South Africa

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This article is about the Republic of South Africa. South Africa_sentence_0

For the geographical area, see Southern Africa. South Africa_sentence_1

For other uses, see South Africa (disambiguation). South Africa_sentence_2

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. South Africa_sentence_3

With over 59 million people, it is the world's 24th-most populous nation and covers an area of 1,221,037 square kilometres (471,445 square miles). South Africa_sentence_4

South Africa has three capital cities: executive Pretoria, judicial Bloemfontein and legislative Cape Town. South Africa_sentence_5

The largest city is Johannesburg. South Africa_sentence_6

About 80% of South Africans are of Black African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages. South Africa_sentence_7

The remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European, Asian, and multiracial ancestry. South Africa_sentence_8

It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and to the east and northeast by Mozambique and Eswatini (former Swaziland); and it surrounds the enclaved country of Lesotho. South Africa_sentence_9

It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere, and the most populous country located entirely south of the equator. South Africa_sentence_10

South Africa is a biodiversity hotspot, with a diversity of unique biomes and plant and animal life. South Africa_sentence_11

South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures, languages, and religions. South Africa_sentence_12

Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth-highest number in the world. South Africa_sentence_13

According to the 2011 census, the two most spoken first languages are Zulu (22.7%) and Xhosa (16.0%). South Africa_sentence_14

The two next ones are of European origin: Afrikaans (13.5%) developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans; English (9.6%) reflects the legacy of British colonialism, and is commonly used in public and commercial life. South Africa_sentence_15

The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, and regular elections have been held for almost a century. South Africa_sentence_16

However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. South Africa_sentence_17

During the 20th century, the black majority sought to claim more rights from the dominant white minority, which played a large role in the country's recent history and politics. South Africa_sentence_18

The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation. South Africa_sentence_19

After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress (ANC) and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in the mid-1980s. South Africa_sentence_20

Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa_sentence_21

South Africa is often referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity, especially in the wake of apartheid. South Africa_sentence_22

South Africa is a developing country and ranks 113th on the Human Development Index, the seventh-highest in Africa. South Africa_sentence_23

It has been classified by the World Bank as a newly industrialised country, with the second-largest economy in Africa, and the 33rd-largest in the world. South Africa_sentence_24

South Africa also has the most UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa. South Africa_sentence_25

The country is a middle power in international affairs; it maintains significant regional influence and is a member of both the Commonwealth of Nations and G20. South Africa_sentence_26

However, crime, poverty and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa_sentence_27

Moreover, climate change is an important issue for South Africa: it is a major contributor to climate change as the 14th largest emitter of greenhouse gases as of 2018 (in large part due to its coal industry), and is vulnerable to many of its impacts, because of its water-insecure environment and vulnerable communities. South Africa_sentence_28

Name South Africa_section_0

See also: Official names of South Africa South Africa_sentence_29

The name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. South Africa_sentence_30

Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English and Unie van Zuid-Afrika in Dutch, reflecting its origin from the unification of four formerly separate British colonies. South Africa_sentence_31

Since 1961, the long formal name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa" and Republiek van Suid-Afrika in Afrikaans. South Africa_sentence_32

Since 1994, the country has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. South Africa_sentence_33

Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania". South Africa_sentence_34

History South Africa_section_1

Main article: History of South Africa South Africa_sentence_35

Prehistoric archaeology South Africa_section_2

South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological and human-fossil sites in the world. South Africa_sentence_36

Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province. South Africa_sentence_37

The area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". South Africa_sentence_38

The sites include Sterkfontein, one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. South Africa_sentence_39

Other sites include Swartkrans, Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. South Africa_sentence_40

Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child (found near Taung) in 1924. South Africa_sentence_41

Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province, Cornelia and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point, Elandsfontein and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province. South Africa_sentence_42

These finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. South Africa_sentence_43

There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans (Homo sapiens). South Africa_sentence_44

Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. South Africa_sentence_45

Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. South Africa_sentence_46

Bantu expansion South Africa_section_3

Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were already present south of the Limpopo River (now the northern border with Botswana and Zimbabwe) by the 4th or 5th century CE (see Bantu expansion). South Africa_sentence_47

They displaced, conquered and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. South Africa_sentence_48

The Bantu slowly moved south. South Africa_sentence_49

The earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. South Africa_sentence_50

The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people. South Africa_sentence_51

The Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. South Africa_sentence_52

As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations displaced or assimilated earlier peoples. South Africa_sentence_53

In Mpumalanga Province, several stone circles have been found along with the stone arrangement that has been named Adam's Calendar, the ruins are thought to be created by the Bakone a Northern Sotho people. South Africa_sentence_54

Portuguese exploration South Africa_section_4

See also: Portuguese discoveries South Africa_sentence_55

At the time of European contact, the dominant ethnic group were Bantu-speaking peoples who had migrated from other parts of Africa about one thousand years before. South Africa_sentence_56

The two major historic groups were the Xhosa and Zulu peoples. South Africa_sentence_57

In 1487, the Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias led the first European voyage to land in southern Africa. South Africa_sentence_58

On 4 December, he landed at Walfisch Bay (now known as Walvis Bay in present-day Namibia). South Africa_sentence_59

This was south of the furthest point reached in 1485 by his predecessor, the Portuguese navigator Diogo Cão (Cape Cross, north of the bay). South Africa_sentence_60

Dias continued down the western coast of southern Africa. South Africa_sentence_61

After 8 January 1488, prevented by storms from proceeding along the coast, he sailed out of sight of land and passed the southernmost point of Africa without seeing it. South Africa_sentence_62

He reached as far up the eastern coast of Africa as, what he called, Rio do Infante, probably the present-day Groot River, in May 1488, but on his return he saw the Cape, which he first named Cabo das Tormentas (Cape of Storms). South Africa_sentence_63

His King, John II, renamed the point Cabo da Boa Esperança, or Cape of Good Hope, as it led to the riches of the East Indies. South Africa_sentence_64

Dias' feat of navigation was later immortalised in Luís de Camões' Portuguese epic poem, The Lusiads (1572). South Africa_sentence_65

Dutch colonisation South Africa_section_5

Main articles: Dutch Cape Colony and Boer Republics South Africa_sentence_66

By the early 17th century, Portugal's maritime power was starting to decline, and English and Dutch merchants competed to oust Lisbon from its lucrative monopoly on the spice trade. South Africa_sentence_67

Representatives of the British East India Company did call sporadically at the Cape in search of provisions as early as 1601, but later came to favour Ascension Island and St. South Africa_sentence_68 Helena as alternative ports of refuge. South Africa_sentence_69

Dutch interest was aroused after 1647, when two employees of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) were shipwrecked at the Cape for several months. South Africa_sentence_70

The sailors were able to survive by obtaining fresh water and meat from the natives. South Africa_sentence_71

They also sowed vegetables in the fertile soil. South Africa_sentence_72

Upon their return to Holland, they reported favourably on the Cape's potential as a "warehouse and garden" for provisions to stock passing ships for long voyages. South Africa_sentence_73

In 1652, a century and a half after the discovery of the Cape sea route, Jan van Riebeeck established a station at the Cape of Good Hope, at what would become Cape Town, on behalf of the Dutch East India Company. South Africa_sentence_74

In time, the Cape became home to a large population of vrij, also known as vrijburgers (lit. South Africa_sentence_75

'free citizens'), former company employees who stayed in Dutch territories overseas after serving their contracts. South Africa_sentence_76

Dutch traders also imported thousands of slaves to the fledgling colony from Indonesia, Madagascar, and parts of eastern Africa. South Africa_sentence_77

Some of the earliest mixed race communities in the country were formed through unions between vrijburgers, their slaves, and various indigenous peoples. South Africa_sentence_78

This led to the development of a new ethnic group, the Cape Coloureds, most of whom adopted the Dutch language and Christian faith. South Africa_sentence_79

The eastward expansion of Dutch colonists ushered in a series of wars with the southwesterly migrating Xhosa tribe, known as the Xhosa Wars, as both sides competed for the pastureland necessary to graze their cattle near the Great Fish River. South Africa_sentence_80

Vrijburgers who became independent farmers on the frontier were known as Boers, with some adopting semi-nomadic lifestyles being denoted as trekboers. South Africa_sentence_81

The Boers formed loose militias, which they termed commandos, and forged alliances with Khoisan groups to repel Xhosa raids. South Africa_sentence_82

Both sides launched bloody but inconclusive offensives, and sporadic violence, often accompanied by livestock theft, remained common for several decades. South Africa_sentence_83

British colonisation and the Great Trek South Africa_section_6

Main articles: Invasion of the Cape Colony, Cape Colony, Great Trek, British Bechuanaland, and Colony of Natal South Africa_sentence_84

Great Britain occupied Cape Town between 1795 and 1803 to prevent it from falling under the control of the French First Republic, which had invaded the Low Countries. South Africa_sentence_85

Despite briefly returning to Dutch rule under the Batavian Republic in 1803, the Cape was occupied again by the British in 1806. South Africa_sentence_86

Following the end of the Napoleonic Wars, it was formally ceded to Great Britain and became an integral part of the British Empire. South Africa_sentence_87

British emigration to South Africa began around 1818, subsequently culminating in the arrival of the 1820 Settlers. South Africa_sentence_88

