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Federal Republic of Somalia

Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya  (Somali) جمهورية الصومال الاتحادية  (Arabic)Somalia_header_cell_0_0_0


and largest citySomalia_header_cell_0_1_0

Official languagesSomalia_header_cell_0_2_0 Somali ArabicSomalia_cell_0_2_1
Foreign languagesSomalia_header_cell_0_3_0 Somalia_cell_0_3_1
ReligionSomalia_header_cell_0_4_0 IslamSomalia_cell_0_4_1
Demonym(s)Somalia_header_cell_0_5_0 SomaliSomalia_cell_0_5_1
GovernmentSomalia_header_cell_0_6_0 Federal parliamentary republicSomalia_cell_0_6_1
PresidentSomalia_header_cell_0_7_0 Mohamed Abdullahi MohamedSomalia_cell_0_7_1
Prime MinisterSomalia_header_cell_0_8_0 Mohamed Hussein RobleSomalia_cell_0_8_1
LegislatureSomalia_header_cell_0_9_0 Bicameral Federal ParliamentSomalia_cell_0_9_1
Land of PuntSomalia_header_cell_0_11_0 2,500 BCESomalia_cell_0_11_1
Proto-Somali formationSomalia_header_cell_0_12_0 1,200 BCESomalia_cell_0_12_1
Macrobian KingdomSomalia_header_cell_0_13_0 247 BCESomalia_cell_0_13_1
Somali city-statesSomalia_header_cell_0_14_0 1st centurySomalia_cell_0_14_1
Sultanate of MogadishuSomalia_header_cell_0_15_0 9th centurySomalia_cell_0_15_1
Ifat SultanateSomalia_header_cell_0_16_0 13th centurySomalia_cell_0_16_1
Ajuran SultanateSomalia_header_cell_0_17_0 13th centurySomalia_cell_0_17_1
Adal SultanateSomalia_header_cell_0_18_0 15th centurySomalia_cell_0_18_1
Sultanate of the GelediSomalia_header_cell_0_19_0 17th centurySomalia_cell_0_19_1
Hiraab ImamateSomalia_header_cell_0_20_0 17th centurySomalia_cell_0_20_1
Majerteen SultanateSomalia_header_cell_0_21_0 19th centurySomalia_cell_0_21_1
Sultanate of HobyoSomalia_header_cell_0_22_0 19th centurySomalia_cell_0_22_1
British SomalilandSomalia_header_cell_0_23_0 1884Somalia_cell_0_23_1
Italian SomalilandSomalia_header_cell_0_24_0 1889Somalia_cell_0_24_1
Independence and union with the State of SomalilandSomalia_header_cell_0_25_0 1 July 1960Somalia_cell_0_25_1
Admitted to the United NationsSomalia_header_cell_0_26_0 20 September 1960Somalia_cell_0_26_1
Current constitutionSomalia_header_cell_0_27_0 1 August 2012Somalia_cell_0_27_1
Area Somalia_header_cell_0_28_0
TotalSomalia_header_cell_0_29_0 637,657 km (246,201 sq mi) (43rd)Somalia_cell_0_29_1
2020 estimateSomalia_header_cell_0_31_0 15,893,219 (72nd)Somalia_cell_0_31_1
DensitySomalia_header_cell_0_32_0 19.31/km (50.0/sq mi) (199th)Somalia_cell_0_32_1
GDP (PPP)Somalia_header_cell_0_33_0 2019 estimateSomalia_cell_0_33_1
TotalSomalia_header_cell_0_34_0 US$13.324 billion (N/A)Somalia_cell_0_34_1
Per capitaSomalia_header_cell_0_35_0 US$888 (N/A)Somalia_cell_0_35_1
GDP (nominal)Somalia_header_cell_0_36_0 2019 estimateSomalia_cell_0_36_1
TotalSomalia_header_cell_0_37_0 US$5.218 billion (184th)Somalia_cell_0_37_1
Per capitaSomalia_header_cell_0_38_0 US$348 (193rd)Somalia_cell_0_38_1
HDI (2017)Somalia_header_cell_0_39_0 0.351


CurrencySomalia_header_cell_0_40_0 Somali shilling (SOS)Somalia_cell_0_40_1
Time zoneSomalia_header_cell_0_41_0 UTC+3 (EAT)Somalia_cell_0_41_1
Date formatSomalia_header_cell_0_42_0 dd/mm/yyyySomalia_cell_0_42_1
Driving sideSomalia_header_cell_0_43_0 rightSomalia_cell_0_43_1
Calling codeSomalia_header_cell_0_44_0 +252Somalia_cell_0_44_1
ISO 3166 codeSomalia_header_cell_0_45_0 SOSomalia_cell_0_45_1
Internet TLDSomalia_header_cell_0_46_0 .soSomalia_cell_0_46_1

Somalia, officially the Federal Republic of Somalia is a sovereign country in the Horn of Africa. Somalia_sentence_0

It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Kenya to the southwest. Somalia_sentence_1

Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa's mainland. Somalia_sentence_2

Its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains, and highlands. Somalia_sentence_3

Hot conditions prevail year-round, with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall. Somalia_sentence_4

Somalia has an estimated population of around 15 million and has been described as Africa's most culturally homogeneous country. Somalia_sentence_5

Around 85% of its residents are ethnic Somalis, who have historically inhabited the country's north. Somalia_sentence_6

Ethnic minorities are largely concentrated in the south. Somalia_sentence_7

The official languages of Somalia are Somali and Arabic. Somalia_sentence_8

Most people in the country are Muslims, the majority of them Sunni. Somalia_sentence_9

In antiquity, Somalia was an important commercial center. Somalia_sentence_10

It is among the most probable locations of the fabled ancient Land of Punt. Somalia_sentence_11

During the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade, including the Ajuran Sultanate, the Adal Sultanate, and the Sultanate of the Geledi. Somalia_sentence_12

The toponym Somalia was coined by the Italian explorer Luigi Robecchi Bricchetti. Somalia_sentence_13

In the late 19th century, Somalia was colonized by European powers, Britain and then Italy. Somalia_sentence_14

The British and Italians established the colonies of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. Somalia_sentence_15

In the interior, Mohammed Abdullah Hassan's Dervish movement managed to frustrate the British four times, forcing them to retreat to the coast, before finally being defeated in the 1920 Somaliland Campaign. Somalia_sentence_16

Italy acquired full control of the northeastern, central, and southern parts of the area after successfully waging the Campaign of the Sultanates against the ruling Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo. Somalia_sentence_17

In 1960, the two regions united to form the independent Somali Republic under a civilian government. Somalia_sentence_18

The Supreme Revolutionary Council seized power in 1969 and established the Somali Democratic Republic, which collapsed 22 years later, in 1991, with the onset of the Somali Civil War. Somalia_sentence_19

During this period most regions returned to customary and religious law. Somalia_sentence_20

In the early 2000s, a number of interim federal administrations were created. Somalia_sentence_21

The Transitional National Government (TNG) was established in 2000, followed by the formation of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) in 2004, which reestablished the Somali Armed Forces. Somalia_sentence_22

In 2006, the TFG assumed control of most of the nation's southern conflict zones from the newly formed Islamic Courts Union (ICU). Somalia_sentence_23

The ICU subsequently splintered into more radical groups, such as Al-Shabaab, which battled the TFG and its AMISOM allies for control of the region. Somalia_sentence_24

By mid-2012, the insurgents had lost most of the territory they had seized, and a search for more permanent democratic institutions began. Somalia_sentence_25

A new provisional constitution was passed in August 2012, reforming Somalia as a federation. Somalia_sentence_26

The same month, the Federal Government of Somalia was formed and a period of reconstruction began in Mogadishu. Somalia_sentence_27

Somalia has maintained an informal economy mainly based on livestock, remittances from Somalis working abroad, and telecommunications. Somalia_sentence_28

It is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, African Union, Non-Aligned Movement, and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Somalia_sentence_29

History Somalia_section_0

Main article: History of Somalia Somalia_sentence_30

Prehistory Somalia_section_1

Somalia has been inhabited since at least the Paleolithic period. Somalia_sentence_31

During the Stone Age, the Doian and Hargeisan cultures flourished here. Somalia_sentence_32

The oldest evidence of burial customs in the Horn of Africa comes from cemeteries in Somalia dating back to the 4th millennium BCE. Somalia_sentence_33

The stone implements from the Jalelo site in the north were also characterized in 1909 as important artefacts demonstrating the archaeological universality during the Paleolithic between the East and the West. Somalia_sentence_34

According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic period from the family's proposed urheimat ("original homeland") in the Nile Valley, or the Near East. Somalia_sentence_35

The Laas Geel complex on the outskirts of Hargeisa in northwestern Somalia dates back approximately 5,000 years, and has rock art depicting both wild animals and decorated cows. Somalia_sentence_36

Other cave paintings are found in the northern Dhambalin region, which feature one of the earliest known depictions of a hunter on horseback. Somalia_sentence_37

The rock art is in the distinctive Ethiopian-Arabian style, dated to 1,000 to 3,000 BCE. Somalia_sentence_38

Additionally, between the towns of Las Khorey and El Ayo in northern Somalia lies Karinhegane, the site of numerous cave paintings of real and mythical animals. Somalia_sentence_39

Each painting has an inscription below it, which collectively have been estimated to be around 2,500 years old. Somalia_sentence_40

Antiquity and classical era Somalia_section_2

Main articles: Somali Architecture and Sesea Somalia_sentence_41

Ancient pyramidical structures, mausoleums, ruined cities and stone walls, such as the Wargaade Wall, are evidence of an old civilization that once thrived in the Somali peninsula. Somalia_sentence_42

This civilization enjoyed a trading relationship with ancient Egypt and Mycenaean Greece since the second millennium BCE, supporting the hypothesis that Somalia or adjacent regions were the location of the ancient Land of Punt. Somalia_sentence_43

The Puntites traded myrrh, spices, gold, ebony, short-horned cattle, ivory and frankincense with the Egyptians, Phoenicians, Babylonians, Indians, Chinese and Romans through their commercial ports. Somalia_sentence_44

An Egyptian expedition sent to Punt by the 18th dynasty Queen Hatshepsut is recorded on the temple reliefs at Deir el-Bahari, during the reign of the Puntite King Parahu and Queen Ati. Somalia_sentence_45

In 2015, isotopic analysis of ancient baboon mummies from Punt that had been brought to Egypt as gifts indicated that the specimens likely originated from an area encompassing eastern Somalia and the Eritrea-Ethiopia corridor. Somalia_sentence_46

In the classical era, the Macrobians, who may have been ancestral to Somalis, established a powerful tribal kingdom that ruled large parts of modern Somalia. Somalia_sentence_47

They were reputed for their longevity and wealth, and were said to be the "tallest and handsomest of all men". Somalia_sentence_48

The Macrobians were warrior herders and seafarers. Somalia_sentence_49

According to Herodotus' account, the Persian Emperor Cambyses II, upon his conquest of Egypt in 525 BC, sent ambassadors to Macrobia, bringing luxury gifts for the Macrobian king to entice his submission. Somalia_sentence_50

The Macrobian ruler, who was elected based on his stature and beauty, replied instead with a challenge for his Persian counterpart in the form of an unstrung bow: if the Persians could manage to draw it, they would have the right to invade his country; but until then, they should thank the gods that the Macrobians never decided to invade their empire. Somalia_sentence_51

The Macrobians were a regional power reputed for their advanced architecture and gold wealth, which was so plentiful that they shackled their prisoners in golden chains. Somalia_sentence_52

The camel is believed to have been domesticated in the Horn region sometime between the 2nd and 3rd millennium BCE. Somalia_sentence_53

From there, it spread to Egypt and the Maghreb. Somalia_sentence_54

During the classical period, the Barbara city-states also known as sesea of Mosylon, Opone, Mundus, Isis, Malao, Avalites, Essina, Nikon and Sarapion developed a lucrative trade network, connecting with merchants from Ptolemaic Egypt, Ancient Greece, Phoenicia, Parthian Persia, Saba, the Nabataean Kingdom, and the Roman Empire. Somalia_sentence_55

They used the ancient Somali maritime vessel known as the beden to transport their cargo. Somalia_sentence_56

After the Roman conquest of the Nabataean Empire and the Roman naval presence at Aden to curb piracy, Arab and Somali merchants agreed with the Romans to bar Indian ships from trading in the free port cities of the Arabian peninsula to protect the interests of Somali and Arab merchants in the lucrative commerce between the Red and Mediterranean Seas. Somalia_sentence_57

However, Indian merchants continued to trade in the port cities of the Somali peninsula, which was free from Roman interference. Somalia_sentence_58

For centuries, Indian merchants brought large quantities of cinnamon to Somalia and Arabia from Ceylon and the Spice Islands. Somalia_sentence_59

The source of the cinnamon and other spices is said to have been the best-kept secret of Arab and Somali merchants in their trade with the Roman and Greek world; the Romans and Greeks believed the source to have been the Somali peninsula. Somalia_sentence_60

The collusive agreement among Somali and Arab traders inflated the price of Indian and Chinese cinnamon in North Africa, the Near East, and Europe, and made the cinnamon trade a very profitable revenue generator, especially for the Somali merchants through whose hands large quantities were shipped across sea and land routes. Somalia_sentence_61

Birth of Islam and the Middle Ages Somalia_section_3

Main articles: Somali aristocratic and court titles, Ifat Sultanate, Walashma dynasty, Sultanate of Mogadishu, Adal Sultanate, Ajuran Sultanate, and Warsangali Sultanate Somalia_sentence_62

Islam was introduced to the area early on by the first Muslims of Mecca fleeing prosecution during the first Hejira with Masjid al-Qiblatayn in Zeila being built before the Qiblah towards Mecca. Somalia_sentence_63

It is one of the oldest mosques in Africa. Somalia_sentence_64

In the late 9th century, Al-Yaqubi wrote that Muslims were living along the northern Somali seaboard. Somalia_sentence_65

He also mentioned that the Adal Kingdom had its capital in the city. Somalia_sentence_66

According to Leo Africanus, the Adal Sultanate was governed by local Somali dynasties and its realm encompassed the geographical area between the Bab el Mandeb and Cape Guardafui. Somalia_sentence_67

It was thus flanked to the south by the Ajuran Empire and to the west by the Abyssinian Empire. Somalia_sentence_68

