Sound recording and reproduction

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"Sound recorder" redirects here. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_0

For the audio recording program computer software, see Voice Recorder (Windows). Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_1

Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_2

The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog recording and digital recording. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_3

Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that senses changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and records them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record (in which a stylus cuts grooves on a record). Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_4

In magnetic tape recording, the sound waves vibrate the microphone diaphragm and are converted into a varying electric current, which is then converted to a varying magnetic field by an electromagnet, which makes a representation of the sound as magnetized areas on a plastic tape with a magnetic coating on it. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_5

Analog sound reproduction is the reverse process, with a bigger loudspeaker diaphragm causing changes to atmospheric pressure to form acoustic sound waves. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_6

Digital recording and reproduction converts the analog sound signal picked up by the microphone to a digital form by the process of sampling. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_7

This lets the audio data be stored and transmitted by a wider variety of media. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_8

Digital recording stores audio as a series of binary numbers (zeros and ones) representing samples of the amplitude of the audio signal at equal time intervals, at a sample rate high enough to convey all sounds capable of being heard. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_9

A digital audio signal must be reconverted to analog form during playback before it is amplified and connected to a loudspeaker to produce sound. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_10

Prior to the development of sound recording, there were mechanical systems, such as wind-up music boxes and, later, player pianos, for encoding and reproducing instrumental music. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_11

Early history Sound recording and reproduction_section_0

See also: History of sound recording Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_12

Long before sound was first recorded, music was recorded—first by written music notation, then also by mechanical devices (e.g., wind-up music boxes, in which a mechanism turns a spindle, which plucks metal tines, thus reproducing a melody). Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_13

Automatic music reproduction traces back as far as the 9th century, when the Banū Mūsā brothers invented the earliest known mechanical musical instrument, in this case, a hydropowered (water-powered) organ that played interchangeable cylinders. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_14

According to Charles B. Fowler, this "...cylinder with raised pins on the surface remained the basic device to produce and reproduce music mechanically until the second half of the nineteenth century." Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_15

The Banū Mūsā brothers also invented an automatic flute player, which appears to have been the first programmable machine. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_16

Carvings in the Rosslyn Chapel from the 1560s may represent an early attempt to record the Chladni patterns produced by sound in stone representations, although this theory has not been conclusively proved. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_17

In the 14th century, a mechanical bell-ringer controlled by a rotating cylinder was introduced in Flanders. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_18

Similar designs appeared in barrel organs (15th century), musical clocks (1598), barrel pianos (1805), and music boxes (ca. 1800). Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_19

A music box is an automatic musical instrument that produces sounds by the use of a set of pins placed on a revolving cylinder or disc so as to pluck the tuned teeth (or lamellae) of a steel comb. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_20

The fairground organ, developed in 1892, used a system of accordion-folded punched cardboard books. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_21

The player piano, first demonstrated in 1876, used a punched paper scroll that could store a long piece of music. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_22

The most sophisticated of the piano rolls were "hand-played," meaning that they were duplicates from a master roll which had been created on a special piano, which punched holes in the master as a live performer played the song. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_23

Thus, the roll represented a recording of the actual performance of an individual, not just the more common method of punching the master roll through transcription of the sheet music. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_24

This technology to record a live performance onto a piano roll was not developed until 1904. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_25

Piano rolls were in continuous mass production from 1896 to 2008. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_26

A 1908 U.S. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_27 Supreme Court copyright case noted that, in 1902 alone, there were between 70,000 and 75,000 player pianos manufactured, and between 1,000,000 and 1,500,000 piano rolls produced. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_28

Phonautograph Sound recording and reproduction_section_1

Main article: Phonautograph Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_29

The first device that could record actual sounds as they passed through the air (but could not play them back—the purpose was only visual study) was the phonautograph, patented in 1857 by Parisian inventor Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_30

The earliest known recordings of the human voice are phonautograph recordings, called phonautograms, made in 1857. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_31

They consist of sheets of paper with sound-wave-modulated white lines created by a vibrating stylus that cut through a coating of soot as the paper was passed under it. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_32

