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For the Microsoft platforms called Smartphone 2002 and Smartphone 2003, see Windows Mobile. Smartphone_sentence_0

A smartphone is a mobile device that combines cellular and mobile computing functions into one unit. Smartphone_sentence_1

They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and extensive mobile operating systems, which facilitate wider software, internet (including web browsing over mobile broadband), and multimedia functionality (including music, video, cameras, and gaming), alongside core phone functions such as voice calls and text messaging. Smartphone_sentence_2

Smartphones typically contain a number of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuit (IC) chips, include various sensors that can be leveraged by their software (such as a magnetometer, proximity sensors, barometer, gyroscope, or accelerometer), and support wireless communications protocols (such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, or satellite navigation). Smartphone_sentence_3

Early smartphones were marketed primarily towards the enterprise market, attempting to bridge the functionality of standalone personal digital assistant (PDA) devices with support for cellular telephony, but were limited by their bulky form, short battery life, slow analog cellular networks, and the immaturity of wireless data services. Smartphone_sentence_4

These issues were eventually resolved with the exponential scaling and miniaturization of MOS transistors down to sub-micron levels (Moore's law), the improved lithium-ion battery, faster digital mobile data networks (Edholm's law), and more mature software platforms that allowed mobile device ecosystems to develop independently of data providers. Smartphone_sentence_5

In the 2000s, NTT DoCoMo's i-mode platform, BlackBerry, Nokia's Symbian platform, and Windows Mobile began to gain market traction, with models often featuring QWERTY keyboards or resistive touchscreen input, and emphasizing access to push email and wireless internet. Smartphone_sentence_6

Following the rising popularity of the iPhone in the late 2000s, the majority of smartphones have featured thin, slate-like form factors, with large, capacitive screens with support for multi-touch gestures rather than physical keyboards, and offer the ability for users to download or purchase additional applications from a centralized store, and use cloud storage and synchronization, virtual assistants, as well as mobile payment services. Smartphone_sentence_7

Smartphones have largely replaced PDAs and handheld/palm-sized PCs. Smartphone_sentence_8

Improved hardware and faster wireless communication (due to standards such as LTE) have bolstered the growth of the smartphone industry. Smartphone_sentence_9

In the third quarter of 2012, one billion smartphones were in use worldwide. Smartphone_sentence_10

Global smartphone sales surpassed the sales figures for feature phones in early 2013. Smartphone_sentence_11

History Smartphone_section_0

See also: Mobile operating system § Timeline Smartphone_sentence_12

The development of the smartphone was enabled by several key technological advances. Smartphone_sentence_13

The exponential scaling and miniaturization of MOSFETs (MOS transistors) down to sub-micron levels during the 1990s–2000s (as predicted by Moore's law) made it possible to build portable smart devices such as smartphones, as well as enabling the transition from analog to faster digital wireless mobile networks (leading to Edholm's law). Smartphone_sentence_14

Other important enabling factors include the lithium-ion battery, an indispensable energy source enabling long battery life, invented in the 1980s and commercialized in 1991, and the development of more mature software platforms that allowed mobile device ecosystems to develop independently of data providers. Smartphone_sentence_15

Forerunner Smartphone_section_1

Main article: IBM Simon Smartphone_sentence_16

In the early 1990s, IBM engineer Frank Canova realised that chip-and-wireless technology was becoming small enough to use in handheld devices. Smartphone_sentence_17

The first commercially available device that could be properly referred to as a "smartphone" began as a prototype called "Angler" developed by Canova in 1992 while at IBM and demonstrated in November of that year at the COMDEX computer industry trade show. Smartphone_sentence_18

A refined version was marketed to consumers in 1994 by BellSouth under the name Simon Personal Communicator. Smartphone_sentence_19

In addition to placing and receiving cellular calls, the touchscreen-equipped Simon could send and receive faxes and emails. Smartphone_sentence_20

It included an address book, calendar, appointment scheduler, calculator, world time clock, and notepad, as well as other visionary mobile applications such as maps, stock reports and news. Smartphone_sentence_21

The IBM Simon was manufactured by Mitsubishi Electric, which integrated features from its own wireless personal digital assistant (PDA) and cellular radio technologies. Smartphone_sentence_22

It featured a liquid-crystal display (LCD) and PC Card support. Smartphone_sentence_23

The Simon was commercially unsuccessful, particularly due to its bulky form factor and limited battery life, using NiCad batteries rather than the nickel–metal hydride batteries commonly used in mobile phones in the 1990s, or lithium-ion batteries used in modern smartphones. Smartphone_sentence_24

The term "smart phone" or "smartphone" was not coined until a year after the introduction of the Simon, appearing in print as early as 1995, describing AT&T's PhoneWriter Communicator. Smartphone_sentence_25

PDA/phone hybrids Smartphone_section_2

Main article: Personal digital assistant Smartphone_sentence_26

Beginning in the mid-late 1990s, many people who had mobile phones carried a separate dedicated PDA device, running early versions of operating systems such as Palm OS, Newton OS, Symbian or Windows CE/Pocket PC. Smartphone_sentence_27

These operating systems would later evolve into early mobile operating systems. Smartphone_sentence_28

Most of the "smartphones" in this era were hybrid devices that combined these existing familiar PDA OSes with basic phone hardware. Smartphone_sentence_29

The results were devices that were bulkier than either dedicated mobile phones or PDAs, but allowed a limited amount of cellular Internet access. Smartphone_sentence_30

PDA and mobile phone manufacturers competed in reducing the size of devices. Smartphone_sentence_31

The bulk of these smartphones combined with their high cost and expensive data plans, plus other drawbacks such as expansion limitations and decreased battery life compared to separate standalone devices, generally limited their popularity to "early adopters" and business users who needed portable connectivity. Smartphone_sentence_32

In March 1996, Hewlett-Packard released the OmniGo 700LX, a modified HP 200LX palmtop PC with a Nokia 2110 mobile phone piggybacked onto it and ROM-based software to support it. Smartphone_sentence_33

It had a 640×200 resolution CGA compatible four-shade gray-scale LCD screen and could be used to place and receive calls, and to create and receive text messages, emails and faxes. Smartphone_sentence_34

It was also 100% DOS 5.0 compatible, allowing it to run thousands of existing software titles, including early versions of Windows. Smartphone_sentence_35

In August 1996, Nokia released the Nokia 9000 Communicator, a digital cellular PDA based on the Nokia 2110 with an integrated system based on the PEN/GEOS 3.0 operating system from Geoworks. Smartphone_sentence_36

The two components were attached by a hinge in what became known as a clamshell design, with the display above and a physical QWERTY keyboard below. Smartphone_sentence_37

The PDA provided e-mail; calendar, address book, calculator and notebook applications; text-based Web browsing; and could send and receive faxes. Smartphone_sentence_38

When closed, the device could be used as a digital cellular telephone. Smartphone_sentence_39

In June 1999 Qualcomm released the "pdQ Smartphone", a CDMA digital PCS smartphone with an integrated Palm PDA and Internet connectivity. Smartphone_sentence_40