In 1332, the Zeila-based King of Adal was slain in a military campaign aimed at halting Abyssinian emperor Amda Seyon I's march toward the city. Somalia_sentence_69

When the last Sultan of Ifat, Sa'ad ad-Din II, was also killed by Emperor Dawit I in Zeila in 1410, his children escaped to Yemen, before returning in 1415. Somalia_sentence_70

In the early 15th century, Adal's capital was moved further inland to the town of Dakkar, where Sabr ad-Din II, the eldest son of Sa'ad ad-Din II, established a new base after his return from Yemen. Somalia_sentence_71

Adal's headquarters were again relocated the following century, this time southward to Harar. Somalia_sentence_72

From this new capital, Adal organised an effective army led by Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Ahmad "Gurey" or "Gran"; both meaning "the left-handed") that invaded the Abyssinian empire. Somalia_sentence_73

This 16th-century campaign is historically known as the Conquest of Abyssinia (Futuh al-Habash). Somalia_sentence_74

During the war, Imam Ahmad pioneered the use of cannons supplied by the Ottoman Empire, which he imported through Zeila and deployed against Abyssinian forces and their Portuguese allies led by Cristóvão da Gama. Somalia_sentence_75

Some scholars argue that this conflict proved, through their use on both sides, the value of firearms such as the matchlock musket, cannon, and the arquebus over traditional weapons. Somalia_sentence_76

During the Ajuran Sultanate period, the sultanates and republics of Merca, Mogadishu, Barawa, Hobyo and their respective ports flourished and had a lucrative foreign commerce, with ships sailing to and coming from Arabia, India, Venetia, Persia, Egypt, Portugal, and as far away as China. Somalia_sentence_77

Vasco da Gama, who passed by Mogadishu in the 15th century, noted that it was a large city with houses several storeys high and large palaces in its centre, in addition to many mosques with cylindrical minarets. Somalia_sentence_78

The Harla, an early Hamitic group of tall stature who inhabited parts of Somalia, Tchertcher and other areas in the Horn, also erected various tumuli. Somalia_sentence_79

These masons are believed to have been ancestral to ethnic Somalis. Somalia_sentence_80

In the 16th century, Duarte Barbosa noted that many ships from the Kingdom of Cambaya in modern-day India sailed to Mogadishu with cloth and spices, for which they in return received gold, wax and ivory. Somalia_sentence_81

Barbosa also highlighted the abundance of meat, wheat, barley, horses, and fruit on the coastal markets, which generated enormous wealth for the merchants. Somalia_sentence_82

Mogadishu, the center of a thriving textile industry known as toob benadir (specialized for the markets in Egypt, among other places), together with Merca and Barawa, also served as a transit stop for Swahili merchants from Mombasa and Malindi and for the gold trade from Kilwa. Somalia_sentence_83

Jewish merchants from the Hormuz brought their Indian textile and fruit to the Somali coast in exchange for grain and wood. Somalia_sentence_84

Trading relations were established with Malacca in the 15th century, with cloth, ambergris and porcelain being the main commodities of the trade. Somalia_sentence_85

Giraffes, zebras and incense were exported to the Ming Empire of China, which established Somali merchants as leaders in the commerce between East Asia and the Horn. Somalia_sentence_86

Hindu merchants from Surat and Southeast African merchants from Pate, seeking to bypass both the Portuguese India blockade ( and later the Omani interference), used the Somali ports of Merca and Barawa (which were out of the two powers' direct jurisdiction) to conduct their trade in safety and without interference. Somalia_sentence_87

Early modern era and the scramble for Africa Somalia_section_4

Main articles: Geledi sultanate, Majeerteen Sultanate, Sultanate of Hobyo, and Dervish movement (Somali) Somalia_sentence_88

See also: Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland Somalia_sentence_89

In the early modern period, successor states to the Adal Sultanate and Ajuran Sultanate began to flourish in Somalia. Somalia_sentence_90

These included the Warsangali Sultanate, the Bari Dynasties, the Sultanate of the Geledi (Gobroon dynasty), the Majeerteen Sultanate (Migiurtinia), and the Sultanate of Hobyo (Obbia). Somalia_sentence_91

They continued the tradition of castle-building and seaborne trade established by previous Somali empires. Somalia_sentence_92

Sultan Yusuf Mahamud Ibrahim, the third Sultan of the House of Gobroon, started the golden age of the Gobroon Dynasty. Somalia_sentence_93

His army came out victorious during the Bardheere Jihad, which restored stability in the region and revitalized the East African ivory trade. Somalia_sentence_94

He also received presents from and had cordial relations with the rulers of neighbouring and distant kingdoms such as the Omani, Witu and Yemeni Sultans. Somalia_sentence_95

Sultan Ibrahim's son Ahmed Yusuf succeeded him and was one of the most important figures in 19th-century East Africa, receiving tribute from Omani governors and creating alliances with important Muslim families on the East African coast. Somalia_sentence_96

In northern Somalia, the Gerad Dynasty conducted trade with Yemen and Persia and competed with the merchants of the Bari Dynasty. Somalia_sentence_97

The Gerads and the Bari Sultans built impressive palaces and fortresses and had close relations with many different empires in the Near East. Somalia_sentence_98

In the late 19th century, after the Berlin Conference of 1884, European powers began the Scramble for Africa, which inspired the Dervish leader Mohammed Abdullah Hassan to rally support from across the Horn of Africa and begin one of the longest colonial resistance wars ever. Somalia_sentence_99

In several of his poems and speeches, Hassan emphasized that the British "have destroyed our religion and made our children their children" and that the Christian Ethiopians in league with the British were bent upon plundering the political and religious freedom of the Somali nation. Somalia_sentence_100

He soon emerged as "a champion of his country's political and religious freedom, defending it against all Christian invaders". Somalia_sentence_101

Hassan issued a religious ordinance stipulating that any Somali national who did not accept the goal of unity of Somalis, Greater Somalia and would not fight under his leadership would be considered to be kafir, or gaal. Somalia_sentence_102

He soon acquired weapons from the Ottoman Empire, Sudan, other Islamic and Arabian countries, and appointed ministers and advisers to administer different areas or sectors of Somalia. Somalia_sentence_103

In addition, he gave a clarion call for Somali unity and independence, in the process organizing his forces. Somalia_sentence_104

Hassan's Dervish movement had an essentially military character, and the Dervish revolt was fashioned on the model of a Salihiya brotherhood. Somalia_sentence_105

It was characterized by a rigid hierarchy and centralization. Somalia_sentence_106

Though Hassan threatened to drive the Christians into the sea, he executed the first attack by launching his first major military offensive with his 1,500 Dervish equipped with 20 modern rifles on the British soldiers stationed in the region. Somalia_sentence_107

He repulsed the British in four expeditions and had relations with the Central Powers of the Ottomans and the Germans. Somalia_sentence_108

In 1920, the Dervish movement collapsed after intensive aerial bombardments by Britain, and Dervish territories were subsequently turned into a protectorate. Somalia_sentence_109

The dawn of fascism in the early 1920s heralded a change of strategy for Italy, as the north-eastern sultanates were soon to be forced within the boundaries of La Grande Somalia according to the plan of Fascist Italy. Somalia_sentence_110

With the arrival of Governor Cesare Maria De Vecchi on 15 December 1923, things began to change for that part of Somaliland known as Italian Somaliland. Somalia_sentence_111

Italy had access to these areas under the successive protection treaties, but not direct rule. Somalia_sentence_112

The Fascist government had direct rule only over the Benadir territory. Somalia_sentence_113

Fascist Italy, under Benito Mussolini, attacked Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in 1935, with an aim to colonize it. Somalia_sentence_114

The invasion was condemned by the League of Nations, but little was done to stop it or to liberate occupied Ethiopia. Somalia_sentence_115

On 3 August 1940, Italian troops, including Somali colonial units, crossed from Ethiopia to invade British Somaliland, and by 14 August, succeeded in taking Berbera from the British. Somalia_sentence_116

A British force, including troops from several African countries, launched the campaign in January 1941 from Kenya to liberate British Somaliland and Italian-occupied Ethiopia and conquer Italian Somaliland. Somalia_sentence_117

By February, most of Italian Somaliland was captured and in March, British Somaliland was retaken from the sea. Somalia_sentence_118

The forces of the British Empire operating in Somaliland comprised the three divisions of South African, West African, and East African troops. Somalia_sentence_119

They were assisted by Somali forces led by Abdulahi Hassan with Somalis of the Isaaq, Dhulbahante, and Warsangali clans prominently participating. Somalia_sentence_120

The number of Italian Somalis began to decline after World War II, with fewer than 10,000 remaining in 1960. Somalia_sentence_121

Independence (1960–1969) Somalia_section_5

Main articles: State of Somaliland, Somali Republic, Greater Somalia, and Somali Youth League Somalia_sentence_122

Following World War II, Britain retained control of both British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland as protectorates. Somalia_sentence_123

In 1945, during the Potsdam Conference, the United Nations granted Italy trusteeship of Italian Somaliland as the Trust Territory of Somaliland, on the condition—first proposed by the Somali Youth League (SYL) and other nascent Somali political organizations, such as Hizbia Digil Mirifle Somali (HDMS) and the Somali National League (SNL)—that Somalia achieve independence within ten years. Somalia_sentence_124

British Somaliland remained a protectorate of Britain until 1960. Somalia_sentence_125

To the extent that Italy held the territory by UN mandate, the trusteeship provisions gave the Somalis the opportunity to gain experience in Western political education and self-government. Somalia_sentence_126

These were advantages that British Somaliland, which was to be incorporated into the new Somali state, did not have. Somalia_sentence_127

Although in the 1950s British colonial officials attempted, through various administrative development efforts, to make up for past neglect, the protectorate stagnated. Somalia_sentence_128

The disparity between the two territories in economic development and political experience would later cause serious difficulties integrating the two parts. Somalia_sentence_129

Meanwhile, in 1948, under pressure from their World War II allies and to the dismay of the Somalis, the British returned the Haud (an important Somali grazing area that was presumably protected by British treaties with the Somalis in 1884 and 1886) and the Somali Region to Ethiopia, based on a treaty they signed in 1897 in which the British ceded Somali territory to the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik in exchange for his help against possible advances by the French. Somalia_sentence_130

Britain included the conditional provision that the Somali residents would retain their autonomy, but Ethiopia immediately claimed sovereignty over the area. Somalia_sentence_131

This prompted an unsuccessful bid by Britain in 1956 to buy back the Somali lands it had turned over. Somalia_sentence_132

Britain also granted administration of the almost exclusively Somali-inhabited Northern Frontier District (NFD) to Kenyan nationalists. Somalia_sentence_133

This was despite a in which, according to a British colonial commission, almost all of the territory's ethnic Somalis favored joining the newly formed Somali Republic. Somalia_sentence_134

A referendum was held in neighbouring Djibouti (then known as French Somaliland) in 1958, on the eve of Somalia's independence in 1960, to decide whether or not to join the Somali Republic or to remain with France. Somalia_sentence_135

The referendum turned out in favour of a continued association with France, largely due to a combined yes vote by the sizable Afar ethnic group and resident Europeans. Somalia_sentence_136

There was also widespread vote rigging, with the French expelling thousands of Somalis before the referendum reached the polls. Somalia_sentence_137

The majority of those who voted 'no' were Somalis who were strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia, as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi, Vice President of the Government Council. Somalia_sentence_138

Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later. Somalia_sentence_139

Djibouti finally gained independence from France in 1977, and Hassan Gouled Aptidon, a Somali who had campaigned for a 'yes' vote in the referendum of 1976, eventually became Djibouti's first president (1977–1999). Somalia_sentence_140

On 1 July 1960, the two territories united to form the Somali Republic, albeit within boundaries drawn up by Italy and Britain. Somalia_sentence_141

A government was formed by Abdullahi Issa and Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal with other members of the trusteeship and protectorate governments, with Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf as President of the Somali National Assembly, Aden Abdullah Osman Daar as President of the Somali Republic, and Abdirashid Ali Shermarke as Prime Minister (later to become president from 1967 to 1969). Somalia_sentence_142

On 20 July 1961 and through a popular referendum, was ratified popularly by the people of Somalia under Italian trusteeship, But most of the people from the former Somaliland Protectorate didn't participated the referendum, due to the marginalization graveness made on their rights of power sharing of the unity government. Somalia_sentence_143

only small number of Somalilanders participated the referendum voted against the new constitution, which was first drafted in 1960. Somalia_sentence_144

In 1967, Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal became Prime Minister, a position to which he was appointed by Shermarke. Somalia_sentence_145

Egal would later become the President of the autonomous Somaliland region in northwestern Somalia. Somalia_sentence_146

On 15 October 1969, while paying a visit to the northern town of Las Anod, Somalia's then President Abdirashid Ali Shermarke was shot dead by one of his own bodyguards. Somalia_sentence_147

His assassination was quickly followed by a military coup d'état on 21 October 1969 (the day after his funeral), in which the Somali Army seized power without encountering armed opposition — essentially a bloodless takeover. Somalia_sentence_148

The putsch was spearheaded by Major General Mohamed Siad Barre, who at the time commanded the army. Somalia_sentence_149

Somali Democratic Republic (1969–1987) Somalia_section_6

Main articles: Somali Democratic Republic and 1969 Somali coup d'état Somalia_sentence_150

Alongside Barre, the Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) that assumed power after President Sharmarke's assassination was led by Lieutenant Colonel Salaad Gabeyre Kediye and Chief of Police Jama Korshel. Somalia_sentence_151

Kediye officially held the title "Father of the Revolution", and Barre shortly afterwards became the head of the SRC. Somalia_sentence_152

The SRC subsequently renamed the country the Somali Democratic Republic, dissolved the parliament and the Supreme Court, and suspended the constitution. Somalia_sentence_153

The revolutionary army established large-scale public works programs and successfully implemented an urban and rural literacy campaign, which helped dramatically increase the literacy rate. Somalia_sentence_154

In addition to a nationalization program of industry and land, the new regime's foreign policy placed an emphasis on Somalia's traditional and religious links with the Arab world, eventually joining the Arab League in 1974. Somalia_sentence_155

That same year, Barre also served as chairman of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), the predecessor of the African Union (AU). Somalia_sentence_156

In July 1976, Barre's SRC disbanded itself and established in its place the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (SRSP), a one-party government based on scientific socialism and Islamic tenets. Somalia_sentence_157

