Social media

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Social media are interactive computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation or sharing of information, ideas, career interests, and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks. Social media_sentence_0

The variety of stand-alone and built-in social media services currently available introduces challenges of definition; however, there are some common features: Social media_sentence_1

Social media_ordered_list_0

  1. Social media are interactive Web 2.0 Internet-based applications.Social media_item_0_0
  2. User-generated content such as text posts or comments, digital photos or videos, and data generated through all online interactions, is the lifeblood of social media.Social media_item_0_1
  3. Users create service-specific profiles for the website or app that are designed and maintained by the social media organization.Social media_item_0_2
  4. Social media facilitate the development of online social networks by connecting a user's profile with those of other individuals or groups.Social media_item_0_3

Users usually access social media services via web-based apps on desktops and laptops, or download services that offer social media functionality to their mobile devices (e.g., smartphones and tablets). Social media_sentence_2

As users engage with these electronic services, they create highly interactive platforms through which individuals, communities, and organizations can share, co-create, discuss, participate and modify user-generated content or self-curated content posted online. Social media_sentence_3

Wikis are examples of collaborative content creation. Social media_sentence_4

Additionally, social media are used to document memories, learn about and explore things, advertise oneself and form friendships as well as the growth of ideas from the creation of blogs, podcasts, videos, and gaming sites. Social media_sentence_5

This changing relationship between human and technology is the focus of the emerging fields of technoself studies. Social media_sentence_6

Social media outlets differ from traditional media (e.g., magazines, newspapers, TV broadcasting, and radio broadcasting) in many ways, including quality, reach, frequency, usability, immediacy, and permanence. Social media_sentence_7

Additionally, social media outlets operate in a dialogic transmission system (many sources to many receivers) while traditional media outlets operate under a mono-logic transmission model (one source to many receivers). Social media_sentence_8

For example, a newspaper is delivered to many subscribers and a radio station broadcasts the same programs to an entire city. Social media_sentence_9

Some of the most popular social media websites, with over 100 million registered users, include Facebook (and its associated Facebook Messenger), TikTok, WeChat, Instagram, QZone, Weibo, Twitter, Tumblr, Baidu Tieba and LinkedIn. Social media_sentence_10

Other popular platforms that are sometimes referred to as social media services (differing on interpretation) include YouTube, QQ, Quora, Telegram, WhatsApp, LINE, Snapchat, Pinterest, Viber, Reddit, Discord, VK, Microsoft Teams, and more. Social media_sentence_11

Observers have noted a wide range of positive and negative impacts of social media use. Social media_sentence_12

Social media can help to improve an individual's sense of connectedness with real or online communities and can be an effective communication (or marketing) tool for corporations, entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, advocacy groups, political parties, and governments. Social media_sentence_13

History Social media_section_0

See also: Information Age Social media_sentence_14

Social media may have roots in the 1840s introduction of the telegraph, which connected the United States. Social media_sentence_15

The PLATO system launched in 1960, after being developed at the University of Illinois and subsequently commercially marketed by Control Data Corporation. Social media_sentence_16

It offered early forms of social media features with 1973-era innovations such as Notes, PLATO's message-forum application; TERM-talk, its instant-messaging feature; Talkomatic, perhaps the first online chat room; News Report, a crowd-sourced online newspaper, and blog; and Access Lists, enabling the owner of a note file or other application to limit access to a certain set of users, for example, only friends, classmates, or co-workers. Social media_sentence_17

ARPANET, which first came online in 1967, had by the late 1970s developed a rich cultural exchange of non-government/business ideas and communication, as evidenced by the network etiquette (or "netiquette") described in a 1982 handbook on computing at MIT's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. Social media_sentence_18

ARPANET evolved into the Internet following the publication of the first Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) specification, RFC  (Specification of Internet Transmission Control Program), written by Vint Cerf, Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine in 1974. Social media_sentence_19

This became the foundation of Usenet, conceived by Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis in 1979 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University, and established in 1980. Social media_sentence_20

A precursor of the electronic bulletin board system (BBS), known as Community Memory, had already appeared by 1973. Social media_sentence_21

True electronic bulletin board systems arrived with the Computer Bulletin Board System in Chicago, which first came online on February 16, 1978. Social media_sentence_22

Before long, most major cities had more than one BBS running on TRS-80, Apple II, Atari, IBM PC, Commodore 64, Sinclair, and similar personal computers. Social media_sentence_23

The IBM PC was introduced in 1981, and subsequent models of both Mac computers and PCs were used throughout the 1980s. Social media_sentence_24

Multiple modems, followed by specialized telecommunication hardware, allowed many users to be online simultaneously. Social media_sentence_25

Compuserve, Prodigy and AOL were three of the largest BBS companies and were the first to migrate to the Internet in the 1990s. Social media_sentence_26

Between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, BBSes numbered in the tens of thousands in North America alone. Social media_sentence_27

Message forums (a specific structure of social media) arose with the BBS phenomenon throughout the 1980s and early 1990s. Social media_sentence_28

When the World Wide Web (WWW, or "the web") was added to the Internet in the mid-1990s, message forums migrated to the web, becoming Internet forums, primarily due to cheaper per-person access as well as the ability to handle far more people simultaneously than telco modem banks. Social media_sentence_29

Digital imaging and semiconductor image sensor technology facilitated the development and rise of social media. Social media_sentence_30

Advances in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) semiconductor device fabrication, reaching smaller micron and then sub-micron levels during the 1980s–1990s, led to the development of the NMOS (n-type MOS) active-pixel sensor (APS) at Olympus in 1985, and then the complementary MOS (CMOS) active-pixel sensor (CMOS sensor) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in 1993. Social media_sentence_31

CMOS sensors enabled the mass proliferation of digital cameras and camera phones, which bolstered the rise of social media. Social media_sentence_32

An important feature of social media is digital media data compression, due to the impractically high memory and bandwidth requirements of uncompressed media. Social media_sentence_33

The most important compression algorithm is the discrete cosine transform (DCT), a lossy compression technique that was first proposed by Nasir Ahmed in 1972. Social media_sentence_34

DCT-based compression standards include the H.26x and MPEG video coding standards introduced from 1988 onwards, and the JPEG image compression standard introduced in 1992. Social media_sentence_35

JPEG was largely responsible for the proliferation of digital images and digital photos which lie at the heart of social media, and the MPEG standards did the same for digital video content on social media. Social media_sentence_36

The JPEG image format is used more than a billion times on social networks every day, as of 2014. Social media_sentence_37

The development of social media started off with simple platforms. Social media_sentence_38

GeoCities was one of the earliest social networking services, launched in November 1994, followed by Classmates.com in December 1995 and SixDegrees.com in May 1997. Social media_sentence_39

According to CBS news, SixDegrees is "widely considered to be the very first social networking site", as it included "profiles, friends lists and school affiliations" that could be used by registered users. Social media_sentence_40

Unlike instant messaging clients, such as ICQ and AOL's AIM, or chat clients like IRC, iChat or Chat Television, sixdegrees.com was the first online business that was created for real people, using their real names. Social media_sentence_41

Open Diary was launched in October 1998; LiveJournal in April 1999; Ryze in October 2001; Friendster in March 2003; the corporate and job-oriented site LinkedIn in May 2003; hi5 in June 2003; MySpace in August 2003; Orkut in January 2004; Facebook in February 2004; YouTube in February 2005; Yahoo! Social media_sentence_42 360° in March 2005; Bebo in July 2005; the text-based service Twitter, in which posts, called "tweets", were limited to 140 characters, in July 2006; Tumblr in February 2007; Instagram in July 2010; and Google+ in July 2011. Social media_sentence_43

Research from 2015 shows that the audience spent 22% of their time on social networks, thus suggesting the popularity of social media platforms. Social media_sentence_44

It is speculated that the increase in social media's popularity is due to the widespread daily use of smartphones. Social media_sentence_45

Definition and classification Social media_section_1

The variety of evolving stand-alone and built-in social media services makes it challenging to define them. Social media_sentence_46

However, marketing and social media experts broadly agree that social media include the following 13 types of social media: Social media_sentence_47

Social media_unordered_list_1

The idea that social media are defined simply by their ability to bring people together has been seen as too broad, as this would suggest that fundamentally different technologies like the telegraph and telephone are also social media. Social media_sentence_48

The terminology is unclear, with some early researchers referring to social media as social networks or social networking services in the mid 2000s. Social media_sentence_49

A more recent paper from 2015 reviewed the prominent literature in the area and identified four common features unique to then-current social media services: Social media_sentence_50

Social media_ordered_list_2

  1. Social media are Web 2.0 Internet-based applications.Social media_item_2_17
  2. User-generated content (UGC) is the lifeblood of the social media organism.Social media_item_2_18
  3. Users create service-specific profiles for the site or app that are designed and maintained by the social media organization.Social media_item_2_19
  4. Social media facilitate the development of online social networks by connecting a user's profile with those of other individuals or groups.Social media_item_2_20

In 2019, Merriam-Webster defined "social media" as "forms of electronic communication (such as websites for social networking and microblogging) through which users create online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, and other content (such as videos)" Social media_sentence_51

Mobile social media Social media_section_2

Mobile social media refer to the use of social media on mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Social media_sentence_52

Mobile social media are a useful application of mobile marketing because the creation, exchange, and circulation of user-generated content can assist companies with marketing research, communication, and relationship development. Social media_sentence_53

Mobile social media differ from others because they incorporate the current location of the user (location-sensitivity) or the time delay between sending and receiving messages (time-sensitivity). Social media_sentence_54

According to Andreas Kaplan, mobile social media applications can be differentiated among four types: Social media_sentence_55

