Software categories

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Software categories are groups of software. Software categories_sentence_0

They allow software to be understood in terms of those categories. Software categories_sentence_1

Instead of the particularities of each package. Software categories_sentence_2

Different classification schemes consider different aspects of software. Software categories_sentence_3

Computer Software Software categories_section_0

Computer software can be put into categories based on common function, type, or field of use. Software categories_sentence_4

There are three broad classifications: Software categories_sentence_5

Software categories_unordered_list_0

Copyright status Software categories_section_1

The GNU Project categorizes software by copyright status: free software, open source software, public domain software, copylefted software, noncopylefted free software, lax permissive licensed software, GPL-covered software, the GNU operating system, GNU programs, GNU software, FSF-copyrighted GNU software, nonfree software, proprietary software, freeware, shareware, private software and commercial software. Software categories_sentence_6

Free software Software categories_section_2

Free software is software that comes with permission for anyone to use, copy and distribute, either verbatim or with modifications, either gratis or for a fee. Software categories_sentence_7

In particular, this means that source code must be available. Software categories_sentence_8

"If it's not the source, it's not software." Software categories_sentence_9

If a program is free, then it can potentially be included in a free operating system such as GNU, or free versions of the Linux system. Software categories_sentence_10

Free software in the sense of copyright license (and the GNU project) is a matter of freedom, not price. Software categories_sentence_11

But proprietary software companies typically use the term "free software" to refer to price. Software categories_sentence_12

Sometimes this means a binary copy can be obtained at no charge; sometimes this means a copy is bundled with a computer for sale at no additional charge. Software categories_sentence_13

Open source software Software categories_section_3

Open-source software is software with its source code made available under a certain license to its licensees. Software categories_sentence_14

It can be used and disseminated at any point, the source code is open and can be modified as required. Software categories_sentence_15

The one condition with this type of software is that when changes are made users should make these changes known to others. Software categories_sentence_16

One of the key characteristics of open source software is that it is the shared intellectual property of all developers and users. Software categories_sentence_17

The Linux operating system is one of the best-known examples of a collection of open-source software. Software categories_sentence_18

Copylefted software Software categories_section_4

Copylefted software is free software whose distribution terms ensure that all copies of all versions carry more or less the same distribution terms. Software categories_sentence_19

This means, for instance, that copyleft licenses generally disallows others to add additional requirements to the software (though a limited set of safe added requirements can be allowed) and require making source code available. Software categories_sentence_20

This shields the program, and its modified versions, from some of the common ways of making a program proprietary. Software categories_sentence_21

Some copyleft licenses block other means of turning software proprietary. Software categories_sentence_22

Copyleft is a general concept. Software categories_sentence_23

Copylefting an actual program requires a specific set of distribution terms. Software categories_sentence_24

Different copyleft licenses are usually “incompatible” due to varying terms, which makes it illegal to merge the code using one license with the code using the other license. Software categories_sentence_25

If two pieces of software use the same license, they are generally mergeable. Software categories_sentence_26

Non-copylefted free software Software categories_section_5

Noncopylefted free software comes from the author with permission to redistribute and modify and to add license restrictions. Software categories_sentence_27

If a program is free but not copylefted, then some copies or modified versions may not be free. Software categories_sentence_28

A software company can compile the program, with or without modifications, and distribute the as a proprietary software product. Software categories_sentence_29

The X Window System illustrates this approach. Software categories_sentence_30

The X Consortium releases X11 with distribution terms that make it non-copylefted free software. Software categories_sentence_31

If you wish, you can get a copy that has those distribution terms and is free. Software categories_sentence_32

However, nonfree versions are available and workstations and PC graphics boards for which nonfree versions are the only ones that work. Software categories_sentence_33

The developers of X11 made X11 nonfree for a while; they were able to do this because others had contributed their code under the same non-copyleft license. Software categories_sentence_34

Shareware Software categories_section_6

Shareware is software that comes with permission to redistribute copies but says that anyone who continues to use a copy is required to pay. Software categories_sentence_35

Shareware is not free software or even semi-free. Software categories_sentence_36

For most shareware, source code is not available; thus, the program cannot be modified. Software categories_sentence_37

Shareware does not come with permission to make a copy and install it without paying a license fee, including for nonprofit activity. Software categories_sentence_38

Freeware Software categories_section_7

Like shareware, freeware is software available for download and distribution without any initial payment. Software categories_sentence_39

Freeware never has an associated fee. Software categories_sentence_40

Things like minor program updates and small games are commonly distributed as freeware. Software categories_sentence_41

Though freeware is cost-free, it is copyrighted, so other people can't market the software as their own. Software categories_sentence_42

Microsoft TechNet and AIS Software categories Software categories_section_8

This classification has seven major elements. Software categories_sentence_43

They are: platform and management, education and reference, home and entertainment, content and communication, operations and professional, product manufacturing and service delivery, and line of business. Software categories_sentence_44

Software categories_unordered_list_1

Market-based categories Software categories_section_9

Horizontal applications Software categories_section_10

Vertical applications Software categories_section_11

Software categories_unordered_list_2


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software categories.