The new colonists were induced to settle for a variety of reasons, namely to increase the size of the European workforce and to bolster frontier regions against Xhosa incursions. South Africa_sentence_89

In the first two decades of the 19th century, the Zulu people grew in power and expanded their territory under their leader, Shaka. South Africa_sentence_90

Shaka's warfare indirectly led to the Mfecane ("crushing"), in which 1,000,000 to 2,000,000 people were killed and the inland plateau was devastated and depopulated in the early 1820s. South Africa_sentence_91

An offshoot of the Zulu, the Matabele people created a larger empire that included large parts of the highveld under their king Mzilikazi. South Africa_sentence_92

During the early 1800s, many Dutch settlers departed from the Cape Colony, where they had been subjected to British control, in a series of migrant groups who came to be known as Voortrekkers, meaning "Pathfinders" or "Pioneers". South Africa_sentence_93

They migrated to the future Natal, Free State, and Transvaal regions. South Africa_sentence_94

The Boers founded the Boer Republics: the South African Republic (now Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga and North West provinces), the Natalia Republic (KwaZulu-Natal), and the Orange Free State (Free State). South Africa_sentence_95

The discovery of diamonds in 1867 and gold in 1884 in the interior started the Mineral Revolution and increased economic growth and immigration. South Africa_sentence_96

This intensified British efforts to gain control over the indigenous peoples. South Africa_sentence_97

The struggle to control these important economic resources was a factor in relations between Europeans and the indigenous population and also between the Boers and the British. South Africa_sentence_98

On 16 May 1876, President Thomas François Burgers of the South African Republic (Transvaal) declared war against Sekhukhune and the Pedi. South Africa_sentence_99

Sekhukhune managed to defeat the Transvaal army on 1 August 1876. South Africa_sentence_100

Another attack by the Lydenburg Volunteer Corps was also repulsed. South Africa_sentence_101

On 16 February 1877, the two parties signed a peace treaty at Botshabelo. South Africa_sentence_102

The Boers inability to subdue Sekhukhune and the Pedi led to the departure of Burgers in favour of Paul Kruger and the British annexation of the South African Republic(Transvaal) on 12 April 1877 by Sir Theophilus Shepstone, secretary for native affairs of Natal. South Africa_sentence_103

In 1878 and 1879 three British attacks were successfully repelled until Sir Garnet Wolseley defeated Sekhukhune in November 1879 with an army of 2,000 British soldiers, Boers and 10,000 Swazis. South Africa_sentence_104

The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879 between the United Kingdom and the Zulu Kingdom. South Africa_sentence_105

Following Lord Carnarvon's successful introduction of federation in Canada, it was thought that similar political effort, coupled with military campaigns, might succeed with the African kingdoms, tribal areas and Boer republics in South Africa. South Africa_sentence_106

In 1874, Sir Henry Bartle Frere was sent to South Africa as the British High Commissioner to bring such plans into being. South Africa_sentence_107

Among the obstacles were the presence of the independent states of the Boers and the Kingdom of Zululand and its army. South Africa_sentence_108

The Zulu nation defeated the British at the Battle of Isandlwana. South Africa_sentence_109

Eventually, though, the war was lost, resulting in the termination of the Zulu nation's independence. South Africa_sentence_110

Boer Wars South Africa_section_7

Main articles: First Boer War and Second Boer War South Africa_sentence_111

The Boer Republics successfully resisted British encroachments during the First Boer War (1880–1881) using guerrilla warfare tactics, which were well suited to local conditions. South Africa_sentence_112

The British returned with greater numbers, more experience, and new strategy in the Second Boer War (1899–1902) but suffered heavy casualties through attrition; nonetheless, they were ultimately successful. South Africa_sentence_113

Over 27,000 Boer women and children died in the British concentration camps. South Africa_sentence_114

Independence South Africa_section_8

Within the country, anti-British policies among white South Africans focused on independence. South Africa_sentence_115

During the Dutch and British colonial years, racial segregation was mostly informal, though some legislation was enacted to control the settlement and movement of native people, including the Native Location Act of 1879 and the system of pass laws. South Africa_sentence_116

Eight years after the end of the Second Boer War and after four years of negotiation, an act of the British Parliament (South Africa Act 1909) granted nominal independence, while creating the Union of South Africa on 31 May 1910. South Africa_sentence_117

The Union was a dominion that included the former territories of the Cape, Transvaal and Natal colonies, as well as the Orange Free State republic. South Africa_sentence_118

The Natives' Land Act of 1913 severely restricted the ownership of land by blacks; at that stage natives controlled only seven percent of the country. South Africa_sentence_119

The amount of land reserved for indigenous peoples was later marginally increased. South Africa_sentence_120

In 1931, the union was fully sovereign from the United Kingdom with the passage of the Statute of Westminster, which abolished the last powers of the Parliament of the United Kingdom to legislate on the country. South Africa_sentence_121

In 1934, the South African Party and National Party merged to form the United Party, seeking reconciliation between Afrikaners and English-speaking whites. South Africa_sentence_122

In 1939, the party split over the entry of the Union into World War II as an ally of the United Kingdom, a move which the National Party followers strongly opposed. South Africa_sentence_123

Beginning of apartheid South Africa_section_9

Main article: Apartheid South Africa_sentence_124

In 1948, the National Party was elected to power. South Africa_sentence_125

It strengthened the racial segregation begun under Dutch and British colonial rule. South Africa_sentence_126

Taking Canada's Indian Act as a framework, the nationalist government classified all peoples into three races and developed rights and limitations for each. South Africa_sentence_127

The white minority (less than 20%) controlled the vastly larger black majority. South Africa_sentence_128

The legally institutionalised segregation became known as apartheid. South Africa_sentence_129

While whites enjoyed the highest standard of living in all of Africa, comparable to First World Western nations, the black majority remained disadvantaged by almost every standard, including income, education, housing, and life expectancy. South Africa_sentence_130

The Freedom Charter, adopted in 1955 by the Congress Alliance, demanded a non-racial society and an end to discrimination. South Africa_sentence_131

Republic South Africa_section_10

On 31 May 1961, the country became a republic following a referendum (only open to white voters) which narrowly passed; the British-dominated Natal province largely voted against the proposal. South Africa_sentence_132

Queen Elizabeth II lost the title Queen of South Africa, and the last Governor-General, Charles Robberts Swart, became State President. South Africa_sentence_133

As a concession to the Westminster system, the appointment of the president remained an appointment by parliament, and virtually powerless until P. South Africa_sentence_134 W. Botha's Constitution Act of 1983, which eliminated the office of Prime Minister and instated a near-unique "strong presidency" responsible to parliament. South Africa_sentence_135

Pressured by other Commonwealth of Nations countries, South Africa withdrew from the organisation in 1961 and rejoined it only in 1994. South Africa_sentence_136

Despite opposition both within and outside the country, the government legislated for a continuation of apartheid. South Africa_sentence_137

The security forces cracked down on internal dissent, and violence became widespread, with anti-apartheid organisations such as the African National Congress (ANC), the Azanian People's Organisation (AZAPO), and the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC) carrying out guerrilla warfare and urban sabotage. South Africa_sentence_138

The three rival resistance movements also engaged in occasional inter-factional clashes as they jockeyed for domestic influence. South Africa_sentence_139

Apartheid became increasingly controversial, and several countries began to boycott business with the South African government because of its racial policies. South Africa_sentence_140

These measures were later extended to international sanctions and the divestment of holdings by foreign investors. South Africa_sentence_141

In the late 1970s, South Africa initiated a programme of nuclear weapons development. South Africa_sentence_142

In the following decade, it produced six deliverable nuclear weapons. South Africa_sentence_143

End of apartheid South Africa_section_11

Further information: History of South Africa (1994–present) South Africa_sentence_144

The Mahlabatini Declaration of Faith, signed by Mangosuthu Buthelezi and Harry Schwarz in 1974, enshrined the principles of peaceful transition of power and equality for all, the first of such agreements by black and white political leaders in South Africa. South Africa_sentence_145

Ultimately, FW de Klerk opened bilateral discussions with Nelson Mandela in 1993 for a transition of policies and government. South Africa_sentence_146

In 1990, the National Party government took the first step towards dismantling discrimination when it lifted the ban on the ANC and other political organisations. South Africa_sentence_147

It released Nelson Mandela from prison after 27 years' serving a sentence for sabotage. South Africa_sentence_148

A negotiation process followed. South Africa_sentence_149

With approval from the white electorate in a 1992 referendum, the government continued negotiations to end apartheid. South Africa_sentence_150

South Africa also destroyed its nuclear arsenal and acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. South Africa_sentence_151

South Africa held its first universal elections in 1994, which the ANC won by an overwhelming majority. South Africa_sentence_152

It has been in power ever since. South Africa_sentence_153

The country rejoined the Commonwealth of Nations and became a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). South Africa_sentence_154

In post-apartheid South Africa, unemployment remained high. South Africa_sentence_155

While many blacks have risen to middle or upper classes, the overall unemployment rate of black people worsened between 1994 and 2003 by official metrics, but declined significantly using expanded definitions. South Africa_sentence_156

Poverty among whites, which was previously rare, increased. South Africa_sentence_157

In addition, the current government has struggled to achieve the monetary and fiscal discipline to ensure both redistribution of wealth and economic growth. South Africa_sentence_158