Social media_ordered_list_3

  1. Space-timers (location and time-sensitive): Exchange of messages with relevance mostly for one specific location at one specific point in time (e.g. Facebook Places WhatsApp; Foursquare)Social media_item_3_21
  2. Space-locators (only location sensitive): Exchange of messages, with relevance for one specific location, which is tagged to a certain place and read later by others (e.g. Yelp; Qype, Tumblr, Fishbrain)Social media_item_3_22
  3. Quick-timers (only time sensitive): Transfer of traditional social media mobile apps to increase immediacy (e.g. posting Twitter messages or Facebook status updates)Social media_item_3_23
  4. Slow-timers (neither location nor time sensitive): Transfer of traditional social media applications to mobile devices (e.g. watching a YouTube video or reading/editing a Wikipedia article)Social media_item_3_24

Elements and function Social media_section_3

Viral content Social media_section_4

Some social media sites have the potential for content posted there to spread virally over social networks. Social media_sentence_56

The term is an analogy to the concept of viral infections, which can spread rapidly from person to person. Social media_sentence_57

In a social media context, content or websites that are "viral" (or which "go viral") are those with a greater likelihood that users will reshare content posted (by another user) to their social network, leading to further sharing. Social media_sentence_58

In some cases, posts containing popular content or fast-breaking news have been rapidly shared and reshared by a huge number of users. Social media_sentence_59

Many social media sites provide specific functionality to help users reshare content, such as Twitter's retweet button, Pinterest's pin function, Facebook's share option, or Tumblr's reblog function. Social media_sentence_60

Businesses have a particular interest in viral marketing tactics because a viral campaign can achieve widespread advertising coverage (particularly if the viral reposting itself makes the news) for a fraction of the cost of a traditional marketing campaign, which typically uses printed materials, like newspapers, magazines, mailings, and billboards, and television and radio commercials. Social media_sentence_61

Nonprofit organizations and activists may have similar interests in posting content on social media sites with the aim of it going viral. Social media_sentence_62

A popular component and feature of Twitter is retweeting. Social media_sentence_63

Twitter allows other people to keep up with important events, stay connected with their peers, and can contribute in various ways throughout social media. Social media_sentence_64

When certain posts become popular, they start to get retweeted over and over again, becoming viral. Social media_sentence_65

Hashtags can be used in tweets, and can also be used to take count of how many people have used that hashtag. Social media_sentence_66

Bots Social media_section_5

Social media can enable companies to get in the form of greater market share and increased audiences. Social media_sentence_67

Internet bots have been developed which facilitate social media marketing. Social media_sentence_68

Bots are automated programs that run over the Internet. Social media_sentence_69

Chatbots and social bots are programmed to mimic natural human interactions such as liking, commenting, following, and unfollowing on social media platforms. Social media_sentence_70

A new industry of bot providers has been created. Social media_sentence_71

Social bots and chatbots have created an analytical crisis in the marketing industry as they make it difficult to differentiate between human interactions and automated bot interactions. Social media_sentence_72

Some bots are negatively affecting their marketing data causing a "digital cannibalism" in social media marketing. Social media_sentence_73

Additionally, some bots violate the terms of use on many social media such as Instagram, which can result in profiles being taken down and banned. Social media_sentence_74

"Cyborgs", a combination of a human and a bot, are used to spread fake news or create a marketing "buzz". Social media_sentence_75

Cyborgs can be bot-assisted humans or human-assisted bots. Social media_sentence_76

An example is a human who registers an account for which they set automated programs to post, for instance, tweets, during their absence. Social media_sentence_77

From time to time, the human participates to tweet and interact with friends. Social media_sentence_78

Cyborgs make it easier to spread fake news, as it blends automated activity with human input. Social media_sentence_79

When the automated accounts are publicly identified, the human part of the cyborg is able to take over and could protest that the account has been used manually all along. Social media_sentence_80

Such accounts try to pose as real people; in particular, the number of their friends or followers should be resembling that of a real person. Social media_sentence_81

Patents of social media technology Social media_section_6

Main article: Software patent Social media_sentence_82

There has been rapid growth in the number of U.S. patent applications that cover new technologies related to social media, and the number of them that are published has been growing rapidly over the past five years. Social media_sentence_83

There are now over 2000 published patent applications. Social media_sentence_84

As many as 7000 applications may be currently on file including those that haven't been published yet. Social media_sentence_85

Only slightly over 100 of these applications have issued as patents, however, largely due to the multi-year backlog in examination of business method patents, patents which outline and claim new methods of doing business. Social media_sentence_86

Statistics on usage and membership Social media_section_7

According to Statista, in 2020, it is estimated that there are around 3.6 billion people using social media around the globe, up from 3.4 billion in 2019. Social media_sentence_87

The number is expected to increase to 4.41 billion in 2025. Social media_sentence_88

Most popular social networking services Social media_section_8

The following is a list of the most popular social networking services based on the number of active users as of October 2020 per Statista. Social media_sentence_89

Social media_table_general_0

Social networking services with the most users in October 2020Social media_table_caption_0
#Social media_header_cell_0_0_0 Network NameSocial media_header_cell_0_0_1 Number of Users

(in millions)Social media_header_cell_0_0_2

Country of OriginSocial media_header_cell_0_0_3
1Social media_cell_0_1_0 FacebookSocial media_cell_0_1_1 2,701Social media_cell_0_1_2 United_States United StatesSocial media_cell_0_1_3
2Social media_cell_0_2_0 YouTubeSocial media_cell_0_2_1 2,000Social media_cell_0_2_2 United_States United StatesSocial media_cell_0_2_3
3Social media_cell_0_3_0 WhatsAppSocial media_cell_0_3_1 2,000Social media_cell_0_3_2 United_States United StatesSocial media_cell_0_3_3
4Social media_cell_0_4_0 Facebook MessengerSocial media_cell_0_4_1 1,300Social media_cell_0_4_2 United_States United StatesSocial media_cell_0_4_3
5Social media_cell_0_5_0 WeChatSocial media_cell_0_5_1 1,206Social media_cell_0_5_2 China ChinaSocial media_cell_0_5_3
6Social media_cell_0_6_0 InstagramSocial media_cell_0_6_1 1,158Social media_cell_0_6_2 United_States United StatesSocial media_cell_0_6_3
7Social media_cell_0_7_0 TikTokSocial media_cell_0_7_1 689Social media_cell_0_7_2 China ChinaSocial media_cell_0_7_3
8Social media_cell_0_8_0 QQSocial media_cell_0_8_1 648Social media_cell_0_8_2 China ChinaSocial media_cell_0_8_3
9Social media_cell_0_9_0 DouyinSocial media_cell_0_9_1 600Social media_cell_0_9_2 China ChinaSocial media_cell_0_9_3
10Social media_cell_0_10_0 Sina WeiboSocial media_cell_0_10_1 523Social media_cell_0_10_2 China ChinaSocial media_cell_0_10_3

Usage Social media_section_9

According to a survey conducted by Pew Research in 2018, Facebook and YouTube dominated the social media landscape, as notable majorities of U.S. adults used each of these sites. Social media_sentence_90

At the same time, younger Americans (especially those ages 18 to 24) stood out for embracing a variety of platforms and using them frequently. Social media_sentence_91

Some 78% of 18-24-year-old adults used Snapchat, and a sizable majority of these users (71%) visited the platform multiple times per day. Social media_sentence_92

Similarly, 71% of Americans in this age group used Instagram and close to half (45%) were Twitter users. Social media_sentence_93

However, Facebook remained the primary platform for most American adults. Social media_sentence_94

Roughly two-thirds of U.S. adults (68%) reported that they were Facebook users, and roughly three-quarters of those users accessed Facebook on a daily basis. Social media_sentence_95

With the exception of those 65 and older, a majority of Americans across a wide range of demographic groups used Facebook. Social media_sentence_96

However, after Facebook's rapid growth in the United States over the years, the number of new U.S. Facebook accounts created has plateaued, with not much observable growth in the 2016-18 period. Social media_sentence_97

A study from 2009 suggests that there may be individual differences that help explain who uses social media and who does not: Extraversion and openness have a positive relationship with social media, while emotional stability has a negative sloping relationship with social media. Social media_sentence_98

A different study from 2015 found that people with a higher social comparison orientation appear to use social media more heavily than people with low social comparison orientation. Social media_sentence_99

There is data to suggest from Common Sense Media that children under the age of 13 in the United States use social networking services. Social media_sentence_100

This is despite the fact that many social media sites have policies that state you must be at least 13-years-old or older to join. Social media_sentence_101

In 2017, Common Sense Media conducted a nationally representative survey of parents of children from birth to age 8 and found that 4% of children at this age use social media sites such as Instagram, Snapchat, or Musical.ly “often” or “sometimes.” A different nationally representative survey by Common Sense in 2019 surveyed young Americans ages 8-16 and found that about 31% of children ages 8-12 ever use social media such as Snapchat, Instagram, or Facebook. Social media_sentence_102

In that same survey, when American teens ages 16-18 were asked when they started using social media, 28% said they started to use it before they were 13-years-old. Social media_sentence_103

However, the median age of starting to use social media was 14-years-old. Social media_sentence_104

In June 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic, a nationally representative survey by Cartoon Network and the Cyberbullying Research Center surveyed Americans ages 9-12 found that the most popular social media site/app was YouTube (used by 67% of 9- to 12-year-old Americans in the past year). Social media_sentence_105

