Social justice

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For the early-20th-century periodical, see Social Justice (periodical). Social justice_sentence_0

For the academic journal established in 1974, see Social Justice (journal). Social justice_sentence_1

Social justice is the relation of balance between individuals and society measured by comparing distribution of wealth differences, from personal liberties to fair privilege opportunities. Social justice_sentence_2

In Western as well as in older Asian cultures, the concept of social justice has often referred to the process of ensuring that individuals fulfill their societal roles and receive what was their due from society. Social justice_sentence_3

In the current global grassroots movements for social justice, the emphasis has been on the breaking of barriers for social mobility, the creation of safety nets and economic justice. Social justice_sentence_4

Social justice assigns rights and duties in the institutions of society, which enables people to receive the basic benefits and burdens of cooperation. Social justice_sentence_5

The relevant institutions often include taxation, social insurance, public health, public school, public services, labor law and regulation of markets, to ensure fair distribution of wealth, and equal opportunity. Social justice_sentence_6

Interpretations that relate justice to a reciprocal relationship to society are mediated by differences in cultural traditions, some of which emphasize the individual responsibility toward society and others the equilibrium between access to power and its responsible use. Social justice_sentence_7

Hence, social justice is invoked today while reinterpreting historical figures such as Bartolomé de las Casas, in philosophical debates about differences among human beings, in efforts for gender, ethnic, and social equality, for advocating justice for migrants, prisoners, the environment, and the physically and developmentally disabled. Social justice_sentence_8

While the concept of social justice can be traced through the theology of Augustine of Hippo and the philosophy of Thomas Paine, the term "social justice" became used explicitly in the 1780s. Social justice_sentence_9

A Jesuit priest named Luigi Taparelli is typically credited with coining the term, and it spread during the revolutions of 1848 with the work of Antonio Rosmini-Serbati. Social justice_sentence_10

However, recent research has proved that the use of the expression "social justice" is older (even before the 19th century). Social justice_sentence_11

In Anglo-America, the term appears in The Federalist Papers, No. Social justice_sentence_12

7: "We have observed the disposition to retaliation excited in Connecticut in consequence of the enormities perpetrated by the Legislature of Rhode Island; and we reasonably infer that, in similar cases, under other circumstances, a war, not of parchment, but of the sword, would chastise such atrocious breaches of moral obligation and social justice." Social justice_sentence_13

In the late industrial revolution, progressive American legal scholars began to use the term more, particularly Louis Brandeis and Roscoe Pound. Social justice_sentence_14

From the early 20th century it was also embedded in international law and institutions; the preamble to establish the International Labour Organization recalled that "universal and lasting peace can be established only if it is based upon social justice." Social justice_sentence_15

In the later 20th century, social justice was made central to the philosophy of the social contract, primarily by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice (1971). Social justice_sentence_16

In 1993, the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action treats social justice as a purpose of human rights education. Social justice_sentence_17

History Social justice_section_0

Main articles: Social contract, Justice, Corrective justice, and Distributive justice Social justice_sentence_18

The different concepts of justice, as discussed in ancient Western philosophy, were typically centered upon the community. Social justice_sentence_19

Social justice_unordered_list_0

  • Plato wrote in The Republic that it would be an ideal state that "every member of the community must be assigned to the class for which he finds himself best fitted." In an article for J.N.V University, author D.R. Bhandari says, "Justice is, for Plato, at once a part of human virtue and the bond, which joins man together in society. It is the identical quality that makes good and social. Justice is an order and duty of the parts of the soul, it is to the soul as health is to the body. Plato says that justice is not mere strength, but it is a harmonious strength. Justice is not the right of the stronger but the effective harmony of the whole. All moral conceptions revolve about the good of the whole-individual as well as social".Social justice_item_0_0
  • Plato believed rights existed only between free people, and the law should take "account in the first instance of relations of inequality in which individuals are treated in proportion to their worth and only secondarily of relations of equality." Reflecting this time when slavery and subjugation of women was typical, ancient views of justice tended to reflect the rigid class systems that still prevailed. On the other hand, for the privileged groups, strong concepts of fairness and the community existed. Distributive justice was said by Aristotle to require that people were distributed goods and assets according to their merit.Social justice_item_0_1