Subsequent landmark devices included: Smartphone_sentence_41


  • The Ericsson R380 (December 2000) by Ericsson Mobile Communications, the first phone running the operating system later named Symbian (it ran EPOC Release 5, which was renamed Symbian OS at Release 6). It had PDA functionality and limited Web browsing on a resistive touchscreen utilizing a stylus. While it was marketed as a "smartphone", users could not install their own software on the device.Smartphone_item_0_0
  • The Kyocera 6035 (February 2001), a dual-nature device with a separate Palm OS PDA operating system and CDMA mobile phone firmware. It supported limited Web browsing with the PDA software treating the phone hardware as an attached modem.Smartphone_item_0_1
  • The Nokia 9210 Communicator (June 2001), the first phone running Symbian (Release 6) with Nokia's Series 80 platform (v1.0). This was the first Symbian phone platform allowing the installation of additional applications. Like the Nokia 9000 Communicator it's a large clamshell device with a full physical QWERTY keyboard inside.Smartphone_item_0_2
  • Handspring's Treo 180 (2002), the first smartphone that fully integrated the Palm OS on a GSM mobile phone having telephony, SMS messaging and Internet access built into the OS. The 180 model had a thumb-type keyboard and the 180g version had a Graffiti handwriting recognition area, instead.Smartphone_item_0_3

Japanese cell phones Smartphone_section_3

Main articles: Japanese mobile phone culture and Mobile phone industry in Japan Smartphone_sentence_42

In 1999, Japanese wireless provider NTT DoCoMo launched i-mode, a new mobile internet platform which provided data transmission speeds up to 9.6 kilobits per second, and access web services available through the platform such as online shopping. Smartphone_sentence_43

NTT DoCoMo's i-mode used cHTML, a language which restricted some aspects of traditional HTML in favor of increasing data speed for the devices. Smartphone_sentence_44

Limited functionality, small screens and limited bandwidth allowed for phones to use the slower data speeds available. Smartphone_sentence_45

The rise of i-mode helped NTT DoCoMo accumulate an estimated 40 million subscribers by the end of 2001, and ranked first in market capitalization in Japan and second globally. Smartphone_sentence_46

Japanese cell phones increasingly diverged from global standards and trends to offer other forms of advanced services and smartphone-like functionality that were specifically tailored to the Japanese market, such as mobile payments and shopping, near-field communication (NFC) allowing mobile wallet functionality to replace smart cards for transit fares, loyalty cards, identity cards, event tickets, coupons, money transfer, etc., downloadable content like musical ringtones, games, and comics, and 1seg mobile television. Smartphone_sentence_47

Phones built by Japanese manufacturers used custom firmware, however, and didn't yet feature standardized mobile operating systems designed to cater to third-party application development, so their software and ecosystems were akin to very advanced feature phones. Smartphone_sentence_48

As with other feature phones, additional software and services required partnerships and deals with providers. Smartphone_sentence_49

The degree of integration between phones and carriers, unique phone features, non-standardized platforms, and tailoring to Japanese culture made it difficult for Japanese manufacturers to export their phones, especially when demand was so high in Japan that the companies didn't feel the need to look elsewhere for additional profits. Smartphone_sentence_50

The rise of 3G technology in other markets and non-Japanese phones with powerful standardized smartphone operating systems, app stores, and advanced wireless network capabilities allowed non-Japanese phone manufacturers to finally break in to the Japanese market, gradually adopting Japanese phone features like emojis, mobile payments, NFC, etc. and spreading them to the rest of the world. Smartphone_sentence_51

Early smartphones Smartphone_section_4

Phones that made effective use of any significant data connectivity were still rare outside Japan until the introduction of the Danger Hiptop in 2002, which saw moderate success among U.S. consumers as the T-Mobile Sidekick. Smartphone_sentence_52

Later, in the mid-2000s, business users in the U.S. started to adopt devices based on Microsoft's Windows Mobile, and then BlackBerry smartphones from Research In Motion. Smartphone_sentence_53

American users popularized the term "CrackBerry" in 2006 due to the BlackBerry's addictive nature. Smartphone_sentence_54

In the U.S., the high cost of data plans and relative rarity of devices with Wi-Fi capabilities that could avoid cellular data network usage kept adoption of smartphones mainly to business professionals and "early adopters." Smartphone_sentence_55

Outside the U.S. and Japan, Nokia was seeing success with its smartphones based on Symbian, originally developed by Psion for their personal organisers, and it was the most popular smartphone OS in Europe during the middle to late 2000s. Smartphone_sentence_56

Initially, Nokia's Symbian smartphones were focused on business with the Eseries, similar to Windows Mobile and BlackBerry devices at the time. Smartphone_sentence_57

From 2006 onwards, Nokia started producing consumer-focused smartphones, popularized by the entertainment-focused Nseries. Smartphone_sentence_58

Until 2010, Symbian was the world's most widely used smartphone operating system. Smartphone_sentence_59

The touchscreen PDA-derived nature of adapted operating systems like Palm OS, the "Pocket PC" versions of what was later Windows Mobile, and the UIQ interface that was originally designed for pen-based PDAs on Symbian OS devices resulted in some early smartphones having stylus-based interfaces. Smartphone_sentence_60

These allowed for virtual keyboards and/or handwriting input, thus also allowing easy entry of Asian characters. Smartphone_sentence_61

By the mid-2000s, the majority of smartphones had a physical QWERTY keyboard. Smartphone_sentence_62

Most used a "keyboard bar" form factor, like the BlackBerry line, Windows Mobile smartphones, Palm Treos, and some of the Nokia Eseries. Smartphone_sentence_63

A few hid their full physical QWERTY keyboard in a sliding form factor, like the Danger Hiptop line. Smartphone_sentence_64

Some even had only a numeric keypad using T9 text input, like the Nokia Nseries and other models in the Nokia Eseries. Smartphone_sentence_65

Resistive touchscreens with stylus-based interfaces could still be found on a few smartphones, like the Palm Treos, which had dropped their handwriting input after a few early models that were available in versions with Graffiti instead of a keyboard. Smartphone_sentence_66

Form factor and operating system shifts Smartphone_section_5

The late 2000s and early 2010s saw a shift in smartphone interfaces away from devices with physical keyboards and keypads to ones with large finger-operated capacitive touchscreens. Smartphone_sentence_67

The first phone of any kind with a large capacitive touchscreen was the LG Prada, announced by LG in December 2006. Smartphone_sentence_68

This was a fashionable feature phone created in collaboration with Italian luxury designer Prada with a 3" 240x400 pixel screen. Smartphone_sentence_69

In January 2007, Apple Computer introduced the iPhone. Smartphone_sentence_70

It had a 3.5" capacitive touchscreen with twice the common resolution of most smartphone screens at the time, and introduced multi-touch to phones, which allowed gestures such as "pinching" to zoom in or out on photos, maps, and web pages. Smartphone_sentence_71

The iPhone was notable as being the first device of its kind targeted at the mass market to abandon the use of a stylus, keyboard, or keypad typical of contemporary smartphones, instead using a large touchscreen for direct finger input as its main means of interaction. Smartphone_sentence_72

The iPhone's operating system was also a shift away from previous ones that were adapted from PDAs and feature phones, to one powerful enough to avoid using a limited, stripped down web browser requiring pages specially formatted using technologies such as WML, cHTML, or XHTML that previous phones supported and instead run a version of Apple's Safari browser that could easily render full websites not specifically designed for phones. Smartphone_sentence_73

Later Apple shipped a software update that gave the iPhone a built-in on-device App Store allowing direct wireless downloads of third-party software. Smartphone_sentence_74

This kind of centralized App Store and free developer tools quickly became the new main paradigm for all smartphone platforms for software development, distribution, discovery, installation, and payment, in place of expensive developer tools that required official approval to use and a dependence on third-party sources providing applications for multiple platforms. Smartphone_sentence_75

