Snare drum

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Snare drum_table_infobox_0

Snare drumSnare drum_table_caption_0
Percussion instrumentSnare drum_header_cell_0_0_0
Other namesSnare drum_header_cell_0_1_0 Field drum, side drumSnare drum_cell_0_1_1
ClassificationSnare drum_header_cell_0_2_0 Snare drum_cell_0_2_1
Hornbostel–Sachs classificationSnare drum_header_cell_0_3_0 211.212.11

(Individual double-skin cylindrical drums, one skin used for playing)Snare drum_cell_0_3_1

DevelopedSnare drum_header_cell_0_4_0 13th centurySnare drum_cell_0_4_1
Related instrumentsSnare drum_header_cell_0_5_0

The snare drum or side drum is a percussion instrument that produces a sharp staccato sound when the head is struck with a drum stick, due to the use of a series of stiff wires held under tension against the lower skin. Snare drum_sentence_0

Snare drums are often used in orchestras, concert bands, marching bands, parades, drumlines, drum corps, and more. Snare drum_sentence_1

It is one of the central pieces in a drum set, a collection of percussion instruments designed to be played by a seated drummer and used in many genres of music. Snare drum_sentence_2

Snare drums are usually played with drum sticks, but other beaters such as the brush or the rute can be used to achieve different tones. Snare drum_sentence_3

The snare drum is a versatile and expressive percussion instrument due to its sensitivity and responsiveness. Snare drum_sentence_4

The sensitivity of the snare drum allows it to respond audibly to the softest strokes, even with a wire brush; as well, it can be used for complex rhythmic patterns and engaging solos at moderate volumes. Snare drum_sentence_5

Its high dynamic range allows the player to produce powerful accents with vigorous strokes and a thundering crack (120+ dB) when rimshot strokes are used. Snare drum_sentence_6

The snare drum originates from the tabor, a drum first used to accompany the flute. Snare drum_sentence_7

The tabor evolved into more modern versions, such as the kit snare, marching snare, tarol snare, and piccolo snare. Snare drum_sentence_8

Each type presents a different style of percussion and size. Snare drum_sentence_9

The snare drum that one might see in a popular music concert is usually used in a backbeat style to create rhythm. Snare drum_sentence_10

In marching bands, it can do the same but is used mostly for a front beat. Snare drum_sentence_11

In comparison with the marching snare, the kit snare is generally smaller in length, while the piccolo is the smallest of the three. Snare drum_sentence_12

The snare drum is easily recognizable by its loud cracking sound when struck firmly with a drumstick or mallet. Snare drum_sentence_13

The depth of the sound varies from snare to snare because of the different techniques and construction qualities of the drum. Snare drum_sentence_14

Some of these qualities are head material and tension, dimensions, and rim and drum shell materials and construction. Snare drum_sentence_15

The snare drum is constructed of two heads—both usually made of Mylar plastic in modern drums but historically made from calf or goat skin—along with a rattle of metal, plastic, nylon, or gut wires on the bottom head called the snares. Snare drum_sentence_16

The wires can also be placed on the top, as in the tarol snare, or both heads as in the case of the Highland snare drum. Snare drum_sentence_17

The top head is typically called the batter head because that is where the drummer strikes it, while the bottom head is called the snare head because that is where the snares are located. Snare drum_sentence_18

The tension of each head is held constant by tension rods or ropes. Snare drum_sentence_19

Tension rod adjustment allows the pitch and tonal character of the drum to be customized by the player. Snare drum_sentence_20

The strainer is a lever that engages or disengages contact between the snares and the head, and allows snare tension adjustment. Snare drum_sentence_21

If the strainer is disengaged, the sound of the drum resembles a tom because the snares are inactive. Snare drum_sentence_22

The rim is the metal or wooden ring around the batter head that holds the head onto the drum and provides tension to the head, which can be used for a variety of things, although it is notably used to sound a piercing rimshot with the drumstick when the head and rim are struck together with a single stick. Snare drum_sentence_23

Playing Snare drum_section_0

The drum can be played by striking it with a drum stick or any other form of beater, including brushes, rute and hands, all of which produce a softer-sounding vibration from the snare wires. Snare drum_sentence_24

When using a stick, the drummer may strike the head of the drum, the rim (counterhoop), or the shell. Snare drum_sentence_25

When the top head is struck, the bottom (resonant) head vibrates in tandem, which in turn stimulates the snares and produces a cracking sound. Snare drum_sentence_26

The snares can be thrown off (disengaged) with a lever on the strainer so that the drum produces a sound reminiscent of a tom-tom. Snare drum_sentence_27

Rimshots are a technique associated with snare drums in which the head and rim are struck simultaneously with one stick (or in orchestral concert playing, a stick placed on the head and the rim struck by the opposite stick). Snare drum_sentence_28

In contemporary and/or pop and rock music, where the snare drum is used as a part of a drum kit, many of the backbeats and accented notes on the snare drum are played as rimshots, due to the ever-increasing demand for their typical sharp and high-volume sound. Snare drum_sentence_29

A commonly used alternative way to play the snare drum is known as "cross-stick" or "side-stick". Snare drum_sentence_30

This is done by holding the tip of the drumstick against the drum head and striking the stick's other end (the butt) against the rim, using the hand to mute the head. Snare drum_sentence_31

This produces a dry high-pitched click, similar to a set of claves, and is especially common in Latin and jazz music. Snare drum_sentence_32

So-called "ghost notes" are very light "filler notes" played in between the backbeats in genres such as funk and rhythm and blues. Snare drum_sentence_33

The iconic drum roll is produced by alternately bouncing the sticks on the drum head, striving for a controlled rebound. Snare drum_sentence_34

A similar effect can be obtained by playing alternating double strokes on the drum, creating a double stroke roll, or very fast single strokes, creating a single stroke roll. Snare drum_sentence_35

The snares are a fundamental ingredient in the pressed (buzz) drum roll, as they help to blend together distinct strokes that are then perceived as a single, sustained sound. Snare drum_sentence_36

The snare drum is the first instrument to learn in preparing to play a full drum kit. Snare drum_sentence_37

Rudiments are sets of basic patterns often played on a snare drum. Snare drum_sentence_38

Construction Snare drum_section_1

Snare drums may be made from various wood, metal, acrylic, or composite, e.g., fiberglass materials. Snare drum_sentence_39

A typical diameter for snare drums is 14 in (36 cm). Snare drum_sentence_40

Marching snare drums are deeper (taller) in size than snare drums normally used for orchestral or drum kit purposes, often measuring 12 in deep (tall). Snare drum_sentence_41

Orchestral and drum kit snare drum shells are about 6 in (15 cm) deep. Snare drum_sentence_42

Piccolo snare drums are even shallower at about 3 in (7.6 cm) deep. Snare drum_sentence_43

Soprano, popcorn, and firecracker snare drums have diameters as small as 8 in (20 cm) and are often used for higher-pitched special effects. Snare drum_sentence_44

Most wooden snare drum shells are constructed in plies (layers) that are heat- and compression-moulded into a cylinder. Snare drum_sentence_45

Steam-bent shells consist of one ply of wood that is gradually rounded into a cylinder and glued at one seam. Snare drum_sentence_46

Reinforcement rings, so-called "re-rings", are often incorporated on the inside surface of the drum shell to keep it perfectly round. Snare drum_sentence_47

Segment shells are made of multiple stacks of segmented wood rings. Snare drum_sentence_48

The segments are glued together and rounded out by a lathe. Snare drum_sentence_49

Similarly, stave shells are constructed of vertically glued pieces of wood into a cylinder (much like a barrel) that is also rounded out by a lathe. Snare drum_sentence_50

Solid shells are constructed of one solid piece of hollowed wood. Snare drum_sentence_51

The heads or skins used are a batter head (the playing surface on the top of the drum) and a resonant (bottom) head. Snare drum_sentence_52

The resonant head is usually much thinner than the batter head and is not beaten while playing. Snare drum_sentence_53

Rather than calfskin, most modern drums use plastic (Mylar) skins of around 10 mils thickness, sometimes with multiple plies (usually two) of around 7 mils for the batter head. Snare drum_sentence_54

In addition, tone control rings or dots can be applied, either on the outer or inner surface of the head, to control overtones and ringing, and can be found positioned in the centre or close to the edge hoops or both. Snare drum_sentence_55

Resonant heads are usually only a few mils thick, to enable them to respond to the movement of the batter head as it is played. Snare drum_sentence_56

Pipe band requirements have led to the development of a Kevlar-based head, enabling very high tuning, thus producing a very high-pitched cracking snare sound. Snare drum_sentence_57

A new technique used to improve the sound quality during snare drum construction is symmetrical venting. Snare drum_sentence_58

In contrast to a standard single vent hole, air can easily travel through and around the instrument without getting caught. Snare drum_sentence_59

This rapid movement creates a smoother, stronger sound. Snare drum_sentence_60

History Snare drum_section_2

The snare drum seems to have descended from a medieval drum called the tabor, which was a drum with a single-gut snare strung across the bottom. Snare drum_sentence_61

It is a little bigger than a medium tom and was first used in war, often played with a fife (pipe); the player would play both the fife and drum (see also Pipe and tabor). Snare drum_sentence_62

Tabors were not always double-headed and not all may have had snares. Snare drum_sentence_63

By the 15th century, the size of the snare drum had increased and had a cylindrical shape. Snare drum_sentence_64

This simple drum with a simple snare became popular with the Swiss mercenary troops who used the fife and drum from the 15th to 16th centuries. Snare drum_sentence_65

The drum was made deeper and carried along the side of the body. Snare drum_sentence_66

Further developments appeared in the 17th century, with the use of screws to hold down the snares, giving a brighter sound than the rattle of a loose snare. Snare drum_sentence_67

During the 18th century, the snare drum underwent changes which improved its characteristic sound. Snare drum_sentence_68

Metal snares appeared in the 20th century. Snare drum_sentence_69

Today the snare drum is used in jazz, pop music and modern orchestral music. Snare drum_sentence_70

Much of the development of the snare drum and its rudiments is closely tied to the use of the snare drum in the military. Snare drum_sentence_71

In his book, The Art of Snare Drumming, Sanford A. Moeller (of the "Moeller Method" of drumming) states, "To acquire a knowledge of the true nature of the [snare] drum, it is absolutely necessary to study military drumming, for it is essentially a military instrument and its true character cannot be brought out with an incorrect method. Snare drum_sentence_72

When a composer wants a martial effect, he instinctively turns to the drums." Snare drum_sentence_73

Before the advent of radio and electronic communications, the snare drum was often used to communicate orders to soldiers. Snare drum_sentence_74

American troops were woken up by drum and fife playing about five minutes of music, for example, the well-known Three Camps. Snare drum_sentence_75

Troops were called for meals by certain drum pieces, such as "Peas on a Trencher" or "Roast Beef". Snare drum_sentence_76

A piece called the "Tattoo" was used to signal that all soldiers should be in their tent, and the "Fatigue Call" was used to police the quarters or drum unruly women out of the camp. Snare drum_sentence_77

Many of these military pieces required a thorough grounding in rudimental drumming; indeed Moeller states that: "They [the rudimental drummers] were the only ones who could do it [play the military camp duty pieces]". Snare drum_sentence_78

Moeller furthermore states that "No matter how well a drummer can read, if he does not know the rudimental system of drumming, it is impossible for him to play 'The Three Camps,' 'Breakfast Call,' or in fact any of the Duty except the simple beats such as 'The Troop'." Snare drum_sentence_79

During the late 18th and 19th century, the military bugle largely supplanted the snare and fife for signals. Snare drum_sentence_80

Most modern militaries and scouting groups use the bugle alone to make bugle calls that announce scheduled and unscheduled events of the organization (from First Call to Taps). Snare drum_sentence_81

While most modern military signals use only the bugle, the snare is still retained for some signals, for example, the Adjutant's Call. Snare drum_sentence_82