The SRSP was an attempt to reconcile the official state ideology with the official state religion by adapting Marxist precepts to local circumstances. Somalia_sentence_158

Emphasis was placed on the Muslim principles of social progress, equality and justice, which the government argued formed the core of scientific socialism and its own accent on self-sufficiency, public participation and popular control, as well as direct ownership of the means of production. Somalia_sentence_159

While the SRSP encouraged private investment on a limited scale, the administration's overall direction was essentially communist. Somalia_sentence_160

In July 1977, the Ogaden War broke out after Barre's government used a plea for national unity to justify an aggressive incorporation of the predominantly Somali-inhabited Ogaden region of Ethiopia into a Pan-Somali Greater Somalia, along with the rich agricultural lands of south-eastern Ethiopia, infrastructure, and strategically important areas as far north as Djibouti. Somalia_sentence_161

In the first week of the conflict, Somali armed forces took southern and central Ogaden and for most of the war, the Somali army scored continuous victories on the Ethiopian army and followed them as far as Sidamo. Somalia_sentence_162

By September 1977, Somalia controlled 90% of the Ogaden and captured strategic cities such as Jijiga and put heavy pressure on Dire Dawa, threatening the train route from the latter city to Djibouti. Somalia_sentence_163

After the siege of Harar, a massive unprecedented Soviet intervention consisting of 20,000 Cuban forces and several thousand Soviet experts came to the aid of Ethiopia's communist Derg regime. Somalia_sentence_164

By 1978, the Somali troops were ultimately pushed out of the Ogaden. Somalia_sentence_165

This shift in support by the Soviet Union motivated the Barre government to seek allies elsewhere. Somalia_sentence_166

It eventually settled on the Soviets' Cold War arch-rival, the United States, which had been courting the Somali government for some time. Somalia_sentence_167

All in all, Somalia's initial friendship with the Soviet Union and later partnership with the United States enabled it to build the largest army in Africa. Somalia_sentence_168

A new constitution was promulgated in 1979 under which elections for a People's Assembly were held. Somalia_sentence_169

However, Barre's Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party politburo continued to rule. Somalia_sentence_170

In October 1980, the SRSP was disbanded, and the Supreme Revolutionary Council was re-established in its place. Somalia_sentence_171

By that time, Barre's government had become increasingly unpopular. Somalia_sentence_172

Many Somalis had become disillusioned with life under military dictatorship. Somalia_sentence_173

The regime was weakened further in the 1980s as the Cold War drew to a close and Somalia's strategic importance was diminished. Somalia_sentence_174

The government became increasingly authoritarian, and resistance movements, encouraged by Ethiopia, sprang up across the country, eventually leading to the Somali Civil War. Somalia_sentence_175

Among the militia groups were the Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF), United Somali Congress (USC), Somali National Movement (SNM) and the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM), together with the non-violent political oppositions of the Somali Democratic Movement (SDM), the Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA) and the Somali Manifesto Group (SMG). Somalia_sentence_176

Isaaq genocide and Somali Civil War Somalia_section_7

Main articles: Somali Civil War, History of Somalia (1991–2006), and Isaaq genocide Somalia_sentence_177

The moral authority of Barre's government was gradually eroded, as many Somalis became disillusioned with life under military rule. Somalia_sentence_178

By the mid-1980s, resistance movements supported by Ethiopia's communist Derg administration had sprung up across the country. Somalia_sentence_179

Barre responded by ordering punitive measures against those he perceived as locally supporting the guerrillas, especially in the northern regions. Somalia_sentence_180

The clampdown included bombing of cities, with the northwestern administrative centre of Hargeisa, a Somali National Movement (SNM) stronghold, among the targeted areas in 1988. Somalia_sentence_181

The bombardment was led by General Mohammed Said Hersi Morgan, Barre's son-in-law. Somalia_sentence_182

During 1990, in the capital city of Mogadishu, the residents were prohibited from gathering publicly in groups greater than three or four. Somalia_sentence_183

Fuel shortages caused long lines of cars at petrol stations. Somalia_sentence_184

Inflation had driven the price of pasta (ordinary dry Italian noodles, a staple at that time) to five U.S. dollars per kilogram. Somalia_sentence_185

The price of khat, imported daily from Kenya, was also five U.S. dollars per standard bunch. Somalia_sentence_186

Paper currency notes were of such low value that several bundles were needed to pay for simple restaurant meals. Somalia_sentence_187

A thriving black market existed in the centre of the city as banks experienced shortages of local currency for exchange. Somalia_sentence_188

At night, the city of Mogadishu lay in darkness. Somalia_sentence_189

Close monitoring of all visiting foreigners was in effect. Somalia_sentence_190

Harsh exchange control regulations were introduced to prevent export of foreign currency. Somalia_sentence_191

Although no travel restrictions were placed on foreigners, photographing many locations was banned. Somalia_sentence_192

During daytime in Mogadishu, the appearance of any government military force was extremely rare. Somalia_sentence_193

Alleged late-night operations by government authorities, however, included "disappearances" of individuals from their homes. Somalia_sentence_194

In 1991, the Barre administration was ousted by a coalition of clan-based opposition groups, backed by Ethiopia's then-ruling Derg regime and Libya. Somalia_sentence_195

Following a meeting of the Somali National Movement and northern clans' elders, the northern former British portion of the country declared its independence as the Republic of Somaliland in May 1991. Somalia_sentence_196

Although de facto independent and relatively stable compared to the tumultuous south, it has not been recognized by any foreign government. Somalia_sentence_197

Many of the opposition groups subsequently began competing for influence in the power vacuum that followed the ouster of Barre's regime. Somalia_sentence_198

In the south, armed factions led by USC commanders General Mohamed Farah Aidid and Ali Mahdi Mohamed, in particular, clashed as each sought to exert authority over the capital. Somalia_sentence_199

In 1991, a multi-phased international conference on Somalia was held in neighbouring Djibouti. Somalia_sentence_200

Aidid boycotted the first meeting in protest. Somalia_sentence_201

Due to the legitimacy bestowed on Muhammad by the Djibouti conference, he was subsequently recognized by the international community as the new President of Somalia. Somalia_sentence_202

Djibouti, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Italy were among the countries that officially extended recognition to Muhammad's administration. Somalia_sentence_203

He was not able to exert his authority beyond parts of the capital. Somalia_sentence_204

Power was instead vied with other faction leaders in the southern half of Somalia and with autonomous sub-national entities in the north. Somalia_sentence_205

The Djibouti conference was followed by two abortive agreements for national reconciliation and disarmament, which were signed by 15 political stakeholders: an agreement to hold an Informal Preparatory Meeting on National Reconciliation, and the 1993 Addis Ababa Agreement made at the Conference on National Reconciliation. Somalia_sentence_206

Failed State Status and International Intervention Somalia_section_8

In the early 1990s, due to the protracted lack of a permanent central authority, Somalia began to be characterized as a "failed state". Somalia_sentence_207

Political scientist Ken Menkhaus argues that evidence suggested that the nation had already attained failed state status by the mid-1980s, while Robert I. Rotberg similarly posits that the state failure had preceded the ouster of the Barre administration. Somalia_sentence_208

Hoehne (2009), Branwen (2009) and Verhoeven (2009) also used Somalia during this period as a case study to critique various aspects of the "state failure" discourse. Somalia_sentence_209

UN Security Council Resolution 733 and UN Security Council Resolution 746 led to the creation of UNOSOM I, the first mission to provide humanitarian relief and help restore order in Somalia after the dissolution of its central government. Somalia_sentence_210

United Nations Security Council Resolution 794 was unanimously passed on 3 December 1992, which approved a coalition of United Nations peacekeepers led by the United States. Somalia_sentence_211

Forming the Unified Task Force (UNITAF), the alliance was tasked with assuring security until humanitarian efforts aimed at stabilizing the situation were transferred to the UN. Somalia_sentence_212

Landing in 1993, the UN peacekeeping coalition started the two-year United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) primarily in the south. Somalia_sentence_213

UNITAF's original mandate was to use "all necessary means" to guarantee the delivery of humanitarian aid in accordance to Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, and is regarded as a success. Somalia_sentence_214

Aidid saw UNOSOM II as a threat to his power and in June 1993 his militia attacked Pakistan Army troops, attached to UNOSOM II, (see Somalia (March 1992 to February 1996)) in Mogadishu inflicting over 80 casualties. Somalia_sentence_215

Fighting escalated until 19 American troops and more than 1,000 civilians and militia were killed in a raid in Mogadishu during October 1993. Somalia_sentence_216

The UN withdrew Operation United Shield on 3 March 1995, having suffered significant casualties, and with the rule of government still not restored. Somalia_sentence_217

In August 1996, Aidid was killed in Mogadishu. Somalia_sentence_218

Former UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros Ghali and Ahmedou Ould Abdallah, UN special envoy to Somalia have referred to the killing of civilians during the conflict as a "genocide". Somalia_sentence_219

Under the auspices of the UN, AU, Arab League and IGAD, a series of additional national reconciliation conferences were subsequently held as part of the peace process. Somalia_sentence_220

Among these summits were the 1997 National Salvation Council in Sodere, Ethiopia, the 1997 Cairo Peace Conference / Cairo Declaration, the 2000 Somalia National Peace Conference in Arta, Djibouti under the newly established Transitional National Government, the 2002 Somali Reconciliation Conference in Eldoret, Kenya, the 2003 National Reconciliation Conference in Nairobi, Kenya when the Transitional Federal Government was established and the Transitional Federal Charter was adopted, the 2004 Nairobi Conference, and the 2007 National Reconciliation Conference in Mogadishu. Somalia_sentence_221

Following the outbreak of the civil war, many of Somalia's residents left in search of asylum. Somalia_sentence_222

According to the UNHCR, there were around 975,951 registered refugees from the country in neighboring states as of 2016. Somalia_sentence_223

Additionally, 1.1 million people were internally displaced persons (IDPs). Somalia_sentence_224

The majority of the IDPs were Bantus and other ethnic minorities originating from the southern regions, including those displaced in the north. Somalia_sentence_225

An estimated 60% of the IDPs were children. Somalia_sentence_226

Causes of the displacement included armed violence, periodic droughts, and other natural disasters, which, along with diverted aid flows, hindered the IDPs' access to safe shelter and resources. Somalia_sentence_227

IDP settlements were concentrated in south-central Somalia (893,000), followed by the northern Puntland (129,000) and Somaliland (84,000) regions. Somalia_sentence_228

Additionally, there were around 9,356 registered refugees and 11,157 registered asylum seekers in Somalia. Somalia_sentence_229

Most of these foreign nationals emigrated from Yemen to Berbera after the Houthi insurgency in 2015. Somalia_sentence_230

However, the majority of emigrants to Somalia consist of Somali expatriates, who have returned to Mogadishu and other urban areas for investment opportunities and to take part in the ongoing post-conflict reconstruction process. Somalia_sentence_231

A consequence of the collapse of governmental authority that accompanied the civil war was the emergence of piracy in the unpatrolled Indian Ocean waters off of the coast of Somalia. Somalia_sentence_232

The phenomenon partly arose as an attempt by local fishermen to protect their livelihood from illegal fishing by foreigners. Somalia_sentence_233

In August 2008, a multinational coalition, Combined Task Force 150, took on the task of combating the piracy by establishing a Maritime Security Patrol Area (MSPA) within the Gulf of Aden. Somalia_sentence_234

Many ship owners have also hired private armed guards. Somalia_sentence_235

By October 2012, pirate attacks had dropped to a six-year low, with only one ship attacked in the third quarter compared to 36 during the same period in 2011. Somalia_sentence_236

Transitional institutions Somalia_section_9

Main articles: Transitional National Government, Transitional Federal Institutions, Transitional Federal Government, and Transitional Federal Parliament Somalia_sentence_237

The Transitional National Government (TNG) was established in April–May 2000 at the Somalia National Peace Conference (SNPC) held in Arta, Djibouti. Somalia_sentence_238

Abdiqasim Salad Hassan was selected as the President of the nation's new Transitional National Government (TNG), an interim administration formed to guide Somalia to its third permanent republican government. Somalia_sentence_239

The TNG's internal problems led to the replacement of the Prime Minister four times in three years, and the administrative body's reported bankruptcy in December 2003. Somalia_sentence_240

Its mandate ended at the same time. Somalia_sentence_241

On 10 October 2004, legislators elected Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed as the first President of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG), the Transitional National Government's successor. Somalia_sentence_242

the TFG was the second interim administration aiming to restore national institutions to Somalia after the 1991 collapse of the Siad Barre regime and the ensuing civil war. Somalia_sentence_243

The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) was the internationally recognised government of Somalia until 20 August 2012, when its tenure officially ended. Somalia_sentence_244

It was established as one of the Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs) of government as defined in the Transitional Federal Charter (TFC) adopted in November 2004 by the Transitional Federal Parliament (TFP). Somalia_sentence_245

The Transitional Federal Government officially comprised the executive branch of government, with the TFP serving as the legislative branch. Somalia_sentence_246

The government was headed by the President of Somalia, to whom the cabinet reported through the Prime Minister. Somalia_sentence_247

However, it was also used as a general term to refer to all three branches collectively. Somalia_sentence_248

Islamic Courts Union and Ethiopian intervention Somalia_section_10

See also: Battle of Mogadishu (2006), Rise of the Islamic Courts Union (2006), and Somalia War (2006–2009) Somalia_sentence_249

In 2006, the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), an Islamist organization, assumed control of much of the southern part of the country and promptly imposed Shari'a. Somalia_sentence_250

The Transitional Federal Government sought to reestablish its authority, and, with the assistance of Ethiopian troops, African Union peacekeepers and air support by the United States, managed to drive out the rival ICU and solidify its rule. Somalia_sentence_251

On 8 January 2007, as the Battle of Ras Kamboni raged, TFG President and founder Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, a former colonel in the Somali Army and decorated war hero, entered Mogadishu with the Ethiopian military support for the first time since being elected to office. Somalia_sentence_252

The government then relocated to Villa Somalia in the capital from its interim location in Baidoa. Somalia_sentence_253

This marked the first time since the fall of the Siad Barre regime in 1991 that the federal government controlled most of the country. Somalia_sentence_254

Following this defeat, the Islamic Courts Union splintered into several different factions. Somalia_sentence_255