The advantages of a design with software powerful enough to support advanced applications and a large capacitive touchscreen affected the development of another smartphone OS platform, Android, with a more BlackBerry-like prototype device scrapped in favor of a touchscreen device with a slide-out physical keyboard, as Google's engineers thought at the time that a touchscreen could not completely replace a physical keyboard and buttons. Smartphone_sentence_76

Android is based around a modified Linux kernel, again providing more power than mobile operating systems adapted from PDAs and feature phones. Smartphone_sentence_77

The first Android device, the horizontal-sliding HTC Dream, was released in September 2008. Smartphone_sentence_78

Smartphone OS competition Smartphone_section_6

The iPhone and later touchscreen-only Android devices together popularized the slate form factor, based on a large capacitive touchscreen as the sole means of interaction, and led to the decline of earlier, keyboard- and keypad-focused platforms. Smartphone_sentence_79

Multiple vendors attempted to update or replace their existing smartphone platforms and devices to better-compete with Android and the iPhone; Palm unveiled a new platform known as webOS for its Palm Pre in late-2009 to replace Palm OS, which featured a focus on a task-based "card" metaphor and seamless synchronization and integration between various online services (as opposed to the then-conventional concept of a smartphone needing a PC to serve as a "canonical, authoritative repository" for user data). Smartphone_sentence_80

HP acquired Palm in 2010 and released several other webOS devices, including the Pre 3 and HP TouchPad tablet. Smartphone_sentence_81

As part of a proposed divestment of its consumer business to focus on enterprise software, HP abruptly ended development of future webOS devices in August 2011, and sold the rights to webOS to LG Electronics in 2013, for use as a smart TV platform. Smartphone_sentence_82

Research in Motion introduced the vertical-sliding BlackBerry Torch and BlackBerry OS 6 in 2010, which featured a redesigned user interface, support for gestures such as pinch-to-zoom, and a new web browser based on the same WebKit rendering engine used by the iPhone. Smartphone_sentence_83

The following year, RIM released BlackBerry OS 7 and new models in the Bold and Torch ranges, which included a new Bold with a touchscreen alongside its keyboard, and the Torch 9860—the first BlackBerry phone to not include a physical keyboard. Smartphone_sentence_84

In 2013, it replaced the legacy BlackBerry OS with a revamped, QNX-based platform known as BlackBerry 10, with the all-touch BlackBerry Z10 and keyboard-equipped Q10 as launch devices. Smartphone_sentence_85

In 2010, Microsoft unveiled a replacement for Windows Mobile known as Windows Phone, featuring a new touchscreen-centric user interface built around flat design and typography, a home screen with "live tiles" containing feeds of updates from apps, as well as integrated Microsoft Office apps. Smartphone_sentence_86

In February 2011, Nokia announced that it had entered into a major partnership with Microsoft, under which it would exclusively use Windows Phone on all of its future smartphones, and integrate Microsoft's Bing search engine and Bing Maps (which, as part of the partnership, would also license Nokia Maps data) into all future devices. Smartphone_sentence_87

The announcement led to the abandonment of both Symbian, as well as MeeGo—a Linux-based mobile platform it was co-developing with Intel. Smartphone_sentence_88

Nokia's low-end Lumia 520 saw strong demand and helped Windows Phone gain niche popularity in some markets, overtaking BlackBerry in global market share in 2013. Smartphone_sentence_89

Many of these attempts to compete with Android and iPhone were short-lived. Smartphone_sentence_90

Over the course of the decade, the two platforms became a clear duopoly in smartphone sales and market share, with BlackBerry, Windows Phone, and "other" operating systems eventually stagnating to little or no measurable market share. Smartphone_sentence_91

In 2015, BlackBerry began to pivot away from its in-house mobile platforms in favor of producing Android devices, focusing on a security-enhanced distribution of the software. Smartphone_sentence_92

The following year, the company announced that it would also exit the hardware market to focus more on software and its enterprise middleware, and began to license the BlackBerry brand and its Android distribution to third-party OEMs such as TCL for future devices. Smartphone_sentence_93

In September 2013, Microsoft announced its intent to acquire Nokia's mobile device business for $7.1 billion, as part of a strategy under CEO Steve Ballmer for Microsoft to be a "devices and services" company. Smartphone_sentence_94

Despite the growth of Windows Phone and the Lumia range (which accounted for nearly 90% of all Windows Phone devices sold), the platform never had significant market share in the key U.S. market, and Microsoft was unable to maintain Windows Phone's momentum in the years that followed, resulting in dwindling interest from users and app developers. Smartphone_sentence_95

After Balmer was succeeded by Satya Nadella (who has placed a larger focus on software and cloud computing) as CEO of Microsoft, it took a $7.6 billion write-off on the Nokia assets in July 2015, and laid off nearly the entire Microsoft Mobile unit in May 2016. Smartphone_sentence_96

Prior to the completion of the sale to Microsoft, Nokia released a series of Android-derived smartphones for emerging markets known as Nokia X, which combined an Android-based platform with elements of Windows Phone and Nokia's feature phone platform Asha, using Microsoft and Nokia services rather than Google. Smartphone_sentence_97

Camera advancements Smartphone_section_7

Further information: Digital camera and Camera phone Smartphone_sentence_98

The first commercial camera phone was the Kyocera Visual Phone VP-210, released in Japan in May 1999. Smartphone_sentence_99

It was called a "mobile videophone" at the time, and had a 110,000-pixel front-facing camera. Smartphone_sentence_100

It could send up to two images per second over Japan's Personal Handy-phone System (PHS) cellular network, and store up to 20 JPEG digital images, which could be sent over e-mail. Smartphone_sentence_101

The first mass-market camera phone was the J-SH04, a Sharp J-Phone model sold in Japan in November 2000. Smartphone_sentence_102

It could instantly transmit pictures via cell phone telecommunication. Smartphone_sentence_103

By the mid-2000s, higher-end cell phones commonly had integrated digital cameras. Smartphone_sentence_104

In 2003 camera phones outsold stand-alone digital cameras, and in 2006 they outsold film and digital stand-alone cameras. Smartphone_sentence_105

Five billion camera phones were sold in five years, and by 2007 more than half of the installed base of all mobile phones were camera phones. Smartphone_sentence_106

Sales of separate cameras peaked in 2008. Smartphone_sentence_107

Many early smartphones didn't have cameras at all, and earlier models that had them had low performance and insufficient image and video quality that could not compete with budget pocket cameras and fullfill user's needs. Smartphone_sentence_108

By the beginning of the 2010s almost all smartphones had an integrated digital camera. Smartphone_sentence_109

The decline in sales of stand-alone cameras accelerated due to the increasing use of smartphones with rapidly improving camera technology for casual photography, easier image manipulation, and abilities to directly share photos through the use of apps and web-based services. Smartphone_sentence_110

By 2011, cell phones with integrated cameras were selling hundreds of millions per year. Smartphone_sentence_111

In 2015, digital camera sales were 35.395 million units or only less than a third of digital camera sales numbers at their peak and also slightly less than film camera sold number at their peak. Smartphone_sentence_112

Contributing to the rise in popularity of smartphones being used over dedicated cameras for photography, smaller pocket cameras have difficulty producing bokeh in images, but nowadays, some smartphones have dual-lens cameras that reproduce the bokeh effect easily, and can even rearrange the level of bokeh after shooting. Smartphone_sentence_113

This works by capturing multiple images with different focus settings, then combining the background of the main image with a macro focus shot. Smartphone_sentence_114

