South Carolina

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This article is about the State of South Carolina. South Carolina_sentence_0

For other uses, see South Carolina (disambiguation). South Carolina_sentence_1

South Carolina_table_infobox_0

South CarolinaSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_0_0
CountrySouth Carolina_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesSouth Carolina_cell_0_1_1
Before statehoodSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_2_0 Province of South CarolinaSouth Carolina_cell_0_2_1
Admitted to the UnionSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_3_0 May 23, 1788 (8th)South Carolina_cell_0_3_1
CapitalSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_4_0 ColumbiaSouth Carolina_cell_0_4_1
Largest citySouth Carolina_header_cell_0_5_0 CharlestonSouth Carolina_cell_0_5_1
Largest metroSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_6_0 GreenvilleSouth Carolina_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_7_0
GovernorSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_8_0 Henry McMaster (R)South Carolina_cell_0_8_1
Lieutenant GovernorSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_9_0 Pamela Evette (R)South Carolina_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_10_0 General AssemblySouth Carolina_cell_0_10_1
Upper houseSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_11_0 SenateSouth Carolina_cell_0_11_1
Lower houseSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_12_0 House of RepresentativesSouth Carolina_cell_0_12_1
JudiciarySouth Carolina_header_cell_0_13_0 South Carolina Supreme CourtSouth Carolina_cell_0_13_1
U.S. senatorsSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_14_0 Lindsey Graham (R)

Tim Scott (R)South Carolina_cell_0_14_1

U.S. House delegationSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_15_0 5 Republicans

2 Democrats (list)South Carolina_cell_0_15_1

AreaSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_16_0
TotalSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_17_0 32,020 sq mi (82,932 km)South Carolina_cell_0_17_1
LandSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_18_0 30,109 sq mi (77,982 km)South Carolina_cell_0_18_1
WaterSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_19_0 1,911 sq mi (4,949 km)  6%South Carolina_cell_0_19_1
Area rankSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_20_0 40thSouth Carolina_cell_0_20_1
DimensionsSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_21_0
LengthSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_22_0 260 mi (420 km)South Carolina_cell_0_22_1
WidthSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_23_0 200 mi (320 km)South Carolina_cell_0_23_1
ElevationSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_24_0 350 ft (110 m)South Carolina_cell_0_24_1
Highest elevation (Sassafras Mountain)South Carolina_header_cell_0_25_0 3,560 ft (1,085 m)South Carolina_cell_0_25_1
Lowest elevation (Atlantic Ocean)South Carolina_header_cell_0_26_0 0 ft (0 m)South Carolina_cell_0_26_1
Population (2019)South Carolina_header_cell_0_27_0
TotalSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_28_0 5,148,714South Carolina_cell_0_28_1
RankSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_29_0 23rdSouth Carolina_cell_0_29_1
DensitySouth Carolina_header_cell_0_30_0 157/sq mi (60.6/km)South Carolina_cell_0_30_1
Density rankSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_31_0 19thSouth Carolina_cell_0_31_1
Median household incomeSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_32_0 $50,570South Carolina_cell_0_32_1
Income rankSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_33_0 43rdSouth Carolina_cell_0_33_1
Demonym(s)South Carolina_header_cell_0_34_0 South CarolinianSouth Carolina_cell_0_34_1
LanguageSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_35_0
Official languageSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_36_0 EnglishSouth Carolina_cell_0_36_1
Time zoneSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC−05:00 (Eastern)South Carolina_cell_0_37_1
Summer (DST)South Carolina_header_cell_0_38_0 UTC−04:00 (EDT)South Carolina_cell_0_38_1
USPS abbreviationSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_39_0 SCSouth Carolina_cell_0_39_1
ISO 3166 codeSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_40_0 US-SCSouth Carolina_cell_0_40_1
Traditional abbreviationSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_41_0 S.C.South Carolina_cell_0_41_1
LatitudeSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_42_0 32°2′ N to 35°13′ NSouth Carolina_cell_0_42_1
LongitudeSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_43_0 78°32′ W to 83°21′ WSouth Carolina_cell_0_43_1
WebsiteSouth Carolina_header_cell_0_44_0 South Carolina_cell_0_44_1