Social justice_unordered_list_1

  • Socrates (through Plato's dialogue Crito) is credited with developing the idea of a social contract, whereby people ought to follow the rules of a society, and accept its burdens because they have accepted its benefits. During the Middle Ages, religious scholars particularly, such as Thomas Aquinas continued discussion of justice in various ways, but ultimately connected being a good citizen to the purpose of serving God.Social justice_item_1_2

After the Renaissance and Reformation, the modern concept of social justice, as developing human potential, began to emerge through the work of a series of authors. Social justice_sentence_20

Baruch Spinoza in On the Improvement of the Understanding (1677) contended that the one true aim of life should be to acquire "a human character much more stable than [one's] own", and to achieve this "pitch of perfection... Social justice_sentence_21

The chief good is that he should arrive, together with other individuals if possible, at the possession of the aforesaid character." Social justice_sentence_22

During the enlightenment and responding to the French and American Revolutions, Thomas Paine similarly wrote in The Rights of Man (1792) society should give "genius a fair and universal chance" and so "the construction of government ought to be such as to bring forward... all that extent of capacity which never fails to appear in revolutions." Social justice_sentence_23

Although there is no certainty about the first use of the term "social justice", early sources can be found in Europe in the 18th century. Social justice_sentence_24

Some references to the use of the expression are in articles of journals aligned with the spirit of the Enlightenment, in which social justice is described as an obligation of the monarch; also the term is present in books written by Catholic Italian theologians, notably members of the Society of Jesus. Social justice_sentence_25

Thus, according to this sources and the context, social justice was another term for "the justice of society", the justice that rules the relations among individuals in society, without any mention to socio-economic equity or human dignity. Social justice_sentence_26

The usage of the term started to become more frequent by Catholic thinkers from the 1840s, including the Jesuit Luigi Taparelli in Civiltà Cattolica, based on the work of St. Thomas Aquinas. Social justice_sentence_27

He argued that rival capitalist and socialist theories, based on subjective Cartesian thinking, undermined the unity of society present in Thomistic metaphysics as neither were sufficiently concerned with moral philosophy. Social justice_sentence_28

Writing in 1861, the influential British philosopher and economist, John Stuart Mill stated in Utilitarianism his view that "Society should treat all equally well who have deserved equally well of it, that is, who have deserved equally well absolutely. Social justice_sentence_29

This is the highest abstract standard of social and distributive justice; towards which all institutions, and the efforts of all virtuous citizens, should be made in the utmost degree to converge." Social justice_sentence_30

In the later 19th and early 20th century, social justice became an important theme in American political and legal philosophy, particularly in the work of John Dewey, Roscoe Pound and Louis Brandeis. Social justice_sentence_31

One of the prime concerns was the Lochner era decisions of the US Supreme Court to strike down legislation passed by state governments and the Federal government for social and economic improvement, such as the eight-hour day or the right to join a trade union. Social justice_sentence_32

After the First World War, the founding document of the International Labour Organization took up the same terminology in its preamble, stating that "peace can be established only if it is based on social justice". Social justice_sentence_33

From this point, the discussion of social justice entered into mainstream legal and academic discourse. Social justice_sentence_34

In 1931, the Pope Pius XI stated the expression for the first time in the Catholic social teaching in the encyclical Quadragesimo anno. Social justice_sentence_35

Then again in Divini Redemptoris, the church pointed out that the realisation of social justice relied on the promotion of the dignity of human person. Social justice_sentence_36

The same year, and because of the documented influence of Divini Redemptoris in its drafters, the Constitution of Ireland was the first one to establish the term as a principle of the economy in the State, and then other countries around the world did the same throughout the 20th century, even in socialist regimes such as the Cuban Constitution in 1976. Social justice_sentence_37