Snare drumheads were originally made from calfskin. Snare drum_sentence_83

The invention of the plastic (Mylar) drumhead is credited to a drummer named Marion "Chick" Evans, who made the first plastic drumhead in 1956. Snare drum_sentence_84

Drum rudiments seem to have developed with the snare drum; the Swiss fife and drum groups are sometimes credited with their invention. Snare drum_sentence_85

The first written rudiment was drawn up in Basel, Switzerland in 1610. Snare drum_sentence_86

Rudiments with familiar names—such as the single paradiddle, flam, drag, ratamacue, and double stroke roll, also called the "ma-ma da-da" roll—are listed in Charles Ashworth's book in 1812. Snare drum_sentence_87

Definitions Snare drum_section_3

Snare drum_unordered_list_0

  • Military drum/field drum: a snare drum with a diameter of 14–16 in and 9–16 in deep, with a wood or metal shell and the two heads stretched by tensioning screws. It has a snare-release lever to activate or deactivate a minimum of eight metal, gut, or plastic snares. The term came into use in 1837 with the invention of the tensioning-screw mechanism. While it frequently placed on a stand, it can also be played without the stand, screws and the lever in marching configuration. Also called a Tamburo Militare in Italian, a Militäre-Trommel in German, a Tambor in Spanish, a Tamboer in Dutch or a Tambour Militaire or Tambour D'ordonannce in French, or uncommonly a Street Drum in English.Snare drum_item_0_0
  • Side drum: a common British and Scottish Highlands term for a snare drum. Also known as a Piccolo Cassa or Tamburo Piccolo in Italian, Kleine-Trommel in German, Caja in Spanish, or Caisse Claire in French. Refers commonly to an orchestral snare drum in America, while in the Commonwealth it refers to a marching snare.Snare drum_item_0_1
  • Tabor: a large drum with a single snare on the batter head used in the Middle Ages and sometimes called for in orchestral repertoire. Also known as a Tenor Drum, a Tamburello in Italian, a Tamburin in German, or a Tambourin Provençal in French. Not to be confused with the Scottish pipe band tenor drum which has no snare.Snare drum_item_0_2

Types Snare drum_section_4

There are many types of snare drums, for example: Snare drum_sentence_88

Snare drum_unordered_list_1

  • Marching snare ("regular" and "high tension")Snare drum_item_1_3

Marching snares are typically 12 in (30 cm) deep and 14 in (36 cm) wide. Snare drum_sentence_89

The larger design allows for a deeper-sounding tone, one that is effective for marching bands. Snare drum_sentence_90

Many marching snares are built to withstand high amounts of tension, tightened by a drum key. Snare drum_sentence_91

They are played with most of the time with a heavier and thicker stick, more commonly referred to as "marching sticks". Snare drum_sentence_92

Snares are often nylon or gut. Snare drum_sentence_93

Snare drum_unordered_list_2

  • Pipe Band SnareSnare drum_item_2_4

Similar to a marching snare, pipe band snares are deep and tuned quite tightly. Snare drum_sentence_94

The major difference is that they feature a second set of snare wires beneath the batter head, along with the normal set on the resonant head. Snare drum_sentence_95

This gives them an even more crisp and snappy sound. Snare drum_sentence_96

Snare drummers form an integral part of pipe bands, accompanying the bagpipes, and playing music written to fit the pipe tunes. Snare drum_sentence_97

A bass drummer and several tenor drummers, who also perform visual representations of the music, known as flourishing, add to the percussion section of a pipe band. Snare drum_sentence_98

The music played by pipe band snare drummers can be technically difficult, and requires a high degree of rudimental ability, similar to that of marching bands. Snare drum_sentence_99

Pipe Band snare normally use the traditional grip. Snare drum_sentence_100

Snare drum_unordered_list_3

  • Drum kit snareSnare drum_item_3_5

Drum kit snares are usually about a third to half the depth of a marching snare. Snare drum_sentence_101