Social media_table_general_1

Percentage of U.S. Children Ages 9-12 Who Have Used Different Social Media Platforms in 2019-2020Social media_table_caption_1
PlatformSocial media_header_cell_1_0_0 Overall PercentageSocial media_header_cell_1_0_1 Percentage of BoysSocial media_header_cell_1_0_2 Percentage of GirlsSocial media_header_cell_1_0_3
YouTubeSocial media_cell_1_1_0 67%Social media_cell_1_1_1 68%Social media_cell_1_1_2 66%Social media_cell_1_1_3
MinecraftSocial media_cell_1_2_0 48%Social media_cell_1_2_1 61%Social media_cell_1_2_2 35%Social media_cell_1_2_3
RobloxSocial media_cell_1_3_0 47%Social media_cell_1_3_1 44%Social media_cell_1_3_2 49%Social media_cell_1_3_3
Google ClassroomSocial media_cell_1_4_0 45%Social media_cell_1_4_1 48%Social media_cell_1_4_2 41%Social media_cell_1_4_3
FortniteSocial media_cell_1_5_0 31%Social media_cell_1_5_1 43%Social media_cell_1_5_2 20%Social media_cell_1_5_3
TikTokSocial media_cell_1_6_0 30%Social media_cell_1_6_1 23%Social media_cell_1_6_2 30%Social media_cell_1_6_3
YouTube KidsSocial media_cell_1_7_0 26%Social media_cell_1_7_1 24%Social media_cell_1_7_2 28%Social media_cell_1_7_3
SnapchatSocial media_cell_1_8_0 16%Social media_cell_1_8_1 11%Social media_cell_1_8_2 21%Social media_cell_1_8_3
Facebook Messenger KidsSocial media_cell_1_9_0 15%Social media_cell_1_9_1 12%Social media_cell_1_9_2 18%Social media_cell_1_9_3
InstagramSocial media_cell_1_10_0 15%Social media_cell_1_10_1 12%Social media_cell_1_10_2 19%Social media_cell_1_10_3
DiscordSocial media_cell_1_11_0 8%Social media_cell_1_11_1 11%Social media_cell_1_11_2 5%Social media_cell_1_11_3
FacebookSocial media_cell_1_12_0 8%Social media_cell_1_12_1 6%Social media_cell_1_12_2 9%Social media_cell_1_12_3
TwitchSocial media_cell_1_13_0 5%Social media_cell_1_13_1 7%Social media_cell_1_13_2 2%Social media_cell_1_13_3
None of the aboveSocial media_cell_1_14_0 5%Social media_cell_1_14_1 6%Social media_cell_1_14_2 5%Social media_cell_1_14_3

Similarly, a nationally representative survey by Common Sense Media conducted in 2020 of Americans ages 13-18 found that YouTube was also the most popular social media site/app (used by 86% of 13- to 18-year-old Americans in the past year). Social media_sentence_106

Social media_table_general_2

Percentage of U.S. Teens Ages 13-18 Who Have Used Different Social Media Platforms in 2017 and 2020Social media_table_caption_2
PlatformSocial media_header_cell_2_0_0 Percentage who used in 2017Social media_header_cell_2_0_1 Percentage who used in 2020Social media_header_cell_2_0_2
YouTubeSocial media_cell_2_1_0 70%Social media_cell_2_1_1 86%Social media_cell_2_1_2
InstagramSocial media_cell_2_2_0 60%Social media_cell_2_2_1 69%Social media_cell_2_2_2
SnapchatSocial media_cell_2_3_0 59%Social media_cell_2_3_1 68%Social media_cell_2_3_2
TikTokSocial media_cell_2_4_0 N/ASocial media_cell_2_4_1 47%Social media_cell_2_4_2
FacebookSocial media_cell_2_5_0 63%Social media_cell_2_5_1 43%Social media_cell_2_5_2
TwitterSocial media_cell_2_6_0 36%Social media_cell_2_6_1 28%Social media_cell_2_6_2
RedditSocial media_cell_2_7_0 6%Social media_cell_2_7_1 14%Social media_cell_2_7_2
Another social networking serviceSocial media_cell_2_8_0 3%Social media_cell_2_8_1 2%Social media_cell_2_8_2
Do not use social networking serviceSocial media_cell_2_9_0 6%Social media_cell_2_9_1 4%Social media_cell_2_9_2

Use at the organizational level Social media_section_10

Use by governments Social media_section_11

Governments may use social media to (for example): Social media_sentence_107

Social media_unordered_list_4

  • interact with citizensSocial media_item_4_25
  • foster citizen participationSocial media_item_4_26
  • further open governmentSocial media_item_4_27
  • analyze/monitor public opinion and activitiesSocial media_item_4_28
  • educate the public about risks and public health.Social media_item_4_29

Use by businesses Social media_section_12

Main article: Social media use by businesses Social media_sentence_108

The high distribution of social media in the private environment drives companies to deal with the application possibilities of social media on Social media_sentence_109

Social media_unordered_list_5

  • customer-organizational levelSocial media_item_5_30
  • and on intra-organizational level.Social media_item_5_31

Marketplace actors can use social media tools for marketing research, communication, sales promotions/discounts, informal employee-learning/organizational development, relationship development/loyalty programs, and e-Commerce. Social media_sentence_110

Often social media can become a good source of information and/or explanation of industry trends for a business to embrace change. Social media_sentence_111

Trends in social-media technology and usage change rapidly, making it crucial for businesses to have a set of guidelines that can apply to many social media platforms. Social media_sentence_112

Companies are increasingly using social-media monitoring tools to monitor, track, and analyze online conversations on the Web about their brand or products or about related topics of interest. Social media_sentence_113

This can prove useful in public relations management and advertising-campaign tracking, allowing analysts to measure return on investment for their social media ad spending, competitor-auditing, and for public engagement. Social media_sentence_114

Tools range from free, basic applications to subscription-based, more in-depth tools. Social media_sentence_115

Financial industries utilize the power of social media as a tool for analyzing the sentiment of financial markets. Social media_sentence_116

These range from the marketing of financial products, gaining insights into market sentiment, future market predictions, and as a tool to identify insider trading. Social media_sentence_117

Social media become effective through a process called "building social authority". Social media_sentence_118

One of the foundation concepts in social media has become that one cannot completely control one's message through social media but rather one can simply begin to participate in the "conversation" expecting that one can achieve a significant influence in that conversation. Social media_sentence_119

Use in politics Social media_section_13

See also: Social impact of YouTube, Use of social media in the Wisconsin protests, and Social media and political communication in the United States Social media_sentence_120

Main article: Social media use in politics Social media_sentence_121

Use in hiring Social media_section_14

Main article: Social media use in hiring Social media_sentence_122

Some employers examine job applicants' social media profiles as part of the hiring assessment. Social media_sentence_123

This issue raises many ethical questions that some consider an employer's right and others consider discrimination. Social media_sentence_124

Many Western European countries have already implemented laws that restrict the regulation of social media in the workplace. Social media_sentence_125

States including Arkansas, California, Colorado, Illinois, Maryland, Michigan, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin have passed legislation that protects potential employees and current employees from employers that demand that they provide their usernames and/or passwords for any social media accounts. Social media_sentence_126

Use of social media by young people has caused significant problems for some applicants who are active on social media when they try to enter the job market. Social media_sentence_127

A survey of 17,000 young people in six countries in 2013 found that 1 in 10 people aged 16 to 34 have been rejected for a job because of online comments they made on social media websites. Social media_sentence_128

For potential employees, using social media publicly may alter shape patterns of deception in resumes. Social media_sentence_129

Use in school admissions Social media_section_15

It is not only an issue in the workplace but an issue in post-secondary school admissions as well. Social media_sentence_130

There have been situations where students have been forced to give up their social media passwords to school administrators. Social media_sentence_131

There are inadequate laws to protect a student's social media privacy, and organizations such as the ACLU are pushing for more privacy protection, as it is an invasion. Social media_sentence_132

They urge students who are pressured to give up their account information to tell the administrators to contact a parent or lawyer before they take the matter any further. Social media_sentence_133

Although they are students, they still have the right to keep their password-protected information private. Social media_sentence_134

Before social media, admissions officials in the United States used SAT and other standardized test scores, extra-curricular activities, letters of recommendation, and high school report cards to determine whether to accept or deny an applicant. Social media_sentence_135

In the 2010s, while colleges and universities still use these traditional methods to evaluate applicants, these institutions are increasingly accessing applicants' social media profiles to learn about their character and activities. Social media_sentence_136

According to Kaplan, Inc, a corporation that provides higher education preparation, in 2012 27% of admissions officers used Google to learn more about an applicant, with 26% checking Facebook. Social media_sentence_137

Students whose social media pages include offensive jokes or photos, racist or homophobic comments, photos depicting the applicant engaging in illegal drug use or drunkenness, and so on, may be screened out from admission processes. Social media_sentence_138

Use in law enforcement and investigations Social media_section_16

Social media has been used extensively in civil and criminal investigations. Social media_sentence_139

It has also been used to assist in searches for missing persons. Social media_sentence_140

Police departments often make use of official social media accounts to engage with the public, publicize police activity, and burnish law enforcement's image; conversely, video footage of citizen-documented police brutality and other misconduct has sometimes been posted to social media. Social media_sentence_141

In the United States U.S. Social media_sentence_142 Immigration and Customs Enforcement identifies and track individuals via social media, and also has apprehended some people via social media based sting operations. Social media_sentence_143

U.S. Social media_sentence_144 Customs and Border Protection (also known as CPB) and the United States Department of Homeland Security use social media data as influencing factors during the visa process, and continue to monitor individuals after they have entered the country. Social media_sentence_145

CPB officers have also been documented performing searches of electronics and social media behavior at the border, searching both citizens and non-citizens without first obtaining a warrant. Social media_sentence_146

Use in court cases Social media_section_17

Social media comments and images are being used in a range of court cases including employment law, child custody/child support and insurance disability claims. Social media_sentence_147

After an Apple employee criticized his employer on Facebook, he was fired. Social media_sentence_148

When the former employee sued Apple for unfair dismissal, the court, after seeing the man's Facebook posts, found in favor of Apple, as the man's social media comments breached Apple's policies. Social media_sentence_149

After a heterosexual couple broke up, the man posted "violent rap lyrics from a song that talked about fantasies of killing the rapper's ex-wife" and made threats against him. Social media_sentence_150

The court found him guilty and he was sentenced to jail. Social media_sentence_151

In a disability claims case, a woman who fell at work claimed that she was permanently injured; the employer used the social media posts of her travels and activities to counter her claims. Social media_sentence_152

Courts do not always admit social media evidence, in part, because screenshots can be faked or tampered with. Social media_sentence_153