Some of the more radical elements, including Al-Shabaab, regrouped to continue their insurgency against the TFG and oppose the Ethiopian military's presence in Somalia. Somalia_sentence_256

Throughout 2007 and 2008, Al-Shabaab scored military victories, seizing control of key towns and ports in both central and southern Somalia. Somalia_sentence_257

At the end of 2008, the group had captured Baidoa but not Mogadishu. Somalia_sentence_258

By January 2009, Al-Shabaab and other militias had managed to force the Ethiopian troops to retreat, leaving behind an under-equipped African Union peacekeeping force to assist the Transitional Federal Government's troops. Somalia_sentence_259

Due to a lack of funding and human resources, an arms embargo that made it difficult to re-establish a national security force, and general indifference on the part of the international community, President Yusuf found himself obliged to deploy thousands of troops from Puntland to Mogadishu to sustain the battle against insurgent elements in the southern part of the country. Somalia_sentence_260

Financial support for this effort was provided by the autonomous region's government. Somalia_sentence_261

This left little revenue for Puntland's own security forces and civil service employees, leaving the territory vulnerable to piracy and terrorist attacks. Somalia_sentence_262

On 29 December 2008, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed announced before a united parliament in Baidoa his resignation as President of Somalia. Somalia_sentence_263

In his speech, which was broadcast on national radio, Yusuf expressed regret at failing to end the country's seventeen-year conflict as his government had been mandated to do. Somalia_sentence_264

He also blamed the international community for their failure to support the government, and said that the speaker of parliament would succeed him in office per the Charter of the Transitional Federal Government. Somalia_sentence_265

Coalition government Somalia_section_11

See also: Al-Shabaab (militant group), Hizbul Islam, Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a, Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, Somali Civil War (2009–present), and 2009 timeline of the War in Somalia Somalia_sentence_266

Between 31 May and 9 June 2008, representatives of Somalia's federal government and the moderate Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) group of Islamist rebels participated in peace talks in Djibouti brokered by the former United Nations Special Envoy to Somalia, Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah. Somalia_sentence_267

The conference ended with a signed agreement calling for the withdrawal of Ethiopian troops in exchange for the cessation of armed confrontation. Somalia_sentence_268

Parliament was subsequently expanded to 550 seats to accommodate ARS members, which then elected Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, the former ARS chairman, to office. Somalia_sentence_269

President Sharif shortly afterwards appointed Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, the son of slain former President Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, as the nation's new Prime Minister. Somalia_sentence_270

With the help of a small team of African Union troops, the coalition government also began a counteroffensive in February 2009 to assume full control of the southern half of the country. Somalia_sentence_271

To solidify its rule, the TFG formed an alliance with the Islamic Courts Union, other members of the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, and Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a, a moderate Sufi militia. Somalia_sentence_272

Furthermore, Al-Shabaab and Hizbul Islam, the two main Islamist groups in opposition, began to fight amongst themselves in mid-2009. Somalia_sentence_273

As a truce, in March 2009, Somalia's coalition government announced that it would re-implement Shari'a as the nation's official judicial system. Somalia_sentence_274

However, conflict continued in the southern and central parts of the country. Somalia_sentence_275

Within months, the coalition government had gone from holding about 70% of south-central Somalia's conflict zones, territory that it had inherited from the previous Yusuf administration, to losing control of over 80% of the disputed territory to the Islamist insurgents. Somalia_sentence_276

During the coalition government's brief tenure and one year afterwards, due to the protracted lack of a permanent central authority, the Fund For Peace's Fragile States Index (FSI; formerly known as the Failed States Index) listed Somalia on top for six consecutive years between 2008 and 2013. Somalia_sentence_277

In 2009, Transparency International ranked the nation in last place on its annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), a metric that purports to show the prevalence of corruption in a country's public sector. Somalia_sentence_278

In mid-2010, the Institute for Economics and Peace also ranked Somalia in the next-to-last position in between war-afflicted Iraq and Afghanistan on its Global Peace Index. Somalia_sentence_279

On 14 October 2010, diplomat Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed, also known as Farmajo, was appointed the new Prime Minister of Somalia. Somalia_sentence_280

The former Premier Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke resigned the month before following a protracted dispute with President Sharif over a proposed draft constitution. Somalia_sentence_281

Per the Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic, Prime Minister Mohamed named a new Cabinet on 12 November 2010, which was lauded by the international community. Somalia_sentence_282

As had been expected, the allotted ministerial positions were significantly reduced in numbers from 39 to 18. Somalia_sentence_283

Additional members of the Independent Constitutional Commission were also appointed to engage Somali constitutional lawyers, religious scholars and experts in Somali culture over the nation's upcoming new constitution, a key part of the government's Transitional Federal Tasks. Somalia_sentence_284

In addition, high level federal delegations were dispatched to defuse clan-related tensions in several regions. Somalia_sentence_285

According to the prime minister of Somalia, to improve transparency, Cabinet ministers fully disclosed their assets and signed a code of ethics. Somalia_sentence_286

An Anti-Corruption Commission with the power to carry out formal investigations and to review government decisions and protocols was also established to more closely monitor all activities by public officials. Somalia_sentence_287

Furthermore, unnecessary trips abroad by members of government were prohibited, and all travel by ministers required the Premier's consent. Somalia_sentence_288

A budget outlining 2011's federal expenditures was also put before and approved by members of parliament, with the payment of civil service employees prioritized. Somalia_sentence_289

In addition, a full audit of government property and vehicles is being put into place. Somalia_sentence_290

On the war front, the new government and its AMISOM allies also managed to secure control of Mogadishu by August 2011. Somalia_sentence_291

According to the African Union and Prime Minister Mohamed, with increasing troop strength the pace of territorial gains was also expected to greatly accelerate. Somalia_sentence_292

Federal government Somalia_section_12

On 19 June 2011, Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed resigned from his position as Prime Minister of Somalia. Somalia_sentence_293

Part of the controversial Kampala Accord's conditions, the agreement saw the mandates of the President, the Parliament Speaker and Deputies extended until August 2012. Somalia_sentence_294

Abdiweli Mohamed Ali, Mohamed's former Minister of Planning and International Cooperation, was later named permanent Prime Minister. Somalia_sentence_295

In October 2011, a coordinated operation, Operation Linda Nchi between the Somali and Kenyan militaries and multinational forces began against the Al-Shabaab group of insurgents in southern Somalia. Somalia_sentence_296

A joint communiqué was issued indicating that Somali forces were leading operations. Somalia_sentence_297

By September 2012, Somali, Kenyan, and Raskamboni forces had managed to capture Al-Shabaab's last major stronghold, the southern port of Kismayo. Somalia_sentence_298

In July 2012, three European Union operations were also launched to engage with Somalia: EUTM Somalia, EU Naval Force Somalia Operation Atalanta off the Horn of Africa, and EUCAP Nestor. Somalia_sentence_299

As part of the official "Roadmap for the End of Transition", a political process that provided clear benchmarks leading toward the formation of permanent democratic institutions in Somalia, the Transitional Federal Government's interim mandate ended on 20 August 2012. Somalia_sentence_300

The Federal Parliament of Somalia was concurrently inaugurated. Somalia_sentence_301

The Federal Government of Somalia, the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the civil war, was later established in August 2012. Somalia_sentence_302

By 2014, Somalia was no longer at the top of the fragile states index, dropping to second place behind South Sudan. Somalia_sentence_303

UN Special Representative to Somalia Nicholas Kay, European Union High Representative Catherine Ashton and other international stakeholders and analysts have also begun to describe Somalia as a "fragile state" that is making some progress towards stability. Somalia_sentence_304

In August 2014, the Somali government-led Operation Indian Ocean was launched against insurgent-held pockets in the countryside. Somalia_sentence_305

The war continued in 2017. Somalia_sentence_306

In October 2017, more than 500 people were killed by twin bomb explosions in Somalia's capital city Mogadishu. Somalia_sentence_307

Geography Somalia_section_13

Main article: Geography of Somalia Somalia_sentence_308

Regions and districts Somalia_section_14

Main articles: Administrative divisions of Somalia and States and regions of Somalia Somalia_sentence_309

Somalia is officially divided into eighteen regions (gobollada, singular gobol), which in turn are subdivided into districts. Somalia_sentence_310

The regions are: Somalia_sentence_311


Regions of SomaliaSomalia_table_caption_1
RegionSomalia_header_cell_1_0_0 Area (km)Somalia_header_cell_1_0_1 PopulationSomalia_header_cell_1_0_2 CapitalSomalia_header_cell_1_0_3
AwdalSomalia_cell_1_1_0 21,374Somalia_cell_1_1_1 673,263Somalia_cell_1_1_2 BoramaSomalia_cell_1_1_3
Woqooyi GalbeedSomalia_cell_1_2_0 28,836Somalia_cell_1_2_1 1,242,003Somalia_cell_1_2_2 HargeisaSomalia_cell_1_2_3
TogdheerSomalia_cell_1_3_0 38,663Somalia_cell_1_3_1 721,363Somalia_cell_1_3_2 BuraoSomalia_cell_1_3_3
SanaagSomalia_cell_1_4_0 53,374Somalia_cell_1_4_1 544,123Somalia_cell_1_4_2 ErigavoSomalia_cell_1_4_3
SoolSomalia_cell_1_5_0 25,036Somalia_cell_1_5_1 327,428Somalia_cell_1_5_2 Las AnodSomalia_cell_1_5_3
BariSomalia_cell_1_6_0 70,088Somalia_cell_1_6_1 719,512Somalia_cell_1_6_2 BosasoSomalia_cell_1_6_3
NugalSomalia_cell_1_7_0 26,180Somalia_cell_1_7_1 392,697Somalia_cell_1_7_2 GaroweSomalia_cell_1_7_3
MudugSomalia_cell_1_8_0 72,933Somalia_cell_1_8_1 717,863Somalia_cell_1_8_2 GalkayoSomalia_cell_1_8_3
GalguduudSomalia_cell_1_9_0 46,126Somalia_cell_1_9_1 569,434Somalia_cell_1_9_2 DusmarebSomalia_cell_1_9_3
HiranSomalia_cell_1_10_0 31,510Somalia_cell_1_10_1 520,685Somalia_cell_1_10_2 BeledweyneSomalia_cell_1_10_3
Middle ShabelleSomalia_cell_1_11_0 22,663Somalia_cell_1_11_1 516,036Somalia_cell_1_11_2 JowharSomalia_cell_1_11_3
BanaadirSomalia_cell_1_12_0 370Somalia_cell_1_12_1 1,650,227Somalia_cell_1_12_2 MogadishuSomalia_cell_1_12_3
Lower ShabelleSomalia_cell_1_13_0 25,285Somalia_cell_1_13_1 1,202,219Somalia_cell_1_13_2 BarawaSomalia_cell_1_13_3
BakoolSomalia_cell_1_14_0 26,962Somalia_cell_1_14_1 367,226Somalia_cell_1_14_2 XuddurSomalia_cell_1_14_3
BaySomalia_cell_1_15_0 35,156Somalia_cell_1_15_1 792,182Somalia_cell_1_15_2 BaidoaSomalia_cell_1_15_3
GedoSomalia_cell_1_16_0 60,389Somalia_cell_1_16_1 508,405Somalia_cell_1_16_2 GarbahaarreeySomalia_cell_1_16_3
Middle JubaSomalia_cell_1_17_0 9,836Somalia_cell_1_17_1 362,921Somalia_cell_1_17_2 Bu'aaleSomalia_cell_1_17_3
Lower JubaSomalia_cell_1_18_0 42,876Somalia_cell_1_18_1 489,307Somalia_cell_1_18_2 KismayoSomalia_cell_1_18_3

Northern Somalia is now de facto divided up among the autonomous regions of Puntland (which considers itself an autonomous state) and Somaliland (a self-declared but unrecognized sovereign state). Somalia_sentence_312

In central Somalia, Galmudug is another regional entity that emerged just south of Puntland. Somalia_sentence_313

Jubaland in the far south is a fourth autonomous region within the federation. Somalia_sentence_314

In 2014, a new Southwestern Somalia was likewise established. Somalia_sentence_315

In April 2015, a formation conference was also launched for a new Central Regions State. Somalia_sentence_316

The Federal Parliament is tasked with selecting the ultimate number and boundaries of the autonomous regional states (officially Federal Member States) within the Federal Republic of Somalia. Somalia_sentence_317

Location Somalia_section_15

Somalia is bordered by Kenya to the southwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Guardafui Channel and Indian Ocean to the east, and Ethiopia to the west. Somalia_sentence_318

The country claims a border with Djibouti through the disputed territory of Somaliland to the northwest. Somalia_sentence_319

It lies between latitudes 2°S and 12°N, and longitudes 41° and 52°E. Somalia_sentence_320

Strategically located at the mouth of the Bab el Mandeb gateway to the Red Sea and the Suez Canal, the country occupies the tip of a region that, due to its resemblance on the map to a rhinoceros' horn, is commonly referred to as the Horn of Africa. Somalia_sentence_321

Waters Somalia_section_16

Main article: Islands of Somalia Somalia_sentence_322

Somalia has the longest coastline on the mainland of Africa, with a seaboard that stretches 3,333 kilometres (2,071 mi). Somalia_sentence_323

Its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains and highlands. Somalia_sentence_324

The nation has a total area of 637,657 square kilometres (246,201 sq mi) of which constitutes land, with 10,320 square kilometres (3,980 sq mi) of water. Somalia_sentence_325

Somalia's land boundaries extend to about 2,340 kilometres (1,450 mi); 58 kilometres (36 mi) of that is shared with Djibouti, 682 kilometres (424 mi) with Kenya, and 1,626 kilometres (1,010 mi) with Ethiopia. Somalia_sentence_326

Its maritime claims include territorial waters of 200 nautical miles (370 km; 230 mi). Somalia_sentence_327

Somalia has several islands and archipelagos on its coast, including the Bajuni Islands and the Saad ad-Din Archipelago: see islands of Somalia. Somalia_sentence_328

Habitat Somalia_section_17

In the north, a scrub-covered, semi-desert plain referred as the Guban lies parallel to the Gulf of Aden littoral. Somalia_sentence_329

With a width of twelve kilometres in the west to as little as two kilometres in the east, the plain is bisected by watercourses that are essentially beds of dry sand except during the rainy seasons. Somalia_sentence_330

