Social Democratic Party of Germany

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This article is about the political party in Germany. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_0

For the party in Poland, see German Social Democratic Party (Poland). Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_1

For other uses, see SPD (disambiguation). Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_2

Social Democratic Party of Germany_table_infobox_0

Social Democratic Party of Germany

Sozialdemokratische Partei DeutschlandsSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_0_0

AbbreviationSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_1_0 SPDSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_1_1
LeaderSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_2_0 Saskia Esken

Norbert Walter-BorjansSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_2_1

General SecretarySocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_3_0 Lars KlingbeilSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_3_1
Deputy LeadersSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_4_0 Klara Geywitz

Hubertus Heil Kevin Kühnert Serpil Midyatli Anke RehlingerSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_4_1

FoundedSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_5_0 23 May 1863 (157 years ago) (1863-05-23)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_5_1
Merger ofSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_6_0 General German Workers' Association

Social Democratic Workers' Party of GermanySocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_6_1

HeadquartersSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_7_0 Willy-Brandt-Haus D-10911 Berlin, GermanySocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_7_1
NewspaperSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_8_0 VorwärtsSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_8_1
Student wingSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_9_0 Juso-HochschulgruppenSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_9_1
Youth wingSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_10_0 JusosSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_10_1
Women's wingSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_11_0 Association of Social Democratic WomenSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_11_1
Paramilitary wingSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_12_0 Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold (1924–1933)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_12_1
Membership (December 2019)Social Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_13_0 419,300Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_13_1
IdeologySocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_14_0 Social democracySocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_14_1
Political positionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_15_0 Centre-leftSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_15_1
European affiliationSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_16_0 Party of European SocialistsSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_16_1
International affiliationSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_17_0 Progressive AllianceSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_17_1
European Parliament groupSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_18_0 Progressive Alliance of Socialists and DemocratsSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_18_1
ColoursSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_19_0 RedSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_19_1
BundestagSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_20_0 152 / 709Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_20_1
BundesratSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_21_0 21 / 69Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_21_1
State ParliamentsSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_22_0 465 / 1,868Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_22_1
European ParliamentSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_23_0 16 / 96Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_23_1
Ministers-president of statesSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_24_0 7 / 16Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_0_24_1
Party flagSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_25_0
WebsiteSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_0_26_0

The Social Democratic Party of Germany (German: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD; [zoˈtsi̯aːldemoˌkʁaːtɪʃə paʁˌtaɪ ˈdɔʏtʃlants) is a social-democratic political party in Germany. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_3

It is one of the two major contemporary political parties in Germany along with the Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU). Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_4

Established in 1863, the SPD is by far the oldest existing political party represented in the Bundestag and was one of the first Marxist-influenced parties in the world. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_5

From the 1890s through the early 20th century, the SPD was Europe's largest Marxist party and was consistently the most popular party in Germany. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_6

During the First World War, the party split between a pro-war mainstream and the anti-war Independent Social Democratic Party, of which some members went on to form the Communist Party of Germany (KPD). Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_7

The SPD played a leading role in the German Revolution of 1918–1919 and was chiefly responsible for the foundation of the Weimar Republic. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_8

SPD politician Friedrich Ebert served as the first President of Germany and the SPD was the strongest party until 1932. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_9

After the rise of the Nazi Party to power, it was banned in 1933 and operated in exile as the Sopade. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_10

After the Second World War, the SPD was re-established. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_11

In East Germany, it unwillingly merged with the KPD to form the Socialist Unity Party of Germany. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_12

In West Germany, the SPD became one of two major parties alongside the CDU/CSU. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_13

In the Godesberg Program, the SPD dropped its commitment to Marxism, becoming a big tent party of the centre-left. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_14

The SPD led the federal government from 1969 to 1982 and again from 1998 to 2005. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_15

It served as a junior partner to the CDU/CSU from 1966 to 1969, 2005 to 2009 and again since 2013. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_16

Saskia Esken and Norbert Walter-Borjans have been the party's leaders since the 2019 leadership election. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_17

It is the second-largest party in the Bundestag with 152 out of 709 seats, having won 20.5% of votes cast at the 2017 federal election. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_18