The United Nations (UN) Human Development Index (HDI) of South Africa fell from 1995 to 2005, while it was steadily rising until the mid-1990s, before recovering its 1995 peak in 2013. South Africa_sentence_159

This is in large part attributable to the South African HIV/AIDS pandemic which saw South African life expectancy fall from a high point of 62.25 years in 1992 to a low of 52.57 in 2005, and the failure of the government to take steps to address the pandemic in its early years. South Africa_sentence_160

In May 2008, riots left over 60 people dead. South Africa_sentence_161

The Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions estimated that over 100,000 people were driven from their homes. South Africa_sentence_162

The targets were mainly legal and illegal migrants and refugees seeking asylum, but a third of the victims were South African citizens. South Africa_sentence_163

In a 2006 survey, the South African Migration Project concluded that South Africans are more opposed to immigration than any other national group. South Africa_sentence_164

The UN High Commissioner for Refugees in 2008 reported over 200,000 refugees applied for asylum in South Africa, almost four times as many as the year before. South Africa_sentence_165

These people were mainly from Zimbabwe, though many also come from Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia. South Africa_sentence_166

Competition over jobs, business opportunities, public services and housing has led to tension between refugees and host communities. South Africa_sentence_167

While xenophobia in South Africa is still a problem, recent violence has not been as widespread as initially feared. South Africa_sentence_168

Nevertheless, as South Africa continues to grapple with racial issues, one of the proposed solutions has been to pass legislation, such as the pending Hate Crimes and Hate Speech Bill, to uphold South Africa's ban on racism and commitment to equality. South Africa_sentence_169

Geography South Africa_section_12

Main article: Geography of South Africa South Africa_sentence_170

South Africa is located at the southernmost region of Africa, with a long coastline that stretches more than 2,500 km (1,553 mi) and along two oceans (the South Atlantic and the Indian). South Africa_sentence_171

At 1,219,912 km (471,011 sq mi), according to the UN Demographic Yearbook, South Africa is the 24th-largest country in the world. South Africa_sentence_172

It is about the same size as Colombia, twice the size of France, three times as big as Japan, four times the size of Italy and five times the size of the United Kingdom. South Africa_sentence_173

Mafadi in the Drakensberg at 3,450 m (11,320 ft) is the highest peak in South Africa. South Africa_sentence_174

Excluding the Prince Edward Islands, the country lies between latitudes 22° and 35°S, and longitudes 16° and 33°E. South Africa_sentence_175

The interior of South Africa consists of a vast, in most places almost flat, plateau with an altitude of between 1,000 m (3,300 ft) and 2,100 m (6,900 ft), highest in the east and sloping gently downwards towards the west and north, and slightly less noticeably so to the south and south-west. South Africa_sentence_176

This plateau is surrounded by the Great Escarpment whose eastern, and highest, stretch is known as the Drakensberg. South Africa_sentence_177

The south and south-western parts of the plateau (at approximately 1,100–1,800 m above sea level), and the adjoining plain below (at approximately 700–800 m above sea level – see map on the right) is known as the Great Karoo, which consists of sparsely populated scrubland. South Africa_sentence_178

To the north, the Great Karoo fades into the even drier and more arid Bushmanland, which eventually becomes the Kalahari desert in the very north-west of the country. South Africa_sentence_179

The mid-eastern, and highest part of the plateau is known as the Highveld. South Africa_sentence_180

This relatively well-watered area is home to a great proportion of the country's commercial farmlands and contains its largest conurbation (Gauteng). South Africa_sentence_181

To the north of Highveld, from about the 25° 30' S line of latitude, the plateau slopes downwards into the Bushveld, which ultimately gives way to the Limpopo lowlands or Lowveld. South Africa_sentence_182

The coastal belt, below the Great Escarpment, moving clockwise from the northeast, consists of the Limpopo Lowveld, which merges into the Mpumalanga Lowveld, below the Mpumalanga Drakensberg (the eastern portion of the Great Escarpment). South Africa_sentence_183

This is hotter, drier and less intensely cultivated than the Highveld above the escarpment. South Africa_sentence_184

The Kruger National Park, located in the provinces of Limpopo and Mpumalanga in northeastern South Africa, occupies a large portion of the Lowveld covering 19,633 square kilometres (7,580 sq mi.) South Africa_sentence_185

South of the Lowveld the annual rainfall increases as one enters KwaZulu-Natal Province, which, especially near the coast, is subtropically hot and humid. South Africa_sentence_186

The KwaZulu-Natal–Lesotho international border is formed by the highest portion of the Great Escarpment, or Drakensberg, which reaches an altitude of over 3,000 m (9,800 ft). South Africa_sentence_187

The climate at the foot of this part of the Drakensberg is temperate. South Africa_sentence_188

The coastal belt below the south and south-western stretches of the Great Escarpment contains several ranges of Cape Fold Mountains which run parallel to the coast, separating the Great Escarpment from the ocean. South Africa_sentence_189

(These parallel ranges of fold mountains are shown on the map, above left. South Africa_sentence_190

Note the course of the Great Escarpment to the north of these mountain ranges.) South Africa_sentence_191

The land (at approximately 400–500 m above sea level) between two of these ranges of fold mountains in the south (i.e. between the Outeniqua and Langeberg ranges to the south and the Swartberg range to the north) is known as the Little Karoo, which consists of semi-desert scrubland similar to that of the Great Karoo, except that its northern strip along the foothills of the Swartberg Mountains, has a somewhat higher rainfall and is, therefore, more cultivated than the Great Karoo. South Africa_sentence_192

The Little Karoo is historically, and still, famous for its ostrich farming around the town of Oudtshoorn. South Africa_sentence_193

The lowland area (700–800 m above sea level) to the north of the Swartberg mountain range up to the Great Escarpment is the lowland part of the Great Karoo (see map at top right), which is climatically and botanically almost indistinguishable from the Karoo above the Great Escarpment. South Africa_sentence_194

The narrow coastal strip between the most seaward Cape Fold Mountain range (i.e., the Langeberg–Outeniqua mountains) and the ocean has a moderately high year-round rainfall, especially in the George-Knysna-Plettenberg Bay region, which is known as the Garden Route. South Africa_sentence_195

It is famous for the most extensive areas of indigenous forests in South Africa (a generally forest-poor country). South Africa_sentence_196

In the south-west corner of the country, the Cape Peninsula forms the southernmost tip of the coastal strip which borders the Atlantic Ocean and ultimately terminates at the country's border with Namibia at the Orange River. South Africa_sentence_197

The Cape Peninsula has a Mediterranean climate, making it and its immediate surrounds the only portion of Africa south of the Sahara which receives most of its rainfall in winter. South Africa_sentence_198

The greater Cape Town metropolitan area is situated on the Cape Peninsula and is home to 3.7 million people according to the 2011 population census. South Africa_sentence_199

It is the country's legislative capital. South Africa_sentence_200

The coastal belt to the north of the Cape Peninsula is bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean and the first row of north–south running Cape Fold Mountains to the east. South Africa_sentence_201

The Cape Fold Mountains peter out at about the 32° S line of latitude, after which the coastal plain is bounded by the Great Escarpment itself. South Africa_sentence_202

The most southerly portion of this coastal belt is known as the Swartland and Malmesbury Plain, which is an important wheat growing region, relying on winter rains. South Africa_sentence_203

The region further north is known as Namaqualand, which becomes more and more arid as one approaches the Orange River. South Africa_sentence_204

The little rain that falls tends to fall in winter, which results in one of the world's most spectacular displays of flowers carpeting huge stretches of veld in spring (August–September). South Africa_sentence_205

South Africa also has one possession, the small sub-Antarctic archipelago of the Prince Edward Islands, consisting of Marion Island (290 km or 110 sq mi) and Prince Edward Island (45 km or 17 sq mi) (not to be confused with the Canadian province of the same name). South Africa_sentence_206

Climate South Africa_section_13

Main article: Climate of South Africa South Africa_sentence_207

South Africa has a generally temperate climate because it is surrounded by the Atlantic and Indian Oceans on three sides, because it is located in the climatically milder Southern Hemisphere, and because its average elevation rises steadily toward the north (toward the equator) and further inland. South Africa_sentence_208

This varied topography and oceanic influence result in a great variety of climatic zones. South Africa_sentence_209

The climatic zones range from the extreme desert of the southern Namib in the farthest northwest to the lush subtropical climate in the east along the border with Mozambique and the Indian Ocean. South Africa_sentence_210

Winters in South Africa occur between June and August. South Africa_sentence_211

The extreme southwest has a climate remarkably similar to that of the Mediterranean Sea with wet winters and hot, dry summers, hosting the famous fynbos biome of shrubland and thicket. South Africa_sentence_212

This area also produces much of the wine in South Africa. South Africa_sentence_213

This region is also particularly known for its wind, which blows intermittently almost all year. South Africa_sentence_214

The severity of this wind made passing around the Cape of Good Hope particularly treacherous for sailors, causing many shipwrecks. South Africa_sentence_215

Further east on the south coast, rainfall is distributed more evenly throughout the year, producing a green landscape. South Africa_sentence_216

This area is popularly known as the Garden Route. South Africa_sentence_217

The Free State is particularly flat because it lies centrally on the high plateau. South Africa_sentence_218