In 2007 the Nokia N95 was notable as a smartphone that had a 5.0 Megapixel (MP) camera, when most others had cameras with around 3 MP or less than 2 MP. Smartphone_sentence_115

Some specialized feature phones like the LG Viewty, Samsung SGH-G800, and Sony Ericsson K850i, all released later that year, also had 5.0 MP cameras. Smartphone_sentence_116

By 2010 5.0 MP cameras were common; a few smartphones had 8.0 MP cameras and the Nokia N8, Sony Ericsson Satio, and Samsung M8910 Pixon12 feature phone had 12 MP. Smartphone_sentence_117

In 2009 the Samsung Omnia HD was the first phone with 720p video recording. Smartphone_sentence_118

A 14-megapixel smartphone with 3x optical zoom was announced in late 2010. Smartphone_sentence_119

In 2012 Nokia announced the Nokia 808 PureView, featuring a 41-megapixel 1/1.2-inch sensor and a high-resolution f/2.4 Zeiss all-aspherical one-group lens. Smartphone_sentence_120

1080p video recording on a smartphone was achieved in 2011, and 2160p (4K) video recording in 2013. Smartphone_sentence_121

In 2016 Apple introduced the iPhone 7 Plus, one of the phones to popularize a dual camera setup. Smartphone_sentence_122

The iPhone 7 Plus included a main 12 MP camera along with a 12 MP telephoto camera. Smartphone_sentence_123

In early 2018 Huawei released a new flagship phone, the Huawei P20 Pro, one of the first triple camera lens setups with Leica optics. Smartphone_sentence_124

In late 2018, Samsung released a new mid-range smartphone, the Galaxy A9 (2018) with the world's first quad camera setup. Smartphone_sentence_125

The Nokia 9 PureView was released in 2019 featuring a penta-lens camera system. Smartphone_sentence_126

2019 saw the commercialization of high resolution sensors, which use pixel binning to capture more light. Smartphone_sentence_127

48 MP and 64 MP sensors developed by Sony and Samsung are commonly used by several manufacturers. Smartphone_sentence_128

108 MP sensors were first implemented in late 2019 and early 2020. Smartphone_sentence_129

Display advancements Smartphone_section_8

In the early 2010s, larger smartphones with screen sizes of at least 140 millimetres (5.5 in) diagonal, dubbed "phablets", began to achieve popularity, with the 2011 Samsung Galaxy Note series gaining notably wide adoption. Smartphone_sentence_130

In 2013, Huawei launched the Huawei Mate series, sporting a 155 millimetres (6.1 in) HD (1280x720) IPS+ LCD display, which was considered to be quite large at the time. Smartphone_sentence_131

Some companies began to release smartphones in 2013 incorporating flexible displays to create curved form factors, such as the Samsung Galaxy Round and LG G Flex. Smartphone_sentence_132

By 2014, 1440p displays began to appear on high-end smartphones. Smartphone_sentence_133

In 2015, Sony released the Xperia Z5 Premium, featuring a 4K resolution display, although only images and videos could actually be rendered at that resolution (all other software was shown at 1080p). Smartphone_sentence_134

New trends for smartphone displays began to emerge in 2017, with both LG and Samsung releasing flagship smartphones (LG G6 and Galaxy S8), utilizing displays with taller aspect ratios than the common 16:9 ratio, and a high screen-to-body ratio, also known as a "bezel-less design". Smartphone_sentence_135

These designs allow the display to have a larger diagonal measurement, but with a slimmer width than 16:9 displays with an equivalent screen size. Smartphone_sentence_136

Another trend popularized in 2017 were displays containing tab-like cut-outs at the top-centre—colloquially known as a "notch"—to contain the front-facing camera, and sometimes other sensors typically located along the top bezel of a device. Smartphone_sentence_137

These designs allow for "edge-to-edge" displays that take up nearly the entire height of the device, with little to no bezel along the top, and sometimes a minimal bottom bezel as well. Smartphone_sentence_138

This design characteristic appeared almost simultaneously on the Sharp Aquos S2 and the Essential Phone, which featured circular tabs for their cameras, followed just a month later by the iPhone X, which used a wider tab to contain a camera and facial scanning system known as Face ID. Smartphone_sentence_139

The 2016 LG V10 had a precursor to the concept, with a portion of the screen wrapped around the camera area in the top-left corner, with the resulting area marketed as a "second" display that could be used for various supplemental features. Smartphone_sentence_140

Other variations of the practice later emerged, such as a "hole-punch" camera (such as those of the Honor View 20, and Samsung's Galaxy A8s and Galaxy S10)—eschewing the tabbed "notch" for a circular or rounded-rectangular cut-out within the screen instead, while Oppo released the first "all-screen" phones with no notches at all, including one with a mechanical front camera that pops up from the top of the device (Find X), and a 2019 prototype for a front-facing camera that can be embedded and hidden below the display, using a special partially-translucent screen structure that allows light to reach the image sensor below the panel. Smartphone_sentence_141

The first implementation was the ZTE Axon 20 5G, with a 32 MP sensor manufactured by Visionox. Smartphone_sentence_142

Refresh rates greater than 60 Hz first appeared in 2017 on the Razer Phone and Sharp Aquos R Compact, and were popularized by several brands in 2019. Smartphone_sentence_143

Devices with a high refresh rate have lower motion blur and input lag. Smartphone_sentence_144

Foldable smartphones Smartphone_section_9

Main article: Foldable smartphone Smartphone_sentence_145

Smartphones utilizing flexible displays were theorized as possible once manufacturing costs and production processes were feasible. Smartphone_sentence_146

In November 2018, the startup company Royole unveiled the first commercially available foldable smartphone, the Royole FlexPai. Smartphone_sentence_147

Also that month, Samsung presented a prototype phone featuring an "Infinity Flex Display" at its developers conference, with a smaller, outer display on its "cover", and a larger, tablet-sized display when opened. Smartphone_sentence_148

Samsung stated that it also had to develop a new polymer material to coat the display as opposed to glass. Smartphone_sentence_149

Samsung officially announced the Galaxy Fold, based on the previously-demonstrated prototype, in February 2019 for an originally-scheduled release in late-April. Smartphone_sentence_150

Due to various durability issues with the display and hinge systems encountered by early reviewers, the release of the Galaxy Fold was delayed to September to allow for design changes Motorola also introduced a variation of the concept with its re-imagining of the Razr, using a horizontally-folding display to create a clamshell form factor of the company's previous feature phone range of the same name. Smartphone_sentence_151

Other developments in the 2010s Smartphone_section_10

2011 Smartphone_section_11

The first smartphone with a fingerprint reader was the Motorola Atrix 4G in 2011. Smartphone_sentence_152

In September 2013, the iPhone 5S was unveiled as the first smartphone on a major U.S. carrier since the Atrix to feature this technology. Smartphone_sentence_153

Once again, the iPhone popularized this concept. Smartphone_sentence_154

2012 Smartphone_section_12

In 2012, Samsung introduced the Galaxy S3 (GT-i9300) with retrofittable wireless charging, pop-up video playback, 4G-LTE variant (GT-i9305) quad-core processor. Smartphone_sentence_155

2013 Smartphone_section_13

In 2013, Fairphone launched its first "socially ethical" smartphone at the London Design Festival to address concerns regarding the sourcing of materials in the manufacturing followed by Shiftphone in 2015. Smartphone_sentence_156

In late 2013, QSAlpha commenced production of a smartphone designed entirely around security, encryption and identity protection. Smartphone_sentence_157