The SPD is a junior member of the federal government along with the CDU/CSU which was first formed after the 2013 election and renewed in 2017. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_19

The SPD is a member of 11 of the 16 German state governments and is a leading partner in seven of them. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_20

The SPD is a member of the Party of European Socialists and sits with the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats group in the European Parliament. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_21

With 16 MEPs, it is the third largest party in the group. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_22

The SPD was a founding member of the Socialist International, but the party left in 2013 after criticising its acceptance of authoritarian parties. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_23

The SPD subsequently founded the Progressive Alliance and was joined by numerous other parties around the world. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_24

Previously, the SPD was a founding member of both the Second International and the Labour and Socialist International. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_25

History Social Democratic Party of Germany_section_0

Main article: History of the Social Democratic Party of Germany Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_26

The SPD finds its origins in the General German Workers' Association, founded in 1863, and the Social Democratic Workers' Party, founded in 1869. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_27

The two groups merged in 1875 to create the Socialist Workers' Party of Germany (Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands). Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_28

From 1878 to 1890, the Anti-Socialist Laws banned any grouping or meeting that aimed at spreading socialist principles, but the party still gained support in elections. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_29

In 1890, when the ban was lifted and it could again present electoral lists, the party adopted its current name. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_30

The SPD was the largest Marxist party in Europe and consistently the most popular party in German federal elections from 1890 onwards, although it was surpassed by other parties in terms of seats won in the Reichstag due to the electoral system. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_31

In the years leading up to World War I, the SPD remained ideologically radical in official principle, although many party officials tended to moderation in everyday politics. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_32

According to Roger Eatwell and Anthony Wright, the SPD became a party of reform, with social democracy representing "a party that strives after the socialist transformation of society by the means of democratic and economic reforms". Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_33

They emphasise this development as central to understanding 20th-century social democracy, of which the SPD was a major influence. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_34

In the 1912 federal election, the SPD won 34.8% of votes and finally became the largest party in the Reichstag with 110 seats, although it was still excluded from government. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_35

Despite the Second International's agreement to oppose militarism, the SPD supported the German war effort and adopted Burgfriedenspolitik, refraining from calling strikes or criticising the government. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_36

Internal opposition to the policy grew throughout the war. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_37

Anti-war members were expelled in 1916 and 1917, leading to the formation of the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD). Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_38

The SPD played a key role in the German Revolution of 1918–1919. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_39

On 9 November 1918, leading SPD member Friedrich Ebert was appointed Chancellor and fellow Social Democrat Philipp Scheidemann proclaimed Germany a republic. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_40

The government introduced a large number of reforms in the following months, introducing various civil liberties and labor rights. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_41

The SPD government, committed to parliamentary liberal democracy, utilised military force against uprisings involving more radical communist groups, leading to a permanent split between the SPD and the USPD (later the Communist Party of Germany). Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_42

The SPD was the largest party during the first 13 years of the new Weimar Republic. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_43

It decisively won the 1919 federal election with 37.9% of votes, and Ebert became the first President in February. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_44

The position of Chancellor was held by Social Democrats until the 1920 federal election, when the SPD lost a substantial portion of its support, falling to 22% of votes. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_45

After this, the SPD yielded the Chancellery to other parties, although it remained part of the government until 1924. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_46

Ebert died in 1925 and was succeeded by conservative Paul von Hindenburg. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_47

After making gains in the 1928 federal election, the SPD's Hermann Müller became Chancellor. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_48

Germany was struck hard by the Great Depression and, unable to negotiate an effective response to the crisis, Müller resigned in 1930. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_49

The SPD was politically sidelined as the Nazi Party gained popularity and conservatives dominated the government, assisted by President von Hindenburg's frequent use of emergency powers. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_50

The Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold, the SPD's paramilitary wing, was frequently involved in violent confrontations with the Nazi Sturmabteilung. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_51

The Nazis overtook the SPD as the largest party in July 1932 and Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor in January 1933. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_52

Of the parties present in the Reichstag during the passage of the Enabling Act of 1933, the SPD was the only one to vote against; most of the Communist deputies had been arrested ahead of the vote. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_53

The SPD was formally banned in June. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_54