In the late 20th century, several liberal and conservative thinkers, notably Friedrich Hayek rejected the concept by stating that it did not mean anything, or meant too many things. Social justice_sentence_38

However the concept remained highly influential, particularly with its promotion by philosophers such as John Rawls. Social justice_sentence_39

Even though the meaning of social justice varies, at least three common elements can be identified in the contemporary theories about it: a duty of the State to distribute certain vital means (such as economic, social, and cultural rights), the protection of human dignity, and affirmative actions to promote equal opportunities for everybody. Social justice_sentence_40

Contemporary theory Social justice_section_1

Philosophical perspectives Social justice_section_2

Cosmic values Social justice_section_3

Hunter Lewis' work promoting natural healthcare and sustainable economies advocates for conservation as a key premise in social justice. Social justice_sentence_41

His manifesto on sustainability ties the continued thriving of human life to real conditions, the environment supporting that life, and associates injustice with the detrimental effects of unintended consequences of human actions. Social justice_sentence_42

Quoting classical Greek thinkers like Epicurus on the good of pursuing happiness, Hunter also cites ornithologist, naturalist, and philosopher Alexander Skutch in his book Moral Foundations: Social justice_sentence_43

Pope Benedict XVI cites Teilhard de Chardin in a vision of the cosmos as a 'living host' embracing an understanding of ecology that includes humanity's relationship to others, that pollution affects not just the natural world but interpersonal relations as well. Social justice_sentence_44

Cosmic harmony, justice and peace are closely interrelated: Social justice_sentence_45

In The Quest for Cosmic Justice, Thomas Sowell writes that seeking utopia, while admirable, may have disastrous effects if done without strong consideration of the economic underpinnings that support contemporary society. Social justice_sentence_46

John Rawls Social justice_section_4

Main article: John Rawls Social justice_sentence_47

Political philosopher John Rawls draws on the utilitarian insights of Bentham and Mill, the social contract ideas of John Locke, and the categorical imperative ideas of Kant. Social justice_sentence_48

His first statement of principle was made in A Theory of Justice where he proposed that, "Each person possesses an inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of society as a whole cannot override. Social justice_sentence_49

For this reason justice denies that the loss of freedom for some is made right by a greater good shared by others." Social justice_sentence_50

A deontological proposition that echoes Kant in framing the moral good of justice in absolutist terms. Social justice_sentence_51

His views are definitively restated in Political Liberalism where society is seen "as a fair system of co-operation over time, from one generation to the next". Social justice_sentence_52

All societies have a basic structure of social, economic, and political institutions, both formal and informal. Social justice_sentence_53

In testing how well these elements fit and work together, Rawls based a key test of legitimacy on the theories of social contract. Social justice_sentence_54

To determine whether any particular system of collectively enforced social arrangements is legitimate, he argued that one must look for agreement by the people who are subject to it, but not necessarily to an objective notion of justice based on coherent ideological grounding. Social justice_sentence_55

Obviously, not every citizen can be asked to participate in a poll to determine his or her consent to every proposal in which some degree of coercion is involved, so one has to assume that all citizens are reasonable. Social justice_sentence_56

Rawls constructed an argument for a two-stage process to determine a citizen's hypothetical agreement: Social justice_sentence_57

Social justice_unordered_list_2

  • The citizen agrees to be represented by X for certain purposes, and, to that extent, X holds these powers as a trustee for the citizen.Social justice_item_2_3
  • X agrees that enforcement in a particular social context is legitimate. The citizen, therefore, is bound by this decision because it is the function of the trustee to represent the citizen in this way.Social justice_item_2_4

This applies to one person who represents a small group (e.g., the organiser of a social event setting a dress code) as equally as it does to national governments, which are ultimate trustees, holding representative powers for the benefit of all citizens within their territorial boundaries. Social justice_sentence_58