In October 2013, Motorola Mobility announced Project Ara, a concept for a modular smartphone platform that would allow users to customize and upgrade their phones with add-on modules that attached magnetically to a frame. Smartphone_sentence_158

Ara was retained by Google following its sale of Motorola Mobility to Lenovo, but was shelved in 2016. Smartphone_sentence_159

That year, LG and Motorola both unveiled smartphones featuring a limited form of modularity for accessories; the LG G5 allowed accessories to be installed via the removal of its battery compartment, while the Moto Z utilizes accessories attached magnetically to the rear of the device. Smartphone_sentence_160

2014 Smartphone_section_14

Microsoft, expanding upon the concept of Motorola's short-lived "Webtop", unveiled functionality for its Windows 10 operating system for phones that allows supported devices to be docked for use with a PC-styled desktop environment. Smartphone_sentence_161

2015 Smartphone_section_15

Samsung and LG used to be the “last standing” manufacturers to offer flagship devices with user-replaceable batteries. Smartphone_sentence_162

But in 2015, Samsung succumbed to the minimalism trend set by Apple, introducing the Galaxy S6 without a user-replaceable battery. Smartphone_sentence_163

In addition, Samsung was criticised for pruning long-standing features such as MHL, MicroUSB 3.0, water resistance and MicroSD card support, of which the latter two came back in 2016 with the Galaxy S7 and S7 Edge. Smartphone_sentence_164

As of 2015, the global median for smartphone ownership was 43%. Smartphone_sentence_165

Statista forecast that 2.87 billion people would own smartphones in 2020. Smartphone_sentence_166

2016 Smartphone_section_16

Major technologies that began to trend in 2016 included a focus on virtual reality and augmented reality experiences catered towards smartphones, the newly introduced USB-C connector, and improving LTE technologies. Smartphone_sentence_167

2018 Smartphone_section_17

In 2018, the first smartphones featuring fingerprint readers embedded within OLED displays were announced, followed in 2019 by an implementation using an ultrasonic sensor on the Samsung Galaxy S10. Smartphone_sentence_168

2019 Smartphone_section_18

In 2019, the majority of smartphones released have more than one camera, are waterproof with IP67 and IP68 ratings, and unlock using facial recognition or fingerprint scanners. Smartphone_sentence_169

Hardware Smartphone_section_19

Main article: Mobile phone features Smartphone_sentence_170

A typical smartphone contains a number of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuit (IC) chips, which in turn contain billions of tiny MOS field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Smartphone_sentence_171

A typical smartphone contains the following MOS IC chips. Smartphone_sentence_172


Central processing unit Smartphone_section_20

Smartphones have central processing units (CPUs), similar to those in computers, but optimised to operate in low power environments. Smartphone_sentence_173

In smartphones, the CPU is typically integrated in a CMOS (complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor) system-on-a-chip (SoC) application processor. Smartphone_sentence_174

The performance of mobile CPU depends not only on the clock rate (generally given in multiples of hertz) but also on the memory hierarchy. Smartphone_sentence_175

Because of these challenges, the performance of mobile phone CPUs is often more appropriately given by scores derived from various standardized tests to measure the real effective performance in commonly used applications. Smartphone_sentence_176

Display Smartphone_section_21

Main article: Display device Smartphone_sentence_177

One of the main characteristics of smartphones is the screen. Smartphone_sentence_178

Depending on the device's design, the screen fills most or nearly all of the space on a device's front surface. Smartphone_sentence_179

Many smartphone displays have an aspect ratio of 16:9, but taller aspect ratios became more common in 2017. Smartphone_sentence_180

Screen sizes are measured in diagonal inches. Smartphone_sentence_181

Phones with screens larger than 5.2 inches are often called "phablets". Smartphone_sentence_182

Smartphones with screens over 4.5 inches in size are commonly difficult to use with only a single hand, since most thumbs cannot reach the entire screen surface; they may need to be shifted around in the hand, held in one hand and manipulated by the other, or used in place with both hands. Smartphone_sentence_183

Due to design advances, some modern smartphones with large screen sizes and "edge-to-edge" designs have compact builds that improve their ergonomics, while the shift to taller aspect ratios have resulted in phones that have larger screen sizes whilst maintaining the ergonomics associated with smaller 16:9 displays. Smartphone_sentence_184

Liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) and organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays are the most common. Smartphone_sentence_185

Some displays are integrated with pressure-sensitive digitizers, such as those developed by Wacom and Samsung, and Apple's Force Touch system. Smartphone_sentence_186

Sound Smartphone_section_22

Some audio quality enhancing features, such as Voice over LTE and HD Voice have appeared and are often available on newer smartphones. Smartphone_sentence_187

Sound quality can remain a problem due to the design of the phone, the quality of the cellular network and compression algorithms used in long-distance calls. Smartphone_sentence_188

Audio quality can be improved using a VoIP application over WiFi. Smartphone_sentence_189

Cellphones have small speakers so that the user can use a speakerphone feature and talk to a person on the phone without holding it to their ear. Smartphone_sentence_190

The small speakers can also be used to listen to digital audio files of music or speech or watch videos with an audio component, without holding the phone close to the ear. Smartphone_sentence_191

Battery Smartphone_section_23

A smartphone typically uses a lithium-ion battery. Smartphone_sentence_192

By the end of 2017, smartphone battery life has become generally adequate; however, earlier smartphone battery life was poor due to the weak batteries that could not handle the significant power requirements of the smartphones' computer systems and color screens. Smartphone_sentence_193

Smartphone users purchase additional chargers for use outside the home, at work, and in cars and by buying portable external "battery packs". Smartphone_sentence_194

External battery packs include generic models which are connected to the smartphone with a cable, and custom-made models that "piggyback" onto a smartphone's case. Smartphone_sentence_195

In 2016, Samsung had to recall millions of the Galaxy Note 7 smartphones due to an explosive battery issue. Smartphone_sentence_196

For consumer convenience, wireless charging stations have been introduced in some hotels, bars, and other public spaces. Smartphone_sentence_197

Cameras Smartphone_section_24

Main articles: Camera phone, Digital camera, and Videophone Smartphone_sentence_198

Cameras have become standard features of smartphones. Smartphone_sentence_199

As of 2019 phone cameras are now a highly competitive area of differentiation between models, with advertising campaigns commonly based on a focus on the quality or capabilities of a device's main cameras. Smartphone_sentence_200

Typically smartphones have at least one main rear-facing camera and a lower-resolution front-facing camera for "selfies" and video chat. Smartphone_sentence_201

Owing to the limited depth available in smartphones for image sensors and optics, rear-facing cameras are often housed in a "bump" that's thicker than the rest of the phone. Smartphone_sentence_202

Since increasingly thin mobile phones have more abundant horizontal space than the depth that is necessary and used in dedicated cameras for better lenses, there's additionally a trend for phone manufacturers to include multiple cameras, with each optimized for a different purpose (telephoto, wide angle, etc.). Smartphone_sentence_203

Images are usually saved in the JPEG file format; some high-end phones also have RAW image capability. Smartphone_sentence_204

Modern advanced smartphones have cameras with optical image stabilisation (OIS), larger sensors, bright lenses, and even optical zoom plus RAW images. Smartphone_sentence_205

HDR, "Bokeh mode" with multi lenses and multi-shot night modes are now also familiar. Smartphone_sentence_206

Many new smartphone camera features are being enabled via computational photography image processing and multiple specialized lenses rather than larger sensors and lenses, due to the constrained space available inside phones that are being made as slim as possible. Smartphone_sentence_207