An 1860 phonautogram of Au Clair de la Lune, a French folk song, was played back as sound for the first time in 2008 by scanning it and using software to convert the undulating line, which graphically encoded the sound, into a corresponding digital audio file. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_33

Phonograph Sound recording and reproduction_section_2

Main article: Phonograph Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_34

Phonograph cylinder Sound recording and reproduction_section_3

On April 30, 1877, French poet, humorous writer and inventor Charles Cros submitted a sealed envelope containing a letter to the Academy of Sciences in Paris fully explaining his proposed method, called the paleophone. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_35

Though no trace of a working paleophone was ever found, Cros is remembered by historians as the earliest inventor of a sound recording and reproduction machine. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_36

The first practical sound recording and reproduction device was the mechanical phonograph cylinder, invented by Thomas Edison in 1877 and patented in 1878. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_37

The invention soon spread across the globe and over the next two decades the commercial recording, distribution, and sale of sound recordings became a growing new international industry, with the most popular titles selling millions of units by the early 1900s. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_38

The development of mass-production techniques enabled cylinder recordings to become a major new consumer item in industrial countries and the cylinder was the main consumer format from the late 1880s until around 1910. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_39

Disc phonograph Sound recording and reproduction_section_4

The next major technical development was the invention of the gramophone record, generally credited to Emile Berliner and patented in 1887, though others had demonstrated similar disk apparatus earlier, most notably Alexander Graham Bell in 1881. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_40

Discs were easier to manufacture, transport and store, and they had the additional benefit of being marginally louder than cylinders. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_41

Sales of the gramophone record overtook the cylinder ca. 1910, and by the end of World War I the disc had become the dominant commercial recording format. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_42

Edison, who was the main producer of cylinders, created the Edison Disc Record in an attempt to regain his market. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_43

The double-sided (nominally 78 rpm) shellac disc was the standard consumer music format from the early 1910s to the late 1950s. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_44

In various permutations, the audio disc format became the primary medium for consumer sound recordings until the end of the 20th century. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_45

Although there was no universally accepted speed, and various companies offered discs that played at several different speeds, the major recording companies eventually settled on a de facto industry standard of nominally 78 revolutions per minute. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_46

The specified speed was 78.26 rpm in America and 77.92 rpm throughout the rest of the world. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_47

The difference in speeds was due to the difference in the cycle frequencies of the AC electricity that powered the stroboscopes used to calibrate recording lathes and turntables. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_48

The nominal speed of the disc format gave rise to its common nickname, the "seventy-eight" (though not until other speeds had become available). Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_49

Discs were made of shellac or similar brittle plastic-like materials, played with needles made from a variety of materials including mild steel, thorn, and even sapphire. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_50

Discs had a distinctly limited playing life that varied depending on how they were manufactured. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_51

Earlier, purely acoustic methods of recording had limited sensitivity and frequency range. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_52

Mid-frequency range notes could be recorded, but very low and very high frequencies could not. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_53

Instruments such as the violin were difficult to transfer to disc. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_54

One technique to deal with this involved using a Stroh violin which uses a conical horn connected to a diaphragm that in turn is connected to the violin bridge. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_55

The horn was no longer needed once electrical recording was developed. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_56

The long-playing 33​⁄3 rpm microgroove LP record, was developed at Columbia Records and introduced in 1948. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_57

The short-playing but convenient 7-inch (18 cm) 45 rpm microgroove vinyl single was introduced by RCA Victor in 1949. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_58

In the US and most developed countries, the two new vinyl formats completely replaced 78 rpm shellac discs by the end of the 1950s, but in some corners of the world, the 78 lingered on far into the 1960s. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_59

Vinyl was much more expensive than shellac, one of the several factors that made its use for 78 rpm records very unusual, but with a long-playing disc the added cost was acceptable. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_60

The compact 45 format required very little material. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_61

Vinyl offered improved performance, both in stamping and in playback. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_62