When the rains arrive, the Guban's low bushes and grass clumps transform into lush vegetation. Somalia_sentence_331

This coastal strip is part of the Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands ecoregion. Somalia_sentence_332

Cal Madow is a mountain range in the northeastern part of the country. Somalia_sentence_333

Extending from several kilometres west of the city of Bosaso to the northwest of Erigavo, it features Somalia's highest peak, Shimbiris, which sits at an elevation of about 2,416 metres (7,927 ft). Somalia_sentence_334

The rugged east–west ranges of the Karkaar Mountains also lie to the interior of the Gulf of Aden littoral. Somalia_sentence_335

In the central regions, the country's northern mountain ranges give way to shallow plateaus and typically dry watercourses that are referred to locally as the Ogo. Somalia_sentence_336

The Ogo's western plateau, in turn, gradually merges into the Haud, an important grazing area for livestock. Somalia_sentence_337

Somalia has only two permanent rivers, the Jubba and Shabele, both of which begin in the Ethiopian Highlands. Somalia_sentence_338

These rivers mainly flow southwards, with the Jubba River entering the Indian Ocean at Kismayo. Somalia_sentence_339

The Shabele River at one time apparently used to enter the sea near Merca, but now reaches a point just southwest of Mogadishu. Somalia_sentence_340

After that, it consists of swamps and dry reaches before finally disappearing in the desert terrain east of Jilib, near the Jubba River. Somalia_sentence_341

Environment Somalia_section_18

Somalia is a semi-arid country with about 1.64% arable land. Somalia_sentence_342

The first local environmental organizations were Ecoterra Somalia and the Somali Ecological Society, both of which helped promote awareness about ecological concerns and mobilized environmental programs in all governmental sectors as well as in civil society. Somalia_sentence_343

From 1971 onward, a massive tree-planting campaign on a nationwide scale was introduced by the Siad Barre government to halt the advance of thousands of acres of wind-driven sand dunes that threatened to engulf towns, roads and farm land. Somalia_sentence_344

By 1988, 265 hectares of a projected 336 hectares had been treated, with 39 range reserve sites and 36 forestry plantation sites established. Somalia_sentence_345

In 1986, the Wildlife Rescue, Research and Monitoring Centre was established by Ecoterra International, with the goal of sensitizing the public to ecological issues. Somalia_sentence_346

This educational effort led in 1989 to the so-called "Somalia proposal" and a decision by the Somali government to adhere to the (CITES), which established for the first time a worldwide ban on the trade of elephant ivory. Somalia_sentence_347

Later, Fatima Jibrell, a prominent Somali environmental activist, mounted a successful campaign to salvage old-growth forests of acacia trees in the northeastern part of Somalia. Somalia_sentence_348

These trees, which can live for 500 years, were being cut down to make charcoal which was highly in demand in the Arabian Peninsula, where the region's Bedouin tribes believe the acacia to be sacred. Somalia_sentence_349

However, while being a relatively inexpensive fuel that meets a user's needs, the production of charcoal often leads to deforestation and desertification. Somalia_sentence_350

As a way of addressing this problem, Jibrell and the Horn of Africa Relief and Development Organization (Horn Relief; now Adeso), an organization of which she was the founder and Executive Director, trained a group of teens to educate the public on the permanent damage that producing charcoal can create. Somalia_sentence_351

In 1999, Horn Relief coordinated a peace march in the northeastern Puntland region of Somalia to put an end to the so-called "charcoal wars". Somalia_sentence_352

As a result of Jibrell's lobbying and education efforts, the Puntland government in 2000 prohibited the exportation of charcoal. Somalia_sentence_353

The government has also since enforced the ban, which has reportedly led to an 80% drop in exports of the product. Somalia_sentence_354

Jibrell was awarded the Goldman Environmental Prize in 2002 for her efforts against environmental degradation and desertification. Somalia_sentence_355

In 2008, she also won the National Geographic Society/Buffett Foundation Award for Leadership in Conservation. Somalia_sentence_356

Following the massive tsunami of December 2004, there have also emerged allegations that after the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in the late 1980s, Somalia's long, remote shoreline was used as a dump site for the disposal of toxic waste. Somalia_sentence_357

The huge waves that battered northern Somalia after the tsunami are believed to have stirred up tons of nuclear and toxic waste that might have been dumped illegally in the country by foreign firms. Somalia_sentence_358

The European Green Party followed up these revelations by presenting before the press and the European Parliament in Strasbourg copies of contracts signed by two European companies — the Italian Swiss firm, Achair Partners, and an Italian waste broker, Progresso — and representatives of the then President of Somalia, the faction leader Ali Mahdi Mohamed, to accept 10 million tonnes of toxic waste in exchange for $80 million (then about £60 million). Somalia_sentence_359

According to reports by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the waste has resulted in far higher than normal cases of respiratory infections, mouth ulcers and bleeding, abdominal haemorrhages and unusual skin infections among many inhabitants of the areas around the northeastern towns of Hobyo and Benadir on the Indian Ocean coast — diseases consistent with radiation sickness. Somalia_sentence_360

UNEP adds that the situation along the Somali coastline poses a very serious environmental hazard not only in Somalia, but also in the eastern Africa sub-region. Somalia_sentence_361

Climate Somalia_section_19

Due to Somalia's proximity to the equator, there is not much seasonal variation in its climate. Somalia_sentence_362

Hot conditions prevail year-round along with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall. Somalia_sentence_363

Mean daily maximum temperatures range from 30 to 40 °C (86 to 104 °F), except at higher elevations along the eastern seaboard, where the effects of a cold offshore current can be felt. Somalia_sentence_364

In Mogadishu, for instance, average afternoon highs range from 28 to 32 °C (82 to 90 °F) in April. Somalia_sentence_365

Some of the highest mean annual temperatures in the world have been recorded in the country; Berbera on the northwestern coast has an afternoon high that averages more than 38 °C (100 °F) from June through September. Somalia_sentence_366

Nationally, mean daily minimums usually vary from about 15 to 30 °C (59 to 86 °F). Somalia_sentence_367

The greatest range in climate occurs in northern Somalia, where temperatures sometimes surpass 45 °C (113 °F) in July on the littoral plains and drop below the freezing point during December in the highlands. Somalia_sentence_368

In this region, relative humidity ranges from about 40% in the mid-afternoon to 85% at night, changing somewhat according to the season. Somalia_sentence_369

Unlike the climates of most other countries at this latitude, conditions in Somalia range from arid in the northeastern and central regions to semiarid in the northwest and south. Somalia_sentence_370

In the northeast, annual rainfall is less than 100 mm (4 in); in the central plateaus, it is about 200 to 300 mm (8 to 12 in). Somalia_sentence_371

The northwestern and southwestern parts of the nation, however, receive considerably more rain, with an average of 510 to 610 mm (20 to 24 in) falling per year. Somalia_sentence_372

Although the coastal regions are hot and humid throughout the year, the hinterland is typically dry and hot. Somalia_sentence_373

There are four main seasons around which pastoral and agricultural life revolve, and these are dictated by shifts in the wind patterns. Somalia_sentence_374

From December to March is the Jilal, the harshest dry season of the year. Somalia_sentence_375

The main rainy season, referred to as the Gu, lasts from April to June. Somalia_sentence_376

This period is characterized by the southwest monsoons, which rejuvenate the pasture land, especially the central plateau, and briefly transform the desert into lush vegetation. Somalia_sentence_377

From July to September is the second dry season, the Xagaa (pronounced "Hagaa"). Somalia_sentence_378

The Dayr, which is the shortest rainy season, lasts from October to December. Somalia_sentence_379

The tangambili periods that intervene between the two monsoons (October–November and March–May) are hot and humid. Somalia_sentence_380

Wildlife Somalia_section_20

Main article: Wildlife of Somalia Somalia_sentence_381

Somalia contains a variety of mammals due to its geographical and climatic diversity. Somalia_sentence_382

Wildlife still occurring includes cheetah, lion, reticulated giraffe, baboon, serval, elephant, bushpig, gazelle, ibex, kudu, dik-dik, oribi, Somali wild ass, reedbuck and Grévy's zebra, elephant shrew, rock hyrax, golden mole and antelope. Somalia_sentence_383

It also has a large population of the dromedary camel. Somalia_sentence_384

Somalia is home to around 727 species of birds. Somalia_sentence_385

Of these, eight are endemic, one has been introduced by humans, and one is rare or accidental. Somalia_sentence_386

Fourteen species are globally threatened. Somalia_sentence_387

Birds species found exclusively in the country include the Somali Pigeon, Alaemon hamertoni (Alaudidae), Lesser Hoopoe-Lark, Heteromirafra archeri (Alaudidae), Archer's Lark, Mirafra ashi, Ash's Bushlark, Mirafra somalica (Alaudidae), Somali Bushlark, Spizocorys obbiensis (Alaudidae), Obbia Lark, Carduelis johannis (Fringillidae), and Warsangli Linnet. Somalia_sentence_388

Somalia's territorial waters are prime fishing grounds for highly migratory marine species, such as tuna. Somalia_sentence_389

A narrow but productive continental shelf contains several demersal fish and crustacean species. Somalia_sentence_390

Fish species found exclusively in the nation include Cirrhitichthys randalli (Cirrhitidae), Symphurus fuscus (Cynoglossidae), Parapercis simulata OC (Pinguipedidae), Cociella somaliensis OC (Platycephalidae), and Pseudochromis melanotus (Pseudochromidae). Somalia_sentence_391

There are roughly 235 species of reptiles. Somalia_sentence_392

Of these, almost half live in the northern areas. Somalia_sentence_393

Reptiles endemic to Somalia include the Hughes' saw-scaled viper, the Southern Somali garter snake, a racer (Platyceps messanai), a diadem snake (Spalerosophis josephscorteccii), the Somali sand boa, the angled worm lizard, a spiny-tailed lizard (Uromastyx macfadyeni), Lanza's agama, a gecko (Hemidactylus granchii), the Somali semaphore gecko, and a sand lizard (Mesalina or Eremias). Somalia_sentence_394

A colubrid snake (Aprosdoketophis andreonei) and Haacke-Greer's skink (Haackgreerius miopus) are endemic species. Somalia_sentence_395

Politics and government Somalia_section_21

Main article: Politics of Somalia Somalia_sentence_396

Somalia is a parliamentary representative democratic republic. Somalia_sentence_397

The President of Somalia is the head of state and commander-in-chief of the Somali Armed Forces and selects a Prime Minister to act as head of government. Somalia_sentence_398

The Federal Parliament of Somalia is the national parliament of Somalia. Somalia_sentence_399

The bicameral National Legislature consists of the House of the People (lower house) and the Senate (upper house), whose members are elected to serve four-year terms. Somalia_sentence_400

The parliament elects the President, Speaker of Parliament and Deputy Speakers. Somalia_sentence_401

It also has the authority to pass and veto laws. Somalia_sentence_402

On 10 September 2012, parliament elected Hassan Sheikh Mohamud as the new President of Somalia. Somalia_sentence_403

President Mohamud later appointed Abdi Farah Shirdon as the new Prime Minister on 6 October 2012, who was succeeded in office by Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed on 21 December 2013. Somalia_sentence_404

On 17 December 2014, former Premier Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke was reappointed Prime Minister. Somalia_sentence_405

The Judiciary of Somalia is defined by the Provisional Constitution of the Federal Republic of Somalia. Somalia_sentence_406

Adopted on 1 August 2012 by a National Constitutional Assembly in Mogadishu, the document was formulated by a committee of specialists chaired by attorney and incumbent Speaker of the Federal Parliament, Mohamed Osman Jawari. Somalia_sentence_407

It provides the legal foundation for the existence of the Federal Republic and source of legal authority. Somalia_sentence_408

The national court structure is organized into three tiers: the Constitutional Court, Federal Government level courts and State level courts. Somalia_sentence_409

A nine-member Judicial Service Commission appoints any Federal tier member of the judiciary. Somalia_sentence_410

It also selects and presents potential Constitutional Court judges to the House of the People of the Federal Parliament for approval. Somalia_sentence_411

If endorsed, the President appoints the candidate as a judge of the Constitutional Court. Somalia_sentence_412

The five-member Constitutional Court adjudicates issues pertaining to the constitution, in addition to various Federal and sub-national matters. Somalia_sentence_413

Somali law draws from a mixture of three different systems: civil law, Islamic law and customary law. Somalia_sentence_414

Foreign relations Somalia_section_22

Main article: Foreign relations of Somalia Somalia_sentence_415

Somalia's foreign relations are handled by the President as the head of state, the Prime Minister as the head of government, and the federal Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Somalia_sentence_416

According to Article 54 of the national constitution, the allocation of powers and resources between the Federal Government and the Federal Republic of Somalia's constituent Federal Member States shall be negotiated and agreed upon by the Federal Government and the Federal Member States, except in matters pertaining to foreign affairs, national defence, citizenship and immigration, and monetary policy. Somalia_sentence_417

Article 53 also stipulates that the Federal Government shall consult the Federal Member States on major issues related to international agreements, including negotiations vis-a-vis foreign trade, finance and treaties. Somalia_sentence_418

The Federal Government maintains bilateral relations with a number of other central governments in the international community. Somalia_sentence_419

Among these are Djibouti, Ethiopia, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Turkey, Italy, the United Kingdom, Denmark, France, the United States, the People's Republic of China, Japan, Russian Federation and South Korea. Somalia_sentence_420

Additionally, Somalia has several diplomatic missions abroad. Somalia_sentence_421

There are likewise various foreign embassies and consulates based in the capital Mogadishu and elsewhere in the country. Somalia_sentence_422

Somalia is also a member of many international organizations, such as the United Nations, African Union and Arab League. Somalia_sentence_423

It was a founding member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation in 1969. Somalia_sentence_424

Other memberships include the African Development Bank, Group of 77, Intergovernmental Authority on Development, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Development Association, International Finance Corporation, Non-Aligned Movement, World Federation of Trade Unions and World Meteorological Organization. Somalia_sentence_425

Military Somalia_section_23

Main article: Somali Armed Forces Somalia_sentence_426

The Somali Armed Forces (SAF) are the military forces of the Federal Republic of Somalia. Somalia_sentence_427

Headed by the President as Commander in Chief, they are constitutionally mandated to ensure the nation's sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity. Somalia_sentence_428