Accessories Smartphone_section_25

A wide range of accessories are sold for smartphones, including cases, screen protectors, power charging cables, wireless power stations, USB On-The-Go adapters (for connecting USB drives and or, in some cases, a HDMI cable to an external monitor), add-on batteries, headphones, combined headphone-microphones (which, for example, allow a person to privately conduct calls on the device without holding it to the ear), and Bluetooth-enabled powered speakers that enable users to listen to media from their smartphones wirelessly. Smartphone_sentence_208

Cases range from relatively inexpensive rubber or soft plastic cases which provide moderate protection from bumps and good protection from scratches to more expensive, heavy-duty cases that combine a rubber padding with a hard outer shell. Smartphone_sentence_209

Some cases have a "book"-like form, with a cover that the user opens to use the device; when the cover is closed, it protects the screen. Smartphone_sentence_210

Some "book"-like cases have additional pockets for credit cards, thus enabling people to use them as wallets. Smartphone_sentence_211

Accessories include products sold by the manufacturer of the smartphone and compatible products made by other manufacturers. Smartphone_sentence_212

Software Smartphone_section_26

Mobile operating systems Smartphone_section_27

Main article: Mobile operating system Smartphone_sentence_213

A mobile operating system (or mobile OS) is an operating system for phones, tablets, smartwatches, or other mobile devices. Smartphone_sentence_214

Mobile operating systems combine features of a personal computer operating system with other features useful for mobile or handheld use; usually including, and most of the following considered essential in modern mobile systems; a touchscreen, cellular, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi Protected Access, Wi-Fi, Global Positioning System (GPS) mobile navigation, video- and single-frame picture cameras, speech recognition, voice recorder, music player, near field communication, and infrared blaster. Smartphone_sentence_215

By Q1 2018, over 383 million smartphones were sold with 85.9 percent running Android, 14.1 percent running iOS and a negligible number of smartphones running other OSes. Smartphone_sentence_216

Android alone is more popular than the popular desktop operating system Windows, and in general smartphone use (even without tablets) exceeds desktop use. Smartphone_sentence_217

Mobile devices with mobile communications abilities (e.g., smartphones) contain two mobile operating systems – the main user-facing software platform is supplemented by a second low-level proprietary real-time operating system which operates the radio and other hardware. Smartphone_sentence_218

Research has shown that these low-level systems may contain a range of security vulnerabilities permitting malicious base stations to gain high levels of control over the mobile device. Smartphone_sentence_219

Mobile app Smartphone_section_28

Main article: Mobile app Smartphone_sentence_220

A mobile app is a computer program designed to run on a mobile device, such as a smartphone. Smartphone_sentence_221

The term "app" is a short-form of the term "software application". Smartphone_sentence_222

Application stores Smartphone_section_29

Main article: List of digital distribution platforms for mobile devices Smartphone_sentence_223

The introduction of Apple's App Store for the iPhone and iPod Touch in July 2008 popularized manufacturer-hosted online distribution for third-party applications (software and computer programs) focused on a single platform. Smartphone_sentence_224

There are a huge variety of apps, including video games, music products and business tools. Smartphone_sentence_225

Up until that point, smartphone application distribution depended on third-party sources providing applications for multiple platforms, such as GetJar, Handango, Handmark, and PocketGear. Smartphone_sentence_226

Following the success of the App Store, other smartphone manufacturers launched application stores, such as Google's Android Market (later renamed to the Google Play Store) and RIM's BlackBerry App World and Android-related app stores like F-Droid. Smartphone_sentence_227

In February 2014, 93% of mobile developers were targeting smartphones first for mobile app development. Smartphone_sentence_228

Sales Smartphone_section_30

Since 1996, smartphone shipments have had positive growth. Smartphone_sentence_229

In November 2011, 27% of all photographs created were taken with camera-equipped smartphones. Smartphone_sentence_230

In September 2012, a study concluded that 4 out of 5 smartphone owners use the device to shop online. Smartphone_sentence_231

Global smartphone sales surpassed the sales figures for feature phones in early 2013. Smartphone_sentence_232

Worldwide shipments of smartphones topped 1 billion units in 2013, up 38% from 2012's 725 million, while comprising a 55% share of the mobile phone market in 2013, up from 42% in 2012. Smartphone_sentence_233

In 2013, smartphone sales began to decline for the first time. Smartphone_sentence_234

In Q1 2016 for the first time the shipments dropped by 3 percent . Smartphone_sentence_235

The situation was caused by the maturing China market. Smartphone_sentence_236

A report by NPD shows that fewer than 10% of US citizens have bought $1,000+ smartphones, as they are too expensive for most people, without introducing particularly innovative features, and amid Huawei, Oppo and Xiaomi introducing products with similar feature sets for lower prices. Smartphone_sentence_237

In 2019, smartphone sales declined by 3.2%, the largest in smartphone history, while China and India were credited with driving most smartphone sales worldwide. Smartphone_sentence_238

It is predicted that widespread adoption of 5G will help drive new smartphone sales. Smartphone_sentence_239

By manufacturer Smartphone_section_31


Worldwide smartphones producers market shareSmartphone_table_caption_0
SourceSmartphone_header_cell_0_0_0 DateSmartphone_header_cell_0_0_1 SamsungSmartphone_header_cell_0_0_2 Apple Inc.Smartphone_header_cell_0_0_3 HuaweiSmartphone_header_cell_0_0_4 XiaomiSmartphone_header_cell_0_0_5 OppoSmartphone_header_cell_0_0_6 OthersSmartphone_header_cell_0_0_7 ReferenceSmartphone_header_cell_0_0_8
GartnerSmartphone_cell_0_1_0 Q4 2019Smartphone_cell_0_1_1 17.3%Smartphone_cell_0_1_2 17.1%Smartphone_cell_0_1_3 14.3%Smartphone_cell_0_1_4 8.0%Smartphone_cell_0_1_5 7.5%Smartphone_cell_0_1_6 35.8%Smartphone_cell_0_1_7 Smartphone_cell_0_1_8
IDCSmartphone_cell_0_2_0 Q2 2018Smartphone_cell_0_2_1 21.0%Smartphone_cell_0_2_2 12.1%Smartphone_cell_0_2_3 15.9%Smartphone_cell_0_2_4 9.5%Smartphone_cell_0_2_5 8.6%Smartphone_cell_0_2_6 32.9%Smartphone_cell_0_2_7 Smartphone_cell_0_2_8
Counterpoint ResearchSmartphone_cell_0_3_0 Q3 2019Smartphone_cell_0_3_1 21%Smartphone_cell_0_3_2 12%Smartphone_cell_0_3_3 18%Smartphone_cell_0_3_4 8%Smartphone_cell_0_3_5 9%Smartphone_cell_0_3_6 21%Smartphone_cell_0_3_7 Smartphone_cell_0_3_8

In 2011, Samsung had the highest shipment market share worldwide, followed by Apple. Smartphone_sentence_240

In 2013, Samsung had 31.3% market share, a slight increase from 30.3% in 2012, while Apple was at 15.3%, a decrease from 18.7% in 2012. Smartphone_sentence_241

Huawei, LG and Lenovo were at about 5% each, significantly better than 2012 figures, while others had about 40%, the same as the previous years figure. Smartphone_sentence_242

Only Apple lost market share, although their shipment volume still increased by 12.9%; the rest had significant increases in shipment volumes of 36–92%. Smartphone_sentence_243

In Q1 2014, Samsung had a 31% share and Apple had 16%. Smartphone_sentence_244

In Q4 2014, Apple had a 20.4% share and Samsung had 19.9%. Smartphone_sentence_245