Governments that fail to provide for welfare of their citizens according to the principles of justice are not legitimate. Social justice_sentence_59

To emphasise the general principle that justice should rise from the people and not be dictated by the law-making powers of governments, Rawls asserted that, "There is ... a general presumption against imposing legal and other restrictions on conduct without sufficient reason. Social justice_sentence_60

But this presumption creates no special priority for any particular liberty." Social justice_sentence_61

This is support for an unranked set of liberties that reasonable citizens in all states should respect and uphold — to some extent, the list proposed by Rawls matches the normative human rights that have international recognition and direct enforcement in some nation states where the citizens need encouragement to act in a way that fixes a greater degree of equality of outcome. Social justice_sentence_62

According to Rawls, the basic liberties that every good society should guarantee are: Social justice_sentence_63

Social justice_unordered_list_3

  • Freedom of thought;Social justice_item_3_5
  • Liberty of conscience as it affects social relationships on the grounds of religion, philosophy, and morality;Social justice_item_3_6
  • Political liberties (e.g., representative democratic institutions, freedom of speech and the press, and freedom of assembly);Social justice_item_3_7
  • Freedom of association;Social justice_item_3_8
  • Freedoms necessary for the liberty and integrity of the person (namely: freedom from slavery, freedom of movement and a reasonable degree of freedom to choose one's occupation); andSocial justice_item_3_9
  • Rights and liberties covered by the rule of law.Social justice_item_3_10

Thomas Pogge Social justice_section_5

Thomas Pogge's arguments pertain to a standard of social justice that creates human rights deficits. Social justice_sentence_64

He assigns responsibility to those who actively cooperate in designing or imposing the social institution, that the order is foreseeable as harming the global poor and is reasonably avoidable. Social justice_sentence_65

Pogge argues that social institutions have a negative duty to not harm the poor. Social justice_sentence_66

Pogge speaks of "institutional cosmopolitanism" and assigns responsibility to institutional schemes for deficits of human rights. Social justice_sentence_67

An example given is slavery and third parties. Social justice_sentence_68

A third party should not recognize or enforce slavery. Social justice_sentence_69

The institutional order should be held responsible only for deprivations of human rights that it establishes or authorizes. Social justice_sentence_70

The current institutional design, he says, systematically harms developing economies by enabling corporate tax evasion, illicit financial flows, corruption, trafficking of people and weapons. Social justice_sentence_71

Joshua Cohen disputes his claims based on the fact that some poor countries have done well with the current institutional design. Social justice_sentence_72

Elizabeth Kahn argues that some of these responsibilities should apply globally. Social justice_sentence_73

United Nations Social justice_section_6

The United Nations calls social justice "an underlying principle for peaceful and prosperous coexistence within and among nations. Social justice_sentence_74

The United Nations' 2006 document Social Justice in an Open World: The Role of the United Nations, states that "Social justice may be broadly understood as the fair and compassionate distribution of the fruits of economic growth ..." Social justice_sentence_75

The term "social justice" was seen by the U.N. "as a substitute for the protection of human rights [and] first appeared in United Nations texts during the second half of the 1960s. Social justice_sentence_76

At the initiative of the Soviet Union, and with the support of developing countries, the term was used in the Declaration on Social Progress and Development, adopted in 1969." Social justice_sentence_77

The same document reports, "From the comprehensive global perspective shaped by the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, neglect of the pursuit of social justice in all its dimensions translates into de facto acceptance of a future marred by violence, repression and chaos." Social justice_sentence_78

The report concludes, "Social justice is not possible without strong and coherent redistributive policies conceived and implemented by public agencies." Social justice_sentence_79

The same UN document offers a concise history: "[T]he notion of social justice is relatively new. Social justice_sentence_80

None of history’s great philosophers—not Plato or Aristotle, or Confucius or Averroes, or even Rousseau or Kant—saw the need to consider justice or the redress of injustices from a social perspective. Social justice_sentence_81