Judges are taking emojis into account to assess statements made on social media; in one Michigan case where a person alleged that another person had defamed them in an online comment, the judge disagreed, noting that there was an emoji after the comment which indicated that it was a joke. Social media_sentence_154

In a 2014 case in Ontario against a police officer regarding alleged assault of a protester during the G20 summit, the court rejected the Crown's application to use a digital photo of the protest that was anonymously posted online, because there was no metadata proving when the photo was taken and it could have been digitally altered. Social media_sentence_155

Use by companies for social media marketing Social media_section_18

Main article: Social media marketing Social media_sentence_156

Social media marketing is the use of social media platforms and websites to promote a product or service and also to establish a connection with its customers. Social media_sentence_157

Although the terms e-marketing and digital marketing are still dominant in academia, social media marketing is becoming more popular for both practitioners and researchers. Social media_sentence_158

Social media marketing has increased due to the growing active user rates on social media sites. Social media_sentence_159

For example, Facebook currently has 2.2 billion users, Twitter has 330 million active users and Instagram has 800 million users. Social media_sentence_160

One of the main uses is to interact with audiences to create awareness of their brand or service, with the main idea of creating a two-way communication system where the audience and/or customers can interact back; providing feedback as just one example. Social media_sentence_161

Social media can be used to advertise; placing an advert on Facebook's Newsfeed, for example, can allow a vast number of people to see it or targeting specific audiences from their usage to encourage awareness of the product or brand. Social media_sentence_162

Users of social media are then able to like, share and comment on the advert, becoming message senders as they can keep passing the advert's message on to their friends and onwards. Social media_sentence_163

The use of new media put consumers on the position of spreading opinions, sharing experience, and has shift power from organization to consumers for it allows transparency and different opinions to be heard. Social media_sentence_164

media marketing has to keep up with all the different platforms. Social media_sentence_165

They also have to keep up with the ongoing trends that are set by big influencers and draw many people's attention. Social media_sentence_166

The type of audience a business is going for will determine the social media site they use. Social media_sentence_167

Social media personalities have been employed by marketers to promote products online. Social media_sentence_168

Research shows that digital endorsements seem to be successfully targeting social media users, especially younger consumers who have grown up in the digital age. Social media_sentence_169

In 2013, the United Kingdom Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) began to advise celebrities and sports stars to make it clear if they had been paid to tweet about a product or service by using the hashtag #spon or #ad within tweets containing endorsements. Social media_sentence_170

The practice of harnessing social media personalities to market or promote a product or service to their following is commonly referred to as Influencer Marketing. Social media_sentence_171

The Cambridge Dictionary defines an "influencer" as any person (personality, blogger, journalist, celebrity) who has the ability to affect the opinions, behaviors, or purchases of others through the use of social media. Social media_sentence_172

Companies such as fast food franchise Wendy's have used humor to advertise their products by poking fun at competitors such as McDonald's and Burger King. Social media_sentence_173

Other companies such as Juul have used hashtags to promote themselves and their products. Social media_sentence_174

On social media, consumers are exposed to the purchasing practices of peers through messages from a peer's account, which may be peer-written. Social media_sentence_175

Such messages may be part of an interactive marketing strategy involving modeling, reinforcement, and social interaction mechanisms. Social media_sentence_176

A 2011 study focusing on peer communication through social media described how communication between peers through social media can affect purchase intentions: a direct impact through conformity, and an indirect impact by stressing product engagement. Social media_sentence_177

The study indicated that social media communication between peers about a product had a positive relationship with product engagement. Social media_sentence_178

Use in academia Social media_section_19

Signals from social media are used to assess academic publications, as well as for different scientific approaches. Social media_sentence_179

Another study found that most of the health science students acquiring academic materials from others through social media. Social media_sentence_180

Use by individuals Social media_section_20

As a news source Social media_section_21

Main article: Social media as a news source Social media_sentence_181

In the United States, 81% of users look online for news of the weather, first and foremost, with the percentage seeking national news at 73%, 52% for sports news, and 41% for entertainment or celebrity news. Social media_sentence_182

According to CNN, in 2010 75% of people got their news forwarded through e-mail or social media posts, whereas 37% of people shared a news item via Facebook or Twitter. Social media_sentence_183

Facebook and Twitter make news a more participatory experience than before as people share news articles and comment on other people's posts. Social media_sentence_184

Rainie and Wellman have argued that media making now has become a participation work, which changes communication systems. Social media_sentence_185

However, 27% of respondents worry about the accuracy of a story on a blog. Social media_sentence_186

From a 2019 poll, Pew Research Center found that Americans are wary about the ways that social media sites share news and certain content. Social media_sentence_187

This wariness of accuracy is on the rise as social media sites are increasingly exploited by aggregated new sources which stitch together multiple feeds to develop plausible correlations. Social media_sentence_188

Hemsley and colleagues refer to this phenomenon as "pseudoknowledge" which develop false narratives and fake news that are supported through general analysis and ideology rather than facts. Social media_sentence_189

Social media as a news source is further questioned as spikes in evidence surround major news events such as was captured in the United States 2016 presidential election. Social media_sentence_190

Effects on individual and collective memory Social media_section_22

News media and television journalism have been a key feature in the shaping of American collective memory for much of the twentieth century. Social media_sentence_191

Indeed, since the United States' colonial era, news media has influenced collective memory and discourse about national development and trauma. Social media_sentence_192

In many ways, mainstream journalists have maintained an authoritative voice as the storytellers of the American past. Social media_sentence_193

Their documentary style narratives, detailed exposes, and their positions in the present make them prime sources for public memory. Social media_sentence_194

Specifically, news media journalists have shaped collective memory on nearly every major national event – from the deaths of social and political figures to the progression of political hopefuls. Social media_sentence_195

Journalists provide elaborate descriptions of commemorative events in U.S. history and contemporary popular cultural sensations. Social media_sentence_196

Many Americans learn the significance of historical events and political issues through news media, as they are presented on popular news stations. Social media_sentence_197

However, journalistic influence is growing less important, whereas social networking sites such as Facebook, YouTube and Twitter, provide a constant supply of alternative news sources for users. Social media_sentence_198

As social networking becomes more popular among older and younger generations, sites such as Facebook and YouTube, gradually undermine the traditionally authoritative voices of news media. Social media_sentence_199

For example, American citizens contest media coverage of various social and political events as they see fit, inserting their voices into the narratives about America's past and present and shaping their own collective memories. Social media_sentence_200

An example of this is the public explosion of the Trayvon Martin shooting in Sanford, Florida. Social media_sentence_201

News media coverage of the incident was minimal until social media users made the story recognizable through their constant discussion of the case. Social media_sentence_202

Approximately one month after the fatal shooting of Trayvon Martin, its online coverage by everyday Americans garnered national attention from mainstream media journalists, in turn exemplifying media activism. Social media_sentence_203

In some ways, the spread of this tragic event through alternative news sources parallels that of Emmett Till – whose murder by lynching in 1955 became a national story after it was circulated in African-American and Communist newspapers. Social media_sentence_204

As a social tool Social media_section_23

Social media are used to fulfill perceived social needs such as socializing with friends and family as well as romance and flirting, but not all needs can be fulfilled by social media. Social media_sentence_205

For example, a 2003 article found that lonely individuals are more likely to use the Internet for emotional support than those who are not lonely. Social media_sentence_206

A nationally representative survey from Common Sense Media in 2018 found that 40% of American teens ages 13-17 thought that social media was “extremely” or “very” important for them to keep up with their friends on a day-to-basis. Social media_sentence_207

The same survey found that 33% of teens said social media was extremely or very important to have meaningful conversations with close friends, and 23% of teens said social media was extremely or very important to document and share highlights from their lives. Social media_sentence_208

Recently, a Gallup poll from May 2020 showed that 53% of adult social media users in the United States thought that social media was a very or moderately important way to keep in touch with those they cannot otherwise see in-person due to social distancing measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Social media_sentence_209

Sherry Turkle explores this topic in her book Alone Together as she discusses how people confuse social media usage with authentic communication. Social media_sentence_210

She posits that people tend to act differently online and are less afraid to hurt each other's feelings. Social media_sentence_211

Additionally, Some online behaviors can cause stress and anxiety, due to the permanence of online posts, the fear of being hacked, or of universities and employers exploring social media pages. Social media_sentence_212

Turkle also speculates that people are beginning to prefer texting to face-to-face communication, which can contribute to feelings of loneliness. Social media_sentence_213

Nationally representative surveys from 2019 have found this to be the case with teens in the United States and Mexico. Social media_sentence_214

Some researchers have also found that exchanges that involved direct communication and reciprocation of messages correlated with fewer feelings of loneliness. Social media_sentence_215

However, that same study showed that passively using social media without sending or receiving messages does not make people feel less lonely unless they were lonely to begin with. Social media_sentence_216

The term social media "stalking" or "creeping" have been popularized over the years, and this refers to looking at the person's "timeline, status updates, tweets, and online bios" to find information about them and their activities. Social media_sentence_217

While social media creeping is common, it is considered to be poor form to admit to a new acquaintance or new date that you have looked through his or her social media posts, particularly older posts, as this will indicate that you were going through their old history. Social media_sentence_218

A sub-category of creeping is creeping ex-partners' social media posts after a breakup to investigate if there is a new partner or new dating; this can lead to preoccupation with the ex, rumination, and negative feelings, all of which postpone recovery and increase feelings of loss. Social media_sentence_219

Catfishing has become more prevalent since the advent of social media. Social media_sentence_220

Relationships formed with catfish can lead to actions such as supporting them with money and catfish will typically make excuses as to why they cannot meet up or be viewed on camera. Social media_sentence_221

As a self-presentational tool Social media_section_24

The more time people spend on Facebook, the less satisfied they feel about their life. Social media_sentence_222

Self-presentation theory explains that people will consciously manage their self-image or identity related information in social contexts. Social media_sentence_223