Vinyl records were, over-optimistically, advertised as "unbreakable". Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_63

They were not, but they were much less fragile than shellac, which had itself once been touted as "unbreakable" compared to wax cylinders. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_64

Electrical recording Sound recording and reproduction_section_5

Sound recording began as a purely mechanical process. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_65

Except for a few crude telephone-based recording devices with no means of amplification, such as the telegraphone, it remained so until the 1920s. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_66

Between the invention of the phonograph in 1877 and the first commercial digital recordings in the early 1970s, arguably the most important milestone in the history of sound recording was the introduction of what was then called electrical recording, in which a microphone was used to convert the sound into an electrical signal that was amplified and used to actuate the recording stylus. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_67

This innovation eliminated the "horn sound" resonances characteristic of the acoustical process, produced clearer and more full-bodied recordings by greatly extending the useful range of audio frequencies, and allowed previously unrecordable distant and feeble sounds to be captured. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_68

During this time, several radio-related developments in electronics converged to revolutionize the recording process. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_69

These included improved microphones and auxiliary devices such as electronic filters, all dependent on electronic amplification to be of practical use in recording. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_70

In 1906, Lee De Forest invented the Audion triode vacuum tube, an electronic valve that could amplify weak electrical signals. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_71

By 1915, it was in use in long-distance telephone circuits that made conversations between New York and San Francisco practical. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_72

Refined versions of this tube were the basis of all electronic sound systems until the commercial introduction of the first transistor-based audio devices in the mid-1950s. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_73

During World War I, engineers in the United States and Great Britain worked on ways to record and reproduce, among other things, the sound of a German U-boat for training purposes. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_74

Acoustical recording methods of the time could not reproduce the sounds accurately. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_75

The earliest results were not promising. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_76

The first electrical recording issued to the public, with little fanfare, was of November 11, 1920 funeral service for The Unknown Warrior in Westminster Abbey, London. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_77

The recording engineers used microphones of the type used in contemporary telephones. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_78

Four were discreetly set up in the abbey and wired to recording equipment in a vehicle outside. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_79

Although electronic amplification was used, the audio was weak and unclear. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_80

The procedure did, however, produce a recording that would otherwise not have been possible in those circumstances. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_81

For several years, this little-noted disc remained the only issued electrical recording. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_82

Several record companies and independent inventors, notably Orlando Marsh, experimented with equipment and techniques for electrical recording in the early 1920s. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_83

Marsh's electrically recorded Autograph Records were already being sold to the public in 1924, a year before the first such offerings from the major record companies, but their overall sound quality was too low to demonstrate any obvious advantage over traditional acoustical methods. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_84

Marsh's microphone technique was idiosyncratic and his work had little if any impact on the systems being developed by others. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_85

Telephone industry giant Western Electric had research laboratories with material and human resources that no record company or independent inventor could match. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_86

They had the best microphone, a condenser type developed there in 1916 and greatly improved in 1922, and the best amplifiers and test equipment. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_87

They had already patented an electromechanical recorder in 1918, and in the early 1920s, they decided to intensively apply their hardware and expertise to developing two state-of-the-art systems for electronically recording and reproducing sound: one that employed conventional discs and another that recorded optically on motion picture film. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_88

Their engineers pioneered the use of mechanical analogs of electrical circuits and developed a superior "rubber line" recorder for cutting the groove into the wax master in the disc recording system. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_89

By 1924, such dramatic progress had been made that Western Electric arranged a demonstration for the two leading record companies, the Victor Talking Machine Company and the Columbia Phonograph Company. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_90

Both soon licensed the system and both made their earliest published electrical recordings in February 1925, but neither actually released them until several months later. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_91

To avoid making their existing catalogs instantly obsolete, the two long-time archrivals agreed privately not to publicize the new process until November 1925, by which time enough electrically recorded repertory would be available to meet the anticipated demand. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_92

During the next few years, the lesser record companies licensed or developed other electrical recording systems. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_93

