Quotation marks in English

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
(Redirected from Smart quotes)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

In English writing, quotation marks or inverted commas, also known informally as quotes, talking marks, speech marks, quote marks, quotemarks or speechmarks, are punctuation marks placed on either side of a word or phrase in order to identify it as a quotation, direct speech or a literal title or name. Quotation marks in English_sentence_0

Quotation marks may be used to indicate that the meaning of the word or phrase they surround should be taken to be different from (or, at least, a modification of) that typically associated with it, and are often used in this way to express irony. Quotation marks in English_sentence_1

(For example, in the sentence 'The lunch lady plopped a glob of "food" onto my tray.' Quotation marks in English_sentence_2

the quotation marks around the word food show it is being called that ironically.) Quotation marks in English_sentence_3

They also sometimes appear to be used as a means of adding emphasis, although this usage is usually considered incorrect. Quotation marks in English_sentence_4

Quotation marks are written as a pair of opening and closing marks in either of two styles: single (‘...’) or double (“...”). Quotation marks in English_sentence_5

Opening and closing quotation marks may be identical in form (called neutral, vertical, straight, typewriter, or "dumb" quotation marks), or may be distinctly left-handed and right-handed (typographic or, colloquially, curly quotation marks); see quotation mark glyphs for details. Quotation marks in English_sentence_6

Typographic quotation marks are usually used in manuscript and typeset text. Quotation marks in English_sentence_7

Because typewriter and computer keyboards lack keys to directly enter typographic quotation marks, much of typed writing has neutral quotation marks. Quotation marks in English_sentence_8

Some computer software has the feature often called "smart quotes" which can, sometimes imperfectly, convert neutral quotation marks to typographic ones. Quotation marks in English_sentence_9

The typographic closing double quotation mark and the neutral double quotation mark are similar to – and sometimes stand in for – the ditto mark and the double prime symbol. Quotation marks in English_sentence_10

Likewise, the typographic opening single quotation mark is sometimes used to represent the ʻokina while either the typographic closing single quotation mark or the neutral single quotation mark may represent the prime symbol. Quotation marks in English_sentence_11

Characters with different meanings are typically given different visual appearance in typefaces that recognize these distinctions, and they each have different Unicode code points. Quotation marks in English_sentence_12

Despite being semantically different, the typographic closing single quotation mark and the typographic apostrophe have the same visual appearance and code point (U+2019), as do the neutral single quote and typewriter apostrophe (U+0027). Quotation marks in English_sentence_13

(Despite the different code points, the curved and straight versions are sometimes considered multiple glyphs of the same character.) Quotation marks in English_sentence_14

History Quotation marks in English_section_0

In the first centuries of typesetting, quotations were distinguished merely by indicating the speaker, and this can still be seen in some editions of the Christian Bible. Quotation marks in English_sentence_15

During the Renaissance, quotations were distinguished by setting in a typeface contrasting with the main body text (often italic type with roman, or the other way around). Quotation marks in English_sentence_16

Long quotations were also set this way, at full size and full measure. Quotation marks in English_sentence_17

Quotation marks were first cut in metal type during the middle of the sixteenth century, and were used copiously by some printers by the seventeenth. Quotation marks in English_sentence_18

In some Baroque and Romantic-period books, they would be repeated at the beginning of every line of a long quotation. Quotation marks in English_sentence_19

When this practice was abandoned, the empty margin remained, leaving the modern form of indented block quotation. Quotation marks in English_sentence_20

In Early Modern English, quotation marks were used to denote pithy comments. Quotation marks in English_sentence_21

They were used to quote direct speech as early as the late sixteenth century, and this practice became more common over time. Quotation marks in English_sentence_22

Usage Quotation marks in English_section_1

Quotations and speech Quotation marks in English_section_2

Single or double quotation marks denote either speech or a quotation. Quotation marks in English_sentence_23

Double quotes are preferred in the United States, and also tend to be preferred in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Quotation marks in English_sentence_24

Single quotes are more usual in the United Kingdom, Ireland and South Africa, though double quotes are also common there. Quotation marks in English_sentence_25

A publisher's or author's style may take precedence over regional general preferences. Quotation marks in English_sentence_26

The important idea is that the style of opening and closing quotation marks must be matched: Quotation marks in English_sentence_27

For speech within speech, the other style is used as inner quotation marks: Quotation marks in English_sentence_28