In fact, a critical aspect of social networking sites is the time invested in customizing a personal profile, and encourage a sort of social currency based on likes, followers, and comments. Social media_sentence_224

Users also tend to segment their audiences based on the image they want to present, pseudonymity and use of multiple accounts across the same platform remain popular ways to negotiate platform expectations and segment audiences. Social media_sentence_225

However, users may feel pressure to gain their peers' acceptance of their self-presentation. Social media_sentence_226

For example, in a 2016 peer-reviewed article by Trudy Hui Hui Chua and Leanne Chang, the authors found that teenage girls manipulate their self-presentation on social media to achieve a sense of beauty that is projected by their peers. Social media_sentence_227

These authors also discovered that teenage girls compare themselves to their peers on social media and present themselves in certain ways in an effort to earn regard and acceptance. Social media_sentence_228

However, when users do not feel like they reached this regard and acceptance, this can actually lead to problems with self-confidence and self-satisfaction. Social media_sentence_229

A nationally representative survey of American teens ages 13-17 by Common Sense Media found that 45% said getting “likes” on posts is at least somewhat important, and 26% at least somewhat agreed that they feel bad about themselves is nobody comments on or “likes” their photos. Social media_sentence_230

Some evidence suggests that perceived rejection may lead to feeling emotional pain, and some may partake in online retaliation such as online bullying. Social media_sentence_231

Conversely, according to research from UCLA, users' reward circuits in their brains are more active when their own photos are liked by more peers. Social media_sentence_232

Literature suggests that social media can breed a negative feedback loop of viewing and uploading photos, self-comparison, feelings of disappointment when perceived social success is not achieved, and disordered body perception. Social media_sentence_233

In fact, one study shows that the microblogging platform, Pinterest is directly associated with disordered dieting behavior, indicating that for those who frequently look at exercise or dieting "pins" there is a greater chance that they will engage in extreme weight-loss and dieting behavior. Social media_sentence_234

As a health behavior change and reinforcement tool Social media_section_25

Social media can also function as a supportive system for adolescents' health, because by using social media, adolescents are able to mobilize around health issues that they themselves deem relevant. Social media_sentence_235

For example, in a clinical study among adolescent patients undergoing treatment for obesity, the participants' expressed that through social media, they could find personalized weight-loss content as well as social support among other adolescents with obesity The same authors also found that as with other types of online information, the adolescents need to possess necessary skills to evaluate and identify reliable health information, competencies commonly known as health literacy. Social media_sentence_236

This has led to efforts by governments and public health organizations to use social media to interact with users, to limited success. Social media_sentence_237

Other social media, such as pro-anorexia sites, have been found in studies to cause significant risk of harm by reinforcing negative health-related behaviors through social networking, especially in adolescents. Social media_sentence_238

Impacts on users Social media_section_26

Further information: Cyberpsychology § Social media and cyberpsychological behavior, and Social media and identity Social media_sentence_239

Negative interpersonal interactions and effects Social media_section_27

Further information: Cyberbullying Social media_sentence_240

Social media use sometimes involves negative interactions between users. Social media_sentence_241

Angry or emotional conversations can lead to real-world interactions outside of the Internet, which can get users into dangerous situations. Social media_sentence_242

Some users have experienced threats of violence online and have feared these threats manifesting themselves offline. Social media_sentence_243

Related issues include cyberbullying, online harassment, and "trolling". Social media_sentence_244

According to cyberbullying statistics from the i-Safe Foundation, over half of adolescents and teens have been bullied online, and about the same number have engaged in cyberbullying. Social media_sentence_245

Both the bully and the victim are negatively affected, and the intensity, duration, and frequency of bullying are the three aspects that increase the negative effects on both of them. Social media_sentence_246

Social comparison and effects Social media_section_28

One phenomenon that is commonly studied with social media is the issue of social comparison. Social media_sentence_247

People compare their own lives to the lives of their friends through their friends' posts. Social media_sentence_248

Because people are motivated to portray themselves in a way that is appropriate to the situation and serves their best interests, often the things posted online are the positive aspects of people's lives, making other people question why their own lives are not as exciting or fulfilling. Social media_sentence_249

One study in 2017 found that problematic social media use (i.e., feeling addicted to social media) was related to lower life satisfaction and self-esteem scores; the authors speculate that users may feel if their life is not exciting enough to put online it is not as good as their friends or family. Social media_sentence_250

Studies have shown that self-comparison on social media can have dire effects on physical and mental health because they give us the ability to seek approval and compare ourselves. Social media_sentence_251

In one study, women reported that social media are the most influential sources of their body image satisfaction; while men reported them as the second most impacting factor. Social media_sentence_252

Sleep disturbance Social media_section_29

According to a study released in 2017 by researchers from the University of Pittsburgh, the link between sleep disturbance and the use of social media was clear. Social media_sentence_253

It concluded that blue light had a part to play—and how often they logged on, rather than time spent on social media sites, was a higher predictor of disturbed sleep, suggesting "an obsessive 'checking'". Social media_sentence_254

The strong relationship of social media use and sleep disturbance has significant clinical ramifications for young adults health and well-being. Social media_sentence_255

In a recent study, we have learned that people in the highest quartile for social media use per week report the most sleep disturbance. Social media_sentence_256

The median number of minutes of social media use per day is 61 minutes. Social media_sentence_257

Lastly, we have learned that females are more inclined to experience high levels of sleep disturbance than males. Social media_sentence_258

Many teenagers suffer from sleep deprivation as they spend long hours at night on their phones, and this, in turn, could affect grades as they will be tired and unfocused in school. Social media_sentence_259

In a study from 2011, it was found that time spent on Facebook has a strong negative relationship with overall GPA, but it was unclear if this was related to sleep disturbances. Social media_sentence_260

Emotional effects Social media_section_30

One studied emotional effect is "Facebook depression", which is a type of depression that affects adolescents who spend too much of their free time engaging with social media sites. Social media_sentence_261

This may lead to problems such as reclusiveness which can negatively damage one's health by creating feelings of loneliness and low self-esteem among young people. Social media_sentence_262

A 2017 study of almost 6,000 adolescent students showed that those who self-reported addiction-like symptoms of social media use were more likely to report low self-esteem and high levels of depressive symptoms. Social media_sentence_263

In a different study conducted in 2007, those who used the most multiple social media platforms (7 to 11) had more than three times the risk of depression and anxiety than people who used the fewest (0 to 2). Social media_sentence_264

A second emotional effect is social media burnout, which is defined by Bo Han as ambivalence, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization. Social media_sentence_265

Ambivalence refers to a user's confusion about the benefits she can get from using a social media site. Social media_sentence_266

Emotional exhaustion refers to the stress a user has when using a social media site. Social media_sentence_267

Depersonalization refers to the emotional detachment from a social media site a user experiences. Social media_sentence_268

The three burnout factors can all negatively influence the user's social media continuance. Social media_sentence_269

This study provides an instrument to measure the burnout a user can experience when his or her social media "friends" are generating an overwhelming amount of useless information (e.g., "what I had for dinner", "where I am now"). Social media_sentence_270

A third emotional effect is the "fear of missing out" (FOMO), which is defined as the "pervasive apprehension that others might be having rewarding experiences from which one is absent". Social media_sentence_271

FOMO has been classified by some as a form of social anxiety. Social media_sentence_272

It is associated with checking updates on friends' activities on social media. Social media_sentence_273

Some speculate that checking updates on friends' activities on social media may be associated with negative influences on people's psychological health and well-being because it could contribute to negative mood and depressed feelings. Social media_sentence_274

Social impacts Social media_section_31

Disparity Social media_section_32

Further information: Digital divide Social media_sentence_275

The digital divide is a measure of disparity in the level of access to technology between households, socioeconomic levels or other demographic categories. Social media_sentence_276

People who are homeless, living in poverty, elderly people and those living in rural or remote communities may have little or no access to computers and the Internet; in contrast, middle class and upper-class people in urban areas have very high rates of computer and Internet access. Social media_sentence_277

Other models argue that within a modern information society, some individuals produce Internet content while others only consume it, which could be a result of disparities in the education system where only some teachers integrate technology into the classroom and teach critical thinking. Social media_sentence_278

While social media has differences among age groups, a 2010 study in the United States found no racial divide. Social media_sentence_279

Some zero-rating programs offer subsidized data access to certain websites on low-cost plans. Social media_sentence_280

Critics say that this is an anti-competitive program that undermines net neutrality and creates a "walled garden" for platforms like Facebook Zero. Social media_sentence_281

A 2015 study found that 65% of Nigerians, 61% of Indonesians, and 58% of Indians agree with the statement that "Facebook is the Internet" compared with only 5% in the US. Social media_sentence_282

Eric Ehrmann contends that social media in the form of public diplomacy create a patina of inclusiveness that covers traditional economic interests that are structured to ensure that wealth is pumped up to the top of the economic pyramid, perpetuating the digital divide and post-Marxian class conflict. Social media_sentence_283

He also voices concern over the trend that finds social utilities operating in a quasi-libertarian global environment of oligopoly that requires users in economically challenged nations to spend high percentages of annual income to pay for devices and services to participate in the social media lifestyle. Social media_sentence_284

Neil Postman also contends that social media will increase an information disparity between "winners" – who are able to use the social media actively – and "losers" – who are not familiar with modern technologies or who do not have access to them. Social media_sentence_285

People with high social media skills may have better access to information about job opportunities, potential new friends, and social activities in their area, which may enable them to improve their standard of living and their quality of life. Social media_sentence_286

Political polarization Social media_section_33

According to the Pew Research Center, a majority of Americans at least occasionally receive news from social media. Social media_sentence_287

Because of algorithms on social media which filter and display news content which are likely to match their users’ political preferences, a potential impact of receiving news from social media includes an increase in political polarization due to selective exposure. Social media_sentence_288

Political polarization refers to when an individual's stance on a topic is more likely to be strictly defined by their identification with a specific political party or ideology than on other factors. Social media_sentence_289