The SAF was initially made up of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force and the National Security Service. Somalia_sentence_429

In the post-independence period, it grew to become among the larger militaries on the continent. Somalia_sentence_430

The subsequent outbreak of the civil war in 1991 led to the disbandment of the Somali National Army. Somalia_sentence_431

In 2004, the gradual process of reconstituting the military was put in motion with the establishment of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG). Somalia_sentence_432

The Somali Armed Forces are now overseen by the Ministry of Defence of the Federal Government of Somalia, formed in mid-2012. Somalia_sentence_433

In January 2013, the Somali federal government also re-opened the national intelligence service in Mogadishu, renaming the agency the National Intelligence and Security Agency (NISA). Somalia_sentence_434

The Somaliland and Puntland regional governments maintain their own security and police forces. Somalia_sentence_435

Human rights Somalia_section_24

Main article: Human rights in Somalia Somalia_sentence_436

Both male and female same-sex sexual activity is illegal and could be punished by up to death. Somalia_sentence_437

On October 3, 2020, a UN human rights investigator raised concerns over Somali government’s backtracking of human rights commitments. Somalia_sentence_438

According to information collected by the investigator, Somali authorities were regressing on commitments to protect peoples’ economic, social and cultural rights. Somalia_sentence_439

Economy Somalia_section_25

Main article: Economy of Somalia Somalia_sentence_440

According to the CIA and the Central Bank of Somalia, despite experiencing civil unrest, Somalia has maintained a healthy informal economy, based mainly on livestock, remittance/money transfer companies and telecommunications. Somalia_sentence_441

Due to a dearth of formal government statistics and the recent civil war, it is difficult to gauge the size or growth of the economy. Somalia_sentence_442

For 1994, the CIA estimated the GDP at $3.3 billion. Somalia_sentence_443

In 2001, it was estimated to be $4.1 billion. Somalia_sentence_444

By 2009, the CIA estimated that the GDP had grown to $5.731 billion, with a projected real growth rate of 2.6%. Somalia_sentence_445

According to a 2007 British Chambers of Commerce report, the private sector also grew, particularly in the service sector. Somalia_sentence_446

Unlike the pre-civil war period when most services and the industrial sector were government-run, there has been substantial, albeit unmeasured, private investment in commercial activities; this has been largely financed by the Somali diaspora, and includes trade and marketing, money transfer services, transportation, communications, fishery equipment, airlines, telecommunications, education, health, construction and hotels. Somalia_sentence_447

Libertarian economist Peter Leeson attributes this increased economic activity to the Somali customary law (referred to as Xeer), which he suggests provides a stable environment to conduct business in. Somalia_sentence_448

According to the Central Bank of Somalia, the country's GDP per capita as of 2012 is $226, a slight reduction in real terms from 1990. Somalia_sentence_449

About 43% of the population lives on less than 1 US dollar a day, with around 24% of those found in urban areas and 54% living in rural areas. Somalia_sentence_450

Somalia's economy consists of both traditional and modern production, with a gradual shift toward modern industrial techniques. Somalia_sentence_451

Somalia has the largest population of camels in the world. Somalia_sentence_452

According to the Central Bank of Somalia, about 80% of the population are nomadic or semi-nomadic pastoralists, who keep goats, sheep, camels and cattle. Somalia_sentence_453

The nomads also gather resins and gums to supplement their income. Somalia_sentence_454

Agriculture Somalia_section_26

See also: Agriculture in Somalia Somalia_sentence_455

Agriculture is the most important economic sector of Somalia. Somalia_sentence_456

It accounts for about 65% of the GDP and employs 65% of the workforce. Somalia_sentence_457

Livestock contributes about 40% to GDP and more than 50% of export earnings. Somalia_sentence_458

Other principal exports include fish, charcoal and bananas; sugar, sorghum and corn are products for the domestic market. Somalia_sentence_459

According to the Central Bank of Somalia, imports of goods total about $460 million per year, surpassing aggregate imports prior to the start of the civil war in 1991. Somalia_sentence_460

Exports, which total about $270 million annually, have also surpassed pre-war aggregate export levels. Somalia_sentence_461

Somalia has a trade deficit of about $190 million per year, but this is exceeded by remittances sent by Somalis in the diaspora, estimated to be about $1 billion. Somalia_sentence_462

With the advantage of being located near the Arabian Peninsula, Somali traders have increasingly begun to challenge Australia's traditional dominance over the Gulf Arab livestock and meat market, offering quality animals at very low prices. Somalia_sentence_463

In response, Gulf Arab states have started to make strategic investments in the country, with Saudi Arabia building livestock export infrastructure and the United Arab Emirates purchasing large farmlands. Somalia_sentence_464

Somalia is also a major world supplier of frankincense and myrrh. Somalia_sentence_465

The modest industrial sector, based on the processing of agricultural products, accounts for 10% of Somalia's GDP. Somalia_sentence_466

According to the Somali Chamber of Commerce and Industry, over six private airline firms also offer commercial flights to both domestic and international locations, including Daallo Airlines, Jubba Airways, African Express Airways, East Africa 540, Central Air and Hajara. Somalia_sentence_467

In 2008, the Puntland government signed a multimillion-dollar deal with Dubai's Lootah Group, a regional industrial group operating in the Middle East and Africa. Somalia_sentence_468

According to the agreement, the first phase of the investment is worth Dhs 170 m and will see a set of new companies established to operate, manage and build Bosaso's free trade zone and sea and airport facilities. Somalia_sentence_469

The Bosaso Airport Company is slated to develop the airport complex to meet international standards, including a new 3,400 m (11,200 ft) runway, main and auxiliary buildings, taxi and apron areas, and security perimeters. Somalia_sentence_470

Prior to the outbreak of the civil war in 1991, the roughly 53 state-owned small, medium and large manufacturing firms were foundering, with the ensuing conflict destroying many of the remaining industries. Somalia_sentence_471

However, primarily as a result of substantial local investment by the Somali diaspora, many of these small-scale plants have re-opened and newer ones have been created. Somalia_sentence_472

The latter include fish-canning and meat-processing plants in the northern regions, as well as about 25 factories in the Mogadishu area, which manufacture pasta, mineral water, confections, plastic bags, fabric, hides and skins, detergent and soap, aluminium, foam mattresses and pillows, fishing boats, carry out packaging, and stone processing. Somalia_sentence_473

In 2004, an $8.3 million Coca-Cola bottling plant also opened in the city, with investors hailing from various constituencies in Somalia. Somalia_sentence_474

Foreign investment also included multinationals including General Motors and Dole Fruit. Somalia_sentence_475

Monetary and payment system Somalia_section_27

Main articles: Central Bank of Somalia and Somali shilling Somalia_sentence_476

The Central Bank of Somalia is the official monetary authority of Somalia. Somalia_sentence_477

In terms of financial management, it is in the process of assuming the task of both formulating and implementing monetary policy. Somalia_sentence_478

Owing to a lack of confidence in the local currency, the US dollar is widely accepted as a medium of exchange alongside the Somali shilling. Somalia_sentence_479

Dollarization notwithstanding, the large issuance of the Somali shilling has increasingly fuelled price hikes, especially for low value transactions. Somalia_sentence_480

According to the Central Bank, this inflationary environment is expected to come to an end as soon as the bank assumes full control of monetary policy and replaces the presently circulating currency introduced by the private sector. Somalia_sentence_481

Although Somalia has had no central monetary authority for more than 15 years between the outbreak of the civil war in 1991 and the subsequent re-establishment of the Central Bank of Somalia in 2009, the nation's payment system is fairly advanced primarily due to the widespread existence of private money transfer operators (MTO) that have acted as informal banking networks. Somalia_sentence_482

These remittance firms (hawalas) have become a large industry in Somalia, with an estimated US$1.6 billion annually remitted to the region by Somalis in the diaspora via money transfer companies. Somalia_sentence_483

Most are members of the Somali Money Transfer Association (SOMTA), an umbrella organization that regulates the community's money transfer sector, or its predecessor, the Somali Financial Services Association (SFSA). Somalia_sentence_484

The largest of the Somali MTOs is Dahabshiil, a Somali-owned firm employing more than 2,000 people across 144 countries with branches in London and Dubai. Somalia_sentence_485

As the reconstituted Central Bank of Somalia fully assumes its monetary policy responsibilities, some of the existing money transfer companies are expected in the near future to seek licenses so as to develop into full-fledged commercial banks. Somalia_sentence_486

This will serve to expand the national payments system to include formal cheques, which in turn is expected to reinforce the efficacy of the use of monetary policy in domestic macroeconomic management. Somalia_sentence_487

With a significant improvement in local security, Somali expatriates began returning to the country for investment opportunities. Somalia_sentence_488

Coupled with modest foreign investment, the inflow of funds have helped the Somali shilling increase considerably in value. Somalia_sentence_489

By March 2014, the currency had appreciated by almost 60% against the U.S. dollar over the previous 12 months. Somalia_sentence_490

The Somali shilling was the strongest among the 175 global currencies traded by Bloomberg, rising close to 50 percentage points higher than the next most robust global currency over the same period. Somalia_sentence_491

The Somalia Stock Exchange (SSE) is the national bourse of Somalia. Somalia_sentence_492

It was founded in 2012 by the Somali diplomat Idd Mohamed, Ambassador extraordinary and deputy permanent representative to the United Nations. Somalia_sentence_493

The SSE was established to attract investment from both Somali-owned firms and global companies in order to accelerate the ongoing post-conflict reconstruction process in Somalia. Somalia_sentence_494

Energy and natural resources Somalia_section_28

Main articles: Mineral industry of Somalia and Oil exploration in Puntland Somalia_sentence_495

The World Bank reports that electricity is now in large part supplied by local businesses. Somalia_sentence_496

Among these domestic firms is the Somali Energy Company, which performs generation, transmission and distribution of electric power. Somalia_sentence_497

In 2010, the nation produced 310 million kWh and consumed 288.3 million kWh of electricity, ranked 170th and 177th, respectively, according to the CIA. Somalia_sentence_498

Somalia has reserves of several natural resources, including uranium, iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt and natural gas. Somalia_sentence_499

The CIA reports that there are 5.663 billion cubic metres of proven natural gas reserves. Somalia_sentence_500

The presence or extent of proven oil reserves in Somalia is uncertain. Somalia_sentence_501

The CIA asserts that as of 2011 there are no proven reserves of oil in the country, while UNCTAD suggests that most proven oil reserves in Somalia lie off its northwestern coast, in the Somaliland region. Somalia_sentence_502

An oil group listed in Sydney, Range Resources, estimates that the Puntland region in the northeast has the potential to produce 5 billion barrels (790×10^ m) to 10 billion barrels (1.6×10^ m) of oil, compared to the 6.7 billion barrels of proven oil reserves in Sudan. Somalia_sentence_503

As a result of these developments, the Somalia Petroleum Corporation was established by the federal government. Somalia_sentence_504

In the late 1960s, UN geologists also discovered major uranium deposits and other rare mineral reserves in Somalia. Somalia_sentence_505

The find was the largest of its kind, with industry experts estimating that the amount of the deposits could amount to over 25% of the world's then known uranium reserves of 800,000 tons. Somalia_sentence_506

In 1984, the IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Somalia reported that the country had 5,000 tons of uranium reasonably assured resources (RAR), 11,000 tons of uranium estimated additional resources (EAR) in calcrete deposits, as well as 0–150,000 tons of uranium speculative resources (SR) in sandstone and calcrete deposits. Somalia_sentence_507

Somalia evolved into a major world supplier of uranium, with American, UAE, Italian and Brazilian mineral companies vying for extraction rights. Somalia_sentence_508

Link Natural Resources has a stake in the central region, and Kilimanjaro Capital has a stake in the 1,161,400 acres (470,002 ha) Amsas-Coriole-Afgoi (ACA) Block, which includes uranium exploration. Somalia_sentence_509

The Trans-National Industrial Electricity and Gas Company is an energy conglomerate based in Mogadishu. Somalia_sentence_510

It unites five major Somali companies from the trade, finance, security and telecommunications sectors, following a 2010 joint agreement signed in Istanbul to provide electricity and gas infrastructure in Somalia. Somalia_sentence_511

With an initial investment budget of $1 billion, the company launched the Somalia Peace Dividend Project, a labour-intensive energy program aimed at facilitating local industrialization initiatives. Somalia_sentence_512

According to the Central Bank of Somalia, as the nation embarks on the path of reconstruction, the economy is expected to not only match its pre-civil war levels, but also to accelerate in growth and development due to Somalia's untapped natural resources. Somalia_sentence_513

Somalia is endowed with renewable energy resources and ranked no. Somalia_sentence_514

13 out of 156 countries in the index of geopolitical gains and losses after energy transition (GeGaLo Index) which implies that countries at the top of the ranking are likely to benefit geopolitically after the global transition to renewable energy is completed. Somalia_sentence_515

Telecommunications and Media Somalia_section_29

Main articles: Communications in Somalia and Media of Somalia Somalia_sentence_516

After the start of the civil war, various new telecommunications companies began to spring up and compete to provide missing infrastructure. Somalia_sentence_517

Funded by Somali entrepreneurs and backed by expertise from China, South Korea and Europe, these nascent telecommunications firms offer affordable mobile phone and Internet services that are not available in many other parts of the continent. Somalia_sentence_518

Customers can conduct money transfers (such as through the popular Dahabshiil) and other banking activities via mobile phones, as well as easily gain wireless Internet access. Somalia_sentence_519

After forming partnerships with multinational corporations such as Sprint, ITT and Telenor, these firms now offer the cheapest and clearest phone calls in Africa. Somalia_sentence_520

These Somali telecommunication companies also provide services to every city and town in Somalia. Somalia_sentence_521

There are presently around 25 mainlines per 1,000 persons, and the local availability of telephone lines (tele-density) is higher than in neighbouring countries; three times greater than in adjacent Ethiopia. Somalia_sentence_522

Prominent Somali telecommunications companies include Golis Telecom Group, Hormuud Telecom, Somafone, Nationlink, Netco, Telcom and Somali Telecom Group. Somalia_sentence_523

Hormuud Telecom alone grosses about $40 million a year. Somalia_sentence_524

Despite their rivalry, several of these companies signed an inter-connectivity deal in 2005 that allows them to set prices, maintain and expand their networks, and ensure that competition does not get out of control. Somalia_sentence_525

Investment in the telecom industry is held to be one of the clearest signs that Somalia's economy has continued to develop despite civil strife in parts of the country. Somalia_sentence_526

The state-run Somali National Television is the principal national public service TV channel. Somalia_sentence_527

After a twenty-year hiatus, the station was officially re-launched on 4 April 2011. Somalia_sentence_528

Its radio counterpart Radio Mogadishu also broadcasts from the capital. Somalia_sentence_529

Somaliland National TV and Puntland TV and Radio air from the northern regions. Somalia_sentence_530

Additionally, Somalia has several private television and radio networks. Somalia_sentence_531

Among these are Horn Cable Television and Universal TV. Somalia_sentence_532

The political Xog Doon and Xog Ogaal and Horyaal Sports broadsheets publish out of the capital. Somalia_sentence_533

There are also a number of online media outlets covering local news, including Garowe Online, Wardheernews, and Puntland Post. Somalia_sentence_534

The internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Somalia is .so. Somalia_sentence_535

It was officially relaunched on 1 November 2010 by .SO Registry, which is regulated by the nation's Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications. Somalia_sentence_536

On 22 March 2012, the Somali Cabinet also unanimously approved the National Communications Act. Somalia_sentence_537

The bill paves the way for the establishment of a National Communications regulator in the broadcasting and telecommunications sectors. Somalia_sentence_538

In November 2013, following a Memorandum of Understanding signed with Emirates Post in April of the year, the federal Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications officially reconstituted the Somali Postal Service (Somali Post). Somalia_sentence_539

In October 2014, the ministry also relaunched postal delivery from abroad. Somalia_sentence_540

The postal system is slated to be implemented in each of the country's 18 administrative provinces via a new postal coding and numbering system. Somalia_sentence_541

Tourism Somalia_section_30

Main article: Tourism in Somalia Somalia_sentence_542

Somalia has a number of local attractions, consisting of historical sites, beaches, waterfalls, mountain ranges and national parks. Somalia_sentence_543

The tourist industry is regulated by the national Ministry of Tourism. Somalia_sentence_544

The autonomous Puntland and Somaliland regions maintain their own tourism offices. Somalia_sentence_545

The Somali Tourism Association (SOMTA) also provides consulting services from within the country on the national tourist industry. Somalia_sentence_546

As of March 2015, the Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife of the South West State announced that it is slated to establish additional game reserves and wildlife ranges. Somalia_sentence_547

The United States Government recommends travelers to not travel to Somalia. Somalia_sentence_548

Notable sights include the Laas Geel caves containing Neolithic rock art; the Cal Madow, Golis Mountains and Ogo Mountains; the Iskushuban and Lamadaya waterfalls; and the Hargeisa National Park, Jilib National Park, Kismayo National Park and Lag Badana National Park. Somalia_sentence_549

Transport Somalia_section_31

Main articles: Transport in Somalia and List of airports in Somalia Somalia_sentence_550

Somalia's network of roads is 22,100 km (13,700 mi) long. Somalia_sentence_551

As of 2000, 2,608 km (1,621 mi) streets are paved and 19,492 km (12,112 mi) are unpaved. Somalia_sentence_552

A 750 km (470 mi) highway connects major cities in the northern part of the country, such as Bosaso, Galkayo and Garowe, with towns in the south. Somalia_sentence_553

The Somali Civil Aviation Authority (SOMCAA) is Somalia's national civil aviation authority body. Somalia_sentence_554

After a long period of management by the Civil Aviation Caretaker Authority for Somalia (CACAS), SOMCAA is slated to re-assume control of Somalia's airspace by 31 December 2013. Somalia_sentence_555

Sixty-two airports across Somalia accommodate aerial transportation; seven of these have paved runways. Somalia_sentence_556

Among the latter, four airports have runways of over 3,047 m; two are between 2,438 m and 3,047 m; and one is 1,524 m to 2,437 m long. Somalia_sentence_557

There are fifty-five airports with unpaved landing areas. Somalia_sentence_558

One has a runway of over 3,047 m; four are between 2,438 m and 3,047 m in length; twenty are 1,524 m to 2,437 m; twenty-four are 914 m to 1,523 m; and six are under 914 m. Major airports in the nation include the Aden Adde International Airport in Mogadishu, the Hargeisa International Airport in Hargeisa, the Kismayo Airport in Kismayo, the Baidoa Airport in Baidoa, and the Bender Qassim International Airport in Bosaso. Somalia_sentence_559

Established in 1964, Somali Airlines was the flag carrier of Somalia. Somalia_sentence_560

It suspended operations during the civil war. Somalia_sentence_561

However, a reconstituted Somali government later began preparations in 2012 for an expected relaunch of the airline, with the first new Somali Airlines aircraft scheduled for delivery by the end of December 2013. Somalia_sentence_562

According to the Somali Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the void created by the closure of Somali Airlines has since been filled by various Somali-owned private carriers. Somalia_sentence_563

Over six of these private airline firms offer commercial flights to both domestic and international locations, including Daallo Airlines, Jubba Airways, African Express Airways, East Africa 540, Central Air and Hajara. Somalia_sentence_564

Possessing the longest coastline on the continent, Somalia has several major seaports. Somalia_sentence_565

Maritime transport facilities are found in the port cities of Mogadishu, Bosaso, Berbera, Kismayo and Merca. Somalia_sentence_566

There is also one merchant marine. Somalia_sentence_567

Established in 2008, it is cargo-based. Somalia_sentence_568

Demographics Somalia_section_32

Main article: Demographics of Somalia Somalia_sentence_569

Somalia had an estimated population of around 15 million inhabitants in 2018; the total population according to the 1975 census was 3.3 million. Somalia_sentence_570

A United Nations Population Fund survey conducted in 2013 and 2014 estimated the total population to be 12,316,895. Somalia_sentence_571

About 85% of local residents are ethnic Somalis, who have historically inhabited the northern part of the country. Somalia_sentence_572

They have traditionally been organized into nomadic pastoral clans, loose empires, sultanates and city-states. Somalia_sentence_573

Civil strife in the early 1990s greatly increased the size of the Somali diaspora, as many of the best educated Somalis left the country. Somalia_sentence_574

Non-Somali ethnic minority groups make up the remainder of Somalia's population, and are largely concentrated in the southern regions. Somalia_sentence_575

They include Bravanese, Bantus, Bajuni, Ethiopians (especially Oromos), Yemenis, Indians, Persians, Italians and Britons. Somalia_sentence_576

The Bantus, the largest ethnic minority group in Somalia, are the descendants of slaves who were brought in from southeastern Africa by Arab and Somali traders. Somalia_sentence_577

In 1940, there were about 50,000 Italians living in Italian Somaliland. Somalia_sentence_578

Most Europeans left after independence, while a small number of Westerners are still present in Somalia mainly working for international organizations operating in Somalia. Somalia_sentence_579

A sizable Somali diaspora exists in various Western countries, such as the United States (in particular in the state of Minnesota) and in the United Kingdom (particularly in London), Sweden, Canada, Norway, the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Finland, Australia, Switzerland, Austria, and Italy, as well on the Arabian peninsula, and several African nations, such as Uganda and South Africa. Somalia_sentence_580

The Somali diaspora is deeply involved in the politics and development of Somalia. Somalia_sentence_581

The president of Somalia, Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed, was a former diaspora Somali and held US citizenship which he voluntarily renounced in 2019. Somalia_sentence_582

Somalia's population is expanding at a growth rate of 1.75% per annum and a birth rate of 40.87 births per 1,000 people. Somalia_sentence_583

The total fertility rate of Somalia is 6.08 children born per woman (2014 estimates), the fourth highest in the world, according to the CIA World Factbook. Somalia_sentence_584

Most local residents are young, with a median age of 17.7 years; about 44% of the population is between the ages of 0–14 years, 52.4% is between the ages of 15–64 years, and only 2.3% is 65 years of age or older. Somalia_sentence_585

The gender ratio is roughly balanced, with proportionally about as many men as women. Somalia_sentence_586

There is little reliable statistical information on urbanization in Somalia. Somalia_sentence_587

Rough estimates have been made indicating a rate of urbanization of 4.79% per annum (2005–2010 est.), with many towns quickly growing into cities. Somalia_sentence_588

Many ethnic minorities have also moved from rural areas to urban centres since the onset of the civil war, particularly to Mogadishu and Kismayo. Somalia_sentence_589

As of 2008, 37.7% of the nation's population live in towns and cities, with the percentage rapidly increasing. Somalia_sentence_590

Languages Somalia_section_33

Main article: Languages of Somalia Somalia_sentence_591

Somali and Arabic are the official languages of Somalia. Somalia_sentence_592

The Somali language is the mother tongue of the Somali people, the nation's most populous ethnic group. Somalia_sentence_593

It is a member of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family, and its nearest relatives are the Oromo, Afar and Saho languages. Somalia_sentence_594

Somali is the best documented of the Cushitic languages, with academic studies of it dating from before 1900. Somalia_sentence_595

Somali dialects are divided into three main groups: Northern, Benadir and Maay. Somalia_sentence_596

Northern Somali (or Northern-Central Somali) forms the basis for Standard Somali. Somalia_sentence_597

Benadir (also known as Coastal Somali) is spoken on the Benadir coast, from Adale to south of Merca including Mogadishu, as well as in the immediate hinterland. Somalia_sentence_598

The coastal dialects have additional phonemes that do not exist in Standard Somali. Somalia_sentence_599

Maay is principally spoken by the Digil and Mirifle (Rahanweyn) clans in the southern areas of Somalia. Somalia_sentence_600

A number of writing systems have been used over the years for transcribing the Somali language. Somalia_sentence_601

Of these, the Somali alphabet is the most widely used, and has been the official writing script in Somalia since the Supreme Revolutionary Council formally introduced it in October 1972. Somalia_sentence_602

The script was developed by the Somali linguist Shire Jama Ahmed specifically for the Somali language, and uses all letters of the English Latin alphabet except p, v and z. Somalia_sentence_603

Besides Ahmed's Latin script, other orthographies that have been used for centuries for writing Somali include the long-established Arabic script and Wadaad writing. Somalia_sentence_604

Indigenous writing systems developed in the 20th century include the Osmanya, Borama and Kaddare scripts, which were invented by Osman Yusuf Kenadid, Sheikh Abdurahman Sheikh Nuur and Hussein Sheikh Ahmed Kaddare, respectively. Somalia_sentence_605

In addition to Somali, Arabic, which is also an Afro-Asiatic tongue, is an official national language in Somalia. Somalia_sentence_606

Around 2 million Somalis speak it due to centuries-old ties with the Arab world, the far-reaching influence of the Arabic media, and religious education. Somalia_sentence_607

English is widely spoken and taught. Somalia_sentence_608

It used to be an administrative language in the British Somaliland protectorate and due to globalization is now also prominent across Somalia. Somalia_sentence_609

English is the medium of instruction at many universities across Somalia, and is one of the primary working languages of major NGOs operating in Somalia. Somalia_sentence_610

Italian was an official language in Italian Somaliland and during the trusteeship period, but its use significantly diminished following independence. Somalia_sentence_611

It is now most frequently heard among older generations, government officials, and in educated circles. Somalia_sentence_612

Other minority languages include Bravanese, a variant of the Bantu Swahili language that is spoken along the coast by the Bravanese people, as well as Kibajuni, a Swahili dialect that is the mother tongue of the Bajuni minority ethnic group. Somalia_sentence_613

Urban areas Somalia_section_34

Religion Somalia_section_35

Main article: Religion in Somalia Somalia_sentence_614

According to the Pew Research Center, 99.8% of Somalia's population is Muslim. Somalia_sentence_615

The majority belong to the Sunni branch of Islam and the Shafi'i school of Islamic jurisprudence. Somalia_sentence_616

Sufism, the mystical sect of Islam, is also well established, with many local jama'a (zawiya) or congregations of the various tariiqa or Sufi orders. Somalia_sentence_617

The constitution of Somalia likewise defines Islam as the state religion of the Federal Republic of Somalia, and Islamic sharia law as the basic source for national legislation. Somalia_sentence_618

It also stipulates that no law that is inconsistent with the basic tenets of Shari'a can be enacted. Somalia_sentence_619

Islam entered the region very early on, as a group of persecuted Muslims had sought refuge across the Red Sea in the Horn of Africa at the urging of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Somalia_sentence_620

Islam may thus have been introduced into Somalia well before the faith even took root in its place of origin. Somalia_sentence_621

In addition, the Somali community has produced numerous important Islamic sheikhs and clerics over the centuries, many of whom have significantly shaped the course of Muslim learning and practice in the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and well beyond. Somalia_sentence_622

Among these Islamic scholars is the 14th-century Somali theologian and jurist Uthman bin Ali Zayla'i of Zeila, who wrote the single most authoritative text on the Hanafi school of Islam, consisting of four volumes known as the Tabayin al-Haqa'iq li Sharh Kanz al-Daqa'iq. Somalia_sentence_623

Christianity is a minority religion in Somalia, with adherents representing less than 0.1% of the population in 2010 according to the Pew Research Center. Somalia_sentence_624

There is one Catholic diocese for the whole country, the Diocese of Mogadishu, which estimates that there were only about one hundred Catholic practitioners in 2004. Somalia_sentence_625

In 1913, during the early part of the colonial era, there were virtually no Christians in the Somali territories, with only about 100–200 followers coming from the schools and orphanages of the few Catholic missions in the British Somaliland protectorate. Somalia_sentence_626

There were also no known Catholic missions in Italian Somaliland during the same period. Somalia_sentence_627

In the 1970s, during the reign of Somalia's then Marxist government, church-run schools were closed and missionaries sent home. Somalia_sentence_628

There has been no archbishop in the country since 1989, and the cathedral in Mogadishu was severely damaged during the civil war. Somalia_sentence_629

In December 2013, the Ministry of Justice and Religious Affairs also released a directive prohibiting the celebration of Christian festivities in the country. Somalia_sentence_630

According to the Pew Research Center, less than 0.1% of Somalia's population in 2010 were adherents of folk religions. Somalia_sentence_631

These mainly consisted of some non-Somali ethnic minority groups in the southern parts of the country, who practice animism. Somalia_sentence_632

In the case of the Bantu, these religious traditions were inherited from their ancestors in Southeast Africa. Somalia_sentence_633

Additionally, according to the Pew Research Center, less than 0.1% of Somalia's population in 2010 were adherents of Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, or unaffiliated with any religion. Somalia_sentence_634

Health Somalia_section_36

Main articles: Healthcare in Somalia and Child marriage in Somalia Somalia_sentence_635

Until the collapse of the federal government in 1991, the organizational and administrative structure of Somalia's healthcare sector was overseen by the Ministry of Health. Somalia_sentence_636

Regional medical officials enjoyed some authority, but healthcare was largely centralized. Somalia_sentence_637

The socialist government of former President of Somalia Siad Barre had put an end to private medical practice in 1972. Somalia_sentence_638

Much of the national budget was devoted to military expenditure, leaving few resources for healthcare, among other services. Somalia_sentence_639

Somalia's public healthcare system was largely destroyed during the ensuing civil war. Somalia_sentence_640

As with other previously nationalized sectors, informal providers have filled the vacuum and replaced the former government monopoly over healthcare, with access to facilities witnessing a significant increase. Somalia_sentence_641

Many new healthcare centres, clinics, hospitals and pharmacies have in the process been established through home-grown Somali initiatives. Somalia_sentence_642

The cost of medical consultations and treatment in these facilities is low, at $5.72 per visit in health centres (with a population coverage of 95%), and $1.89–3.97 per outpatient visit and $7.83–13.95 per bed day in primary through tertiary hospitals. Somalia_sentence_643

Comparing the 2005–2010 period with the half-decade just prior to the outbreak of the conflict (1985–1990), life expectancy actually increased from an average of 47 years for men and women to 48.2 years for men and 51 years for women. Somalia_sentence_644

Similarly, the number of one-year-olds fully immunized against measles rose from 30% in 1985–1990 to 40% in 2000–2005, and for tuberculosis, it grew nearly 20% from 31% to 50% over the same period. Somalia_sentence_645

The number of infants with low birth weight fell from 16 per 1,000 to 0.3, a 15% drop in total over the same time frame. Somalia_sentence_646

Between 2005 and 2010 as compared to the 1985–1990 period, infant mortality per 1,000 births also fell from 152 to 109.6. Somalia_sentence_647

Significantly, maternal mortality per 100,000 births fell from 1,600 in the pre-war 1985–1990 half-decade to 1,100 in the 2000–2005 period. Somalia_sentence_648

The number of physicians per 100,000 people also rose from 3.4 to 4 over the same time frame, as did the percentage of the population with access to sanitation services, which increased from 18% to 26%. Somalia_sentence_649

According to United Nations Population Fund data on the midwifery workforce, there is a total of 429 midwives (including nurse-midwives) in Somalia, with a density of one midwife per 1,000 live births. Somalia_sentence_650

Eight midwifery institutions presently exist in the country, two of which are private. Somalia_sentence_651

Midwifery education programs on average last from 12 to 18 months, and operate on a sequential basis. Somalia_sentence_652

The number of student admissions per total available student places is a maximum 100%, with 180 students enrolled as of 2009. Somalia_sentence_653

Midwifery is regulated by the government, and a license is required to practice professionally. Somalia_sentence_654

A live registry is also in place to keep track of licensed midwives. Somalia_sentence_655

In addition, midwives in the country are officially represented by a local midwives association, with 350 registered members. Somalia_sentence_656

According to a 2005 World Health Organization estimate, about 97.9% of Somalia's women and girls underwent Female genital mutilation, a pre-marital custom mainly endemic to the horn of Africa and parts of the Near East. Somalia_sentence_657

Encouraged by women in the community, it is primarily intended to protect chastity, deter promiscuity, and offer protection from assault. Somalia_sentence_658

By 2013, UNICEF in conjunction with the Somali authorities reported that the prevalence rate among 1- to 14-year-old girls in the autonomous northern Puntland and Somaliland regions had dropped to 25% following a social and religious awareness campaign. Somalia_sentence_659

About 93% of Somalia's male population is also reportedly circumcised. Somalia_sentence_660

Somalia has one of the lowest HIV infection rates on the continent. Somalia_sentence_661

This is attributed to the Muslim nature of Somali society and adherence of Somalis to Islamic morals. Somalia_sentence_662

While the estimated HIV prevalence rate in Somalia in 1987 (the first case report year) was 1% of adults, a 2012 report from UNAIDS says that since 2004, estimates from 0.7% to 1% have been assumed. Somalia_sentence_663

Although healthcare is now largely concentrated in the private sector, the country's public healthcare system is in the process of being rebuilt, and is overseen by the Ministry of Health. Somalia_sentence_664

The Minister of Health is Qamar Adan Ali. Somalia_sentence_665

The autonomous Puntland region maintains its own Ministry of Health, as does the Somaliland region in northwestern Somalia. Somalia_sentence_666

Some of the prominent healthcare facilities in the country are East Bardera Mothers and Children's Hospital, Abudwak Maternity and Children's Hospital, Edna Adan Maternity Hospital and West Bardera Maternity Unit. Somalia_sentence_667

Education Somalia_section_37

Main article: Education in Somalia Somalia_sentence_668

Following the outbreak of the civil war in 1991, the task of running schools in Somalia was initially taken up by community education committees established in 94% of the local schools. Somalia_sentence_669

Numerous problems had arisen with regard to access to education in rural areas and along gender lines, quality of educational provisions, responsiveness of school curricula, educational standards and controls, management and planning capacity, and financing. Somalia_sentence_670

To address these concerns, educational policies are being developed that are aimed at guiding the scholastic process. Somalia_sentence_671

In the autonomous Puntland region, the latter includes a gender sensitive national education policy compliant with world standards, such as those outlined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Somalia_sentence_672

Examples of this and other educational measures at work are the regional government's enactment of legislation aimed at securing the educational interests of girls, promoting the growth of an Early Childhood Development (ECD) program designed to reach parents and care-givers in their homes as well as in the ECD centers for 0 to 5-year-old children, and introducing incentive packages to encourage teachers to work in remote rural areas. Somalia_sentence_673

The Ministry of Education is officially responsible for education in Somalia, and oversees the nation's primary, secondary, technical and vocational schools, as well as primary and technical teacher training and non-formal education. Somalia_sentence_674

About 15% of the government's budget is allocated toward scholastic instruction. Somalia_sentence_675

The autonomous Puntland and Somaliland macro-regions maintain their own Ministries of Education. Somalia_sentence_676

In 2006, Puntland was the second territory in Somalia after Somaliland to introduce free primary schools, with teachers now receiving their salaries from the Puntland administration. Somalia_sentence_677

From 2005/2006 to 2006/2007, there was a significant increase in the number of schools in Puntland, up 137 institutions from just one year prior. Somalia_sentence_678

During the same period, the number of classes in the region increased by 504, with 762 more teachers also offering their services. Somalia_sentence_679

Total student enrollment increased by 27% over the previous year, with girls lagging only slightly behind boys in attendance in most regions. Somalia_sentence_680

The highest class enrollment was observed in the northernmost Bari region, and the lowest was observed in the under-populated Ayn region. Somalia_sentence_681

The distribution of classrooms was almost evenly split between urban and rural areas, with marginally more pupils attending and instructors teaching classes in urban areas. Somalia_sentence_682

Higher education in Somalia is now largely private. Somalia_sentence_683

Several universities in the country, including Mogadishu University, have been scored among the 100 best universities in Africa in spite of the harsh environment, which has been hailed as a triumph for grass-roots initiatives. Somalia_sentence_684

Other universities also offering higher education in the south include Benadir University, the Somalia National University, Kismayo University and the University of Gedo. Somalia_sentence_685

In Puntland, higher education is provided by the Puntland State University and East Africa University. Somalia_sentence_686

In Somaliland, it is provided by Amoud University, the University of Hargeisa, Somaliland University of Technology and Burao University. Somalia_sentence_687

Qu'ranic schools (also known as dugsi quran or mal'aamad quran) remain the basic system of traditional religious instruction in Somalia. Somalia_sentence_688

They provide Islamic education for children, thereby filling a clear religious and social role in the country. Somalia_sentence_689

Known as the most stable local, non-formal system of education providing basic religious and moral instruction, their strength rests on community support and their use of locally made and widely available teaching materials. Somalia_sentence_690

The Qu'ranic system, which teaches the greatest number of students relative to other educational sub-sectors, is often the only system accessible to Somalis in nomadic as compared to urban areas. Somalia_sentence_691

A study from 1993 found, among other things, that about 40% of pupils in Qur'anic schools were female. Somalia_sentence_692

To address shortcomings in religious instruction, the Somali government on its own part also subsequently established the Ministry of Endowment and Islamic Affairs, under which Qur'anic education is now regulated. Somalia_sentence_693

Culture Somalia_section_38

Main article: Culture of Somalia Somalia_sentence_694

Cuisine Somalia_section_39

Main article: Somali cuisine Somalia_sentence_695

The cuisine of Somalia, which varies from region to region, is a mixture of diverse culinary influences. Somalia_sentence_696

It is the product of Somalia's rich tradition of trade and commerce. Somalia_sentence_697

Despite the variety, there remains one thing that unites the various regional cuisines: all food is served halal. Somalia_sentence_698

There are therefore no pork dishes, alcohol is not served, nothing that died on its own is eaten, and no blood is incorporated. Somalia_sentence_699

Qaddo or lunch is often elaborate. Somalia_sentence_700

Varieties of 'bariis' (rice), the most popular probably being basmati, usually act as the main dish. Somalia_sentence_701

Spices including cumin, cardamom, cloves, cinnamon and garden sage are used to add aromas to these different rice dishes. Somalia_sentence_702

Somalis serve dinner as late as 9 pm. Somalia_sentence_703

During Ramadan, the evening meal is often presented after Tarawih prayers; sometimes up to 11 pm. Somalia_sentence_704

'Xalwo' (halva) is a popular confection reserved for special festive occasions, such as Eid celebrations or wedding receptions. Somalia_sentence_705

It is made from corn starch, sugar, cardamom powder, nutmeg powder and ghee. Somalia_sentence_706

Peanuts are also sometimes added to enhance texture and flavour. Somalia_sentence_707

After meals, homes are traditionally perfumed using frankincense (lubaan) or incense (cuunsi), which is prepared inside an incense burner referred to as a dabqaad. Somalia_sentence_708

Music Somalia_section_40

Main article: Music of Somalia Somalia_sentence_709

Somalia has a rich musical heritage centred on traditional Somali folklore. Somalia_sentence_710

Most Somali songs are pentatonic. Somalia_sentence_711

That is, they only use five pitches per octave in contrast to a heptatonic (seven note) scale like the major scale. Somalia_sentence_712

At first listen, Somali music might be mistaken for the sounds of nearby regions such as Ethiopia, Sudan or the Arabian Peninsula, but it is ultimately recognizable by its own unique tunes and styles. Somalia_sentence_713

Somali songs are usually the product of collaboration between lyricists (midho), songwriters (laxan) and singers (codka or "voice"). Somalia_sentence_714

Literature Somalia_section_41

Main article: Literature of Somalia Somalia_sentence_715

Somali scholars have for centuries produced many notable examples of Islamic literature ranging from poetry to Hadith. Somalia_sentence_716

With the adoption of the Latin alphabet in 1972 as the nation's standard orthography, numerous contemporary Somali authors have also released novels, some of which have received worldwide acclaim. Somalia_sentence_717

Of these modern writers, Nuruddin Farah is the most celebrated. Somalia_sentence_718

Books such as From a Crooked Rib and Links are considered important literary achievements, works that have earned Farah, among other accolades, the 1998 Neustadt International Prize for Literature. Somalia_sentence_719

Faarax M.J. Cawl is another prominent Somali writer who is best known for his Dervish era novel, Ignorance is the enemy of love. Somalia_sentence_720

Sports Somalia_section_42

Main article: Sports in Somalia Somalia_sentence_721

Football is the most popular sport in Somalia. Somalia_sentence_722

Important domestic competitions are the Somalia League and Somalia Cup, with the Somalia national football team playing internationally. Somalia_sentence_723

Basketball is also played in the country. Somalia_sentence_724

The FIBA Africa Championship 1981 was hosted in Mogadishu from 15 to 23 December December 1981, during which the national basketball team received the bronze medal. Somalia_sentence_725

The squad also takes part in the basketball event at the Pan Arab Games. Somalia_sentence_726

In 2013, a Somalia national bandy team was formed in Borlänge. Somalia_sentence_727

It later participated in the Bandy World Championship 2014 in Irkutsk and Shelekhov in Russia. Somalia_sentence_728

In the martial arts, Faisal Jeylani Aweys and Mohamed Deq Abdulle of the national taekwondo team took home a silver medal and fourth place, respectively, at the 2013 Open World Taekwondo Challenge Cup in Tongeren. Somalia_sentence_729

The Somali Olympic Committee has devised a special support program to ensure continued success in future tournaments. Somalia_sentence_730

Additionally, Mohamed Jama has won both world and European titles in K-1 and Thai Boxing. Somalia_sentence_731

Architecture Somalia_section_43

Main article: Somali architecture Somalia_sentence_732

Somali architecture is a rich and diverse tradition of engineering and design involving multiple types of constructions and edifices, such as stone cities, castles, citadels, fortresses, mosques, mausoleums, temples, towers, monuments, cairns, megaliths, menhirs, dolmens, tombs, tumuli, steles, cisterns, aqueducts and lighthouses. Somalia_sentence_733

Spanning the country's ancient, medieval and early modern periods, it also embraces the fusion of Somalo-Islamic architecture with contemporary Western designs. Somalia_sentence_734

In ancient Somalia, pyramidical structures known in Somali as taalo were a popular burial style, with hundreds of these dry stone monuments scattered around the country today. Somalia_sentence_735

Houses were built of dressed stone similar to the ones in ancient Egypt. Somalia_sentence_736

There are also examples of courtyards and large stone walls enclosing settlements, such as the Wargaade Wall. Somalia_sentence_737

The adoption of Islam in Somalia's early medieval history brought Islamic architectural influences from Arabia and Persia. Somalia_sentence_738

This stimulated a shift in construction from dry stone and other related materials to coral stone, sun dried bricks, and the widespread use of limestone in Somali architecture. Somalia_sentence_739

Many of the new architectural designs, such as mosques, were built on the ruins of older structures, a practice that would continue over and over again throughout the following centuries. Somalia_sentence_740

See also Somalia_section_44


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