By 1929 only the budget label Harmony was still issuing new recordings made by the old acoustical process. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_94

Comparison of some surviving Western Electric test recordings with early commercial releases indicates that the record companies artificially reduced the frequency range of recordings so they would not overwhelm non-electronic playback equipment, which reproduced very low frequencies as an unpleasant rattle and rapidly wore out discs with strongly recorded high frequencies. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_95

Other recording formats Sound recording and reproduction_section_6

In the 1920s, Phonofilm and other early motion picture sound systems employed optical recording technology, in which the audio signal was graphically recorded on photographic film. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_96

The amplitude variations comprising the signal were used to modulate a light source which was imaged onto the moving film through a narrow slit, allowing the signal to be photographed as variations in the density or width of a sound track. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_97

The projector used a steady light and a photodetector to convert these variations back into an electrical signal, which was amplified and sent to loudspeakers behind the screen. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_98

Optical sound became the standard motion picture audio system throughout the world and remains so for theatrical release prints despite attempts in the 1950s to substitute magnetic soundtracks. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_99

Currently, all release prints on 35 mm movie film include an analog optical soundtrack, usually stereo with Dolby SR noise reduction. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_100

In addition, an optically recorded digital soundtrack in Dolby Digital and/or Sony SDDS form is likely to be present. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_101

An optically recorded timecode is also commonly included to synchronize CDROMs that contain a DTS soundtrack. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_102

This period also saw several other historic developments including the introduction of the first practical magnetic sound recording system, the magnetic wire recorder, which was based on the work of Danish inventor Valdemar Poulsen. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_103

Magnetic wire recorders were effective, but the sound quality was poor, so between the wars, they were primarily used for voice recording and marketed as business dictating machines. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_104

In 1924, a German engineer, Kurt Stille, improved the Telegraphone with an electronic amplifier. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_105

The following year, Ludwig Blattner began work that eventually produced the Blattnerphone, which used steel tape instead of wire. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_106

The BBC started using Blattnerphones in 1930 to record radio programs. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_107

In 1933, radio pioneer Guglielmo Marconi's company purchased the rights to the Blattnerphone, and newly developed Marconi-Stille recorders were installed in the BBC's Maida Vale Studios in March 1935. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_108

The tape used in Blattnerphones and Marconi-Stille recorders was the same material used to make razor blades, and not surprisingly the fearsome Marconi-Stille recorders were considered so dangerous that technicians had to operate them from another room for safety. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_109

Because of the high recording speeds required, they used enormous reels about one meter in diameter, and the thin tape frequently broke, sending jagged lengths of razor steel flying around the studio. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_110

Magnetic tape Sound recording and reproduction_section_7

Main article: Tape recorder Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_111

Magnetic tape recording uses an amplified electrical audio signal to generate analogous variations of the magnetic field produced by a tape head, which impresses corresponding variations of magnetization on the moving tape. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_112

In playback mode, the signal path is reversed, the tape head acting as a miniature electric generator as the varyingly magnetized tape passes over it. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_113

The original solid steel ribbon was replaced by a much more practical coated paper tape, but acetate soon replaced paper as the standard tape base. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_114

Acetate has fairly low tensile strength and if very thin it will snap easily, so it was in turn eventually superseded by polyester. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_115

This technology, the basis for almost all commercial recording from the 1950s to the 1980s, was developed in the 1930s by German audio engineers who also rediscovered the principle of AC biasing (first used in the 1920s for wire recorders), which dramatically improved the frequency response of tape recordings. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_116

The K1 Magnetophon was the first practical tape recorder, developed by AEG in Germany in 1935. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_117

The technology was further improved just after World War II by American audio engineer John T. Mullin with backing from Bing Crosby Enterprises. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_118

Mullin's pioneering recorders were modifications of captured German recorders. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_119

In the late 1940s, the Ampex company produced the first tape recorders commercially available in the US. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_120

Magnetic tape brought about sweeping changes in both radio and the recording industry. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_121