Selective exposure occurs when an individual favors information that supports their beliefs and avoids information that conflicts with their beliefs. Social media_sentence_290

A study by Hayat and Samuel-Azran conducted during the 2016 U.S. presidential election observed an "echo chamber" effect of selective exposure among 27,811 Twitter users following the content of cable news shows. Social media_sentence_291

The Twitter users observed in the study were found to have little interaction with users and content whose beliefs were different from their own, possibly heightening polarization effects. Social media_sentence_292

Efforts to combat selective exposure in social media may also cause an increase in political polarization. Social media_sentence_293

A study examining Twitter activity conducted by Bail et al. Social media_sentence_294

paid Democrat and Republican participants to follow Twitter handles whose content was different from their political beliefs (Republicans received liberal content and Democrats received conservative content) over a six-week period. Social media_sentence_295

At the end of the study, both Democrat and Republican participants were found to have increased political polarization in favor of their own parties, though only Republican participants had an increase that was statistically significant. Social media_sentence_296

Though research has shown evidence that social media plays a role in increasing political polarization, it has also shown evidence that social media use leads to a persuasion of political beliefs. Social media_sentence_297

An online survey consisting of 1,024 U.S. participants was conducted by Diehl, Weeks, and Gil de Zuñiga, which found that individuals who use social media were more likely to have their political beliefs persuaded than those who did not. Social media_sentence_298

In particular, those using social media as a means to receive their news were the most likely to have their political beliefs changed. Social media_sentence_299

Diehl et al. Social media_sentence_300

found that the persuasion reported by participants was influenced by the exposure to diverse viewpoints they experienced, both in the content they saw as well as the political discussions they participated in. Social media_sentence_301

Similarly, a study by Hardy and colleagues conducted with 189 students from a Midwestern state university examined the persuasive effect of watching a political comedy video on Facebook. Social media_sentence_302

Hardy et al. Social media_sentence_303

found that after watching a Facebook video of the comedian/political commentator John Oliver performing a segment on his show, participants were likely to be persuaded to change their viewpoint on the topic they watched (either payday lending or the Ferguson protests) to one that was closer to the opinion expressed by Oliver. Social media_sentence_304

Furthermore, the persuasion experienced by the participants was found to be reduced if they viewed comments by Facebook users which contradicted the arguments made by Oliver. Social media_sentence_305

Research has also shown that social media use may not have an effect on polarization at all. Social media_sentence_306

A U.S. national survey of 1,032 participants conducted by Lee et al. Social media_sentence_307

found that participants who used social media were more likely to be exposed to a diverse number of people and amount of opinion than those who did not, although using social media was not correlated with a change in political polarization for these participants. Social media_sentence_308

In a study examining the potential polarizing effects of social media on the political views of its users, Mihailidis and Viotty suggest that a new way of engaging with social media must occur to avoid polarization. Social media_sentence_309

The authors note that media literacies (described as methods which give people skills to critique and create media) are important to using social media in a responsible and productive way, and state that these literacies must be changed further in order to have the most effectiveness. Social media_sentence_310

In order to decrease polarization and encourage cooperation among social media users, Mihailidis and Viotty suggest that media literacies must focus on teaching individuals how to connect with other people in a caring way, embrace differences, and understand the ways in which social media has a real impact on the political, social, and cultural issues of the society they are a part of. Social media_sentence_311

Stereotyping Social media_section_34

Recent research has demonstrated that social media, and media in general, have the power to increase the scope of stereotypes not only in children but people of all ages. Social media_sentence_312

Three researchers at Blanquerna University, Spain, examined how adolescents interact with social media and specifically Facebook. Social media_sentence_313

They suggest that interactions on the website encourage representing oneself in the traditional gender constructs, which helps maintain gender stereotypes. Social media_sentence_314

The authors noted that girls generally show more emotion in their posts and more frequently change their profile pictures, which according to some psychologists can lead to self-objectification. Social media_sentence_315

On the other hand, the researchers found that boys prefer to portray themselves as strong, independent, and powerful. Social media_sentence_316

For example, men often post pictures of objects and not themselves, and rarely change their profile pictures; using the pages more for entertainment and pragmatic reasons. Social media_sentence_317

In contrast, girls generally post more images that include themselves, friends and things they have emotional ties to, which the researchers attributed that to the higher emotional intelligence of girls at a younger age. Social media_sentence_318

The authors sampled over 632 girls and boys from the ages of 12–16 from Spain in an effort to confirm their beliefs. Social media_sentence_319

The researchers concluded that masculinity is more commonly associated with positive psychological well-being, while femininity displays less psychological well-being. Social media_sentence_320

Furthermore, the researchers discovered that people tend not to completely conform to either stereotype, and encompass desirable parts of both. Social media_sentence_321

Users of Facebook generally use their profiles to reflect that they are a "normal" person. Social media_sentence_322

Social media was found to uphold gender stereotypes both feminine and masculine. Social media_sentence_323

The researchers also noted that traditional stereotypes are often upheld by boys more so than girls. Social media_sentence_324

The authors described how neither stereotype was entirely positive, but most people viewed masculine values as more positive. Social media_sentence_325

Effects on youth communication Social media_section_35

Social media has allowed for mass cultural exchange and intercultural communication. Social media_sentence_326

As different cultures have different value systems, cultural themes, grammar, and world views, they also communicate differently. Social media_sentence_327

The emergence of social media platforms fused together different cultures and their communication methods, blending together various cultural thinking patterns and expression styles. Social media_sentence_328

Social media has affected the way youth communicate, by introducing new forms of language. Social media_sentence_329

Abbreviations have been introduced to cut down on the time it takes to respond online. Social media_sentence_330

The commonly known "LOL" has become globally recognized as the abbreviation for "laugh out loud" thanks to social media. Social media_sentence_331

Another trend that influences the way youth communicates is (through) the use of hashtags. Social media_sentence_332

With the introduction of social media platforms such as Twitter, Facebook and Instagram, the hashtag was created to easily organize and search for information. Social media_sentence_333

Hashtags can be used when people want to advocate for a movement, store content or tweets from a movement for future use, and allow other social media users to contribute to a discussion about a certain movement by using existing hashtags. Social media_sentence_334

Using hashtags as a way to advocate for something online makes it easier and more accessible for more people to acknowledge it around the world. Social media_sentence_335

As hashtags such as #tbt ("throwback Thursday") become a part of online communication, it influenced the way in which youth share and communicate in their daily lives. Social media_sentence_336

Because of these changes in linguistics and communication etiquette, researchers of media semiotics have found that this has altered youth's communications habits and more. Social media_sentence_337

Social media has offered a new platform for peer pressure with both positive and negative communication. Social media_sentence_338

From Facebook comments to likes on Instagram, how the youth communicate, and what is socially acceptable is now heavily based on social media. Social media_sentence_339

Social media does make kids and young adults more susceptible to peer pressure. Social media_sentence_340

The American Academy of Pediatrics has also shown that bullying, the making of non-inclusive friend groups, and sexual experimentation have increased situations related to cyberbullying, issues with privacy, and the act of sending sexual images or messages to someone's mobile device. Social media_sentence_341

On the other hand, social media also benefits the youth and how they communicate. Social media_sentence_342

Adolescents can learn basic social and technical skills that are essential in society. Social media_sentence_343

Through the use of social media, kids and young adults are able to strengthen relationships by keeping in touch with friends and family, make more friends, and participate in community engagement activities and services. Social media_sentence_344

Criticism, debate and controversy Social media_section_36

Criticisms of social media range from criticisms of the ease of use of specific platforms and their capabilities, disparity of information available, issues with trustworthiness and reliability of information presented, the impact of social media use on an individual's concentration, ownership of media content, and the meaning of interactions created by social media. Social media_sentence_345

Although some social media platforms, such as servers in the decentralised Fediverse, offer users the opportunity to cross-post between independently run servers using a standard protocol such as ActivityPub, the dominant social network platforms have been criticized for poor interoperability between platforms, which leads to the creation of information silos, viz. isolated pockets of data contained in one social media platform. Social media_sentence_346

However, it is also argued that social media has positive effects, such as allowing the democratization of the Internet while also allowing individuals to advertise themselves and form friendships. Social media_sentence_347

Others have noted that the term "social" cannot account for technological features of a platform alone, hence the level of sociability should be determined by the actual performances of its users. Social media_sentence_348

There has been a dramatic decrease in face-to-face interactions as more and more social media platforms have been introduced with the threat of cyber-bullying and online sexual predators being more prevalent. Social media_sentence_349

Social media may expose children to images of alcohol, tobacco, and sexual behaviors. Social media_sentence_350

In regards to cyber-bullying, it has been proven that individuals who have no experience with cyber-bullying often have a better well-being than individuals who have been bullied online. Social media_sentence_351

Twitter is increasingly a target of heavy activity of marketers. Social media_sentence_352

Their actions focused on gaining massive numbers of followers, include use of advanced scripts and manipulation techniques that distort the prime idea of social media by abusing human trustfulness. Social media_sentence_353

British-American entrepreneur and author Andrew Keen criticizes social media in his book The Cult of the Amateur, writing, "Out of this anarchy, it suddenly became clear that what was governing the infinite monkeys now inputting away on the Internet was the law of digital Darwinism, the survival of the loudest and most opinionated. Social media_sentence_354

Under these rules, the only way to intellectually prevail is by infinite filibustering." Social media_sentence_355

This is also relative to the issue "justice" in the social network. Social media_sentence_356

For example, the phenomenon "Human flesh search engine" in Asia raised the discussion of "private-law" brought by social network platform. Social media_sentence_357

Comparative media professor José van Dijck contends in her book The Culture of Connectivity (2013) that to understand the full weight of social media, their technological dimensions should be connected to the social and the cultural. Social media_sentence_358