The concept first surfaced in Western thought and political language in the wake of the industrial revolution and the parallel development of the socialist doctrine. Social justice_sentence_82

It emerged as an expression of protest against what was perceived as the capitalist exploitation of labour and as a focal point for the development of measures to improve the human condition. Social justice_sentence_83

It was born as a revolutionary slogan embodying the ideals of progress and fraternity. Social justice_sentence_84

Following the revolutions that shook Europe in the mid-1800s, social justice became a rallying cry for progressive thinkers and political activists.... By the mid-twentieth century, the concept of social justice had become central to the ideologies and programmes of virtually all the leftist and centrist political parties around the world ..." Social justice_sentence_85

Religious perspectives Social justice_section_7

Abrahamic religions Social justice_section_8

Christianity Social justice_section_9

Methodism Social justice_section_10

From its founding, Methodism was a Christian social justice movement. Social justice_sentence_86

Under John Wesley's direction, Methodists became leaders in many social justice issues of the day, including the prison reform and abolition movements. Social justice_sentence_87

Wesley himself was among the first to preach for slaves rights attracting significant opposition. Social justice_sentence_88

Today, social justice plays a major role in the United Methodist Church. Social justice_sentence_89

The Book of Discipline of the United Methodist Church says, "We hold governments responsible for the protection of the rights of the people to free and fair elections and to the freedoms of speech, religion, assembly, communications media, and petition for redress of grievances without fear of reprisal; to the right to privacy; and to the guarantee of the rights to adequate food, clothing, shelter, education, and health care." Social justice_sentence_90

The United Methodist Church also teaches population control as part of its doctrine. Social justice_sentence_91

Evangelicalism Social justice_section_11

Time magazine noted that younger Evangelicals also increasingly engage in social justice. Social justice_sentence_92

John Stott traced the call for social justice back to the cross, "The cross is a revelation of God's justice as well as of his love. Social justice_sentence_93

That is why the community of the cross should concern itself with social justice as well as with loving philanthropy." Social justice_sentence_94

Catholicism Social justice_section_12

Main article: Catholic social teaching Social justice_sentence_95

Catholic social teaching consists of those aspects of Roman Catholic doctrine which relate to matters dealing with the respect of the individual human life. Social justice_sentence_96

A distinctive feature of Catholic social doctrine is its concern for the poorest and most vulnerable members of society. Social justice_sentence_97

Two of the seven key areas of "Catholic social teaching" are pertinent to social justice: Social justice_sentence_98

Social justice_unordered_list_4

  • Life and dignity of the human person: The foundational principle of all Catholic social teaching is the sanctity of all human life and the inherent dignity of every human person, from conception to natural death. Human life must be valued above all material possessions.Social justice_item_4_11
  • Preferential option for the poor and vulnerable: Catholics believe Jesus taught that on the Day of Judgement God will ask what each person did to help the poor and needy: "Amen, I say to you, whatever you did for one of these least brothers of mine, you did for me." The Catholic Church believes that through words, prayers and deeds one must show solidarity with, and compassion for, the poor. The moral test of any society is "how it treats its most vulnerable members. The poor have the most urgent moral claim on the conscience of the nation. People are called to look at public policy decisions in terms of how they affect the poor."Social justice_item_4_12

Even before it was propounded in the Catholic social doctrine, social justice appeared regularly in the history of the Catholic Church: Social justice_sentence_99

Social justice_unordered_list_5

  • Pope Leo XIII, who studied under Taparelli, published in 1891 the encyclical Rerum novarum (On the Condition of the Working Classes; lit. "On new things"), rejecting both socialism and capitalism, while defending labor unions and private property. He stated that society should be based on cooperation and not class conflict and competition. In this document, Leo set out the Catholic Church's response to the social instability and labor conflict that had arisen in the wake of industrialization and had led to the rise of socialism. The Pope advocated that the role of the state was to promote social justice through the protection of rights, while the church must speak out on social issues to teach correct social principles and ensure class harmony.Social justice_item_5_13
  • The encyclical Quadragesimo anno (On Reconstruction of the Social Order, literally "in the fortieth year") of 1931 by Pope Pius XI, encourages a living wage, subsidiarity, and advocates that social justice is a personal virtue as well as an attribute of the social order, saying that society can be just only if individuals and institutions are just.Social justice_item_5_14
  • Pope John Paul II added much to the corpus of the Catholic social teaching, penning three encyclicals which focus on issues such as economics, politics, geo-political situations, ownership of the means of production, private property and the "social mortgage", and private property. The encyclicals Laborem exercens, Sollicitudo rei socialis, and Centesimus annus are just a small portion of his overall contribution to Catholic social justice. Pope John Paul II was a strong advocate of justice and human rights, and spoke forcefully for the poor. He addresses issues such as the problems that technology can present should it be misused, and admits a fear that the "progress" of the world is not true progress at all, if it should denigrate the value of the human person. He argued in Centesimus annus that private property, markets, and honest labor were the keys to alleviating the miseries of the poor and to enabling a life that can express the fullness of the human person.Social justice_item_5_15
  • Pope Benedict XVI's encyclical Deus caritas est ("God is Love") of 2006 claims that justice is the defining concern of the state and the central concern of politics, and not of the church, which has charity as its central social concern. It said that the laity has the specific responsibility of pursuing social justice in civil society and that the church's active role in social justice should be to inform the debate, using reason and natural law, and also by providing moral and spiritual formation for those involved in politics.Social justice_item_5_16
  • The official Catholic doctrine on social justice can be found in the book Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, published in 2004 and updated in 2006, by the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax.Social justice_item_5_17

The Catechism of the Catholic Church (§§ 1928–1948) contains more detail of the church's view of social justice. Social justice_sentence_100

Islam Social justice_section_13

In Muslim history, Islamic governance has often been associated with social justice. Social justice_sentence_101

Establishment of social justice was one of the motivating factors of the Abbasid revolt against the Umayyads. Social justice_sentence_102

The Shi'a believe that the return of the Mahdi will herald in "the messianic age of justice" and the Mahdi along with the Isa (Jesus) will end plunder, torture, oppression and discrimination. Social justice_sentence_103

For the Muslim Brotherhood the implementation of social justice would require the rejection of consumerism and communism. Social justice_sentence_104

The Brotherhood strongly affirmed the right to private property as well as differences in personal wealth due to factors such as hard work. Social justice_sentence_105

However, the Brotherhood held Muslims had an obligation to assist those Muslims in need. Social justice_sentence_106

It held that zakat (alms-giving) was not voluntary charity, but rather the poor had the right to assistance from the more fortunate. Social justice_sentence_107

Most Islamic governments therefore enforce the zakat through taxes. Social justice_sentence_108

Judaism Social justice_section_14

Main article: Tikkun olam Social justice_sentence_109

In To Heal a Fractured World: The Ethics of Responsibility, Rabbi Jonathan Sacks states that social justice has a central place in Judaism. Social justice_sentence_110

One of Judaism's most distinctive and challenging ideas is its ethics of responsibility reflected in the concepts of simcha ("gladness" or "joy"), tzedakah ("the religious obligation to perform charity and philanthropic acts"), chesed ("deeds of kindness"), and tikkun olam ("repairing the world"). Social justice_sentence_111

Eastern religions Social justice_section_15

Hinduism Social justice_section_16

The present-day Jāti hierarchy is undergoing changes for a variety of reasons including 'social justice', which is a politically popular stance in democratic India. Social justice_sentence_112

Institutionalized affirmative action has promoted this. Social justice_sentence_113

The disparity and wide inequalities in social behaviour of the jātis – exclusive, endogamous communities centred on traditional occupations – has led to various reform movements in Hinduism. Social justice_sentence_114

While legally outlawed, the caste system remains strong in practice. Social justice_sentence_115

Traditional Chinese religion Social justice_section_17

Main article: Mandate of Heaven Social justice_sentence_116

The Chinese concept of Tian Ming has occasionally been perceived as an expression of social justice. Social justice_sentence_117

Through it, the deposition of unfair rulers is justified in that civic dissatisfaction and economical disasters is perceived as Heaven withdrawing its favor from the Emperor. Social justice_sentence_118

A successful rebellion is considered definite proof that the Emperor is unfit to rule. Social justice_sentence_119

Social justice movements Social justice_section_18

Social justice is also a concept that is used to describe the movement towards a socially just world, e.g., the Global Justice Movement. Social justice_sentence_120

In this context, social justice is based on the concepts of human rights and equality, and can be defined as "the way in which human rights are manifested in the everyday lives of people at every level of society". Social justice_sentence_121

Several movements are working to achieve social justice in society. Social justice_sentence_122

These movements are working toward the realization of a world where all members of a society, regardless of background or procedural justice, have basic human rights and equal access to the benefits of their society. Social justice_sentence_123

Liberation theology Social justice_section_19

Main article: Liberation theology Social justice_sentence_124

Liberation theology is a movement in Christian theology which conveys the teachings of Jesus Christ in terms of a liberation from unjust economic, political, or social conditions. Social justice_sentence_125

It has been described by proponents as "an interpretation of Christian faith through the poor's suffering, their struggle and hope, and a critique of society and the Catholic faith and Christianity through the eyes of the poor", and by detractors as Christianity perverted by Marxism and Communism. Social justice_sentence_126

Although liberation theology has grown into an international and inter-denominational movement, it began as a movement within the Catholic Church in Latin America in the 1950s–1960s. Social justice_sentence_127

It arose principally as a moral reaction to the poverty caused by social injustice in that region. Social justice_sentence_128

It achieved prominence in the 1970s and 1980s. Social justice_sentence_129

The term was coined by the Peruvian priest, Gustavo Gutiérrez, who wrote one of the movement's most famous books, A Theology of Liberation (1971). Social justice_sentence_130

According to Sarah Kleeb, "Marx would surely take issue," she writes, "with the appropriation of his works in a religious context...there is no way to reconcile Marx's views of religion with those of Gutierrez, they are simply incompatible. Social justice_sentence_131

Despite this, in terms of their understanding of the necessity of a just and righteous world, and the nearly inevitable obstructions along such a path, the two have much in common; and, particularly in the first edition of [A Theology of Liberation], the use of Marxian theory is quite evident." Social justice_sentence_132

Other noted exponents are Leonardo Boff of Brazil, Carlos Mugica of Argentina, Jon Sobrino of El Salvador, and Juan Luis Segundo of Uruguay. Social justice_sentence_133

Health care Social justice_section_20

Social justice has more recently made its way into the field of bioethics. Social justice_sentence_134

Discussion involves topics such as affordable access to health care, especially for low income households and families. Social justice_sentence_135

The discussion also raises questions such as whether society should bear healthcare costs for low income families, and whether the global marketplace is the best way to distribute healthcare. Social justice_sentence_136

Ruth Faden of the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics and Madison Powers of Georgetown University focus their analysis of social justice on which inequalities matter the most. Social justice_sentence_137

They develop a social justice theory that answers some of these questions in concrete settings. Social justice_sentence_138

Social injustices occur when there is a preventable difference in health states among a population of people. Social justice_sentence_139

These social injustices take the form of health inequities when negative health states such as malnourishment, and infectious diseases are more prevalent in impoverished nations. Social justice_sentence_140

These negative health states can often be prevented by providing social and economic structures such as primary healthcare which ensures the general population has equal access to health care services regardless of income level, gender, education or any other stratifying factors. Social justice_sentence_141

Integrating social justice with health inherently reflects the social determinants of health model without discounting the role of the bio-medical model. Social justice_sentence_142