Many members were subsequently imprisoned and killed by the Nazi government while others fled the country. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_55

In exile, the party used the name Sopade. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_56

After the end of World War II, the re-establishment of the SPD was permitted in the Western occupation zones in 1945. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_57

In the Soviet occupation zone, the SPD was forcibly merged with the Communist Party in 1946 to form the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED). Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_58

The SED became the ruling party of East Germany until 1989. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_59

In West Germany, the SPD became one of two major parties, alongside the Christian Democratic Union (CDU). Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_60

In the inaugural 1949 federal election, it placed second with 29.2% of votes and led the opposition to the CDU government. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_61

In its 1959 Godesberg Program, the party dropped its commitment to Marxism and sought to appeal to middle-class voters, becoming a big tent party of the centre-left. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_62

After 17 years in opposition, the SPD became the junior partner in a grand coalition with the CDU/CSU which lasted from 1966 to 1969. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_63

After the 1969 federal election, the SPD's Willy Brandt became Chancellor in a coalition with the liberal Free Democratic Party (FDP). Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_64

His government sought to normalise relations with East Germany and the Eastern Bloc, a policy known as Ostpolitik. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_65

The party achieved its best ever result of 45.8% in 1972, one of only three occasions in which it formed the largest Bundestag faction. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_66

After Brandt's resignation in 1974, his successor Helmut Schmidt served as Chancellor until 1982, when the SPD returned to opposition. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_67

During the Peaceful Revolution in East Germany, the East German SPD was refounded. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_68

It merged with the West German party in 1990, shortly before German reunification. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_69

The SPD returned to government under Gerhard Schröder after the 1998 federal election in a coalition with The Greens. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_70

This government was re-elected in 2002, but defeated in 2005. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_71

The SPD then became junior partner of a grand coalition with the CDU/CSU until 2009. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_72

After a term in opposition, they again served as junior partner to the CDU/CSU from 2013 federal election. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_73

This arrangement was renewed after the 2017 federal election. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_74

Party platform Social Democratic Party of Germany_section_1

The SPD was established as a Marxist party in 1875. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_75

However, the Social Democrats underwent a major shift in policies reflected in the differences between the Heidelberg Program of 1925 which called for "the transformation of the capitalist system of private ownership of the means of production to social ownership" and the Godesberg Program of 1959 which aimed to broaden its voter base and move its political position toward the centre. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_76

After World War II, the SPD under the leadership of Kurt Schumacher re-established itself as a socialist party representing the interests of the working class and the trade unions. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_77

With the Godesberg Program, the party evolved from a socialist working-class party to a modern social-democratic party working within liberal capitalism. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_78

The SPD's latest Hamburg Programme of 2007 describes democratic socialism as "an order of economy, state and society in which the civil, political, social and economic fundamental rights are guaranteed for all people, all people live a life without exploitation, oppression and violence, that is in social and human security" and as a "vision of a free, just and solidary society", the realization of which is emphasized as a "permanent task". Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_79

Social democracy serves as the "principle of action". Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_80

The current party platform of the SPD espouses the goal of social democracy, which is seen as a vision of a societal arrangement in which freedom and social justice are paramount. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_81

According to the party platform, freedom, justice and social solidarity form the basis of social democracy. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_82

The coordinated social market economy should be strengthened and its output should be distributed fairly. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_83

The party sees that economic system as necessary in order to ensure the affluence of the entire population. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_84

The SPD also tries to protect the society's poor with a welfare state. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_85

Concurrently, it advocates a sustainable fiscal policy that does not place a burden on future generations while eradicating budget deficits. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_86

In social policy, the Social Democrats stand for civil and political rights in an open society. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_87

In foreign policy, the party aims at ensuring global peace by balancing global interests with democratic means and European integration is one of the main priorities of the party. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_88

The SPD supports economic regulations to limit potential losses for banks and people. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_89

They support a common European economic and financial policy and to prevent speculative bubbles as well as environmentally sustainable growth. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_90

Internal factions Social Democratic Party of Germany_section_2

The SPD is mostly composed of members belonging to either of the two main wings, namely the Keynesian social democrats and Third Way 'moderate' social democrats belonging to the Seeheimer Kreis. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_91