Sometimes quotations are nested in more levels than inner and outer quotation. Quotation marks in English_sentence_29

Nesting levels up to five can be found in the Christian Bible. Quotation marks in English_sentence_30

In these cases, questions arise about the form (and names) of the quotation marks to be used. Quotation marks in English_sentence_31

The most common way is to simply alternate between the two forms, thus: Quotation marks in English_sentence_32

If such a passage is further quoted in another publication, then all of their forms have to be shifted up by one level. Quotation marks in English_sentence_33

In most cases, quotations that span multiple paragraphs should be set as block quotations, and thus do not require quotation marks. Quotation marks in English_sentence_34

Quotation marks are used for multiple-paragraph quotations in some cases, especially in narratives. Quotation marks in English_sentence_35

The convention in English is to give opening quotation marks to the first and each subsequent paragraph, using closing quotation marks only for the final paragraph of the quotation, as in the following example from Pride and Prejudice: Quotation marks in English_sentence_36

As noted above, in some older texts, the quotation mark is repeated every line, rather than every paragraph. Quotation marks in English_sentence_37

The Spanish convention uses closing quotation marks at the beginning of all subsequent paragraphs beyond the first. Quotation marks in English_sentence_38

When quoted text is interrupted, such as with the phrase he said, a closing quotation mark is used before the interruption, and an opening quotation mark after. Quotation marks in English_sentence_39

Commas are also often used before and after the interruption, more often for quotations of speech than for quotations of text: Quotation marks in English_sentence_40

Quotation marks are not used for indirect speech. Quotation marks in English_sentence_41

This is because indirect speech can be a paraphrase; it is not a direct quote, and in the course of any composition, it is important to document when one is using a quotation versus when one is just giving content, which may be paraphrased, and which could be open to interpretation. Quotation marks in English_sentence_42

For example, if Hal says: "All systems are functional", then, in indirect speech: Quotation marks in English_sentence_43

Irony Quotation marks in English_section_3

Main article: Scare quotes Quotation marks in English_sentence_44

Another common use of quotation marks is to indicate or call attention to ironic, dubious, or non-standard words: Quotation marks in English_sentence_45

Quotes indicating verbal irony, or other special use, are sometimes called scare quotes. Quotation marks in English_sentence_46

They are sometimes gestured in oral speech using air quotes, or indicated in speech with a tone change or by replacement with supposed[ly] or so-called. Quotation marks in English_sentence_47

Signalling unusual usage Quotation marks in English_section_4

Quotation marks are also used to indicate that the writer realises that a word is not being used in its current commonly accepted sense: Quotation marks in English_sentence_48

In addition to conveying a neutral attitude and to call attention to a neologism, or slang, or special terminology (also known as jargon), quoting can also indicate words or phrases that are descriptive but unusual, colloquial, folksy, startling, humorous, metaphoric, or contain a pun: Dawkins's concept of a meme could be described as an "evolving idea". Quotation marks in English_sentence_49

People also use quotation marks in this way to distance the writer from the terminology in question so as not to be associated with it, for example to indicate that a quoted word is not official terminology, or that a quoted phrase presupposes things that the author does not necessarily agree with; or to indicate special terminology that should be identified for accuracy's sake as someone else's terminology, as when a term (particularly a controversial term) pre-dates the writer or represents the views of someone else, perhaps without judgement (contrast this neutrally distancing quoting to the negative use of scare quotes). Quotation marks in English_sentence_50

The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition (2017), acknowledges this type of use but, in section 7.57, cautions against its overuse: "Quotation marks are often used to alert readers that a term is used in a nonstandard (or slang), ironic, or other special sense .... [T]hey imply 'This is not my term,' or 'This is not how the term is usually applied.' Quotation marks in English_sentence_51

Like any such device, scare quotes lose their force and irritate readers if overused." Quotation marks in English_sentence_52

Use–mention distinction Quotation marks in English_section_5

Main articles: Use–mention distinction and Metalanguage Quotation marks in English_sentence_53

Either quotation marks or italic type can emphasise that an instance of a word refers to the word itself rather than its associated concept. Quotation marks in English_sentence_54

A three-way distinction is occasionally made between normal use of a word (no quotation marks), referring to the concept behind the word (single quotation marks), and the word itself (double quotation marks): Quotation marks in English_sentence_55

The logic for this derives from the need to distinguish use forms, coupled with the mandate to retain consistent notation for like use forms. Quotation marks in English_sentence_56