She critically describes six social media platforms. Social media_sentence_359

One of her findings is the way Facebook had been successful in framing the term 'sharing' in such a way that third party use of user data is neglected in favor of intra-user connectedness. Social media_sentence_360

Essena O'Neill attracted international coverage when she explicitly left social media. Social media_sentence_361

Trustworthiness and reliability Social media_section_37

There has been speculation that social media has become perceived as a trustworthy source of information by a large number of people. Social media_sentence_362

The continuous interpersonal connectivity on social media, for example, may lead to people regarding peer recommendations as indicators of the reliability of information sources. Social media_sentence_363

This trust can be exploited by marketers, who can utilize consumer-created content about brands and products to influence public perceptions. Social media_sentence_364

The trustworthiness of information can be improved by fact-checking. Social media_sentence_365

Some social media has started to employ this. Social media_sentence_366

Evgeny Morozov, a 2009–2010 Yahoo fellow at Georgetown University, contended that information uploaded to Twitter may have little relevance to the masses of people who do not use Twitter. Social media_sentence_367

In an article for the magazine Dissent titled "Iran: Downside to the 'Twitter Revolution'", Morozov wrote: Social media_sentence_368

In contrast, in the United States (where Twitter originated), the social network had 306 million accounts as of 2012. Social media_sentence_369

Professor Matthew Auer of Bates College casts doubt on the conventional wisdom that social media are open and participatory. Social media_sentence_370

He also speculates on the emergence of "anti-social media" used as "instruments of pure control". Social media_sentence_371

Criticism of data harvesting and data mining Social media_section_38

Further information: Social media mining Social media_sentence_372

Social media "mining" is a type of data mining, a technique of analyzing data to detect patterns. Social media_sentence_373

Social media mining is a process of representing, analyzing, and extracting actionable patterns from data collected from people's activities on social media. Social media_sentence_374

Google mines data in many ways including using an algorithm in Gmail to analyze information in emails. Social media_sentence_375

This use of the information will then affect the type of advertisements shown to the user when they use Gmail. Social media_sentence_376

Facebook has partnered with many data mining companies such as Datalogix and BlueKai to use customer information for targeted advertising. Social media_sentence_377

Massive amounts of data from social platforms allows scientists and machine learning researchers to extract insights and build product features. Social media_sentence_378

Ethical questions of the extent to which a company should be able to utilize a user's information have been called "big data". Social media_sentence_379

Users tend to click through Terms of Use agreements when signing up on social media platforms, and they do not know how their information will be used by companies. Social media_sentence_380

This leads to questions of privacy and surveillance when user data is recorded. Social media_sentence_381

Some social media outlets have added capture time and Geotagging that helps provide information about the context of the data as well as making their data more accurate. Social media_sentence_382

On April 10, 2018, in a hearing held in response to revelations of data harvesting by Cambridge Analytica, Mark Zuckerberg, the Facebook chief executive, faced questions from senators on a variety of issues, from privacy to the company's business model and the company's mishandling of data. Social media_sentence_383

This was Mr. Zuckerberg's first appearance before Congress, prompted by the revelation that Cambridge Analytica, a political consulting firm linked to the Trump campaign, harvested the data of an estimated 87 million Facebook users to psychologically profile voters during the 2016 election. Social media_sentence_384

Zuckerberg was pressed to account for how third-party partners could take data without users’ knowledge. Social media_sentence_385

Lawmakers grilled the 33-year-old executive on the proliferation of so-called fake news on Facebook, Russian interference during the 2016 presidential election and censorship of conservative media. Social media_sentence_386

Critique of activism Social media_section_39

For Malcolm Gladwell, the role of social media, such as Twitter and Facebook, in revolutions and protests is overstated. Social media_sentence_387

On one hand, social media makes it easier for individuals, and in this case activists, to express themselves. Social media_sentence_388

On the other hand, it is harder for that expression to have an impact. Social media_sentence_389

Gladwell distinguishes between social media activism and high-risk activism, which brings real changes. Social media_sentence_390

Activism and especially high-risk activism involves strong-tie relationships, hierarchies, coordination, motivation, exposing oneself to high risks, making sacrifices. Social media_sentence_391

Gladwell discusses that social media are built around weak ties and he argues that "social networks are effective at increasing participation — by lessening the level of motivation that participation requires". Social media_sentence_392

According to him "Facebook activism succeeds not by motivating people to make a real sacrifice, but by motivating them to do the things that people do when they are not motivated enough to make a real sacrifice". Social media_sentence_393

Disputing Gladwell's theory, in the study "Perceptions of Social Media for Politics: Testing the Slacktivism Hypothesis", Kwak and colleagues conducted a survey which found that people who are politically expressive on social media are also more likely to participate in offline political activity. Social media_sentence_394

Ownership of content Social media_section_40

Social media content is generated through social media interactions done by users through the site. Social media_sentence_395

There has always been a huge debate on the ownership of the content on social media platforms because it is generated by the users and hosted by the company. Social media_sentence_396

Added to this is the danger to the security of information, which can be leaked to third parties with economic interests in the platform, or parasites who comb the data for their own databases. Social media_sentence_397

Privacy Social media_section_41

Main article: Privacy concerns with social networking services Social media_sentence_398

Privacy rights advocates warn users on social media about the collection of their personal data. Social media_sentence_399

Some information is captured without the user's knowledge or consent through electronic tracking and third party applications. Social media_sentence_400

Data may also be collected for law enforcement and governmental purposes, by social media intelligence using data mining techniques. Social media_sentence_401

Data and information may also be collected for third party use. Social media_sentence_402

When information is shared on social media, that information is no longer private. Social media_sentence_403

There have been many cases in which young persons especially, share personal information, which can attract predators. Social media_sentence_404

It is very important to monitor what you share and to be aware of who you could potentially be sharing that information with. Social media_sentence_405

Teens especially share significantly more information on the internet now than they have in the past. Social media_sentence_406

Teens are much more likely to share their personal information, such as email address, phone number, and school names. Social media_sentence_407

Studies suggest that teens are not aware of what they are posting and how much of that information can be accessed by third parties. Social media_sentence_408

There are arguments that "privacy is dead" and that with social media growing more and more, some heavy social media users appear to have become quite unconcerned with privacy. Social media_sentence_409

Others argue, however, that people are still very concerned about their privacy, but are being ignored by the companies running these social networks, who can sometimes make a profit off of sharing someone's personal information. Social media_sentence_410

There is also a disconnect between social media user's words and their actions. Social media_sentence_411

Studies suggest that surveys show that people want to keep their lives private, but their actions on social media suggest otherwise. Social media_sentence_412

Everyone leaves a trail when they use social media. Social media_sentence_413

Every time someone creates a new social media account, they provide personal information that can include their name, birthdate, geographic location, and personal interests. Social media_sentence_414

In addition, companies collect data on user behaviors. Social media_sentence_415

All of this data is stored and leveraged by companies to better target advertising to their users. Social media_sentence_416

Another factor is ignorance of how accessible social media posts are. Social media_sentence_417

Some social media users who have been criticized for inappropriate comments stated that they did not realize that anyone outside their circle of friends would read their posts; in fact, on some social media sites, unless a user selects higher privacy settings, their content is shared with a wide audience. Social media_sentence_418

According to a 2016 article diving into the topic of sharing privately and the effect social media has on expectations of privacy, "1.18 billion people will log into their Facebook accounts, 500 million tweets will be sent, and there will be 95 million photos and videos posted on Instagram" in a day. Social media_sentence_419

Much of the privacy concerns individuals face stem from their own posts on a form of a social network. Social media_sentence_420

Users have the choice to share voluntarily and have been ingrained into society as routine and normative. Social media_sentence_421

Social media are a snapshot of our lives; a community we have created on the behaviors of sharing, posting, liking, and communicating. Social media_sentence_422

Sharing has become a phenomenon which social media and networks have uprooted and introduced to the world. Social media_sentence_423

The idea of privacy is redundant; once something is posted, its accessibility remains constant even if we select who is potentially able to view it. Social media_sentence_424

People desire privacy in some shape or form, yet also contribute to social media, which makes it difficult to maintain privacy. Social media_sentence_425

Mills offers options for reform which include copyright and the application of the law of confidence; more radically, a change to the concept of privacy itself. Social media_sentence_426

A 2014 Pew Research Center survey found that 91% of Americans "agree" or "strongly agree" that people have lost control over how personal information is collected and used by all kinds of entities. Social media_sentence_427

Some 80% of social media users said they were concerned about advertisers and businesses accessing the data they share on social media platforms, and 64% said the government should do more to regulate advertisers. Social media_sentence_428

According to the wall street journal published on February 17, 2019, According to UK law, Facebook did not protect certain aspects of the user data. Social media_sentence_429

The US government announced banning TikTok and WeChat from the States over national security concerns. Social media_sentence_430

The shutdown was announced for September 20, 2020. Social media_sentence_431

Access to TikTok was extended till 12 November 2020, and a federal court ruling on October 30, 2020, has blocked further implementation of restrictions that would lead to TikTok's shutdown. Social media_sentence_432

What happens to one's social media once one has died? Social media_section_42

Social media users may or may not know what happens to one's social media account(s) when one has died. Social media_sentence_433

This is a topic that is not discussed often, however, it is important that one knows one's options if one's loved ones have died. Social media_sentence_434

Social media is prevalent in today's society. Social media_sentence_435

There are many users on social media. Social media_sentence_436

There are many people that use social media for one's personal gain. Social media_sentence_437

There are also many people that use social media as a way to professionally network. Social media_sentence_438

It is important to note that each social media platform has created different guidelines for people whom have died. Social media_sentence_439

Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn and Pinterest all have different guidelines when it comes to deleting and/or deactivating someone's social media account(s) once someone has died. Social media_sentence_440

It is important to examine one's options on social media once someone has died. Social media_sentence_441

For Twitter, if the user has died, the company will work with an immediate family member to deactivate the account. Social media_sentence_442

Additionally, Twitter will not give the account to any person(s), regardless of the relationship. Social media_sentence_443