While the more moderate Seeheimer Kreis generally support the Agenda 2010 programs introduced by Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, the Keynesian social democrats continue to defend classical left-wing policies and the welfare state. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_92

The classical left-wing of the SPD claims that in recent years the welfare state has been curtailed through reform programs such as the Agenda 2010, Hartz IV and the more economic liberal stance of the SPD which were endorsed by centrist social democrats. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_93

As a reaction to the Agenda 2010, there was in 2005 the ascension of an inner party dissident movement which led ultimately to the foundation of the new party Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative (Arbeit & soziale Gerechtigkeit – Die Wahlalternative, WASG). Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_94

The WASG was later merged into The Left (Die Linke) in 2007. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_95

Base of support Social Democratic Party of Germany_section_3

Social structure Social Democratic Party of Germany_section_4

Before World War II, as the main non-revolutionary left-wing party the Social Democrats fared best among non-Catholic workers as well as intellectuals favouring social progressive causes and increased economic equality. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_96

Led by Kurt Schumacher after World War II, the SPD initially opposed both the social market economy and Konrad Adenauer's drive towards Western integration fiercely, but after Schumacher's death it accepted the social market economy and Germany's position in the Western alliance in order to appeal to a broader range of voters. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_97

It still remains associated with the economic causes of unionised employees and working class voters. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_98

In the 1990s, the left and moderate wings of the party drifted apart, culminating in a secession of a significant number of party members which later joined the socialist party WASG, which later merged into The Left (Die Linke). Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_99

Geographic distribution Social Democratic Party of Germany_section_5

Geographically, much of the SPD's current-day support comes from large cities, especially of northern and western Germany and Berlin. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_100

As of 2019, 10 of the country's 15 biggest cities are led by SPD mayors. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_101

The metropolitan area of the Ruhr Area, where coal mining and steel production were once the biggest sources of revenues, have provided a significant base for the SPD in the 20th century. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_102

In the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, the SPD has governed without interruption since 1949. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_103

In southern Germany, the SPD typically garners less support except in the largest cities. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_104

At the 2009 federal election, the party lost its only constituency in the entire state of Bavaria (in Munich). Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_105

Small town and rural support comes especially from the traditionally Protestant areas of northern Germany and Brandenburg (with notable exceptions such as Western Pomerania where CDU leader Angela Merkel has her constituency) and a number of university towns. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_106

A striking example of the general pattern is the traditionally Catholic Emsland, where the Social Democrats generally gain a low percentage of votes, whereas the Reformed Protestant region of East Frisia directly to the north, with its strong traditional streak of anti-Catholicism, is one of their strongest constituencies. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_107

Further south, the SPD also enjoys solid support in northern Hesse, parts of Palatinate and the Saarland. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_108

The social democrats are weakest in the south-eastern states of Bavaria, Saxony and Thuringia, where the party's percentage of votes dropped to single-digit figures in the 2018 and 2019 elections. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_109

Election results Social Democratic Party of Germany_section_6

General German elections Social Democratic Party of Germany_section_7

The SPD, at times called SAPD, participated in general elections determining the members of parliament. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_110

For the elections until 1933, the parliament was called Reichstag, except of the one of 1919 which was called the National Assembly and since 1949 the parliament is called Bundestag. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_111

Note that changes in borders (1871, 1919, 1920, 1949, 1957 and 1990) varied the number of eligible voters whereas electoral laws also changed the ballot system (only constituencies until 1912, only party lists until 1949 and a mixed system thereafter), the suffrage (women vote since 1919; minimum active voting age was 25 till 1918, 20 till 1946, 21 till 1972 and 18 since), the number of seats (fixed or flexible) and the length of the legislative period (three or four years). Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_112

The list begins after the SPD was formed in 1875, when labour parties unified to only form the SPD (then SAPD, current name since 1890). Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_113