The switching between double and single quotes in nested citation quotes reveals the same literary device for reducing ambiguity. Quotation marks in English_sentence_57

In linguistics Quotation marks in English_section_6

Precise writing about language often uses italics for the word itself and single quotation marks for a gloss, with the two not separated by a comma or other punctuation, and with strictly logical quotation around the gloss – extraneous terminal punctuation outside the quotation marks – even in North American publications, which might otherwise prefer them inside: Quotation marks in English_sentence_58

Titles of artistic works Quotation marks in English_section_7

Quotation marks, rather than italics, are generally used for the titles of shorter works. Quotation marks in English_sentence_59

Whether these are single or double depends on the context; however, many styles, especially for poetry, prefer the use of single quotation marks. Quotation marks in English_sentence_60

Quotation marks in English_unordered_list_0

  • Short fiction, poetry, etc.: Arthur C. Clarke's "The Sentinel"Quotation marks in English_item_0_0
  • Book chapters: The first chapter of 3001: The Final Odyssey is "Comet Cowboy"Quotation marks in English_item_0_1
  • Articles in books, magazines, journals, etc.: "Extra-Terrestrial Relays", Wireless World, October 1945Quotation marks in English_item_0_2
  • Album tracks, singles, etc.: David Bowie's "Space Oddity"Quotation marks in English_item_0_3

As a rule, the title of a whole publication is italicised (or, in typewritten text, underlined), whereas the titles of minor works within or a subset of the larger publication (such as poems, short stories, named chapters, journal papers, newspaper articles, TV show episodes, video game levels, editorial sections of websites, etc.) are written with quotation marks. Quotation marks in English_sentence_61

Nicknames and false titles Quotation marks in English_section_8

Quotation marks can also set off a nickname embedded in an actual name, or a false or ironic title embedded in an actual title; for example, Nat "King" Cole, Frank "Chairman of the Board" Sinatra, or Simone Rizzo "Sam the Plumber" DeCavalcante. Quotation marks in English_sentence_62

Nonstandard usage Quotation marks in English_section_9

Quotes are sometimes used for emphasis in lieu of underlining or italics, most commonly on signs or placards. Quotation marks in English_sentence_63

This usage can be confused with ironic or altered-usage quotation, sometimes with unintended humor. Quotation marks in English_sentence_64

For example, For sale: "fresh" fish, "fresh" oysters, could be construed to imply that fresh is not used with its everyday meaning, or indeed to indicate that the fish or oysters are anything but fresh. Quotation marks in English_sentence_65

As another example, Cashiers' desks open until noon for your "convenience" could be interpreted to mean that the convenience was for the bank employees, not the customers. Quotation marks in English_sentence_66

Order of punctuation Quotation marks in English_section_10

With regard to quotation marks adjacent to periods and commas, there are two styles of punctuation in widespread use. Quotation marks in English_sentence_67

These two styles are most commonly referred to as "American" and "British" (the latter of which is also called "logical quotation"). Quotation marks in English_sentence_68

Both systems have the same rules regarding question marks, exclamation points, colons, and semicolons. Quotation marks in English_sentence_69

However, they differ in the treatment of periods and commas. Quotation marks in English_sentence_70

In all major forms of English, question marks, exclamation marks, semicolons, and any other punctuation (with the possible exceptions of periods and commas, as explained in the sections below) are placed inside or outside the closing quotation mark depending on whether they are part of the quoted material. Quotation marks in English_sentence_71

A convention is the use of square brackets to indicate content between the quotation marks that has been modified from, or was not present in, the original material. Quotation marks in English_sentence_72

British practice Quotation marks in English_section_11

The prevailing style in the United Kingdom – called British style, logical quotation, and logical punctuation – is to include within quotation marks only those punctuation marks that appeared in the original quoted material and in which the punctuation mark fits with the sense of the quotation, but otherwise to place punctuation outside the closing quotation marks. Quotation marks in English_sentence_73

Fowler's A Dictionary of Modern English Usage provides an early example of the rule: "All signs of punctuation used with words in quotation marks must be placed according to the sense." Quotation marks in English_sentence_74

When dealing with words-as-words, short-form works and sentence fragments, this style places periods and commas outside the quotation marks: Quotation marks in English_sentence_75

When dealing with direct speech, British placement depends on whether or not the quoted statement is complete or a fragment. Quotation marks in English_sentence_76