Sound could be recorded, erased and re-recorded on the same tape many times, sounds could be duplicated from tape to tape with only minor loss of quality, and recordings could now be very precisely edited by physically cutting the tape and rejoining it. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_122

Within a few years of the introduction of the first commercial tape recorder—the Ampex 200 model, launched in 1948—American musician-inventor Les Paul had invented the first multitrack tape recorder, ushering in another technical revolution in the recording industry. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_123

Tape made possible the first sound recordings totally created by electronic means, opening the way for the bold sonic experiments of the Musique Concrète school and avant-garde composers like Karlheinz Stockhausen, which in turn led to the innovative pop music recordings of artists such as The Beatles and The Beach Boys. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_124

The ease and accuracy of tape editing, as compared to the cumbersome disc-to-disc editing procedures previously in some limited use, together with tape's consistently high audio quality finally convinced radio networks to routinely prerecord their entertainment programming, most of which had formerly been broadcast live. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_125

Also, for the first time, broadcasters, regulators and other interested parties were able to undertake comprehensive audio logging of each day's radio broadcasts. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_126

Innovations like multitracking and tape echo allowed radio programs and advertisements to be produced to a high level of complexity and sophistication. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_127

The combined impact with innovations such as the endless loop broadcast cartridge led to significant changes in the pacing and production style of radio program content and advertising. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_128

Stereo and hi-fi Sound recording and reproduction_section_8

See also: Stereophonic sound and High fidelity Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_129

In 1881, it was noted during experiments in transmitting sound from the Paris Opera that it was possible to follow the movement of singers on the stage if earpieces connected to different microphones were held to the two ears. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_130

This discovery was commercialized in 1890 with the Théâtrophone system, which operated for over forty years until 1932. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_131

In 1931, Alan Blumlein, a British electronics engineer working for EMI, designed a way to make the sound of an actor in a film follow his movement across the screen. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_132

In December 1931, he submitted a patent including the idea, and in 1933 this became UK patent number 394,325. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_133

Over the next two years, Blumlein developed stereo microphones and a stereo disc-cutting head, and recorded a number of short films with stereo soundtracks. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_134

In the 1930s, experiments with magnetic tape enabled the development of the first practical commercial sound systems that could record and reproduce high-fidelity stereophonic sound. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_135

The experiments with stereo during the 1930s and 1940s were hampered by problems with synchronization. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_136

A major breakthrough in practical stereo sound was made by Bell Laboratories, who in 1937 demonstrated a practical system of two-channel stereo, using dual optical sound tracks on film. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_137

Major movie studios quickly developed three-track and four-track sound systems, and the first stereo sound recording for a commercial film was made by Judy Garland for the MGM movie Listen, Darling in 1938. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_138

The first commercially released movie with a stereo soundtrack was Walt Disney's Fantasia, released in 1940. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_139

The 1941 release of Fantasia used the "Fantasound" sound system. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_140

This system used a separate film for the sound, synchronized with the film carrying the picture. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_141

The sound film had four double-width optical soundtracks, three for left, center, and right audio—and a fourth as a "control" track with three recorded tones that controlled the playback volume of the three audio channels. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_142

Because of the complex equipment this system required, Disney exhibited the movie as a roadshow, and only in the United States. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_143

Regular releases of the movie used standard mono optical 35 mm stock until 1956, when Disney released the film with a stereo soundtrack that used the "Cinemascope" four-track magnetic sound system. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_144

German audio engineers working on magnetic tape developed stereo recording by 1941, even though a 2-track push-pull monaural technique existed in 1939. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_145

Of 250 stereophonic recordings made during WW2, only three survive: Beethoven's 5th Piano Concerto with Walter Gieseking and Arthur Rother, a Brahms Serenade, and the last movement of Bruckner's 8th Symphony with Von Karajan. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_146

The Audio Engineering Society has issued all these recordings on CD. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_147

(Varèse Sarabande had released the Beethoven Concerto on LP, and it has been reissued on CD several times since). Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_148