European Parliament Social Democratic Party of Germany_section_8

Social Democratic Party of Germany_table_general_1

Election yearSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_1_0_0 No. of

overall votesSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_1_0_1

% of

overall voteSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_1_0_2

No. of

overall seats wonSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_1_0_3

+/–Social Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_1_0_4
1979Social Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_1_1_0 11,370,045Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_1_1 40.8 (1st)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_1_2 33 / 81Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_1_3 Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_1_4
1984Social Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_1_2_0 9,296,417Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_2_1 37.4 (2nd)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_2_2 32 / 81Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_2_3 1Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_2_4
1989Social Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_1_3_0 10,525,728Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_3_1 37.3 (1st)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_3_2 30 / 81Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_3_3 2Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_3_4
1994Social Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_1_4_0 11,389,697Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_4_1 32.2 (1st)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_4_2 40 / 99Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_4_3 10Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_4_4
1999Social Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_1_5_0 8,307,085Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_5_1 30.7 (2nd)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_5_2 33 / 99Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_5_3 7Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_5_4
2004Social Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_1_6_0 5,547,971Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_6_1 21.5 (2nd)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_6_2 23 / 99Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_6_3 10Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_6_4
2009Social Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_1_7_0 5,472,566Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_7_1 20.8 (2nd)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_7_2 23 / 99Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_7_3 0Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_7_4
2014Social Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_1_8_0 7,999,955Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_8_1 27.2 (2nd)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_8_2 27 / 96Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_8_3 4Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_8_4
2019Social Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_1_9_0 5,914,953Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_9_1 15.8 (3rd)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_9_2 16 / 96Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_9_3 11Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_1_9_4

State Parliaments (Länder) Social Democratic Party of Germany_section_9

Social Democratic Party of Germany_table_general_2

State ParliamentSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_2_0_0 Election yearSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_2_0_1 No. of

overall votesSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_2_0_2

% of

overall voteSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_2_0_3

SeatsSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_2_0_4 GovernmentSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_2_0_7
No.Social Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_2_1_0 ±Social Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_2_1_1 PositionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_2_1_2
Baden-WürttembergSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_2_0 2016Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_2_1 679,872Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_2_2 12.7 (4th)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_2_3 19 / 143Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_2_4 16Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_2_5 4thSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_2_6 OppositionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_2_7
BavariaSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_3_0 2018Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_3_1 1,317,942Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_3_2 9.7 (5th)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_3_3 22 / 205Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_3_4 20Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_3_5 5thSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_3_6 OppositionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_3_7
BerlinSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_4_0 2016Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_4_1 352,369Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_4_2 21.6 (1st)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_4_3 38 / 160Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_4_4 10Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_4_5 1stSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_4_6 SPD–Left–GreensSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_4_7
BrandenburgSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_5_0 2019Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_5_1 331,238Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_5_2 26.2 (1st)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_5_3 25 / 88Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_5_4 5Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_5_5 1stSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_5_6 SPD–CDU–GreensSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_5_7
BremenSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_6_0 2019Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_6_1 365,315Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_6_2 24.9 (2nd)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_6_3 23 / 84Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_6_4 7Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_6_5 2ndSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_6_6 SPD–Greens–LeftSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_6_7
HamburgSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_7_0 2020Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_7_1 1,554,760Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_7_2 39.0 (1st)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_7_3 54 / 121Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_7_4 4Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_7_5 1stSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_7_6 SPD–GreensSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_7_7
HesseSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_8_0 2018Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_8_1 570,166Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_8_2 19.8 (3rd)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_8_3 29 / 137Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_8_4 8Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_8_5 3rdSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_8_6 OppositionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_8_7
Lower SaxonySocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_9_0 2017Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_9_1 1,413,990Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_9_2 36.9 (1st)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_9_3 55 / 137Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_9_4 6Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_9_5 1stSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_9_6 SPD–CDUSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_9_7
Mecklenburg-VorpommernSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_10_0 2016Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_10_1 246,393Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_10_2 30.6 (1st)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_10_3 28 / 71Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_10_4 2Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_10_5 1stSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_10_6 SPD–CDUSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_10_7
North Rhine-WestphaliaSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_11_0 2017Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_11_1 2,649,205Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_11_2 31.2 (2nd)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_11_3 69 / 199Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_11_4 30Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_11_5 2ndSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_11_6 OppositionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_11_7
Rhineland-PalatinateSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_12_0 2016Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_12_1 771,848Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_12_2 36.2 (1st)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_12_3 39 / 101Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_12_4 3Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_12_5 1stSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_12_6 SPD–FDP–GreensSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_12_7
SaarlandSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_13_0 2017Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_13_1 157,841Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_13_2 29.6 (2nd)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_13_3 17 / 51Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_13_4 0Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_13_5 2ndSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_13_6 CDU–SPDSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_13_7
SaxonySocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_14_0 2019Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_14_1 167,289Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_14_2 7.7 (5th)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_14_3 10 / 119Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_14_4 8Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_14_5 5thSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_14_6 CDU–SPD–GreensSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_14_7
Saxony-AnhaltSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_15_0 2016Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_15_1 119,377Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_15_2 10.6 (4th)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_15_3 11 / 87Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_15_4 15Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_15_5 4thSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_15_6 CDU–SPD–GreensSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_15_7
Schleswig-HolsteinSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_16_0 2017Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_16_1 400,635Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_16_2 27.2 (2nd)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_16_3 21 / 73Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_16_4 1Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_16_5 2ndSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_16_6 OppositionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_16_7
ThuringiaSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_17_0 2019Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_17_1 90,984Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_17_2 8.2 (4th)Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_17_3 8 / 90Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_17_4 4Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_17_5 4thSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_17_6 Left–SPD–GreensSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_2_17_7