Human rights education Social justice_section_21

Main article: Human rights education Social justice_sentence_143

The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action affirm that "Human rights education should include peace, democracy, development and social justice, as set forth in international and regional human rights instruments, to achieve common understanding and awareness to strengthen universal commitment to human rights." Social justice_sentence_144

Ecology and environment Social justice_section_22

Social justice principles are embedded in the larger environmental movement. Social justice_sentence_145

The third principle of the Earth Charter is social and economic justice, which is described as seeking to eradicate poverty as an ethical, social, and environmental imperative, ensure that economic activities and institutions at all levels promote human development in an equitable and sustainable manner, affirm gender equality and equity as prerequisites to sustainable development and ensure universal access to education, health care, and economic opportunity, and uphold the right of all, without discrimination, to a natural and social environment supportive of human dignity, bodily health, and spiritual well-being, with special attention to the rights of indigenous peoples and minorities. Social justice_sentence_146

The climate justice and environmental justice movements also incorporate social justice principles, ideas, and practices. Social justice_sentence_147

Climate justice and environmental justice, as movements within the larger ecological and environmental movement, each incorporate social justice in a particular way. Social justice_sentence_148

Climate justice includes concern for social justice pertaining to greenhouse gas emissions, climate-induced environmental displacement, as well as climate change mitigation and adaptation. Social justice_sentence_149

Environmental justice includes concern for social justice pertaining to either environmental benefits or environmental pollution based on their equitable distribution across communities of color, communities of various socio and economic stratification, or any other barriers to justice. Social justice_sentence_150

Criticism Social justice_section_23

Many authors criticize the idea that there exists an objective standard of social justice. Social justice_sentence_151

Moral relativists deny that there is any kind of objective standard for justice in general. Social justice_sentence_152

Non-cognitivists, moral skeptics, moral nihilists, and most logical positivists deny the epistemic possibility of objective notions of justice. Social justice_sentence_153

Political realists believe that any ideal of social justice is ultimately a mere justification for the status quo. Social justice_sentence_154

Michael Novak argues that social justice has seldom been adequately defined, arguing: Social justice_sentence_155

Many other people accept some of the basic principles of social justice, such as the idea that all human beings have a basic level of value, but disagree with the elaborate conclusions that may or may not follow from this. Social justice_sentence_156

One example is the statement by H. Social justice_sentence_157 G. Wells that all people are "equally entitled to the respect of their fellowmen." Social justice_sentence_158

Friedrich Hayek of the Austrian School of economics rejected the very idea of social justice as meaningless, self-contradictory, and ideological, believing that to realize any degree of social justice is unfeasible, and that the attempt to do so must destroy all liberty: Social justice_sentence_159

Hayek argued that proponents of social justice often present it as a moral virtue but most of their descriptions pertain to impersonal states of affairs (e.g. income inequality, poverty), which are cited as "social injustice." Social justice_sentence_160

Hayek argued that social justice is either a virtue or it is not. Social justice_sentence_161

If it is, it can only be ascribed to the actions of individuals. Social justice_sentence_162

However, most who use the term ascribe it to social systems, so "social justice" in fact describes a regulative principle of order; they are interested not in virtue but power. Social justice_sentence_163

For Hayek, this notion of social justices presupposes that people are guided by specific external directions rather than internal, personal rules of just conduct. Social justice_sentence_164

It further presupposes that one can never be held accountable for ones own behaviour, as this would be "blaming the victim." Social justice_sentence_165

According to Hayek, the function of social justice is to blame someone else, often attributed to "the system" or those who are supposed, mythically, to control it. Social justice_sentence_166

Thus it is based on the appealing idea of "you suffer; your suffering is caused by powerful others; these oppressors must be destroyed." Social justice_sentence_167

Ben O'Neill of the University of New South Wales and the Mises Institute argues: Social justice_sentence_168

See also Social justice_section_24

Social justice_unordered_list_6

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: justice.