They are typically 14 in (36 cm) in diameter and 5, 5 ⁄2, 6, 6 ⁄2 or 7 in (13, 14, 15, 17 or 18 cm), with 8 in (20 cm) depths also available. Snare drum_sentence_102

Typically uses coiled metal snare wires. Snare drum_sentence_103

Snare drum_unordered_list_4

  • Piccolo snareSnare drum_item_4_6

The piccolo snare is a type of snare used by drummers seeking a higher-pitched sound from their snare. Snare drum_sentence_104

Because the piccolo snare has a narrower depth than that of the marching snare or set snare, a higher-pitched "pop" is more widely associated with it. Snare drum_sentence_105

Although the piccolo snare has a more distinctive, unique sound, it has some downsides. Snare drum_sentence_106

Because of the "sharper" sound of the piccolo, its sound travels further and is picked up by microphones further away during recording, making it difficult to record effectively. Snare drum_sentence_107

There are many kinds of piccolo snare which can be piccolos, including the popcorn, soprano and standard snares. Snare drum_sentence_108

Popcorn snares typically have a diameter of 10 in (25 cm), sopranos 12–13 in (30–33 cm), and standard piccolos 14 in (36 cm). Snare drum_sentence_109

A well-known user of the piccolo snare is Neil Peart, the drummer of Rush, who has used a 13 in (33 cm) X Shell Series Piccolo. Snare drum_sentence_110

Snare drum_unordered_list_5

  • Orchestral SnareSnare drum_item_5_7

Orchestral snare drums usually conform to the dimensions of drum kit snares, but often have a calf skin head or a synthetic approximation of a natural head material. Snare drum_sentence_111

They also typically use snares made of metal cable, gut, synthetic cord, or nylon, with some orchestral snare strainers supporting 3 different materials simultaneously and the ability to tune each bundle of snare material independently. Snare drum_sentence_112

Snare drum_unordered_list_6

  • TaborSnare drum_item_6_8

The tabor snare dates back to around the 14th century, and was used for marching beats in wars. Snare drum_sentence_113

It is a double-headed drum with a single snare strand, and was often played along with the three-holed pipe flute. Snare drum_sentence_114

The dimensions vary with the different types of tabor. Snare drum_sentence_115

It is typically 4 ⁄2 in (11 cm) wide and around 11–13 in (28–33 cm) in diameter. Snare drum_sentence_116

Snare drum_unordered_list_7

  • TarolSnare drum_item_7_9

The tarol snare has similar dimensions to the kit snare. Snare drum_sentence_117

The major distinction is that the snares in this type are on the top head rather than the bottom one. Snare drum_sentence_118

Snare drum_unordered_list_8

  • Caixa malacachetaSnare drum_item_8_10

Meaning "box". Snare drum_sentence_119

This is a simple 12 or 14 in (30 or 36 cm) diameter, 8 in (20 cm) deep snare typical of Samba played in Southern Brasil. Snare drum_sentence_120

Made from aluminum or steel with the snare wires on top, it can be played from a sling or "encima" – on the shoulder to project the sound. Snare drum_sentence_121

Famous solo works Snare drum_section_5

Snare drum_unordered_list_9

  • "Three Dances for Solo Snare Drum" by Warren BensonSnare drum_item_9_11
  • "Trommel Suite" by Siegfried FinkSnare drum_item_9_12
  • "American Suite for Solo Snare Drum" by Guy Gauthreaux IISnare drum_item_9_13
  • "Prim" by Áskell MássonSnare drum_item_9_14
  • "March-Cadenza" by Gert MortensenSnare drum_item_9_15

Famous orchestral repertoire Snare drum_section_6

Snare drum_unordered_list_10

  • "Lieutenant Kije" by Sergei ProkofievSnare drum_item_10_16
  • "Scheherazade" by Rimsky-KorsakovSnare drum_item_10_17
  • "The Stars and Stripes Forever" by John Philip SousaSnare drum_item_10_18
  • "Bolero" by Maurice RavelSnare drum_item_10_19
  • "Polovetsian Dance" by Alexander BorodinSnare drum_item_10_20
  • "The Year 1905" by Dmitri ShostakovichSnare drum_item_10_21
  • "Concerto for Orchestra" by Béla BartókSnare drum_item_10_22
  • "Symphony no. 5" by Carl NielsenSnare drum_item_10_23