Party leadership Social Democratic Party of Germany_section_10

The party is led by the Leader of the Social Democratic Party. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_114

They are supported by six Deputy Leaders and the party executive. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_115

The current leaders are Saskia Esken and Norbert Walter-Borjans. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_116

The previous leader was Andrea Nahles. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_117

She announced her pending resignation on 2 June 2019. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_118

As Germany is a federal republic, each of Germany's states have their own SPD party at the state level. Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_119

The current leaders of the SPD state parties are the following: Social Democratic Party of Germany_sentence_120

Social Democratic Party of Germany_table_general_3

StateSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_3_0_0 LeaderSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_3_0_1 SeatsSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_3_0_2 GovernmentSocial Democratic Party of Germany_header_cell_3_0_3
Baden-WürttembergSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_1_0 Andreas StochSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_1_1 19 / 143Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_1_2 In oppositionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_1_3
BavariaSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_2_0 Natascha KohnenSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_2_1 22 / 205Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_2_2 In oppositionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_2_3
BerlinSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_3_0 Michael MüllerSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_3_1 38 / 160Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_3_2 In coalitionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_3_3
BrandenburgSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_4_0 Dietmar WoidkeSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_4_1 30 / 88Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_4_2 In coalitionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_4_3
BremenSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_5_0 Sascha Karolin AuleppSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_5_1 30 / 83Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_5_2 In coalitionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_5_3
HamburgSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_6_0 Melanie LeonhardSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_6_1 51 / 121Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_6_2 In coalitionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_6_3
HesseSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_7_0 Thorsten Schäfer-GümbelSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_7_1 37 / 110Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_7_2 In oppositionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_7_3
Lower SaxonySocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_8_0 Stephan WeilSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_8_1 55 / 137Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_8_2 In coalitionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_8_3
Mecklenburg-VorpommernSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_9_0 Manuela SchwesigSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_9_1 26 / 71Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_9_2 In coalitionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_9_3
North Rhine-WestphaliaSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_10_0 Sebastian HartmannSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_10_1 69 / 199Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_10_2 In oppositionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_10_3
Rhineland-PalatinateSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_11_0 Roger LewentzSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_11_1 39 / 101Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_11_2 In coalitionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_11_3
SaarlandSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_12_0 Anke RehlingerSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_12_1 17 / 51Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_12_2 In coalitionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_12_3
SaxonySocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_13_0 Martin DuligSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_13_1 18 / 126Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_13_2 In coalitionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_13_3
Saxony-AnhaltSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_14_0 Burkhard LischkaSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_14_1 11 / 87Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_14_2 In coalitionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_14_3
Schleswig-HolsteinSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_15_0 Serpil MidyatliSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_15_1 21 / 73Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_15_2 In oppositionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_15_3
ThuringiaSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_16_0 Wolfgang TiefenseeSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_16_1 13 / 91Social Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_16_2 In coalitionSocial Democratic Party of Germany_cell_3_16_3

See also Social Democratic Party of Germany_section_11

Social Democratic Party of Germany_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social Democratic Party of Germany.