Other early German stereophonic tapes are believed to have been destroyed in bombings. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_149

Not until Ampex introduced the first commercial two-track tape recorders in the late 1940s did stereo tape recording become commercially feasible. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_150

However, despite the availability of multitrack tape, stereo did not become the standard system for commercial music recording for some years, and remained a specialist market during the 1950s. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_151

EMI (UK) was the first company to release commercial stereophonic tapes. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_152

They issued their first Stereosonic tape in 1954. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_153

Others quickly followed, under the His Master's Voice and Columbia labels. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_154

161 Stereosonic tapes were released, mostly classical music or lyric recordings. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_155

RCA imported these tapes into the USA. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_156

Two-track stereophonic tapes were more successful in America during the second half of the 1950s. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_157

They were duplicated at real time (1:1) or at twice the normal speed (2:1) when later 4-track tapes were often duplicated at up to 16 times the normal speed, providing a lower sound quality in many cases. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_158

Early American 2-track stereophonic tapes were very expensive. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_159

A typical example is the price list of the Sonotape/Westminster reels: $6.95, $11.95 and $17.95 for the 7000, 9000 and 8000 series respectively. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_160

Some HMV tapes released in the USA also cost up to $15. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_161

The history of stereo recording changed after the late 1957 introduction of the Westrex stereo phonograph disc, which used the groove format developed earlier by Blumlein. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_162

Decca Records in England came out with FFRR (Full Frequency Range Recording) in the 1940s, which became internationally accepted as a worldwide standard for higher quality recording on vinyl records. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_163

The Ernest Ansermet recording of Igor Stravinsky's Petrushka was key in the development of full frequency range records and alerting the listening public to high fidelity in 1946. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_164

Record companies mixed most popular music singles into monophonic sound until the mid-1960s—then commonly released major recordings in both mono and stereo until the early 1970s. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_165

Many 1960s pop albums available only in stereo in the 2000s were originally released only in mono, and record companies produced the "stereo" versions of these albums by simply separating the two tracks of the master tape, creating "pseudo stereo". Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_166

In the mid Sixties, as stereo became more popular, many mono recordings (such as The Beach Boys' Pet Sounds) were remastered using the so-called "fake stereo" method, which spread the sound across the stereo field by directing higher-frequency sound into one channel and lower-frequency sounds into the other. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_167

1950s to 1980s Sound recording and reproduction_section_9

Audio components Sound recording and reproduction_section_10

Main article: High fidelity § Modularity Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_168

The replacement of the relatively fragile thermionic valve (vacuum tube) by the smaller, lighter-weight, cooler-running, less expensive, more robust, and less power-hungry transistor also accelerated the sale of consumer high-fidelity "hi-fi" sound systems from the 1960s onward. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_169

In the 1950s, most record players were monophonic and had relatively low sound quality. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_170

Few consumers could afford high-quality stereophonic sound systems. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_171

In the 1960s, American manufacturers introduced a new generation of "modular" hi-fi components — separate turntables, pre-amplifiers, amplifiers, both combined as integrated amplifiers, tape recorders, and other ancillary equipment like the graphic equaliser, which could be connected together to create a complete home sound system. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_172

These developments were rapidly taken up by major Japanese electronics companies, which soon flooded the world market with relatively affordable, high-quality transistorized audio components. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_173

By the 1980s, corporations like Sony had become world leaders in the music recording and playback industry. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_174

Digital recording Sound recording and reproduction_section_11

Main article: Digital recording Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_175

See also: Pulse code modulation, Digital audio, Hard disk recorder, and Digital audio workstation Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_176

The advent of digital sound recording and later the compact disc (CD) in 1982 brought significant improvements in the durability of consumer recordings. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_177

The CD initiated another massive wave of change in the consumer music industry, with vinyl records effectively relegated to a small niche market by the mid-1990s. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_178

However, the record industry fiercely resisted the introduction of digital systems, fearing wholesale piracy on a medium able to produce perfect copies of original released recordings. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_179