Method books Snare drum_section_7

Individual class Snare drum_section_8

Snare drum_unordered_list_11

  • Stick Control For Snare DrummerSnare drum_item_11_24
  • Alfred's Drum Method Book 1& 2Snare drum_item_11_25
  • Fundamental Studies for Snare DrumSnare drum_item_11_26
  • A Fresh Approach to the Snare DrumSnare drum_item_11_27
  • Portraits in RhythmSnare drum_item_11_28
  • 12 Studies for Snare DrumSnare drum_item_11_29
  • Basic DrummingSnare drum_item_11_30
  • All American DrummerSnare drum_item_11_31
  • Snare Drum Method Books I and IISnare drum_item_11_32
  • Modern School for Snare DrumSnare drum_item_11_33
  • Syncopation for the Modern DrummerSnare drum_item_11_34
  • A New and Improved Method for Drum BeatingSnare drum_item_11_35
  • Martial Instructor in MusicSnare drum_item_11_36
  • The Art of Snare DrummingSnare drum_item_11_37
  • Trumpet and DrumSnare drum_item_11_38
  • Drummer's InstructorSnare drum_item_11_39
  • New and Improved Instructor for the DrumSnare drum_item_11_40
  • Snare Drum Method for Band and OrchestraSnare drum_item_11_41
  • Rebounds and AccentsSnare drum_item_11_42
  • Wrist and Finger ControlSnare drum_item_11_43
  • Encyclopedia RudimentiaSnare drum_item_11_44
  • Stick TechniqueSnare drum_item_11_45
  • Trommel SchuleSnare drum_item_11_46
  • Rudimental CookbookSnare drum_item_11_47
  • 14 Contest SolosSnare drum_item_11_48
  • Ziggadabuzz and Other Things To Play on Snare DrumSnare drum_item_11_49
  • Modern Swing Solos for the Advanced DrummerSnare drum_item_11_50
  • Rolls Rolls RollsSnare drum_item_11_51

Group class Snare drum_section_9

Snare drum_unordered_list_12

  • Essential Elements for bandSnare drum_item_12_52
  • Accent on AchievementSnare drum_item_12_53
  • Tradition of ExcellenceSnare drum_item_12_54
  • THE YAMAHA ADVANTAGESnare drum_item_12_55
  • Standard of ExcellenceSnare drum_item_12_56
  • Sound InnovationsSnare drum_item_12_57
  • Standard of Excellence "Festival Solo"Snare drum_item_12_58
  • Foundations for Superior Performance PercussionSnare drum_item_12_59
  • Firth-Feldstein Percussion Series "Snare Drum---including Bass Drum"Snare drum_item_12_60
  • Primary Handbook for Snare DrumSnare drum_item_12_61
  • 1st Recital Series for Snare DrumSnare drum_item_12_62

Popular brands Snare drum_section_10

Snare drum_unordered_list_13

  • LudwigSnare drum_item_13_63
  • SlingerlandSnare drum_item_13_64
  • LeedySnare drum_item_13_65
  • AndanteSnare drum_item_13_66
  • Pearl DrumsSnare drum_item_13_67
  • PremierSnare drum_item_13_68
  • DWSnare drum_item_13_69
  • GretschSnare drum_item_13_70
  • MapexSnare drum_item_13_71
  • RemoSnare drum_item_13_72
  • RogersSnare drum_item_13_73
  • TamaSnare drum_item_13_74
  • Brady Drum CompanySnare drum_item_13_75
  • YamahaSnare drum_item_13_76
  • SonorSnare drum_item_13_77
  • FibesSnare drum_item_13_78
  • Angel DrumsSnare drum_item_13_79
  • PACIFIC DRUMS/PDPSnare drum_item_13_80

See also Snare drum_section_11

Snare drum_unordered_list_14

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: drum.