In Q2 2016, Samsung had a 22.3% share and Apple had 12.9%. Smartphone_sentence_246

In Q1 2017, IDC reported that Samsung was first placed, with 80 million units, followed by Apple with 50.8 million, Huawei with 34.6 million, Oppo with 25.5 million and Vivo with 22.7 million. Smartphone_sentence_247

Samsung's mobile business is half the size of Apple's, by revenue. Smartphone_sentence_248

Apple business increased very rapidly in the years 2013 to 2017. Smartphone_sentence_249

Realme, a brand owned by Oppo, is the fastest-growing phone brand worldwide since Q2 2019. Smartphone_sentence_250

In China, Huawei and Honor, a brand owned by Huawei, have 46% of market share combined and posted 66% annual growth as of 2019, amid growing Chinese nationalism. Smartphone_sentence_251

In 2019, Samsung had a 74% market share in 5G smartphones while 5G smartphones had 1% of market share in China. Smartphone_sentence_252

Research has shown that iPhones are commonly associated with wealth, and that the average iPhone user has 40% more annual income than the average Android user. Smartphone_sentence_253

Women are more likely than men to own an iPhone. Smartphone_sentence_254

TrendForce predicts that foldable phones will start to become popular in 2021. Smartphone_sentence_255

By operating system Smartphone_section_32

Further information: Mobile operating system § By operating system Smartphone_sentence_256

Use Smartphone_section_33

See also: Mobile phone § Use Smartphone_sentence_257

Mobile banking and payment Smartphone_section_34

Main articles: Mobile banking and Mobile payment Smartphone_sentence_258

See also: Branchless banking and Contactless payment Smartphone_sentence_259

In many countries, mobile phones are used to provide mobile banking services, which may include the ability to transfer cash payments by secure SMS text message. Smartphone_sentence_260

Kenya's M-PESA mobile banking service, for example, allows customers of the mobile phone operator Safaricom to hold cash balances which are recorded on their SIM cards. Smartphone_sentence_261

Cash can be deposited or withdrawn from M-PESA accounts at Safaricom retail outlets located throughout the country and can be transferred electronically from person to person and used to pay bills to companies. Smartphone_sentence_262

Branchless banking has been successful in South Africa and the Philippines. Smartphone_sentence_263

A pilot project in Bali was launched in 2011 by the International Finance Corporation and an Indonesian bank, Bank Mandiri. Smartphone_sentence_264

Another application of mobile banking technology is Zidisha, a US-based nonprofit micro-lending platform that allows residents of developing countries to raise small business loans from Web users worldwide. Smartphone_sentence_265

Zidisha uses mobile banking for loan disbursements and repayments, transferring funds from lenders in the United States to borrowers in rural Africa who have mobile phones and can use the Internet. Smartphone_sentence_266

Mobile payments were first trialled in Finland in 1998 when two Coca-Cola vending machines in Espoo were enabled to work with SMS payments. Smartphone_sentence_267

Eventually, the idea spread and in 1999, the Philippines launched the country's first commercial mobile payments systems with mobile operators Globe and Smart. Smartphone_sentence_268

Some mobile phones can make mobile payments via direct mobile billing schemes, or through contactless payments if the phone and the point of sale support near field communication (NFC). Smartphone_sentence_269

Enabling contactless payments through NFC-equipped mobile phones requires the co-operation of manufacturers, network operators, and retail merchants. Smartphone_sentence_270

Facsimile Smartphone_section_35

Some apps allows for sending and receiving facsimile (Fax), over a smartphone, including facsimile data (composed of raster bi-level graphics) generated directly and digitally from and file formats. Smartphone_sentence_271

Convergence with other devices Smartphone_section_36

See also: Technological convergence Smartphone_sentence_272

The rise in popularity of touchscreen smartphones and mobile apps distributed via app stores along with rapidly advancing network, mobile processor, and storage technologies led to a convergence where separate mobile phones, organizers, and portable media players were replaced by a smartphone as the single device most people carried. Smartphone_sentence_273

Advances in digital camera sensors and on-device image processing software more gradually led to smartphones replacing simpler cameras for photographs and video recording. Smartphone_sentence_274

The built-in GPS capabilities and mapping apps on smartphones largely replaced stand-alone satellite navigation devices, and paper maps became less common. Smartphone_sentence_275

Mobile gaming on smartphones greatly grew in popularity, allowing many people to use them in place of handheld game consoles, and some companies tried creating game console/phone hybrids based on phone hardware and software. Smartphone_sentence_276

People frequently have chosen not to get fixed-line telephone service in favor of smartphones. Smartphone_sentence_277

Music streaming apps and services have grown rapidly in popularity, serving the same use as listening to music stations on a terrestrial or satellite radio. Smartphone_sentence_278

Streaming video services are easily accessed via smartphone apps and can be used in place of watching television. Smartphone_sentence_279

People have often stopped wearing wristwatches in favor of checking the time on their smartphones, and many use the clock features on their phones in place of alarm clocks. Smartphone_sentence_280

Additionally, in many lesser technologically developed regions smartphones are people's first and only means of Internet access due to their portability, with personal computers being relatively uncommon outside of business use. Smartphone_sentence_281

The cameras on smartphones can be used to photograph documents and send them via email or messaging in place of using fax (facsimile) machines. Smartphone_sentence_282

Payment apps and services on smartphones allow people to make less use of wallets, purses, credit and debit cards, and cash. Smartphone_sentence_283

Mobile banking apps can allow people to deposit checks simply by photographing them, eliminating the need to take the physical check to an ATM or teller. Smartphone_sentence_284

Guide book apps can take the place of paper travel and restaurant/business guides, museum brochures, and dedicated audio guide equipment. Smartphone_sentence_285

Criticism and issues Smartphone_section_37

Social impacts Smartphone_section_38

Main article: Problematic smartphone use Smartphone_sentence_286

In 2012, University of Southern California study found that unprotected adolescent sexual activity was more common among owners of smartphones. Smartphone_sentence_287

A study conducted by the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's (RPI) Lighting Research Center (LRC) concluded that smartphones, or any backlit devices, can seriously affect sleep cycles. Smartphone_sentence_288

Some persons might become psychologically attached to smartphones resulting in anxiety when separated from the devices. Smartphone_sentence_289

A "smombie" (a combination of "smartphone" and "zombie") is a walking person using a smartphone and not paying attention as they walk, possibly risking an accident in the process, an increasing social phenomenon. Smartphone_sentence_290

The issue of slow-moving smartphone users led to the temporary creation of a "mobile lane" for walking in Chongqing, China. Smartphone_sentence_291

The issue of distracted smartphone users led the city of Augsburg, Germany to embed pedestrian traffic lights in the pavement. Smartphone_sentence_292

While driving Smartphone_section_39

Main articles: Mobile phones and driving safety and Texting while driving Smartphone_sentence_293

Mobile phone use while driving—including calling, text messaging, playing media, web browsing, gaming, using mapping apps or operating other phone features—is common but controversial, since it is widely considered dangerous due to what is known as distracted driving. Smartphone_sentence_294

Being distracted while operating a motor vehicle has been shown to increase the risk of accidents. Smartphone_sentence_295

In September 2010, the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) reported that 995 people were killed by drivers distracted by phones. Smartphone_sentence_296

In March 2011 a US insurance company, State Farm Insurance, announced the results of a study which showed 19% of drivers surveyed accessed the Internet on a smartphone while driving. Smartphone_sentence_297