For Facebook, the company added a new setting last year that gives users the option of having their account permanently deleted when one dies. Social media_sentence_444

There is also an option for 'legacy contact' which means that the Facebook user can have a family and/or friend take over the account once the person has died. Social media_sentence_445

The 'legacy contact' option is under the security tab at the bottom of the page. Social media_sentence_446

For Instagram, there are two options for people who have died. Social media_sentence_447

Similarly to Facebook, the user can have the account memorialized with proof of death. Social media_sentence_448

To find out more on how one can memorialize one's Instagram account. Social media_sentence_449

The other option for Instagram is to have the account deleted once the person has died. Social media_sentence_450

One can request that an account be removed from Instagram if one has proof of the death and/or proof of the relationship with the person who has died. Social media_sentence_451

For LinkedIn, a family member can request that the account be shut down. Social media_sentence_452

There is a list of steps that one must follow to have one's account shut down. Social media_sentence_453

The list of steps includes the URL to the account, proof of relationship, one's email address, date of death, a link to one's obituary and the name of the last company the deceased worked for. Social media_sentence_454

To learn more about the steps one must take to get an account shut down. Social media_sentence_455

For Pinterest, to delete the account of someone who has died, one must email the company with the URL to one's account. Social media_sentence_456

One must also provide a death certificate and/or provide a link to one's obituary as well as proof of relationship to the deceased. Social media_sentence_457

Furthermore, it is important to note that there are options when it comes to deleting and/or deactivating social media accounts once someone has died. Social media_sentence_458

Ultimately, it is up to the person who has created the accounts to decide what one wants to do with one's social media account once one has died. Social media_sentence_459

Criticism of commercialization Social media_section_43

The commercial development of social media has been criticized as the actions of consumers in these settings have become increasingly value-creating, for example when consumers contribute to the marketing and branding of specific products by posting positive reviews. Social media_sentence_460

As such, value-creating activities also increase the value of a specific product, which could, according to the marketing professors Bernad Cova and Daniele Dalli, lead to what they refer to as "double exploitation". Social media_sentence_461

Companies are getting consumers to create content for the companies' websites for which the consumers are not paid. Social media_sentence_462

As social media usage has become increasingly widespread, social media has to a large extent come to be subjected to commercialization by marketing companies and advertising agencies. Social media_sentence_463

Christofer Laurell, a digital marketing researcher, suggested that the social media landscape currently consists of three types of places because of this development: consumer-dominated places, professionally dominated places and places undergoing commercialization. Social media_sentence_464

As social media becomes commercialized, this process have been shown to create novel forms of value networks stretching between consumer and producer in which a combination of personal, private and commercial contents are created. Social media_sentence_465

Debate over addiction Social media_section_44

Main article: Problematic social media use Social media_sentence_466

As one of the biggest preoccupations among adolescents is social media usage, researchers have begun using the term "F.A.D. Social media_sentence_467

", or "Facebook addiction disorder", a form of internet addiction disorder. Social media_sentence_468

FAD is characterized by compulsive use of the social networking site Facebook, which generally results in physical or psychological complications. Social media_sentence_469

The disorder, although not classified in the latest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) or by the World Health Organization, has been the subject of several studies focusing on the negative effects on the psyche. Social media_sentence_470

One German study, published in 2017, investigated a correlation between extensive use of the social networking site and narcissism; the results were published in the journal PLoS One. Social media_sentence_471

According to the findings: "FAD was significantly positively related to the personality trait narcissism and to negative mental health variables (depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms)." Social media_sentence_472

While these issues regarding social media addiction are continuous and increasing, there are ways to help reduce and curb one's social media obsessions. Social media_sentence_473

Turning off notifications (temporary or long-term) is one solution that is deemed beneficial in attempts to lessen social media addiction by resolving issues of distraction, for those who struggle with the habit of constantly refreshing social media platforms and checking for new notifications. Social media_sentence_474

Debate over use in academic settings Social media_section_45

Main articles: Use of social media in education and Social media in education Social media_sentence_475

Having social media in the classroom was a controversial topic in the 2010s. Social media_sentence_476

Many parents and educators have been fearful of the repercussions of having social media in the classroom. Social media_sentence_477

There are concerns that social media tools can be misused for cyberbullying or sharing inappropriate content. Social media_sentence_478

As result, cell phones have been banned from some classrooms, and some schools have blocked many popular social media websites. Social media_sentence_479

Many schools have realized that they need to loosen restrictions, teach digital citizenship skills, and even incorporate these tools into classrooms. Social media_sentence_480

Some schools permit students to use smartphones or tablet computers in class, as long as the students are using these devices for academic purposes, such as doing research. Social media_sentence_481

Using Facebook in class allows for the integration of multimodal content such as student-created photographs and video and URLs to other texts, in a platform that many students are already familiar with. Social media_sentence_482

Twitter can be used to enhance communication building and critical thinking and it provides students with an informal "back channel"), and extend discussion outside of class time. Social media_sentence_483

Censorship by governments Social media_section_46

Main article: Internet censorship Social media_sentence_484

Social media often features in political struggles to control public perception and online activity. Social media_sentence_485

In some countries, Internet police or secret police monitor or control citizens' use of social media. Social media_sentence_486

For example, in 2013 some social media was banned in Turkey after the Taksim Gezi Park protests. Social media_sentence_487

Both Twitter and YouTube were temporarily suspended in the country by a court's decision. Social media_sentence_488

A new law, passed by Turkish Parliament, has granted immunity to Telecommunications Directorate (TİB) personnel. Social media_sentence_489

The TİB was also given the authority to block access to specific websites without the need for a court order. Social media_sentence_490

Yet TİB's 2014 blocking of Twitter was ruled by the constitutional court to violate free speech. Social media_sentence_491

More recently, in the 2014 Thai coup d'état, the public was explicitly instructed not to 'share' or 'like' dissenting views on social media or face prison. Social media_sentence_492

In July of that same year, in response to WikiLeaks' release of a secret suppression order made by the Victorian Supreme Court, media lawyers were quoted in the Australian media to the effect that "anyone who tweets a link to the WikiLeaks report, posts it on Facebook, or shares it in any way online could also face charges". Social media_sentence_493

On 27 July 2020, in Egypt, two women were sentenced to two years of imprisonment for posting TikTok videos, which the government claims are “violating family values”. Social media_sentence_494

Decentralization and open standards Social media_section_47

Mastodon, GNU social, Diaspora, Friendica and other compatible software packages operate as a loose federation of mostly volunteer-operated servers, called the Fediverse, which connect with each other through the open source protocol ActivityPub. Social media_sentence_495

In early 2019, Mastodon successfully blocked the spread of violent right-wing extremism when the Twitter alternative Gab tried to associate with Mastodon, and their independent servers quickly contained its dissemination. Social media_sentence_496

In December 2019, Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey made a similar suggestion, stating that efforts would be taken to achieve an "open and decentralized standard for social media". Social media_sentence_497

Rather than "deplatforming", such standards would allow a more scalable, and customizable approach to content moderation and censorship, and involve a number of companies, in the way that e-mail servers work. Social media_sentence_498

Deplatforming Social media_section_48

Main articles: Deplatforming and Twitter suspensions Social media_sentence_499

Deplatforming is a form of Internet censorship in which controversial speakers or speech are suspended, banned, or otherwise shut down by social media platforms and other service providers that normally provide a venue for free expression. Social media_sentence_500

These kinds of actions are similar to alternative dispute resolution. Social media_sentence_501

As early as 2015, platforms such as Reddit began to enforce selective bans based, for example, on terms of service that prohibit "hate speech". Social media_sentence_502

According to technology journalist Declan McCullagh, "Silicon Valley's efforts to pull the plug on dissenting opinions" have included, as of 2018, Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube "devising excuses to suspend ideologically disfavored accounts". Social media_sentence_503

Law professor Glenn Reynolds dubbed 2018 the "Year of Deplatforming", in an August 2018 article in The Wall Street Journal. Social media_sentence_504

According to Reynolds, in 2018 "the internet giants decided to slam the gates on a number of people and ideas they don't like. Social media_sentence_505

If you rely on someone else's platform to express unpopular ideas, especially ideas on the right, you're now at risk." Social media_sentence_506

Reynolds cited Alex Jones, Gavin McInnes and Dennis Prager as prominent 2018 victims of deplatforming based on their political views, noting, "Extremists and controversialists on the left have been relatively safe from deplatforming." Social media_sentence_507

Most people see social media platforms as censoring objectionable political views. Social media_sentence_508

Reproduction of class distinctions Social media_section_49

According to Danah Boyd’s, "White Flight in Networked Publics? Social media_sentence_509

How Race and Class Shaped American Teen Engagement with MySpace and Facebook", the media plays a large role in shaping people's perceptions of specific social networking services. Social media_sentence_510

When looking at the site MySpace, after adults started to realize how popular the site was becoming with teens, news media became heavily concerned with teen participation and the potential dangers they faced using the site. Social media_sentence_511

As a result, teens avoided joining the site because of the associated risks (e.g. child predators and lack of control), and parents began to publicly denounce the site. Social media_sentence_512

Ultimately, the site was labeled as dangerous, and many were detracted from interacting with the site. Social media_sentence_513

As Boyd also describes, when Facebook initially launched in 2004, it solely targeted college students and access was intentionally limited. Social media_sentence_514

Facebook started as a Harvard-only social networking service before expanding to all other Ivy League schools. Social media_sentence_515

It then made its way to other top universities and ultimately to a wider range of schools. Social media_sentence_516

Because of its origins, some saw Facebook as an "elite" social networking service. Social media_sentence_517

While it was very open and accepting to some, it seemed to outlaw and shun out most others who didn't fit that "elite" categorization. Social media_sentence_518

These narratives propagated by the media influenced the large movement of teenage users from one social networking service to another. Social media_sentence_519

See also Social media_section_50

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social media.