According to the British style guide Butcher's Copy-editing, American style should be used when writing fiction. Quotation marks in English_sentence_77

In non-fiction, some British publishers may permit placing punctuation that is not part of the person's speech inside the quotation marks but prefer that it be placed outside. Quotation marks in English_sentence_78

Periods and commas that are part of the person's speech are permitted inside the quotation marks regardless of whether the material is fiction. Quotation marks in English_sentence_79

Hart's Rules and the Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors call the British style "new" quoting. Quotation marks in English_sentence_80

It is also similar to the use of quotation marks in many other languages (including Portuguese, Spanish, French, Italian, Catalan, Dutch and German). Quotation marks in English_sentence_81

A few US professional societies whose professions frequently employ various non-word characters, such as chemistry and computer programming, use the British form in their style guides (see ACS Style Guide). Quotation marks in English_sentence_82

According to the from 1983, American hackers (members of a subculture of enthusiastic programmers) switched to what they later discovered to be the British quotation system because placing a period inside a quotation mark can change the meaning of data strings that are meant to be typed character-for-character. Quotation marks in English_sentence_83

U.S. practice Quotation marks in English_section_12

In the United States, the prevailing style is called American style, whereby commas and periods are almost always placed inside closing quotation marks. Quotation marks in English_sentence_84

The American style is used by most newspapers, publishing houses, and style guides in the United States and, to a lesser extent, Canada as well. Quotation marks in English_sentence_85

It is the style recommended by the Modern Language Association's MLA Style Manual, the American Psychological Association's APA Publication Manual, the University of Chicago's The Chicago Manual of Style, the American Institute of Physics's AIP Style Manual, the American Medical Association's AMA Manual of Style, the American Political Science Association's APSA Style Manual, the Associated Press' The AP Guide to Punctuation, and the Canadian Public Works' The Canadian Style. Quotation marks in English_sentence_86

However, some American style guides specific to certain specialties prefer the British style. Quotation marks in English_sentence_87

For example, the journal Language of the Linguistic Society of America requires that the closing quotation mark precede the period or comma unless that period or comma is "a necessary part of the quoted matter". Quotation marks in English_sentence_88

When dealing with words-as-words, short-form works, and sentence fragments, standard American style places periods and commas inside the quotation marks: Quotation marks in English_sentence_89

This style also places periods and commas inside the quotation marks when dealing with direct speech, regardless of whether the work is fiction or non-fiction: Quotation marks in English_sentence_90

Nevertheless, many American style guides explicitly permit periods and commas outside the quotation marks when the presence of the punctuation mark inside the quotation marks leads to ambiguity, such as when describing keyboard input, as in the following example: Quotation marks in English_sentence_91

Ending the sentence Quotation marks in English_section_13

In both major styles, regardless of placement, only one end mark (?, !, or .) Quotation marks in English_sentence_92

can end a sentence. Quotation marks in English_sentence_93

Only the period, however, may not end a quoted sentence when it does not also end the enclosing sentence, except for literal text: Quotation marks in English_sentence_94

With narration of direct speech, both styles retain punctuation inside the quotation marks, with a full stop changing into a comma if followed by explanatory text, also known as a dialogue tag. Quotation marks in English_sentence_95

Americans tend to apply quotations when signifying doubt of veracity (sarcastically or seriously), to imply another meaning to a word or to imply a cynical take on a paraphrased quotation, without punctuation at all. Quotation marks in English_sentence_96

Typographical considerations Quotation marks in English_section_14

Single nested within double, or vice versa Quotation marks in English_section_15

British English often uses the single quotation mark as the outermost and double quote for nested quotations, where American English would use the double quotation mark as the outermost and single quote for nested. Quotation marks in English_sentence_97

British usage does vary, with some authoritative sources such as The Economist and The Times recommending the same usage as in the US, whereas other authoritative sources, such as The King's English, recommend single quotation marks. Quotation marks in English_sentence_98

In journals and newspapers, quotation mark double/single use often depends on the individual publication's house style. Quotation marks in English_sentence_99

Spacing Quotation marks in English_section_16

In English, when a quotation follows other writing on a line of text, a space precedes the opening quotation mark unless the preceding symbol, such as an em dash, requires that there be no space. Quotation marks in English_sentence_100

When a quotation is followed by other writing on a line of text, a space follows the closing quotation mark unless it is immediately followed by other punctuation within the sentence, such as a colon or closing punctuation. Quotation marks in English_sentence_101

(These exceptions are ignored by some Asian computer systems that systematically display quotation marks with the included spacing, as this spacing is part of the fixed-width characters.) Quotation marks in English_sentence_102

There is generally no space between an opening quotation mark and the following word, or a closing quotation mark and the preceding word. Quotation marks in English_sentence_103

When a double quotation mark or a single quotation mark immediately follows the other, proper spacing for legibility may suggest that a thin space ( ) or larger non-breaking space ( ) be inserted. Quotation marks in English_sentence_104

This is not common practice in mainstream publishing, which will generally use more precise kerning. Quotation marks in English_sentence_105

It is more common in online writing, although using CSS to create the spacing by kerning is more semantically appropriate in Web typography than inserting extraneous spacing characters. Quotation marks in English_sentence_106

Non-language-related usage Quotation marks in English_section_17

Straight quotation marks (or italicised straight quotation marks) are often used to approximate the prime and double prime, e.g. when signifying feet and inches or arcminutes and arcseconds. Quotation marks in English_sentence_107

For instance, 5 feet and 6 inches is often written 5' 6"; and 40 degrees, 20 arcminutes, and 50 arcseconds is written 40° 20' 50". Quotation marks in English_sentence_108

When available, however, primes should be used instead (e.g. 5′ 6″, and 40° 20′ 50″). Quotation marks in English_sentence_109

Prime and double prime are not present in most code pages, including ASCII and Latin-1, but are present in Unicode, as characters U+2032 ′ PRIME and U+2033 ″ DOUBLE PRIME. Quotation marks in English_sentence_110

The HTML character entity references are ′ and ″, respectively. Quotation marks in English_sentence_111

Double quotation marks, or pairs of single ones, also represent the ditto mark. Quotation marks in English_sentence_112

Straight single and double quotation marks are used in most programming languages to delimit strings or literal characters, collectively known as string literals. Quotation marks in English_sentence_113

In some languages (e.g. Pascal) only one type is allowed, in some (e.g. C and its derivatives) both are used with different meanings and in others (e.g. Python) both are used interchangeably. Quotation marks in English_sentence_114

In some languages, if it is desired to include the same quotation marks used to delimit a string inside the string, the quotation marks are doubled. Quotation marks in English_sentence_115

For example, to represent the string eat 'hot' dogs in Pascal one uses 'eat hot dogs'. Quotation marks in English_sentence_116

Other languages use an escape character, often the backslash, as in 'eat \'hot\' dogs'. Quotation marks in English_sentence_117

In the TeX typesetting program, left double quotes are produced by typing `` (two back-ticks) and right double quotes by typing two apostrophes. Quotation marks in English_sentence_118

Typing quotation marks on a computer keyboard Quotation marks in English_section_18

Standard English computer keyboard layouts inherited the single and double straight quotation marks from the typewriter (the single quotation mark also doubling as an apostrophe), and they do not include individual keys for left-handed and right-handed typographic quotation marks. Quotation marks in English_sentence_119

In character encoding terms, these characters are labeled . Quotation marks in English_sentence_120

However, most computer text-editing programs provide a "smart quotes" feature to automatically convert straight quotation marks into bidirectional punctuation, though sometimes imperfectly (see below). Quotation marks in English_sentence_121

Generally, this smart quote feature is enabled by default, and it can be turned off in an "options" or "preferences" dialog. Quotation marks in English_sentence_122

Some websites do not allow typographic quotation marks or apostrophes in posts. Quotation marks in English_sentence_123

One can skirt these limitations, however, by using the HTML character codes or entities or the other key combinations in the following table. Quotation marks in English_sentence_124

In Windows, AutoHotkey scripts can be used to assign simpler key combinations to opening and closing quotation marks. Quotation marks in English_sentence_125

Quotation marks in English_table_general_0

How to type typographic quotation marks (and apostrophes) on a computer keyboardQuotation marks in English_table_caption_0
Quotation marks in English_header_cell_0_0_0 Windows Alt code combinationsQuotation marks in English_header_cell_0_0_2 Macintosh key combinationsQuotation marks in English_header_cell_0_0_3 Linux (X) keysQuotation marks in English_header_cell_0_0_4 Unicode pointQuotation marks in English_header_cell_0_0_5 HTML entityQuotation marks in English_header_cell_0_0_6 HTML decimalQuotation marks in English_header_cell_0_0_7
Single openingQuotation marks in English_header_cell_0_1_0 Quotation marks in English_cell_0_1_1 Alt+0145 (on number pad)Quotation marks in English_cell_0_1_2 ⌥ Opt+]Quotation marks in English_cell_0_1_3 Compose+<+' or Alt Gr+⇧ Shift+VQuotation marks in English_cell_0_1_4 U+2018Quotation marks in English_cell_0_1_5 Quotation marks in English_cell_0_1_6 Quotation marks in English_cell_0_1_7
Single closing

(& apostrophe)Quotation marks in English_header_cell_0_2_0

Quotation marks in English_cell_0_2_1 Alt+0146 (on number pad)Quotation marks in English_cell_0_2_2 ⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+]Quotation marks in English_cell_0_2_3 Compose+>+' or Alt Gr+⇧ Shift+BQuotation marks in English_cell_0_2_4 U+2019Quotation marks in English_cell_0_2_5 Quotation marks in English_cell_0_2_6 Quotation marks in English_cell_0_2_7
Double openingQuotation marks in English_header_cell_0_3_0 Quotation marks in English_cell_0_3_1 Alt+0147 (on number pad)Quotation marks in English_cell_0_3_2 ⌥ Opt+[Quotation marks in English_cell_0_3_3 Compose+<+" or Alt Gr+vQuotation marks in English_cell_0_3_4 U+201CQuotation marks in English_cell_0_3_5 Quotation marks in English_cell_0_3_6 Quotation marks in English_cell_0_3_7
Double closingQuotation marks in English_header_cell_0_4_0 Quotation marks in English_cell_0_4_1 Alt+0148 (on number pad)Quotation marks in English_cell_0_4_2 ⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+[Quotation marks in English_cell_0_4_3 Compose+>+" or Alt Gr+bQuotation marks in English_cell_0_4_4 U+201DQuotation marks in English_cell_0_4_5 Quotation marks in English_cell_0_4_6 Quotation marks in English_cell_0_4_7

(For additional characters used in other languages, see quotation mark glyphs.) Quotation marks in English_sentence_126

Smart quotes Quotation marks in English_section_19

To make typographic quotation marks easier to enter, publishing software often automatically converts typewriter quotation marks (and apostrophes) to typographic form during text entry (with or without the user being aware of it). Quotation marks in English_sentence_127

Out-of-the-box behavior on macOS and iOS is to make this conversion. Quotation marks in English_sentence_128

These are known as smart quotes (“...”). Quotation marks in English_sentence_129

Straight quotation marks are also retronymically called dumb quotes ("..."). Quotation marks in English_sentence_130

The method for producing smart quotes may be based solely on the character preceding the mark; if it is a space or another of a set of hard-coded characters or if the mark begins a line, the mark may be rendered as an opening quote on the assumption that such a mark would never occur inside or after a word; and if not, it may be rendered as a closing quote or apostrophe. Quotation marks in English_sentence_131

This method can cause errors, especially for contractions that start with an apostrophe or text with nested quotations: Quotation marks in English_sentence_132

Quotation marks in English_table_general_1

Text as typedQuotation marks in English_header_cell_1_0_0 Desired resultQuotation marks in English_header_cell_1_0_1 Example erroneous resultsQuotation marks in English_header_cell_1_0_2
'14Quotation marks in English_cell_1_1_0 ’14Quotation marks in English_cell_1_1_1 ‘14Quotation marks in English_cell_1_1_2
I forgot my 'phone.Quotation marks in English_cell_1_2_0 I forgot my ’phone.Quotation marks in English_cell_1_2_1 I forgot my ‘phone.Quotation marks in English_cell_1_2_2
'Twas the night before Christmas ...Quotation marks in English_cell_1_3_0 ’ Twas the night before Christmas ...Quotation marks in English_cell_1_3_1 ‘ Twas the night before Christmas ...Quotation marks in English_cell_1_3_2
"'Hello,' he said, 'to you'"Quotation marks in English_cell_1_4_0 “ ‘Hello,’ he said, ‘to you’ ”Quotation marks in English_cell_1_4_1 Quotation marks in English_cell_1_4_2

In Windows, if it is necessary to follow a space with a closing quotation mark when Smart Quotes is in effect, it is usually sufficient to input the character using the Alt code shown above rather than typing " or '. Quotation marks in English_sentence_133

See also Quotation marks in English_section_20

Quotation marks in English_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quotation marks in English.