North of the Vaal River, the Highveld becomes better watered and does not experience subtropical extremes of heat. South Africa_sentence_219

Johannesburg, in the centre of the Highveld, is at 1,740 m (5,709 ft) above sea level and receives an annual rainfall of 760 mm (29.9 in). South Africa_sentence_220

Winters in this region are cold, although snow is rare. South Africa_sentence_221

The high Drakensberg mountains, which form the south-eastern escarpment of the Highveld, offer limited skiing opportunities in winter. South Africa_sentence_222

The coldest place on mainland South Africa is Buffelsfontein in the Eastern Cape, where a temperature of −20.1 °C (−4.2 °F) was recorded in 2013. South Africa_sentence_223

The Prince Edward Islands have colder average annual temperatures, but Buffelsfontein has colder extremes. South Africa_sentence_224

The deep interior of mainland South Africa has the hottest temperatures: a temperature of 51.7 °C (125.06 °F) was recorded in 1948 in the Northern Cape Kalahari near Upington, but this temperature is unofficial and was not recorded with standard equipment, the official highest temperature is 48.8 °C (119.84 °F) at Vioolsdrif in January 1993. South Africa_sentence_225

Biodiversity South Africa_section_14

Main article: Biodiversity of South Africa South Africa_sentence_226

See also: Wildlife of South Africa, Protected areas of South Africa, and Marine biodiversity of South Africa South Africa_sentence_227

South Africa signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 4 June 1994, and became a party to the convention on 2 November 1995. South Africa_sentence_228

It has subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, which was received by the convention on 7 June 2006. South Africa_sentence_229

The country is ranked sixth out of the world's seventeen megadiverse countries. South Africa_sentence_230

Ecotourism in South Africa has become more prevalent in recent years, as a possible method of maintaining and improving biodiversity. South Africa_sentence_231

Animals South Africa_section_15

Numerous mammals are found in the Bushveld including lions, African leopards, South African cheetahs, southern white rhinos, blue wildebeest, kudus, impalas, hyenas, hippopotamuses and South African giraffes. South Africa_sentence_232

A significant extent of the Bushveld exists in the north-east including Kruger National Park and the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, as well as in the far north in the Waterberg Biosphere. South Africa_sentence_233

South Africa houses many endemic species, among them the critically endangered riverine rabbit (Bunolagus monticullaris) in the Karoo. South Africa_sentence_234

Fungi South Africa_section_16

Up to 1945, more than 4900 species of fungi (including lichen-forming species) had been recorded. South Africa_sentence_235

In 2006, the number of fungi in South Africa was estimated at about 200,000 species, but did not take into account fungi associated with insects. South Africa_sentence_236

If correct, then the number of South African fungi dwarfs that of its plants. South Africa_sentence_237

In at least some major South African ecosystems, an exceptionally high percentage of fungi are highly specific in terms of the plants with which they occur. South Africa_sentence_238

The country's Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan does not mention fungi (including lichen-forming fungi). South Africa_sentence_239

Plants South Africa_section_17

With more than 22,000 different higher plants, or about 9% of all the known species of plants on Earth, South Africa is particularly rich in plant diversity. South Africa_sentence_240

The most prevalent biome in South Africa is the grassland, particularly on the Highveld, where the plant cover is dominated by different grasses, low shrubs, and acacia trees, mainly camel-thorn (Vachellia erioloba). South Africa_sentence_241

Vegetation becomes even more sparse towards the northwest due to low rainfall. South Africa_sentence_242

There are several species of water-storing succulents, like aloes and euphorbias, in the very hot and dry Namaqualand area. South Africa_sentence_243

The grass and thorn savannah turns slowly into a bush savannah towards the north-east of the country, with denser growth. South Africa_sentence_244

There are significant numbers of baobab trees in this area, near the northern end of Kruger National Park. South Africa_sentence_245

The fynbos biome, which makes up the majority of the area and plant life in the Cape floristic region, one of the six floral kingdoms, is located in a small region of the Western Cape and contains more than 9,000 of those species, making it among the richest regions on earth in terms of plant diversity. South Africa_sentence_246

Most of the plants are evergreen hard-leaf plants with fine, needle-like leaves, such as the sclerophyllous plants. South Africa_sentence_247

Another uniquely South African flowering plant group is the genus Protea. South Africa_sentence_248

There are around 130 different species of Protea in South Africa. South Africa_sentence_249

While South Africa has a great wealth of flowering plants, only one percent of South Africa is forest, almost exclusively in the humid coastal plain of KwaZulu-Natal, where there are also areas of Southern Africa mangroves in river mouths. South Africa_sentence_250

There are even smaller reserves of forests that are out of the reach of fire, known as montane forests. South Africa_sentence_251

Plantations of imported tree species are predominant, particularly the non-native eucalyptus and pine. South Africa_sentence_252

Conservation issues South Africa_section_18

South Africa has lost a large area of natural habitat in the last four decades, primarily due to overpopulation, sprawling development patterns and deforestation during the 19th century. South Africa_sentence_253

South Africa is one of the worst affected countries in the world when it comes to invasion by alien species with many (e.g., black wattle, Port Jackson willow, Hakea, Lantana and Jacaranda) posing a significant threat to the native biodiversity and the already scarce water resources. South Africa_sentence_254

The original temperate forest found by the first European settlers was exploited ruthlessly until only small patches remained. South Africa_sentence_255

Currently, South African hardwood trees like real yellowwood (Podocarpus latifolius), stinkwood (Ocotea bullata), and South African black ironwood (Olea laurifolia) are under government protection. South Africa_sentence_256

Statistics from the South African Department of Environmental Affairs show a record 1,215 rhinos have been killed in 2014. South Africa_sentence_257

Climate change is expected to bring considerable warming and drying to much of this already semi-arid region, with greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as heat waves, flooding and drought. South Africa_sentence_258

According to computer-generated climate modelling produced by the South African National Biodiversity Institute, parts of southern Africa will see an increase in temperature by about 1 °C (1.8 °F) along the coast to more than 4 °C (7.2 °F) in the already hot hinterland such as the Northern Cape in late spring and summertime by 2050. South Africa_sentence_259

The Cape Floral Region, being identified as one of the global biodiversity hotspots, will be hit very hard by climate change. South Africa_sentence_260

Drought, increased intensity and frequency of fire, and climbing temperatures are expected to push many rare species towards extinction. South Africa_sentence_261

South Africa has published two national climate change reports in 2011 and 2016. South Africa_sentence_262

Politics and government South Africa_section_19

Main articles: Government of South Africa, Politics of South Africa, Law of South Africa, and Human rights in South Africa South Africa_sentence_263

South Africa is a parliamentary republic, although unlike most such republics the President is both head of state and head of government, and depends for his tenure on the confidence of Parliament. South Africa_sentence_264

The executive, legislature and judiciary are all subject to the supremacy of the Constitution, and the superior courts have the power to strike down executive actions and acts of Parliament if they are unconstitutional. South Africa_sentence_265

The National Assembly, the lower house of Parliament, consists of 400 members and is elected every five years by a system of party-list proportional representation. South Africa_sentence_266

The National Council of Provinces, the upper house, consists of ninety members, with each of the nine provincial legislatures electing ten members. South Africa_sentence_267

After each parliamentary election, the National Assembly elects one of its members as president; hence the President serves a term of office the same as that of the Assembly, normally five years. South Africa_sentence_268

No President may serve more than two terms in office. South Africa_sentence_269

The President appoints a Deputy President and Ministers, who form the Cabinet which consists of Departments and Ministries. South Africa_sentence_270

The President and the Cabinet may be removed by the National Assembly by a motion of no confidence. South Africa_sentence_271

In the most recent election, held on 8 May 2019, the ANC won 57.5% of the vote and 230 seats, while the main opposition, the Democratic Alliance (DA) won 20.77% of the vote and 84 seats. South Africa_sentence_272

The Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF), founded by Julius Malema, former President of the ANC's Youth Wing (ANC Youth League) who was later expelled from the ANC, won 10.79% of the vote and 44 seats. South Africa_sentence_273

The ANC has been the governing political party in South Africa since the end of apartheid. South Africa_sentence_274

South Africa has no legally defined capital city. South Africa_sentence_275

The fourth chapter of the Constitution of South Africa, states that "The seat of Parliament is Cape Town, but an Act of Parliament enacted in accordance with section 76(1) and (5) may determine that the seat of Parliament is elsewhere." South Africa_sentence_276

The country's three branches of government are split over different cities. South Africa_sentence_277

Cape Town, as the seat of Parliament, is the legislative capital; Pretoria, as the seat of the President and Cabinet, is the administrative capital; and Bloemfontein, as the seat of the Supreme Court of Appeal, is the judicial capital, while the Constitutional Court of South Africa sits in Johannesburg. South Africa_sentence_278

Most foreign embassies are located in Pretoria. South Africa_sentence_279

Since 2004, South Africa has had many thousands of popular protests, some violent, making it, according to one academic, the "most protest-rich country in the world". South Africa_sentence_280

There have been a number of incidents of political repression as well as threats of future repression in violation of the constitution, leading some analysts and civil society organisations to conclude that there is or could be a new climate of political repression, or a decline in political tolerance. South Africa_sentence_281

In 2008, South Africa placed fifth out of 48 sub-Saharan African countries on the Ibrahim Index of African Governance. South Africa_sentence_282

South Africa scored well in the categories of Rule of Law, Transparency and Corruption, and Participation and Human Rights, but was let down by its relatively poor performance in Safety and Security. South Africa_sentence_283

In November 2006, South Africa became the first African country to legalise same-sex marriage. South Africa_sentence_284

Law South Africa_section_20

See also: Crime in South Africa South Africa_sentence_285

The Constitution of South Africa is the supreme rule of law in the country. South Africa_sentence_286

The primary sources of South African law are Roman-Dutch mercantile law and personal law with English Common law, as imports of Dutch settlements and British colonialism. South Africa_sentence_287

The first European based law in South Africa was brought by the Dutch East India Company and is called Roman-Dutch law. South Africa_sentence_288

It was imported before the codification of European law into the Napoleonic Code and is comparable in many ways to Scots law. South Africa_sentence_289

This was followed in the 19th century by English law, both common and statutory. South Africa_sentence_290

After unification in 1910, South Africa had its own parliament which passed laws specific for South Africa, building on those previously passed for the individual member colonies. South Africa_sentence_291

The judicial system consists of the magistrates' courts, which hear lesser criminal cases and smaller civil cases; the High Court, which has divisions that serve as the courts of general jurisdiction for specific areas; the Supreme Court of Appeal, and the Constitutional Court, which is the highest court. South Africa_sentence_292

From April 2017 to March 2018, on average 57 murders were committed each day in South Africa. South Africa_sentence_293

In the year ended March 2017, there were 20,336 murders and the murder rate was 35.9 per 100,000 – over five times higher than the global average of 6.2 per 100,000. South Africa_sentence_294

Middle-class South Africans seek security in gated communities. South Africa_sentence_295

The private security industry in South Africa is the largest in the world, with nearly 9,000 registered companies and 400,000 registered active private security guards, more than the South African police and army combined. South Africa_sentence_296

Many emigrants from South Africa also state that crime was a major factor in their decision to leave. South Africa_sentence_297

Crime against the farming community has continued to be a major problem. South Africa_sentence_298

In an attempt to reduce crime rate, the police arrested over 500 undocumented foreigners in a raid in August 2019. South Africa_sentence_299

South Africa has a high rape rate, with 43,195 rapes reported in 2014/15, and an unknown number of sexual assaults going unreported. South Africa_sentence_300

A 2009 survey of 1,738 men in KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape by the Medical Research Council found one in four men admitted to raping someone and another survey of 4,000 women in Johannesburg by CIET Africa found one in three said they had been raped in the past year. South Africa_sentence_301

Rape occurs most commonly in relationships but many men and women say that rape cannot occur in relationships; however, one in four women reported having been abused by an intimate partner. South Africa_sentence_302

Rapes are also perpetrated by children (some as young as ten). South Africa_sentence_303

The incidence of child and infant rape is among the highest in the world, largely as a result of the virgin cleansing myth, and a number of high-profile cases (sometimes as young as eight months) have outraged the nation. South Africa_sentence_304

Between 1994 and 2018, there were more than 500 xenophobic attacks against foreigners in South Africa. South Africa_sentence_305

The 2019 Johannesburg riots were similar in nature and origin to the 2008 xenophobic riots that also occurred in Johannesburg. South Africa_sentence_306

Foreign relations South Africa_section_21

Main article: Foreign relations of South Africa South Africa_sentence_307

As the Union of South Africa, the country was a founding member of the UN. South Africa_sentence_308

The then Prime Minister Jan Smuts wrote the preamble to the UN Charter. South Africa_sentence_309

South Africa is one of the founding members of the African Union (AU), and has the second largest economy of all the members. South Africa_sentence_310

It is also a founding member of the AU's New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD). South Africa_sentence_311

South Africa has played a key role as a mediator in African conflicts over the last decade, such as in Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the Comoros, and Zimbabwe. South Africa_sentence_312

After apartheid ended, South Africa was readmitted to the Commonwealth of Nations. South Africa_sentence_313

The country is a member of the Group of 77 and chaired the organisation in 2006. South Africa_sentence_314

South Africa is also a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, Southern African Customs Union (SACU), Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), World Trade Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), G20, G8+5, and the Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa. South Africa_sentence_315

Former South African President Jacob Zuma and former Chinese President Hu Jintao upgraded bilateral ties between the two countries on 24 August 2010, when they signed the Beijing Agreement, which elevated South Africa's earlier "strategic partnership" with China to the higher level of "comprehensive strategic partnership" in both economic and political affairs, including the strengthening of exchanges between their respective ruling parties and legislatures. South Africa_sentence_316

In April 2011, South Africa formally joined the Brazil-Russia-India-China (BRICS) grouping of countries, identified by Zuma as the country's largest trading partners, and also the largest trading partners with Africa as a whole. South Africa_sentence_317

Zuma asserted that BRICS member countries would also work with each other through the UN, the Group of Twenty (G20) and the India, Brazil South Africa (IBSA) forum. South Africa_sentence_318

Military South Africa_section_22

Main article: South African National Defence Force South Africa_sentence_319

The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) was created in 1994, as an all-volunteer military composed of the former South African Defence Force, the forces of the African nationalist groups (Umkhonto we Sizwe and Azanian People's Liberation Army), and the former Bantustan defence forces. South Africa_sentence_320

The SANDF is subdivided into four branches, the South African Army, the South African Air Force, the South African Navy, and the South African Military Health Service. South Africa_sentence_321

In recent years, the SANDF has become a major peacekeeping force in Africa, and has been involved in operations in Lesotho, the DRC, and Burundi, amongst others. South Africa_sentence_322

It has also served in multinational UN Peacekeeping forces such as the UN Force Intervention Brigade for example. South Africa_sentence_323

South Africa is the only African country to have successfully developed nuclear weapons. South Africa_sentence_324

It became the first country (followed by Ukraine) with nuclear capability to voluntarily renounce and dismantle its programme and in the process signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1991. South Africa_sentence_325

South Africa undertook a nuclear weapons programme in the 1970s According to former state president FW de Klerk, the decision to build a "nuclear deterrent" was taken "as early as 1974 against a backdrop of a Soviet expansionist threat." South Africa_sentence_326

South Africa is alleged to have conducted a nuclear test over the Atlantic in 1979, although this is officially denied. South Africa_sentence_327

Former president, FW de Klerk, maintained that South Africa had "never conducted a clandestine nuclear test." South Africa_sentence_328

Six nuclear devices were completed between 1980 and 1990, but all were dismantled before South Africa signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1991. South Africa_sentence_329

In 2017, South Africa signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. South Africa_sentence_330

Administrative divisions South Africa_section_23

Main article: Provinces of South Africa South Africa_sentence_331

Each of the nine provinces is governed by a unicameral legislature, which is elected every five years by party-list proportional representation. South Africa_sentence_332

The legislature elects a Premier as head of government, and the Premier appoints an Executive Council as a provincial cabinet. South Africa_sentence_333

The powers of provincial governments are limited to topics listed in the Constitution; these topics include such fields as health, education, public housing and transport. South Africa_sentence_334

The provinces are in turn divided into 52 districts: 8 metropolitan and 44 district municipalities. South Africa_sentence_335

The district municipalities are further subdivided into 205 local municipalities. South Africa_sentence_336

The metropolitan municipalities, which govern the largest urban agglomerations, perform the functions of both district and local municipalities. South Africa_sentence_337

South Africa_table_general_0

ProvinceSouth Africa_header_cell_0_0_0 Provincial capitalSouth Africa_header_cell_0_0_1 Largest citySouth Africa_header_cell_0_0_2 Area (km)South Africa_header_cell_0_0_3 Population (2016)South Africa_header_cell_0_0_4
Eastern CapeSouth Africa_cell_0_1_0 BhishoSouth Africa_cell_0_1_1 Port ElizabethSouth Africa_cell_0_1_2 168,966South Africa_cell_0_1_3 6,996,976South Africa_cell_0_1_4
Free StateSouth Africa_cell_0_2_0 BloemfonteinSouth Africa_cell_0_2_1 BloemfonteinSouth Africa_cell_0_2_2 129,825South Africa_cell_0_2_3 2,834,714South Africa_cell_0_2_4
GautengSouth Africa_cell_0_3_0 JohannesburgSouth Africa_cell_0_3_1 JohannesburgSouth Africa_cell_0_3_2 18,178South Africa_cell_0_3_3 13,399,724South Africa_cell_0_3_4
KwaZulu-NatalSouth Africa_cell_0_4_0 PietermaritzburgSouth Africa_cell_0_4_1 DurbanSouth Africa_cell_0_4_2 94,361South Africa_cell_0_4_3 11,065,240South Africa_cell_0_4_4
LimpopoSouth Africa_cell_0_5_0 PolokwaneSouth Africa_cell_0_5_1 PolokwaneSouth Africa_cell_0_5_2 125,754South Africa_cell_0_5_3 5,799,090South Africa_cell_0_5_4
MpumalangaSouth Africa_cell_0_6_0 MbombelaSouth Africa_cell_0_6_1 MbombelaSouth Africa_cell_0_6_2 76,495South Africa_cell_0_6_3 4,335,964South Africa_cell_0_6_4
North WestSouth Africa_cell_0_7_0 MahikengSouth Africa_cell_0_7_1 KlerksdorpSouth Africa_cell_0_7_2 104,882South Africa_cell_0_7_3 3,748,435South Africa_cell_0_7_4
Northern CapeSouth Africa_cell_0_8_0 KimberleySouth Africa_cell_0_8_1 KimberleySouth Africa_cell_0_8_2 372,889South Africa_cell_0_8_3 1,193,780South Africa_cell_0_8_4
Western CapeSouth Africa_cell_0_9_0 Cape TownSouth Africa_cell_0_9_1 Cape TownSouth Africa_cell_0_9_2 129,462South Africa_cell_0_9_3 6,279,730South Africa_cell_0_9_4

Economy South Africa_section_24

Main article: Economy of South Africa South Africa_sentence_338

South Africa has a mixed economy, the second largest in Africa after Nigeria. South Africa_sentence_339

It also has a relatively high gross domestic product (GDP) per capita compared to other countries in sub-Saharan Africa (US$11,750 at purchasing power parity as of 2012). South Africa_sentence_340

Despite this, South Africa is still burdened by a relatively high rate of poverty and unemployment, and is also ranked in the top ten countries in the world for income inequality, measured by the Gini coefficient. South Africa_sentence_341

In 2015, 71 percent of net wealth are held by 10 percent richest of the population, whereas 60 percent of the poorest held only 7 percent of the net wealth and the Gini coefficient was 0.63, whereas in 1996 was 0.61. South Africa_sentence_342

Unlike most of the world's poor countries, South Africa does not have a thriving informal economy. South Africa_sentence_343

Only 15% of South African jobs are in the informal sector, compared with around half in Brazil and India and nearly three-quarters in Indonesia. South Africa_sentence_344

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) attributes this difference to South Africa's widespread welfare system. South Africa_sentence_345

World Bank research shows that South Africa has one of the widest gaps between per capita GDP versus its Human Development Index (HDI) ranking, with only Botswana showing a larger gap. South Africa_sentence_346

After 1994, government policy brought down inflation, stabilised public finances, and some foreign capital was attracted, however growth was still subpar. South Africa_sentence_347

From 2004 onward, economic growth picked up significantly; both employment and capital formation increased. South Africa_sentence_348

During the presidency of Jacob Zuma, the government increased the role of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). South Africa_sentence_349

Some of the biggest SOEs are Eskom, the electric power monopoly, South African Airways (SAA), and Transnet, the railroad and ports monopoly. South Africa_sentence_350

Some of these SOEs have not been profitable, such as SAA, which has required bailouts totaling R30 billion ($2.25 billion) over 20 years. South Africa_sentence_351

Principal international trading partners of South Africa—besides other African countries—include Germany, the United States, China, Japan, the United Kingdom and Spain. South Africa_sentence_352

The South African agricultural industry contributes around 10% of formal employment, relatively low compared to other parts of Africa, as well as providing work for casual labourers and contributing around 2.6% of GDP for the nation. South Africa_sentence_353

Due to the aridity of the land, only 13.5% can be used for crop production, and only 3% is considered high potential land. South Africa_sentence_354

In August 2013, South Africa was ranked as the top African Country of the Future by fDi magazine based on the country's economic potential, labour environment, cost-effectiveness, infrastructure, business friendliness, and foreign direct investment strategy. South Africa_sentence_355

The Financial Secrecy Index (FDI) ranks South Africa as the 50th safest tax haven in the world. South Africa_sentence_356

Tourism South Africa_section_25

Main article: Tourism in South Africa South Africa_sentence_357

South Africa is a popular tourist destination, and a substantial amount of revenue comes from tourism. South Africa_sentence_358

Labour market South Africa_section_26

During 1995–2003, the number of formal jobs decreased and informal jobs increased; overall unemployment worsened. South Africa_sentence_359

The government's Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) policies have drawn criticism from Neva Makgetla, lead economist for research and information at the Development Bank of Southern Africa, for focusing "almost exclusively on promoting individual ownership by black people [which] does little to address broader economic disparities, though the rich may become more diverse." South Africa_sentence_360

Official affirmative action policies have seen a rise in black economic wealth and an emerging black middle class. South Africa_sentence_361

Other problems include state ownership and interference, which impose high barriers to entry in many areas. South Africa_sentence_362

Restrictive labour regulations have contributed to the unemployment malaise. South Africa_sentence_363

Along with many African nations, South Africa has been experiencing a "brain drain" in the past 20 years. South Africa_sentence_364

and is almost certainly detrimental for the wellbeing of those reliant on the healthcare infrastructure. South Africa_sentence_365

The skills drain in South Africa tends to demonstrate racial contours given the skills distribution legacy of South Africa and has thus resulted in large white South African communities abroad. South Africa_sentence_366

However, the statistics which purport to show a brain drain are disputed and also do not account for repatriation and expiry of foreign work contracts. South Africa_sentence_367

According to several surveys, there has been a reverse in brain drain following the global financial crisis of 2008–2009 and expiration of foreign work contracts. South Africa_sentence_368

In the first quarter of 2011, confidence levels for graduate professionals were recorded at a level of 84% in a Professional Provident Society (PPS) survey. South Africa_sentence_369

Illegal immigrants are involved in informal trading. South Africa_sentence_370

Many immigrants to South Africa continue to live in poor conditions, and the immigration policy has become increasingly restrictive since the year 1994. South Africa_sentence_371

The Human Rights Watch reported on 26 August 2019 about foreign national truck drivers being subjected to deadly attacks carried out by South African truck drivers. South Africa_sentence_372

The organization urged the South African government to take immediate actions ensuring the safety of the foreign national truck drivers putting up with violence, harassment, intimidation, stoning, bombing, and shooting, by local truck drivers in the country. South Africa_sentence_373

Science and technology South Africa_section_27

Main article: Science and technology in South Africa South Africa_sentence_374

Several important scientific and technological developments have originated in South Africa. South Africa_sentence_375

The first human-to-human heart transplant was performed by cardiac surgeon Christiaan Barnard at Groote Schuur Hospital in December 1967, Max Theiler developed a vaccine against yellow fever, Allan McLeod Cormack pioneered X-ray computed tomography (CT scan), and Aaron Klug developed crystallographic electron microscopy techniques. South Africa_sentence_376

With the exception of that of Barnard, all of these advancements were recognised with Nobel Prizes. South Africa_sentence_377

Sydney Brenner won most recently, in 2002, for his pioneering work in molecular biology. South Africa_sentence_378

Mark Shuttleworth founded an early Internet security company Thawte, that was subsequently bought out by world-leader VeriSign. South Africa_sentence_379

Despite government efforts to encourage entrepreneurship in biotechnology, information technology and other high technology fields, no other notable groundbreaking companies have been founded in South Africa. South Africa_sentence_380

It is the expressed objective of the government to transition the economy to be more reliant on high technology, based on the realisation that South Africa cannot compete with Far Eastern economies in manufacturing, nor can the republic rely on its mineral wealth in perpetuity. South Africa_sentence_381

South Africa has cultivated a burgeoning astronomy community. South Africa_sentence_382

It hosts the Southern African Large Telescope, the largest optical telescope in the Southern Hemisphere. South Africa_sentence_383

South Africa is currently building the Karoo Array Telescope as a pathfinder for the €1.5 billion Square Kilometre Array project. South Africa_sentence_384

On 25 May 2012, it was announced that hosting of the Square Kilometer Array Telescope will be split over both the South African and the Australia and New Zealand sites. South Africa_sentence_385

Water supply and sanitation South Africa_section_28

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in South Africa South Africa_sentence_386

Two distinctive features of the South African water sector are the policy of free basic water and the existence of water boards, which are bulk water supply agencies that operate pipelines and sell water from reservoirs to municipalities. South Africa_sentence_387

These features have led to significant problems concerning the financial sustainability of service providers, leading to a lack of attention to maintenance. South Africa_sentence_388

Following the end of apartheid, the country had made improvements in the levels of access to water as those with access increased from 66% to 79% from 1990 to 2010. South Africa_sentence_389

Sanitation access increased from 71% to 79% during the same period. South Africa_sentence_390

However, water supply and sanitation in South Africa has come under increasing pressure in recent years despite a commitment made by the government to improve service standards and provide investment subsidies to the water industry. South Africa_sentence_391

The eastern parts of South Africa suffer from periodic droughts linked to the El Niño weather phenomenon. South Africa_sentence_392

In early 2018, Cape Town, which has different weather patterns to the rest of the country, faced a water crisis as the city's water supply was predicted to run dry before the end of June. South Africa_sentence_393

Water-saving measures were in effect that required each citizen to use less than 50 litres (13 US gal) a day. South Africa_sentence_394

Transport South Africa_section_29

Main article: Transport in South Africa South Africa_sentence_395

Different methods of transport in South Africa include roads, railways, airports, water, and pipelines for petroleum oil. South Africa_sentence_396

The majority of people in South Africa use informal minibus taxis as their main mode of transport. South Africa_sentence_397

BRT has been implemented in some South African cities in an attempt to provide more formalised and safer public transport services. South Africa_sentence_398

These systems have been widely criticised due to their large capital and operating costs. South Africa_sentence_399

A "freeway" is different from most countries as certain things are forbidden which include certain motorcycles, no hand signals, and motor tricycles. South Africa_sentence_400

South Africa has many major ports including Cape Town, Durban, and Port Elizabeth that allow ships and other boats to pass through, some carrying passengers and some carrying petroleum tankers. South Africa_sentence_401

Demographics South Africa_section_30

Main article: Demographics of South Africa South Africa_sentence_402

South Africa is a nation of about 55 million (2016) people of diverse origins, cultures, languages, and religions. South Africa_sentence_403

The last census was held in 2011, with a more recent intercensal national survey conducted in 2016. South Africa_sentence_404

South Africa is home to an estimated five million illegal immigrants, including some three million Zimbabweans. South Africa_sentence_405

A series of anti-immigrant riots occurred in South Africa beginning on 11 May 2008. South Africa_sentence_406

Statistics South Africa asks people to describe themselves in the census in terms of five racial population groups. South Africa_sentence_407

The 2011 census figures for these groups were: Black African at 79.2%, White at 8.9%, Coloured at 8.9%, Asian at 2.5%, and Other/Unspecified at 0.5%. South Africa_sentence_408

The first census in South Africa in 1911 showed that whites made up 22% of the population; this had declined to 16% by 1980. South Africa_sentence_409

South Africa hosts a sizeable refugee and asylum seeker population. South Africa_sentence_410

According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, this population numbered approximately 144,700 in 2007. South Africa_sentence_411

Groups of refugees and asylum seekers numbering over 10,000 included people from Zimbabwe (48,400), the DRC (24,800), and Somalia (12,900). South Africa_sentence_412

These populations mainly lived in Johannesburg, Pretoria, Durban, Cape Town, and Port Elizabeth. South Africa_sentence_413

Languages South Africa_section_31

Main article: Languages of South Africa South Africa_sentence_414

South Africa has 11 official languages: Zulu, Xhosa, Afrikaans, English, Pedi, Tswana, Southern Sotho, Tsonga, Swazi, Venda, and Southern Ndebele (in order of first language speakers). South Africa_sentence_415

In this regard it is fourth only to Bolivia, India, and Zimbabwe in number. South Africa_sentence_416

While all the languages are formally equal, some languages are spoken more than others. South Africa_sentence_417

According to the 2011 census, the three most spoken first languages are Zulu (22.7%), Xhosa (16.0%), and Afrikaans (13.5%). South Africa_sentence_418

Although English is recognised as the language of commerce and science, it is only the fourth most common home language, that of only 9.6% of South Africans in 2011; nevertheless, it has become the de facto lingua franca of the nation. South Africa_sentence_419

Estimates based on the 1991 census suggest just under half of South Africans can speak English. South Africa_sentence_420

It is the second most commonly spoken language outside of the household, after Zulu. South Africa_sentence_421

The country also recognises several unofficial languages, including Fanagalo, Khoe, Lobedu, Nama, Northern Ndebele, Phuthi, and South African Sign Language. South Africa_sentence_422

These unofficial languages may be used in certain official uses in limited areas where it has been determined that these languages are prevalent. South Africa_sentence_423

Many of the unofficial languages of the San and Khoikhoi people contain regional dialects stretching northwards into Namibia and Botswana, and elsewhere. South Africa_sentence_424

These people, who are a physically distinct population from other Africans, have their own cultural identity based on their hunter-gatherer societies. South Africa_sentence_425

They have been marginalised to a great extent, and the remainder of their languages are in danger of becoming extinct. South Africa_sentence_426

White South Africans may also speak European languages, including Italian, Portuguese (also spoken by black Angolans and Mozambicans), Dutch, German, and Greek, while some Indian South Africans speak Indian languages, such as Gujarati, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu. South Africa_sentence_427

French is spoken in South Africa by migrants from Francophone Africa. South Africa_sentence_428

Urban centres South Africa_section_32

Religions South Africa_section_33

Main article: Religion in South Africa South Africa_sentence_429

According to the 2001 census, Christians accounted for 79.8% of the population, with a majority of them being members of various Protestant denominations (broadly defined to include syncretic African initiated churches) and a minority of Roman Catholics and other Christians. South Africa_sentence_430

Christian category includes Zion Christian (11.1%), Pentecostal (Charismatic) (8.2%), Roman Catholic (7.1%), Methodist (6.8%), Dutch Reformed (Nederduits Gereformeerde Kerk; 6.7%), and Anglican (3.8%). South Africa_sentence_431

Members of remaining Christian churches accounted for another 36% of the population. South Africa_sentence_432

Muslims accounted for 1.5% of the population, Hindus 1.2%, traditional African religion 0.3% and Judaism 0.2%. South Africa_sentence_433

15.1% had no religious affiliation, 0.6% were "other" and 1.4% were "unspecified." South Africa_sentence_434

African initiated churches formed the largest of the Christian groups. South Africa_sentence_435

It was believed that many of the persons who claimed no affiliation with any organised religion adhered to traditional African religion. South Africa_sentence_436

There are an estimated 200,000 indigenous traditional healers in South Africa, and up to 60% of South Africans consult these healers, generally called sangomas or inyangas. South Africa_sentence_437

These healers use a combination of ancestral spiritual beliefs and a belief in the spiritual and medicinal properties of local fauna and flora, commonly known as muti, to facilitate healing in clients. South Africa_sentence_438

Many peoples have syncretic religious practices combining Christian and indigenous influences. South Africa_sentence_439

South African Muslims comprise mainly of those who are described as Coloureds and those who are described as Indians. South Africa_sentence_440

They have been joined by black or white South African converts as well as others from other parts of Africa. South Africa_sentence_441

South African Muslims claim that their faith is the fastest-growing religion of conversion in the country, with the number of black Muslims growing sixfold, from 12,000 in 1991 to 74,700 in 2004. South Africa_sentence_442

South Africa is also home to a substantial Jewish population, descended from European Jews who arrived as a minority among other European settlers. South Africa_sentence_443

This population peaked in the 1970s at 120,000, though only around 67,000 remain today, the rest having emigrated, mostly to Israel. South Africa_sentence_444

Even so, these numbers make the Jewish community in South Africa the twelfth largest in the world. South Africa_sentence_445

Education South Africa_section_34

Main article: Education in South Africa South Africa_sentence_446

The adult literacy rate in 2007 was 88.7%. South Africa_sentence_447

South Africa has a three-tier system of education starting with primary school, followed by high school and tertiary education in the form of (academic) universities and universities of technology. South Africa_sentence_448

Learners have twelve years of formal schooling, from grade 1 to 12. South Africa_sentence_449

Grade R, or grade 0, is a pre-primary foundation year. South Africa_sentence_450

Primary schools span the first seven years of schooling. South Africa_sentence_451

High school education spans a further five years. South Africa_sentence_452

The National Senior Certificate (NSC) examination takes place at the end of grade 12 and is necessary for tertiary studies at a South African university. South Africa_sentence_453

Public universities in South Africa are divided into three types: traditional universities, which offer theoretically oriented university degrees; universities of technology (formerly called "technikons"), which offer vocational oriented diplomas and degrees; and comprehensive universities, which offer both types of qualification. South Africa_sentence_454

There are 23 public universities in South Africa: 11 traditional universities, 6 universities of technology and 6 comprehensive universities. South Africa_sentence_455

Under apartheid, schools for black people were subject to discrimination through inadequate funding and a separate syllabus called Bantu Education which was only designed to give them sufficient skills to work as labourers. South Africa_sentence_456

In 2004, South Africa started reforming its tertiary education system, merging and incorporating small universities into larger institutions, and renaming all tertiary education institutions "university". South Africa_sentence_457

By 2015, 1.4 million students in higher education have benefited from a financial aid scheme which was promulgated in 1999. South Africa_sentence_458

Health South Africa_section_35

Main articles: Health in South Africa and Healthcare in South Africa South Africa_sentence_459

According to the South African Institute of Race Relations, the life expectancy in 2009 was 71 years for a white South African and 48 years for a black South African. South Africa_sentence_460

The healthcare spending in the country is about 9% of GDP. South Africa_sentence_461

About 84% of the population depends on the public healthcare system, which is beset with chronic human resource shortages and limited resources. South Africa_sentence_462

About 20% of the population uses private healthcare. South Africa_sentence_463

Only 16% of the population is covered by medical aid schemes. South Africa_sentence_464

The rest pay for private care "out of pocket" or through in-hospital-only plans. South Africa_sentence_465

The three dominant hospital groups, Mediclinic, Life Healthcare and Netcare, together control 75% of the private hospital market. South Africa_sentence_466

HIV/AIDS South Africa_section_36

Main article: HIV/AIDS in South Africa South Africa_sentence_467

According to the 2015 UNAIDS Report, South Africa has an estimated seven million people living with HIV – more than any other country in the world. South Africa_sentence_468

In 2018, HIV prevalence—the percentage of people living with HIV—among adults (15–49 years) was 20.4% and in the same year 71000 people died from an AIDS-related illness. South Africa_sentence_469

A 2008 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.6% of blacks are HIV-positive, whereas only 0.3% of whites have the disease. South Africa_sentence_470

Most deaths are experienced by economically active individuals, resulting in many AIDS orphans who in many cases depend on the state for care and financial support. South Africa_sentence_471

It is estimated that there are 1,200,000 orphans in South Africa. South Africa_sentence_472

The link between HIV, a virus spread primarily by sexual contact, and AIDS was long denied by former president Thabo Mbeki and his health minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang, who insisted that the many deaths in the country are due to malnutrition, and hence poverty, and not HIV. South Africa_sentence_473

In 2007, in response to international pressure, the government made efforts to fight AIDS. South Africa_sentence_474

After the 2009 general elections, former president Jacob Zuma appointed Dr Aaron Motsoaledi as the new health minister and committed his government to increasing funding for and widening the scope of HIV treatment, and by 2015, South Africa had made significant progress, with the widespread availability of antiretroviral drugs resulted in an increase in life expectancy from 52.1 years to 62.5 years. South Africa_sentence_475

Culture South Africa_section_37

Main article: Culture of South Africa South Africa_sentence_476

The South African black majority still has a substantial number of rural inhabitants who lead largely impoverished lives. South Africa_sentence_477

It is among these people that cultural traditions survive most strongly; as blacks have become increasingly urbanised and Westernised, aspects of traditional culture have declined. South Africa_sentence_478

Members of the middle class, who are predominantly white but whose ranks include growing numbers of black, coloured and Indian people, have lifestyles similar in many respects to that of people found in Western Europe, North America and Australasia. South Africa_sentence_479

Arts South Africa_section_38

South African art includes the oldest art objects in the world, which were discovered in a South African cave, and dated from 75,000 years ago. South Africa_sentence_480

The scattered tribes of Khoisan peoples moving into South Africa from around 10,000 BC had their own fluent art styles seen today in a multitude of cave paintings. South Africa_sentence_481

They were superseded by Bantu/Nguni peoples with their own vocabularies of art forms. South Africa_sentence_482

New forms of art evolved in the mines and townships: a dynamic art using everything from plastic strips to bicycle spokes. South Africa_sentence_483

The Dutch-influenced folk art of the Afrikaner trekboers and the urban white artists, earnestly following changing European traditions from the 1850s onwards, also contributed to this eclectic mix which continues to evolve today. South Africa_sentence_484

South African literature emerged from a unique social and political history. South Africa_sentence_485

One of the first well known novels written by a black author in an African language was Solomon Thekiso Plaatje's Mhudi, written in 1930. South Africa_sentence_486

During the 1950s, Drum magazine became a hotbed of political satire, fiction, and essays, giving a voice to urban black culture. South Africa_sentence_487

Notable white South African authors include Alan Paton, who published the novel Cry, the Beloved Country in 1948. South Africa_sentence_488

Nadine Gordimer became the first South African to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, in 1991. South Africa_sentence_489

JM Coetzee won the Nobel Prize for Literature, in 2003. South Africa_sentence_490

When awarding the prize, the Swedish Academy stated that Coetzee "in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider." South Africa_sentence_491

The plays of Athol Fugard have been regularly premiered in fringe theatres in South Africa, London (Royal Court Theatre) and New York. South Africa_sentence_492

Olive Schreiner's The Story of an African Farm (1883) was a revelation in Victorian literature: it is heralded by many as introducing feminism into the novel form. South Africa_sentence_493

Breyten Breytenbach was jailed for his involvement with the guerrilla movement against apartheid. South Africa_sentence_494

André Brink was the first Afrikaner writer to be banned by the government after he released the novel A Dry White Season. South Africa_sentence_495

Popular culture South Africa_section_39

The South African media sector is large, and South Africa is one of Africa's major media centres. South Africa_sentence_496

While South Africa's many broadcasters and publications reflect the diversity of the population as a whole, the most commonly used language is English. South Africa_sentence_497

However, all ten other official languages are represented to some extent or another. South Africa_sentence_498

There is great diversity in South African music. South Africa_sentence_499

Black musicians have developed a unique style called Kwaito, that is said to have taken over radio, television, and magazines. South Africa_sentence_500

Of note is Brenda Fassie, who launched to fame with her song "Weekend Special", which was sung in English. South Africa_sentence_501

More famous traditional musicians include Ladysmith Black Mambazo, while the Soweto String Quartet performs classic music with an African flavour. South Africa_sentence_502

South Africa has produced world-famous jazz musicians, notably Hugh Masekela, Jonas Gwangwa, Abdullah Ibrahim, Miriam Makeba, Jonathan Butler, Chris McGregor, and Sathima Bea Benjamin. South Africa_sentence_503

Afrikaans music covers multiple genres, such as the contemporary Steve Hofmeyr, the punk rock band Fokofpolisiekar, and the singer-songwriter Jeremy Loops. South Africa_sentence_504

South African popular musicians that have found international success include Johnny Clegg, rap-rave duo Die Antwoord, and rock band Seether. South Africa_sentence_505

Although few South African film productions are known outside South Africa itself, many foreign films have been produced about South Africa. South Africa_sentence_506

Arguably, the most high-profile film portraying South Africa in recent years was District 9. South Africa_sentence_507

Other notable exceptions are the film Tsotsi, which won the Academy Award for Foreign Language Film at the 78th Academy Awards in 2006, as well as U-Carmen e-Khayelitsha, which won the Golden Bear at the 2005 Berlin International Film Festival. South Africa_sentence_508

In 2015, the Oliver Hermanus film The Endless River became the first South African film selected for the Venice Film Festival. South Africa_sentence_509

Cuisine South Africa_section_40

Main article: South African cuisine South Africa_sentence_510

South African cuisine is diverse; foods from many cultures are enjoyed by all and especially marketed to tourists who wish to sample the large variety available. South Africa_sentence_511

South African cuisine is heavily meat-based and has spawned the distinctively South African social gathering known as the braai, a variation of the barbecue. South Africa_sentence_512

South Africa has also developed into a major wine producer, with some of the best vineyards lying in valleys around Stellenbosch, Franschhoek, Paarl and Barrydale. South Africa_sentence_513

Sports South Africa_section_41

Main article: Sport in South Africa South Africa_sentence_514

South Africa's most popular sports are association football, rugby union and cricket. South Africa_sentence_515

Other sports with significant support are swimming, athletics, golf, boxing, tennis, ringball, and netball. South Africa_sentence_516

Although football (soccer) commands the greatest following among the youth, other sports like basketball, surfing and skateboarding are increasingly popular. South Africa_sentence_517

Association football is the most popular sport in South Africa. South Africa_sentence_518

Footballers who have played for major foreign clubs include Steven Pienaar, Lucas Radebe and Philemon Masinga, Benni McCarthy, Aaron Mokoena, and Delron Buckley. South Africa_sentence_519

South Africa hosted the 2010 FIFA World Cup, and FIFA president Sepp Blatter awarded South Africa a grade 9 out of 10 for successfully hosting the event. South Africa_sentence_520

Famous boxing personalities include Baby Jake Jacob Matlala, Vuyani Bungu, Welcome Ncita, Dingaan Thobela, Gerrie Coetzee and Brian Mitchell. South Africa_sentence_521

Durban surfer Jordy Smith won the 2010 Billabong J-Bay Open making him the highest ranked surfer in the world. South Africa_sentence_522

South Africa produced Formula One motor racing's 1979 world champion Jody Scheckter. South Africa_sentence_523

Famous current cricket players include Kagiso Rabada, AB de Villiers, Hashim Amla, Dale Steyn, Vernon Philander, and Faf du Plessis; most also participate in the Indian Premier League. South Africa_sentence_524

South Africa has also produced numerous world class rugby players, including Francois Pienaar, Joost van der Westhuizen, Danie Craven, Frik du Preez, Naas Botha, and Bryan Habana. South Africa_sentence_525

South Africa has won the Rugby World Cup three times, tying New Zealand for the most Rugby World Cup wins. South Africa_sentence_526

South Africa first won the 1995 Rugby World Cup, which it hosted. South Africa_sentence_527

They went on to win the tournament again in 2007 and in 2019. South Africa_sentence_528

It followed the 1995 Rugby World Cup by hosting the 1996 African Cup of Nations, with the national team, Bafana Bafana, going on to win the tournament. South Africa_sentence_529

It also hosted the 2003 Cricket World Cup, the 2007 World Twenty20 Championship. South Africa_sentence_530

South Africa's national cricket team, the Proteas, has also won the inaugural edition of the 1998 ICC KnockOut Trophy by defeating West Indies in the final. South Africa_sentence_531

South Africa's national blind cricket team also went on to win the inaugural edition of the Blind Cricket World Cup in 1998. South Africa_sentence_532

In 2004, the swimming team of Roland Schoeman, Lyndon Ferns, Darian Townsend and Ryk Neethling won the gold medal at the Olympic Games in Athens, simultaneously breaking the world record in the 4×100 Freestyle Relay. South Africa_sentence_533

Penny Heyns won Olympic Gold in the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games. South Africa_sentence_534

In 2012, Oscar Pistorius became the first double amputee sprinter to compete at the Olympic Games in London. South Africa_sentence_535

In golf, Gary Player is generally regarded as one of the greatest golfers of all time, having won the Career Grand Slam, one of five golfers to have done so. South Africa_sentence_536

Other South African golfers to have won major tournaments include Bobby Locke, Ernie Els, Retief Goosen, Tim Clark, Trevor Immelman, Louis Oosthuizen and Charl Schwartzel. South Africa_sentence_537

See also South Africa_section_42

South Africa_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Africa.