Many jurisdictions prohibit the use of mobile phones while driving. Smartphone_sentence_298

In Egypt, Israel, Japan, Portugal and Singapore, both handheld and hands-free calling on a mobile phone (which uses a speakerphone) is banned. Smartphone_sentence_299

In other countries including the UK and France and in many US states, only the use of calling on handheld phones is banned, while hands-free use is permitted. Smartphone_sentence_300

A 2011 study reported that over 90% of college students surveyed text (initiate, reply or read) while driving. Smartphone_sentence_301

The scientific literature on the danger of driving while sending a text message from a mobile phone, or texting while driving, is limited. Smartphone_sentence_302

A simulation study at the University of Utah found a sixfold increase in distraction-related accidents when texting. Smartphone_sentence_303

Due to the complexity of smartphones that began to grow more after, this has introduced additional difficulties for law enforcement officials when attempting to distinguish one usage from another in drivers using their devices. Smartphone_sentence_304

This is more apparent in countries which ban both handheld and hands-free usage, rather than those which ban handheld use only, as officials cannot easily tell which function of the phone is being used simply by looking at the driver. Smartphone_sentence_305

This can lead to drivers being stopped for using their device illegally for a call when, in fact, they were using the device legally, for example, when using the phone's incorporated controls for car stereo, GPS or satnav. Smartphone_sentence_306

A 2010 study reviewed the incidence of phone use while cycling and its effects on behavior and safety. Smartphone_sentence_307

In 2013 a national survey in the US reported the number of drivers who reported using their phones to access the Internet while driving had risen to nearly one of four. Smartphone_sentence_308

A study conducted by the University of Vienna examined approaches for reducing inappropriate and problematic use of mobile phones, such as using phones while driving. Smartphone_sentence_309

Accidents involving a driver being distracted by being in a call on a phone have begun to be prosecuted as negligence similar to speeding. Smartphone_sentence_310

In the United Kingdom, from 27 February 2007, motorists who are caught using a handheld phone while driving will have three penalty points added to their license in addition to the fine of £60. Smartphone_sentence_311

This increase was introduced to try to stem the increase in drivers ignoring the law. Smartphone_sentence_312

Japan prohibits all use of phones while driving, including use of hands-free devices. Smartphone_sentence_313

New Zealand has banned handheld phone use since 1 November 2009. Smartphone_sentence_314

Many states in the United States have banned text messaging on phones while driving. Smartphone_sentence_315

Illinois became the 17th American state to enforce this law. Smartphone_sentence_316

As of July 2010, 30 states had banned texting while driving, with Kentucky becoming the most recent addition on July 15. Smartphone_sentence_317

Public Health Law Research maintains a list of distracted driving laws in the United States. Smartphone_sentence_318

This database of laws provides a comprehensive view of the provisions of laws that restrict the use of mobile devices while driving for all 50 states and the District of Columbia between 1992, when first law was passed through December 1, 2010. Smartphone_sentence_319

The dataset contains information on 22 dichotomous, continuous or categorical variables including, for example, activities regulated (e.g., texting versus talking, hands-free versus handheld calls, web browsing, gaming), targeted populations, and exemptions. Smartphone_sentence_320

Legal Smartphone_section_40

Main article: Smartphone wars Smartphone_sentence_321

A "patent war" between Samsung and Apple started when the latter claimed that the original Galaxy S Android phone copied the interface‍—‌and possibly the hardware‍—‌of Apple's iOS for the iPhone 3GS. Smartphone_sentence_322

There was also smartphone patents licensing and litigation involving Sony Mobile, Google, Apple Inc., Samsung, Microsoft, Nokia, Motorola, HTC, Huawei and ZTE, among others. Smartphone_sentence_323

The conflict is part of the wider "patent wars" between multinational technology and software corporations. Smartphone_sentence_324

To secure and increase market share, companies granted a patent can sue to prevent competitors from using the methods the patent covers. Smartphone_sentence_325

Since the 2010s the number of lawsuits, counter-suits, and trade complaints based on patents and designs in the market for smartphones, and devices based on smartphone OSes such as Android and iOS, has increased significantly. Smartphone_sentence_326

Initial suits, countersuits, rulings, license agreements, and other major events began in 2009 as the smartphone market stated to grow more rapidly by 2012. Smartphone_sentence_327

Medical Smartphone_section_41

Main article: Mobile app Smartphone_sentence_328

With the rise in number of mobile medical apps in the market place, government regulatory agencies raised concerns on the safety of the use of such applications. Smartphone_sentence_329

These concerns were transformed into regulation initiatives worldwide with the aim of safeguarding users from untrusted medical advice. Smartphone_sentence_330

According to the findings of these medical experts in recent years, excessive smartphone use in society may lead to headaches, sleep disorders and insufficient sleep, while severe smartphone addiction may lead to physical health problems, such as hunchback, muscle relaxation and uneven nutrition. Smartphone_sentence_331

Security Smartphone_section_42

Main articles: Mobile security, Malware, Mobile virus, and Media Transfer Protocol Smartphone_sentence_332

Smartphone malware is easily distributed through an insecure app store. Smartphone_sentence_333

Often, malware is hidden in pirated versions of legitimate apps, which are then distributed through third-party app stores. Smartphone_sentence_334

Malware risk also comes from what is known as an "update attack", where a legitimate application is later changed to include a malware component, which users then install when they are notified that the app has been updated. Smartphone_sentence_335

As well, one out of three robberies in 2012 in the United States involved the theft of a mobile phone. Smartphone_sentence_336

An online petition has urged smartphone makers to install kill switches in their devices. Smartphone_sentence_337

In 2014, Apple's "Find my iPhone" and Google's "Android Device Manager" can locate, disable, and wipe the data from phones that have been lost or stolen. Smartphone_sentence_338

With BlackBerry Protect in OS version 10.3.2, devices can be rendered unrecoverable to even BlackBerry's own Operating System recovery tools if incorrectly authenticated or dissociated from their account. Smartphone_sentence_339

Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks, codenamed Vault 7 and dated from 2013–2016, detail the capabilities of the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to perform electronic surveillance and cyber warfare, including the ability to compromise the operating systems of most smartphones (including iOS and Android). Smartphone_sentence_340

Guidelines for mobile device security were issued by NIST and many other organizations. Smartphone_sentence_341

For conducting a private, in-person meeting, at least one site recommends that the user switch the smartphone off and disconnect the battery. Smartphone_sentence_342

Sleep Smartphone_section_43

Main article: Electronic media and sleep Smartphone_sentence_343

Using smartphones late at night can disturb sleep, due to the blue light and brightly lit screen, which affects melatonin levels and sleep cycles. Smartphone_sentence_344

In an effort to alleviate these issues, "Night Mode" functionality to change the color temperature of a screen to a warmer hue based on the time of day to reduce the amount of blue light generated became available through several apps for Android and the f.lux software for jailbroken iPhones. Smartphone_sentence_345

iOS 9.3 integrated a similar, system-level feature known as "Night Shift." Smartphone_sentence_346

Several Android device manufacturers bypassed Google's initial reluctance to make Night Mode a standard feature in Android and included software for it on their hardware under varying names, before Android Oreo added it to the OS for compatible devices. Smartphone_sentence_347

It has also been theorized that for some users, addiction to use of their phones, especially before they go to bed, can result in "ego depletion." Smartphone_sentence_348

Many people also use their phones as alarm clocks, which can also lead to loss of sleep. Smartphone_sentence_349

See also Smartphone_section_44

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: