Due to the institution of partus sequitur ventrem, black women's wombs became the site where slavery was developed and transferred, meaning that black women were not only used for their physical labor, but for their sexual and reproductive labor as well. Slavery in the United States_sentence_715

This articulation by Davis illustrates how black women's reproductive capacity was commodified under slavery, and that an analysis of the economic structures of slavery requires an acknowledgment of how pivotal black women's sexuality was in maintaining slavery's economic power. Slavery in the United States_sentence_716

Davis writes how black women performed labor under slavery, writing: “[black women were] male when convenient and horrifically female when needed” The fluctuating expectations of black women's gendered labor under slavery disrupted the white normative roles that were assigned to white men and white women. Slavery in the United States_sentence_717

This ungendering black women received under slavery contributed to the systemic dehumanization experienced by enslaved black women, as they were unable to receive the expectations or experiences of either gender within the white binary. Slavery in the United States_sentence_718

Davis’ arguments addresses the fact that under slavery, black women's sexuality became linked to the economic and public sphere, making their intimate lives into public institutions. Slavery in the United States_sentence_719

Black women's physical labor was gendered as masculine under slavery when they were needed to yield more profit, but their reproductive capacities and sexual labor was equally as important in maintaining white power over black communities and perpetuating an enslaved workforce. Slavery in the United States_sentence_720

This blurring of the line between the private and public sphere is another way Davis articulates how black women's sexuality and reproduction was commodified and exploited for capitalist gain, as their private and intimate lives became disrupted by the violence at the hands of white men, and their sexual capacities became an important part of the public marketplace and United States economy. Slavery in the United States_sentence_721

Despite this, the slave population transported by the Atlantic slave trade to the United States was sex-balanced and most survived the passage, and despite lacking legal recognition, most slaves in the antebellum South lived in families, unlike the Arab slave trade with Africa which was overwhelmingly female and the majority died en route crossing the Sahara (with the large majority of the minority of male African slaves dying as a result of crude castration procedures to produce eunuchs, who were in demand as harem attendants). Slavery in the United States_sentence_722

1850s Slavery in the United States_section_39

In 1850, Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act, which required law enforcement and citizens of free states to cooperate in the capture and return of slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_723

This met with considerable overt and covert resistance in free states and cities such as Philadelphia, New York, and Boston. Slavery in the United States_sentence_724

Refugees from slavery continued to flee the South across the Ohio River and other parts of the Mason–Dixon line dividing North from South, to the North and Canada via the Underground Railroad. Slavery in the United States_sentence_725

Some white northerners helped hide former slaves from their former owners or helped them reach freedom in Canada. Slavery in the United States_sentence_726

As part of the Compromise of 1850, Congress abolished the slave trade (though not the ownership of slaves) in the District of Columbia; fearing this would happen, Alexandria, regional slave trading center and port, successfully sought its removal from the District of Columbia and devolution to Virginia. Slavery in the United States_sentence_727

After 1854, Republicans argued that the "Slave Power", especially the pro-slavery Democratic Party in the South, controlled two of the three branches of the Federal government. Slavery in the United States_sentence_728

The abolitionists, realizing that the total elimination of slavery was unrealistic as an immediate goal, worked to prevent the expansion of slavery into the western territories which eventually would be new states. Slavery in the United States_sentence_729

The Missouri Compromise, the Compromise of 1850, and the Bleeding Kansas period dealt with whether new states would be slave or free, or how that was to be decided. Slavery in the United States_sentence_730

Both sides were anxious about effects of these decisions on the balance of power in the Senate. Slavery in the United States_sentence_731

Main article: Bleeding Kansas Slavery in the United States_sentence_732

After the passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act in 1854, border fighting broke out in Kansas Territory, where the question of whether it would be admitted to the Union as a slave or free state was left to the inhabitants. Slavery in the United States_sentence_733

Migrants from both free and slave states moved into the territory to prepare for the vote on slavery. Slavery in the United States_sentence_734

Abolitionist John Brown, the most famous of the anti-slavery immigrants, was active in the fighting in "Bleeding Kansas," but so too were many white Southerners (many from adjacent Missouri) who opposed abolition. Slavery in the United States_sentence_735

Abraham Lincoln's and the Republicans' political platform in 1860 was to stop slavery's expansion. Slavery in the United States_sentence_736

Historian James McPherson says that in his famous "House Divided" speech in 1858, Lincoln said American republicanism can be purified by restricting the further expansion of slavery as the first step to putting it on the road to 'ultimate extinction.' Slavery in the United States_sentence_737

Southerners took Lincoln at his word. Slavery in the United States_sentence_738

When he won the presidency they left the Union to escape the 'ultimate extinction' of slavery." Slavery in the United States_sentence_739

Freedom suits and Dred Scott Slavery in the United States_section_40

Main articles: Dred Scott v. Sandford and Freedom suits Slavery in the United States_sentence_740

With the development of slave and free states after the American Revolution, and far-flung commercial and military activities, new situations arose in which slaves might be taken by masters into free states. Slavery in the United States_sentence_741

Most free states not only prohibited slavery, but ruled that slaves brought and kept there illegally could be freed. Slavery in the United States_sentence_742

Such cases were sometimes known as transit cases. Slavery in the United States_sentence_743

Dred Scott and his wife Harriet Scott each sued for freedom in St. Slavery in the United States_sentence_744 Louis after the death of their master, based on their having been held in a free territory (the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase from which slavery was excluded under the terms of the Missouri Compromise). Slavery in the United States_sentence_745

(Later the two cases were combined under Dred Scott's name.) Slavery in the United States_sentence_746

Scott filed suit for freedom in 1846 and went through two state trials, the first denying and the second granting freedom to the couple (and, by extension, their two daughters, who had also been held illegally in free territories). Slavery in the United States_sentence_747

For 28 years, Missouri state precedent had generally respected laws of neighboring free states and territories, ruling for freedom in such transit cases where slaves had been held illegally in free territory. Slavery in the United States_sentence_748

But in the Dred Scott case, the State Supreme Court ruled against the slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_749

After Scott and his team appealed the case to the U.S. Slavery in the United States_sentence_750 Supreme Court, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, in a sweeping decision, denied Scott his freedom. Slavery in the United States_sentence_751

The 1857 decision, decided 7–2, held that a slave did not become free when taken into a free state; Congress could not bar slavery from a territory; and people of African descent imported into the United States and held as slaves, or their descendants, could never be citizens and thus had no status to bring suit in a U.S. court. Slavery in the United States_sentence_752

A state could not bar slaveowners from bringing slaves into that state. Slavery in the United States_sentence_753

Many Republicans, including Abraham Lincoln, considered the decision unjust and evidence that the Slave Power had seized control of the Supreme Court. Slavery in the United States_sentence_754

Anti-slavery groups were enraged and slave owners encouraged, escalating the tensions that led to civil war. Slavery in the United States_sentence_755

Civil War and emancipation Slavery in the United States_section_41

1860 presidential election Slavery in the United States_section_42

The divisions became fully exposed with the 1860 presidential election. Slavery in the United States_sentence_756

The electorate split four ways. Slavery in the United States_sentence_757

The Southern Democrats endorsed slavery, while the Republicans denounced it. Slavery in the United States_sentence_758

The Northern Democrats said democracy required the people to decide on slavery locally, state by state and territory by territory. Slavery in the United States_sentence_759

The Constitutional Union Party said the survival of the Union was at stake and everything else should be compromised. Slavery in the United States_sentence_760

Lincoln, the Republican, won with a plurality of popular votes and a majority of electoral votes. Slavery in the United States_sentence_761

Lincoln, however, did not appear on the ballots of ten southern slave states. Slavery in the United States_sentence_762

Many slave owners in the South feared that the real intent of the Republicans was the abolition of slavery in states where it already existed, and that the sudden emancipation of four million slaves would be disastrous for the slave owners and for the economy that drew its greatest profits from the labor of people who were not paid. Slavery in the United States_sentence_763

The slave owners feared that ending the balance could lead to the domination of the federal government by the northern free states. Slavery in the United States_sentence_764

This led seven southern states to secede from the Union. Slavery in the United States_sentence_765

When the southern forces attacked a US Army installation at Fort Sumter, the American Civil War began and four additional slave states seceded. Slavery in the United States_sentence_766

Northern leaders had viewed the slavery interests as a threat politically, but with secession, they viewed the prospect of a new Southern nation, the Confederate States of America, with control over the Mississippi River and parts of the West, as politically unacceptable. Slavery in the United States_sentence_767

Most of all they could not accept this repudiation of American nationalism. Slavery in the United States_sentence_768

Civil War Slavery in the United States_section_43

The consequent American Civil War, beginning in 1861, led to the end of chattel slavery in America. Slavery in the United States_sentence_769

Not long after the war broke out, through a legal maneuver credited to Union General Benjamin F. Butler, a lawyer by profession, slaves who came into Union "possession" were considered "contraband of war". Slavery in the United States_sentence_770

General Butler ruled that they were not subject to return to Confederate owners as they had been before the war. Slavery in the United States_sentence_771

Soon word spread, and many slaves sought refuge in Union territory, desiring to be declared "contraband". Slavery in the United States_sentence_772

Many of the "contrabands" joined the Union Army as workers or troops, forming entire regiments of the U.S. Slavery in the United States_sentence_773 Colored Troops. Slavery in the United States_sentence_774

Others went to refugee camps such as the Grand Contraband Camp near Fort Monroe or fled to northern cities. Slavery in the United States_sentence_775

General Butler's interpretation was reinforced when Congress passed the Confiscation Act of 1861, which declared that any property used by the Confederate military, including slaves, could be confiscated by Union forces. Slavery in the United States_sentence_776

At the beginning of the war, some Union commanders thought they were supposed to return escaped slaves to their masters. Slavery in the United States_sentence_777

By 1862, when it became clear that this would be a long war, the question of what to do about slavery became more general. Slavery in the United States_sentence_778

The Southern economy and military effort depended on slave labor. Slavery in the United States_sentence_779

It began to seem unreasonable to protect slavery while blockading Southern commerce and destroying Southern production. Slavery in the United States_sentence_780

As Congressman George W. Julian of Indiana put it in an 1862 speech in Congress, the slaves "cannot be neutral. Slavery in the United States_sentence_781

As laborers, if not as soldiers, they will be allies of the rebels, or of the Union." Slavery in the United States_sentence_782

Julian and his fellow Radical Republicans put pressure on Lincoln to rapidly emancipate the slaves, whereas moderate Republicans came to accept gradual, compensated emancipation and colonization. Slavery in the United States_sentence_783

Copperheads, the border states and War Democrats opposed emancipation, although the border states and War Democrats eventually accepted it as part of total war needed to save the Union. Slavery in the United States_sentence_784

Emancipation Proclamation Slavery in the United States_section_44

Main article: Emancipation Proclamation Slavery in the United States_sentence_785

The Emancipation Proclamation was an executive order issued by President Lincoln on January 1, 1863. Slavery in the United States_sentence_786

In a single stroke it changed the legal status, as recognized by the U.S. government, of 3 million slaves in designated areas of the Confederacy from "slave" to "free". Slavery in the United States_sentence_787

It had the practical effect that as soon as a slave escaped the control of the Confederate government, by running away or through advances of federal troops, the slave became legally and actually free. Slavery in the United States_sentence_788

Plantation owners, realizing that emancipation would destroy their economic system, sometimes moved their slaves as far as possible out of reach of the Union army. Slavery in the United States_sentence_789

By June 1865, the Union Army controlled all of the Confederacy and had liberated all of the designated slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_790

In 1861, Lincoln expressed the fear that premature attempts at emancipation would mean the loss of the border states. Slavery in the United States_sentence_791

He believed that "to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game." Slavery in the United States_sentence_792

At first, Lincoln reversed attempts at emancipation by Secretary of War Simon Cameron and Generals John C. Fremont (in Missouri) and David Hunter (in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida) to keep the loyalty of the border states and the War Democrats. Slavery in the United States_sentence_793

Lincoln mentioned his Emancipation Proclamation to members of his cabinet on July 21, 1862. Slavery in the United States_sentence_794

Secretary of State William H. Seward told Lincoln to wait for a victory before issuing the proclamation, as to do otherwise would seem like "our last shriek on the retreat". Slavery in the United States_sentence_795

In September 1862 the Battle of Antietam provided this opportunity, and the subsequent War Governors' Conference added support for the proclamation. Slavery in the United States_sentence_796

Lincoln had already published a letter encouraging the border states especially to accept emancipation as necessary to save the Union. Slavery in the United States_sentence_797

Lincoln later said that slavery was "somehow the cause of the war". Slavery in the United States_sentence_798

Lincoln issued his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862, and said that a final proclamation would be issued if his gradual plan, based on compensated emancipation and voluntary colonization, was rejected. Slavery in the United States_sentence_799

Only the District of Columbia accepted Lincoln's gradual plan, and Lincoln issued his final Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863. Slavery in the United States_sentence_800

In his letter to Hodges, Lincoln explained his belief that Slavery in the United States_sentence_801

Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863 was a powerful action that promised freedom for slaves in the Confederacy as soon as the Union armies reached them, and authorized the enlistment of African Americans in the Union Army. Slavery in the United States_sentence_802

The Emancipation Proclamation did not free slaves in the Union-allied slave-holding states that bordered the Confederacy. Slavery in the United States_sentence_803

Since the Confederate States did not recognize the authority of President Lincoln, and the proclamation did not apply in the border states, at first the proclamation freed only those slaves who had escaped behind Union lines. Slavery in the United States_sentence_804

The proclamation made the abolition of slavery an official war goal that was implemented as the Union took territory from the Confederacy. Slavery in the United States_sentence_805

According to the Census of 1860, this policy would free nearly four million slaves, or over 12% of the total population of the United States. Slavery in the United States_sentence_806

Based on the President's war powers, the Emancipation Proclamation applied to territory held by Confederates at the time. Slavery in the United States_sentence_807

However, the Proclamation became a symbol of the Union's growing commitment to add emancipation to the Union's definition of liberty. Slavery in the United States_sentence_808

Lincoln played a leading role in getting the constitutionally required two-thirds majority of both houses of Congress to vote for the Thirteenth Amendment, which made emancipation universal and permanent. Slavery in the United States_sentence_809

Enslaved African Americans had not waited for Lincoln before escaping and seeking freedom behind Union lines. Slavery in the United States_sentence_810

From early years of the war, hundreds of thousands of African Americans escaped to Union lines, especially in Union-controlled areas such as Norfolk and the Hampton Roads region in 1862 Virginia, Tennessee from 1862 on, the line of Sherman's march, etc. Slavery in the United States_sentence_811

So many African Americans fled to Union lines that commanders created camps and schools for them, where both adults and children learned to read and write. Slavery in the United States_sentence_812

The American Missionary Association entered the war effort by sending teachers south to such contraband camps, for instance, establishing schools in Norfolk and on nearby plantations. Slavery in the United States_sentence_813

In addition, nearly 200,000 African-American men served with distinction in the Union forces as soldiers and sailors. Slavery in the United States_sentence_814

Most were escaped slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_815

The Confederacy was outraged by armed black soldiers and refused to treat them as prisoners of war. Slavery in the United States_sentence_816

They murdered many, as at the Fort Pillow Massacre, and re-enslaved others. Slavery in the United States_sentence_817

The Arizona Organic Act abolished slavery on February 24, 1863, in the newly formed Arizona Territory. Slavery in the United States_sentence_818

Tennessee and all of the border states (except Kentucky) abolished slavery by early 1865. Slavery in the United States_sentence_819

Thousands of slaves were freed by the operation of the Emancipation Proclamation as Union armies marched across the South. Slavery in the United States_sentence_820

Emancipation came to the remaining southern slaves after the surrender of all Confederate troops in spring 1865. Slavery in the United States_sentence_821

In spite of the South's shortage of manpower, until 1865, most Southern leaders opposed arming slaves as soldiers. Slavery in the United States_sentence_822

However, a few Confederates discussed arming slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_823

Finally in early 1865 General Robert E. Lee said black soldiers were essential, and legislation was passed. Slavery in the United States_sentence_824

The first black units were in training when the war ended in April. Slavery in the United States_sentence_825

End of slavery Slavery in the United States_section_45

See also: Slave states and free states § End of slavery Slavery in the United States_sentence_826

Booker T. Washington remembered Emancipation Day in early 1863, when he was a boy of nine in Virginia: Slavery in the United States_sentence_827

The war ended on June 22, 1865, and following that surrender, the Emancipation Proclamation was enforced throughout remaining regions of the South that had not yet freed the slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_828

Slavery officially continued for a couple of months in other locations. Slavery in the United States_sentence_829

Federal troops arrived in Galveston, Texas, on June 19, 1865, to enforce the emancipation. Slavery in the United States_sentence_830

That day of gaining freedom in Texas is now celebrated as Juneteenth in many U.S. states. Slavery in the United States_sentence_831

The Thirteenth Amendment, abolishing slavery except as punishment for a crime, had been passed by the Senate in April 1864, and by the House of Representatives in January 1865. Slavery in the United States_sentence_832

The amendment did not take effect until it was ratified by three fourths of the states, which occurred on December 6, 1865, when Georgia ratified it. Slavery in the United States_sentence_833

On that date, all remaining slaves became officially free. Slavery in the United States_sentence_834

In the early twentieth century, after the Insular Cases were decided, it was found that the amendment did not apply to the American controlled Philippines. Slavery in the United States_sentence_835

Legally, the last 40,000–45,000 slaves were freed in the last two slave states of Kentucky and Delaware by the final ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution on December 18, 1865. Slavery in the United States_sentence_836

Slaves still held in Tennessee, Kentucky, Kansas, New Jersey, Delaware, West Virginia, Maryland, Missouri, Washington, D.C., and twelve parishes of Louisiana also became legally free on this date. Slavery in the United States_sentence_837

Cost comparisons Slavery in the United States_section_46

The American historian R.R. Slavery in the United States_sentence_838 Palmer opined that the abolition of slavery in the United States without compensation to the former slave owners was an "annihilation of individual property rights without the history of the Western world". Slavery in the United States_sentence_839

Economic historian Robert E. Wright argues that it would have been much cheaper, with minimal deaths, if the federal government had purchased and freed all the slaves, rather than fighting the Civil War. Slavery in the United States_sentence_840

Another economic historian, Roger Ransom, writes that Gerald Gunderson compared compensated emancipation to the cost of the war and "notes that the two are roughly the same order of magnitude – 2.5 to 3.7 billion dollars". Slavery in the United States_sentence_841

Ransom also writes that compensated emancipation would have tripled federal outlays if paid over the period of 25 years and was a program that had no political support within the United States during the 1860s. Slavery in the United States_sentence_842

Reconstruction to the present Slavery in the United States_section_47

See also: History of unfree labor in the United States Slavery in the United States_sentence_843

Journalist Douglas A. Blackmon reported in his Pulitzer Prize-winning book Slavery By Another Name that many Black persons were virtually enslaved under convict leasing programs, which started after the Civil War. Slavery in the United States_sentence_844

Most Southern states had no prisons; they leased convicts to businesses and farms for their labor, and the lessee paid for food and board. Slavery in the United States_sentence_845

The incentives for abuse were satisfied. Slavery in the United States_sentence_846

The continued involuntary servitude took various forms, but the primary forms included convict leasing, peonage, and sharecropping, with the latter eventually encompassing poor whites as well. Slavery in the United States_sentence_847

By the 1930s, whites constituted most of the sharecroppers in the South. Slavery in the United States_sentence_848

Mechanization of agriculture had reduced the need for farm labor, and many Black people left the South in the Great Migration. Slavery in the United States_sentence_849

Jurisdictions and states created fines and sentences for a wide variety of minor crimes and used these as an excuse to arrest and sentence Black people. Slavery in the United States_sentence_850

Under convict leasing programs, African American men, often guilty of no crime at all, were arrested, compelled to work without pay, repeatedly bought and sold, and coerced to do the bidding of the leaseholder. Slavery in the United States_sentence_851

Sharecropping, as it was practiced during this period, often involved severe restrictions on the freedom of movement of sharecroppers, who could be whipped for leaving the plantation. Slavery in the United States_sentence_852

Both sharecropping and convict leasing were legal and tolerated by both the North and South. Slavery in the United States_sentence_853

However, peonage was an illicit form of forced labor. Slavery in the United States_sentence_854

Its existence was ignored by authorities while thousands of African Americans and poor Anglo-Americans were subjugated and held in bondage until the mid-1960s to the late 1970s. Slavery in the United States_sentence_855

With the exception of cases of peonage, beyond the period of Reconstruction, the federal government took almost no action to enforce the 13th Amendment until December 1941 when President Franklin Delano Roosevelt summoned his attorney general. Slavery in the United States_sentence_856

Five days after Pearl Harbor, at the request of the president, Attorney General Francis Biddle issued to all federal prosecutors, instructing them to actively investigate and try any case of involuntary servitude or slavery. Slavery in the United States_sentence_857

Several months later, convict leasing was officially abolished. Slavery in the United States_sentence_858

But aspects have persisted in other forms. Slavery in the United States_sentence_859

Historians argue that other systems of penal labor were all created in 1865, and convict leasing was simply the most oppressive form. Slavery in the United States_sentence_860

Over time a large civil rights movement arose to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all Americans. Slavery in the United States_sentence_861

Convict leasing Slavery in the United States_section_48

Main article: Convict lease Slavery in the United States_sentence_862

With emancipation a legal reality, white Southerners were concerned with both controlling the newly freed slaves and keeping them in the labor force at the lowest level. Slavery in the United States_sentence_863

The system of convict leasing began during Reconstruction and was fully implemented in the 1880s and officially ending in the last state, Alabama, in 1928. Slavery in the United States_sentence_864

It persisted in various forms until it was abolished in 1942 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt during World War II, several months after the attack on Pearl Harbor involved the U.S. in the conflict. Slavery in the United States_sentence_865

This system allowed private contractors to purchase the services of convicts from the state or local governments for a specific time period. Slavery in the United States_sentence_866

African Americans, due to "vigorous and selective enforcement of laws and discriminatory sentencing," made up the vast majority of the convicts leased. Slavery in the United States_sentence_867

Writer Douglas A. Blackmon writes of the system: Slavery in the United States_sentence_868

The constitutional basis for convict leasing is that the Thirteenth Amendment, while abolishing slavery and involuntary servitude generally, expressly permits it as a punishment for crime. Slavery in the United States_sentence_869

Educational issues Slavery in the United States_section_49

Main articles: Education during the Slave Period and Education of freed people during the Civil War Slavery in the United States_sentence_870

The anti-literacy laws after 1832 contributed greatly to the problem of widespread illiteracy facing the freedmen and other African Americans after Emancipation and the Civil War 35 years later. Slavery in the United States_sentence_871

The problem of illiteracy and need for education was seen as one of the greatest challenges confronting these people as they sought to join the free enterprise system and support themselves during Reconstruction and thereafter. Slavery in the United States_sentence_872

Consequently, many black and white religious organizations, former Union Army officers and soldiers, and wealthy philanthropists were inspired to create and fund educational efforts specifically for the betterment of African Americans; some African Americans had started their own schools before the end of the war. Slavery in the United States_sentence_873

Northerners helped create numerous normal schools, such as those that became Hampton University and Tuskegee University, to generate teachers, as well as other colleges for former slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_874

Blacks held teaching as a high calling, with education the first priority for children and adults. Slavery in the United States_sentence_875

Many of the most talented went into the field. Slavery in the United States_sentence_876

Some of the schools took years to reach a high standard, but they managed to get thousands of teachers started. Slavery in the United States_sentence_877

As W. Slavery in the United States_sentence_878 E. B. Slavery in the United States_sentence_879 Du Bois noted, the black colleges were not perfect, but "in a single generation they put thirty thousand black teachers in the South" and "wiped out the illiteracy of the majority of black people in the land". Slavery in the United States_sentence_880

Northern philanthropists continued to support black education in the 20th century, even as tensions rose within the black community, exemplified by Booker T. Washington and W. Slavery in the United States_sentence_881 E. B. Slavery in the United States_sentence_882 Du Bois, as to the proper emphasis between industrial and classical academic education at the college level. Slavery in the United States_sentence_883

An example of a major donor to Hampton Institute and Tuskegee was George Eastman, who also helped fund health programs at colleges and in communities. Slavery in the United States_sentence_884

Collaborating with Washington in the early decades of the 20th century, philanthropist Julius Rosenwald provided matching funds for community efforts to build rural schools for black children. Slavery in the United States_sentence_885

He insisted on white and black cooperation in the effort, wanting to ensure that white-controlled school boards made a commitment to maintain the schools. Slavery in the United States_sentence_886

By the 1930s local parents had helped raise funds (sometimes donating labor and land) to create over 5,000 rural schools in the South. Slavery in the United States_sentence_887

Other philanthropists, such as Henry H. Rogers and Andrew Carnegie, each of whom had arisen from modest roots to become wealthy, used matching fund grants to stimulate local development of libraries and schools. Slavery in the United States_sentence_888

Apologies Slavery in the United States_section_50

On February 24, 2007, the Virginia General Assembly passed House Joint Resolution Number 728 acknowledging "with profound regret the involuntary servitude of Africans and the exploitation of Native Americans, and call for reconciliation among all Virginians". Slavery in the United States_sentence_889

With the passing of this resolution, Virginia became the first state to acknowledge through the state's governing body their state's negative involvement in slavery. Slavery in the United States_sentence_890

The passing of this resolution was in anticipation of the 400th anniversary commemoration of the founding of Jamestown, Virginia (the first permanent English settlement in North America), which was an early colonial slave port. Slavery in the United States_sentence_891

Apologies have also been issued by Alabama, Florida, Maryland, North Carolina and New Jersey. Slavery in the United States_sentence_892

On July 29, 2008, during the 110th United States Congress session, the United States House of Representatives passed a resolution 'HR. Slavery in the United States_sentence_893

194' apologizing for American slavery and subsequent discriminatory laws. Slavery in the United States_sentence_894

The U.S. Slavery in the United States_sentence_895 Senate unanimously passed a similar resolution on June 18, 2009, apologizing for the "fundamental injustice, cruelty, brutality, and inhumanity of slavery". Slavery in the United States_sentence_896

It also explicitly states that it cannot be used for restitution claims. Slavery in the United States_sentence_897

Political legacy Slavery in the United States_section_51

A 2016 study, published in The Journal of Politics, finds that "Whites who currently live in Southern counties that had high shares of slaves in 1860 are more likely to identify as a Republican, oppose affirmative action, and express racial resentment and colder feelings toward blacks." Slavery in the United States_sentence_898

The study contends that "contemporary differences in political attitudes across counties in the American South in part trace their origins to slavery's prevalence more than 150 years ago. " Slavery in the United States_sentence_899

The authors argue that their findings are consistent with the theory that "following the Civil War, Southern whites faced political and economic incentives to reinforce existing racist norms and institutions to maintain control over the newly freed African American population. Slavery in the United States_sentence_900

This amplified local differences in racially conservative political attitudes, which in turn have been passed down locally across generations." Slavery in the United States_sentence_901

A 2017 study in the British Journal of Political Science argued that the British American colonies without slavery adopted better democratic institutions in order to attract migrant workers to their colonies. Slavery in the United States_sentence_902

Native Americans Slavery in the United States_section_52

Main article: Slavery among Native Americans in the United States Slavery in the United States_sentence_903

Native Americans as slaves Slavery in the United States_section_53

Further information: Indian slave trade in the American Southeast Slavery in the United States_sentence_904

See also: Unfree labour in California Slavery in the United States_sentence_905

During the 17th and 18th centuries, Indian slavery, the enslavement of Native Americans by European colonists, was common. Slavery in the United States_sentence_906

Many of these Native slaves were exported to the Northern colonies and to off-shore colonies, especially the "sugar islands" of the Caribbean. Slavery in the United States_sentence_907

The exact number of Native Americans who were enslaved is unknown because vital statistics and census reports were at best infrequent. Slavery in the United States_sentence_908

Historian Alan Gallay estimates that from 1670 to 1715, British slave traders sold between 24,000 and 51,000 Native Americans from what is now the southern part of the U.S. Andrés Reséndez estimates that between 147,000 and 340,000 Native Americans were enslaved in North America, excluding Mexico. Slavery in the United States_sentence_909

Even after the Indian Slave Trade ended in 1750 the enslavement of Native Americans continued in the west, and also in the Southern states mostly through kidnappings. Slavery in the United States_sentence_910

Slavery of Native Americans was organized in colonial and Mexican California through Franciscan missions, theoretically entitled to ten years of Native labor, but in practice maintaining them in perpetual servitude, until their charge was revoked in the mid-1830s. Slavery in the United States_sentence_911

Following the 1847–48 invasion by U.S. troops, the "loitering or orphaned Indians" were de facto enslaved in the new state from statehood in 1850 to 1867. Slavery in the United States_sentence_912

Slavery required the posting of a bond by the slave holder and enslavement occurred through raids and a four-month servitude imposed as a punishment for Indian "vagrancy". Slavery in the United States_sentence_913

Native Americans holding African-American slaves Slavery in the United States_section_54

Main article: Native American slave ownership Slavery in the United States_sentence_914

After 1800, some of the Cherokee and the other four civilized tribes of the Southeast started buying and using black slaves as labor. Slavery in the United States_sentence_915

They continued this practice after removal to Indian Territory in the 1830s, when as many as 15,000 enslaved blacks were taken with them. Slavery in the United States_sentence_916

The nature of slavery in Cherokee society often mirrored that of white slave-owning society. Slavery in the United States_sentence_917

The law barred intermarriage of Cherokees and enslaved African Americans, but Cherokee men had unions with enslaved women, resulting in mixed-race children. Slavery in the United States_sentence_918

Cherokee who aided slaves were punished with one hundred lashes on the back. Slavery in the United States_sentence_919

In Cherokee society, persons of African descent were barred from holding office even if they were also racially and culturally Cherokee. Slavery in the United States_sentence_920

They were also barred from bearing arms and owning property. Slavery in the United States_sentence_921

The Cherokee prohibited the teaching of African Americans to read and write. Slavery in the United States_sentence_922

By contrast, the Seminole welcomed into their nation African Americans who had escaped slavery (Black Seminoles). Slavery in the United States_sentence_923

Historically, the Black Seminoles lived mostly in distinct bands near the Native American Seminole. Slavery in the United States_sentence_924

Some were held as slaves of particular Seminole leaders. Slavery in the United States_sentence_925

Seminole practice in Florida had acknowledged slavery, though not the chattel slavery model common elsewhere. Slavery in the United States_sentence_926

It was, in fact, more like feudal dependency and taxation. Slavery in the United States_sentence_927

The relationship between Seminole blacks and natives changed following their relocation in the 1830s to territory controlled by the Creek who had a system of chattel slavery. Slavery in the United States_sentence_928

Pro slavery pressure from Creek and pro-Creek Seminole and slave raiding led to many Black Seminoles escaping to Mexico. Slavery in the United States_sentence_929

Inter-tribal slavery Slavery in the United States_section_55

The Haida and Tlingit Indians who lived along southeast Alaska's coast were traditionally known as fierce warriors and slave-traders, raiding as far as California. Slavery in the United States_sentence_930

Slavery was hereditary after slaves were taken as prisoners of war. Slavery in the United States_sentence_931

Among some Pacific Northwest tribes, about a quarter of the population were slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_932

Other slave-owning tribes of North America were, for example, Comanche of Texas, Creek of Georgia, the fishing societies, such as the Yurok, that lived along the coast from what is now Alaska to California; the Pawnee, and Klamath. Slavery in the United States_sentence_933

Some tribes held people as captive slaves late in the 19th century. Slavery in the United States_sentence_934

For instance, "Ute Woman", was a Ute captured by the Arapaho and later sold to a Cheyenne. Slavery in the United States_sentence_935

She was kept by the Cheyenne to be used as a prostitute to serve American soldiers at Cantonment in the Indian Territory. Slavery in the United States_sentence_936

She lived in slavery until about 1880. Slavery in the United States_sentence_937

She died of a hemorrhage resulting from "excessive sexual intercourse". Slavery in the United States_sentence_938

Black slave owners Slavery in the United States_section_56

Slave owners included people of African ancestry, in each of the original Thirteen Colonies and all later states and territories that allowed slavery; in some cases black Americans owned white indentured servants. Slavery in the United States_sentence_939

An African former indentured servant who settled in Virginia in 1621, Anthony Johnson, became one of the earliest documented slave owners in the mainland American colonies when he won a civil suit for ownership of John Casor. Slavery in the United States_sentence_940

In 1830 there were 3,775 such black slaveholders in the South who owned a total of 12,760 slaves, a small percent, out of a total of over 2 million slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_941

80% of the black slaveholders were located in Louisiana, South Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland. Slavery in the United States_sentence_942

There were economic and ethnic differences between free blacks of the Upper South and Deep South, with the latter fewer in number, but wealthier and typically of mixed race. Slavery in the United States_sentence_943

Half of the black slaveholders lived in cities rather than the countryside, with most living in New Orleans and Charleston. Slavery in the United States_sentence_944

Especially New Orleans had a large, relatively wealthy free black population (gens de couleur) composed of people of mixed race, who had become a third social class between whites and enslaved blacks, under French and Spanish colonial rule. Slavery in the United States_sentence_945

Relatively few non-white slaveholders were "substantial planters". Slavery in the United States_sentence_946

Of those who were, most were of mixed race, often endowed by white fathers with some property and social capital. Slavery in the United States_sentence_947

For example, Andrew Durnford of New Orleans was listed as owning 77 slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_948

According to Rachel Kranz: "Durnford was known as a stern master who worked his slaves hard and punished them often in his efforts to make his Louisiana sugar plantation a success." Slavery in the United States_sentence_949

In the years leading up to the Civil War, Antoine Dubuclet, who owned over a hundred slaves, was considered the wealthiest black slave owner in Louisiana. Slavery in the United States_sentence_950

The historians John Hope Franklin and Loren Schweninger wrote: Slavery in the United States_sentence_951

The historian Ira Berlin wrote: Slavery in the United States_sentence_952

African-American history and culture scholar Henry Louis Gates Jr. wrote: Slavery in the United States_sentence_953

Free blacks were perceived "as a continual symbolic threat to slaveholders, challenging the idea that 'black' and 'slave' were synonymous". Slavery in the United States_sentence_954

Free blacks were sometimes seen as potential allies of fugitive slaves and "slaveholders bore witness to their fear and loathing of free blacks in no uncertain terms." Slavery in the United States_sentence_955

For free blacks, who had only a precarious hold on freedom, "slave ownership was not simply an economic convenience but indispensable evidence of the free blacks' determination to break with their slave past and their silent acceptance – if not approval – of slavery." Slavery in the United States_sentence_956

The historian James Oakes in 1982 stated that "[t]he evidence is overwhelming that the vast majority of black slaveholders were free men who purchased members of their families or who acted out of benevolence". Slavery in the United States_sentence_957

After 1810 Southern states made it increasingly difficult for any slaveholders to free slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_958

Often the purchasers of family members were left with no choice but to maintain, on paper, the owner–slave relationship. Slavery in the United States_sentence_959

In the 1850s "there were increasing efforts to restrict the right to hold bondsmen on the grounds that slaves should be kept 'as far as possible under the control of white men only.'" Slavery in the United States_sentence_960

In his 1985 statewide study of black slaveholders in South Carolina, Larry Koger challenged this benevolent view. Slavery in the United States_sentence_961

He found that the majority of black slaveholders appeared to hold at least some of their slaves for commercial reasons. Slavery in the United States_sentence_962

For instance, he noted that in 1850 more than 80 percent of black slaveholders were of mixed race, but nearly 90 percent of their slaves were classified as black. Slavery in the United States_sentence_963

Koger also noted that many South Carolina free blacks operated small businesses as skilled artisans, and many owned slaves working in those businesses. Slavery in the United States_sentence_964

"Koger emphasizes that it was all too common for freed slaves to become slaveholders themselves." Slavery in the United States_sentence_965

Some free black slaveholders in New Orleans offered to fight for Louisiana in the Civil War. Slavery in the United States_sentence_966

Over a thousand free black people volunteered and formed the 1st Louisiana Native Guard (CSA), which was disbanded without seeing combat. Slavery in the United States_sentence_967

Distribution Slavery in the United States_section_57

Distribution of slaves Slavery in the United States_section_58

For various reasons, the census did not always include all of the slaves, especially in the West. Slavery in the United States_sentence_968

California was admitted as a free state and reported no slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_969

However, there were many slaves that were brought to work in the mines during the California Gold Rush. Slavery in the United States_sentence_970

Some Californian communities openly tolerated slavery, such as San Bernardino, which was mostly made up of transplants from the neighboring slave territory of Utah. Slavery in the United States_sentence_971

New Mexico Territory never reported any slaves on the census, yet sued the government for compensation for 600 slaves that were freed when congress outlawed slavery in the territory. Slavery in the United States_sentence_972

Utah was actively trying to hide its slave population from Congress and did not report slaves in several communities. Slavery in the United States_sentence_973

Additionally, the census did not traditionally include Native Americans, and hence did not include Native American slaves or Native African slaves owned by Native Americans. Slavery in the United States_sentence_974

There were hundreds of Native American slaves in California, Utah and New Mexico that were never recorded in the census. Slavery in the United States_sentence_975

Distribution of slaveholders Slavery in the United States_section_59

As of the 1860 Census, one may compute the following statistics on slaveholding: Slavery in the United States_sentence_976

Slavery in the United States_unordered_list_4

  • Enumerating slave schedules by county, 393,975 named persons held 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, for an average of about ten slaves per holder. As some large holders held slaves in multiple counties and are thus multiply counted, this slightly overestimates the number of slaveholders.Slavery in the United States_item_4_22
  • Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529; therefore, approximately 1.45% of free persons (roughly 1 in 69) was a named slaveholder (393,975 named slaveholders among 27,167,529 free persons). By counting only named slaveholders, this approach does not acknowledge people who benefited from slavery by being in a slaveowning household, e.g. the wife and children of an owner; in 1850, there was an average of 5.55 people per household, so on average, around 8.05% of free persons lived in a slaveowning household. In the South, 33% of families owned at least one slave. According to historian Joseph Glatthaar, the number of soldiers of the Confederacy's Army of Northern Virginia who either owned slaves or came from slave owning households is "almost one of every two 1861 recruits". In addition he notes that, "Untold numbers of enlistees rented land from, sold crops to, or worked for slaveholders. In the final tabulation, the vast majority of the volunteers of 1861 had a direct connection to slavery."Slavery in the United States_item_4_23
  • It is estimated by the transcriber Tom Blake, that holders of 200 or more slaves, constituting less than 1% of all US slaveholders (fewer than 4,000 persons, 1 in 7,000 free persons, or 0.015% of the population) held an estimated 20–30% of all slaves (800,000 to 1,200,000 slaves). Nineteen holders of 500 or more slaves have been identified. The largest slaveholder was Joshua John Ward, of Georgetown, South Carolina, who in 1850 held 1,092 slaves, and whose heirs in 1860 held 1,130 or 1,131 slaves – he was dubbed "the king of the rice planters", and one of his plantations is now part of Brookgreen Gardens.Slavery in the United States_item_4_24
  • The percentage of families that owned slaves in 1860 in various groupings of states was as follows:Slavery in the United States_item_4_25

Slavery in the United States_table_general_3

Group of StatesSlavery in the United States_header_cell_3_0_0 States in GroupSlavery in the United States_header_cell_3_0_1 Slave-Owning FamiliesSlavery in the United States_header_cell_3_0_2
15 states where slavery was legalSlavery in the United States_cell_3_1_0 Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, VirginiaSlavery in the United States_cell_3_1_1 26%Slavery in the United States_cell_3_1_2
11 states that secededSlavery in the United States_cell_3_2_0 Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, VirginiaSlavery in the United States_cell_3_2_1 31%Slavery in the United States_cell_3_2_2
7 states that seceded before Lincoln's inaugurationSlavery in the United States_cell_3_3_0 Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, TexasSlavery in the United States_cell_3_3_1 37%Slavery in the United States_cell_3_3_2
4 states that seceded laterSlavery in the United States_cell_3_4_0 Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, VirginiaSlavery in the United States_cell_3_4_1 25%Slavery in the United States_cell_3_4_2
4 slave states that did not secedeSlavery in the United States_cell_3_5_0 Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, MissouriSlavery in the United States_cell_3_5_1 16%Slavery in the United States_cell_3_5_2

Historiography Slavery in the United States_section_60

Main article: Historiography of the United States § Slavery and black history Slavery in the United States_sentence_977

The historian Peter Kolchin, writing in 1993, noted that until the latter decades of the 20th century, historians of slavery had primarily concerned themselves with the culture, practices and economics of the slaveholders, not with the slaves. Slavery in the United States_sentence_978

This was in part due to the circumstance that most slaveholders were literate and left behind written records, whereas slaves were largely illiterate and not in a position to leave written records. Slavery in the United States_sentence_979

Scholars differed as to whether slavery should be considered a benign or a "harshly exploitive" institution. Slavery in the United States_sentence_980

Much of the history written prior to the 1950s had a distinctive racist slant to it. Slavery in the United States_sentence_981

By the 1970s and 1980s, historians were using archaeological records, black folklore, and statistical data to develop a much more detailed and nuanced picture of slave life. Slavery in the United States_sentence_982

Individuals were shown to have been resilient and somewhat autonomous in many of their activities, within the limits of their situation and despite its precariousness. Slavery in the United States_sentence_983

Historians who wrote in this era include John Blassingame (Slave Community), Eugene Genovese (Roll, Jordan, Roll), Leslie Howard Owens (This Species of Property), and Herbert Gutman (The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom). Slavery in the United States_sentence_984

See also Slavery in the United States_section_61

History of slavery in individual states and territories Slavery in the United States_section_62

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: in the United States.