The most recent and revolutionary developments have been in digital recording, with the development of various uncompressed and compressed digital , processors capable and fast enough to convert the digital data to sound in real time, and inexpensive mass storage. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_180

This generated new types of portable digital audio players. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_181

The minidisc player, using ATRAC compression on small, cheap, re-writeable discs was introduced in the 1990s but became obsolescent as solid-state non-volatile flash memory dropped in price. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_182

As technologies that increase the amount of data that can be stored on a single medium, such as Super Audio CD, DVD-A, Blu-ray Disc, and HD DVD become available, longer programs of higher quality fit onto a single disc. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_183

Sound files are readily downloaded from the Internet and other sources, and copied onto computers and digital audio players. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_184

Digital audio technology is now used in all areas of audio, from casual use of music files of moderate quality to the most demanding professional applications. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_185

New applications such as internet radio and podcasting have appeared. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_186

Technological developments in recording, editing, and consuming have transformed the record, movie and television industries in recent decades. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_187

Audio editing became practicable with the invention of magnetic tape recording, but technologies like MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface), sound synthesis allowed greater control for composers and artists. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_188

These digital audio techniques and mass storage have reduced recording and marketing costs so high-quality digital recordings can be produced in small studios. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_189

Today, the process of making a recording is separated into tracking, mixing and mastering. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_190

Multitrack recording makes it possible to capture signals from several microphones, or from different takes to tape, disc or mass storage, with maximized headroom and quality, allowing previously unavailable flexibility in the mixing and mastering stages. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_191

Software Sound recording and reproduction_section_12

There are many different digital audio recording and processing programs running under several computer operating systems for all purposes, ranging from casual users (e.g., a small business person recording their "to-do" list on an inexpensive digital recorder) to serious amateurs (an unsigned "indie" band recording their demo on a laptop) to professional sound engineers who are recording albums, film scores and doing sound design for video games. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_192

A comprehensive list of digital recording applications is available at the digital audio workstation article. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_193

Digital dictation software for recording and transcribing speech has different requirements; intelligibility and flexible playback facilities are priorities, while a wide frequency range and high audio quality are not. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_194

Cultural effects Sound recording and reproduction_section_13

Legal status Sound recording and reproduction_section_14

In copyright law, a "phonogram" or "sound recording" is a work that results from the fixation of sounds in a medium. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_195

The notice of copyright in a phonogram uses the sound recording copyright symbol, which the Geneva Phonograms Convention defines as ℗ (the letter P in a full circle). Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_196

This usually accompanies the copyright notice for the underlying musical composition, which uses the ordinary © symbol. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_197

The recording is separate from the song so copyright for a recording usually belongs to the record company. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_198

It is less common for an artist or producer to hold these rights. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_199

Copyright for recordings has existed since 1972, while copyright for musical composition, or songs, has existed since 1831. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_200

Disputes over sampling and "beats" are ongoing. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_201

US Sound recording and reproduction_section_15

United States copyright law defines "sound recordings" as "works that result from the fixation of a series of musical, spoken, or other sounds" other than an audiovisual work's soundtrack. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_202

Prior to the Sound Recording Amendment (SRA), which took effect in 1972, copyright in sound recordings was handled at the level of the several states. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_203

Federal copyright law preempts most state copyright laws but allows state copyright in sound recordings to continue for one full copyright term after the SRA's effective date, which means 2067. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_204

UK Sound recording and reproduction_section_16

Since 1934, copyright law in Great Britain has treated sound recordings (or phonograms) differently from musical works. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_205

Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 defines a sound recording as (a) a recording of sounds, from which the sounds may be reproduced, or (b) a recording of the whole or any part of a literary, dramatic or musical work, from which sounds reproducing the work or part may be produced, regardless of the medium on which the recording is made or the method by which the sounds are reproduced or produced. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_206

It thus covers vinyl records, tapes, compact discs, digital audiotapes, and MP3s that embody recordings. Sound recording and reproduction_sentence_207

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: recording and reproduction.