South Carolina_table_infobox_1

South Carolina state symbolsSouth Carolina_header_cell_1_0_0
Living insigniaSouth Carolina_header_cell_1_1_0
AmphibianSouth Carolina_header_cell_1_2_0 SalamanderSouth Carolina_cell_1_2_1
BirdSouth Carolina_header_cell_1_3_0 Carolina wrenSouth Carolina_cell_1_3_1
ButterflySouth Carolina_header_cell_1_4_0 Eastern tiger swallowtailSouth Carolina_cell_1_4_1
FishSouth Carolina_header_cell_1_5_0 Striped bassSouth Carolina_cell_1_5_1
FlowerSouth Carolina_header_cell_1_6_0 Yellow jessamineSouth Carolina_cell_1_6_1
InsectSouth Carolina_header_cell_1_7_0 Carolina mantisSouth Carolina_cell_1_7_1
MammalSouth Carolina_header_cell_1_8_0 White-tailed deerSouth Carolina_cell_1_8_1
ReptileSouth Carolina_header_cell_1_9_0 Loggerhead sea turtleSouth Carolina_cell_1_9_1
TreeSouth Carolina_header_cell_1_10_0 Sabal palmettoSouth Carolina_cell_1_10_1
Inanimate insigniaSouth Carolina_header_cell_1_11_0
BeverageSouth Carolina_header_cell_1_12_0 MilkSouth Carolina_cell_1_12_1
DanceSouth Carolina_header_cell_1_13_0 Carolina shagSouth Carolina_cell_1_13_1
FoodSouth Carolina_header_cell_1_14_0 South Carolina_cell_1_14_1
FossilSouth Carolina_header_cell_1_15_0 Columbian mammoth

(Mammuthus columbi)South Carolina_cell_1_15_1

MineralSouth Carolina_header_cell_1_16_0 AmethystSouth Carolina_cell_1_16_1
RockSouth Carolina_header_cell_1_17_0 Blue graniteSouth Carolina_cell_1_17_1
ShellSouth Carolina_header_cell_1_18_0 Lettered oliveSouth Carolina_cell_1_18_1
State route markerSouth Carolina_header_cell_1_19_0
State quarterSouth Carolina_header_cell_1_20_0

South Carolina (/ˌkærəˈlaɪnə/ (listen)) is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. South Carolina_sentence_2

It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina_sentence_3

South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U.S. South Carolina_sentence_4 Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina_sentence_5

It also became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. South Carolina_sentence_6

After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina_sentence_7

South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U.S. state. South Carolina_sentence_8

In 2019 its GDP was $249.9 billion. South Carolina_sentence_9

South Carolina is composed of 46 counties. South Carolina_sentence_10

The capital is Columbia with a population of 133,451 in 2018; while its largest city is Charleston with a 2018 population of 136,208. South Carolina_sentence_11

The Greenville–Anderson–Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2018 population estimate of 906,626. South Carolina_sentence_12

South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles". South Carolina_sentence_13

Geography South Carolina_section_0

Regions South Carolina_section_1

The state can be divided into three natural geographic areas which then can be subdivided into five distinct cultural regions. South Carolina_sentence_14

The natural environment is divided from east to west by the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, and the Blue Ridge Mountains. South Carolina_sentence_15

Culturally, the coastal plain is split into the Lowcountry and the Pee Dee region. South Carolina_sentence_16

While, the upper Piedmont region is referred to as the Piedmont and the lower Piedmont region is referred to as the Midlands. South Carolina_sentence_17

The area surrounding the Blue Ridge Mountains is known as the Upstate. South Carolina_sentence_18

The Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. South Carolina_sentence_19

Its eastern border is the Sea Islands, a chain of tidal and barrier islands. South Carolina_sentence_20

The border between the lowcountry and the upcountry is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. South Carolina_sentence_21

Atlantic Coastal Plain South Carolina_section_2

Main article: South Carolina Lowcountry South Carolina_sentence_22

The Atlantic Coastal Plain consists of sediments and sedimentary rocks that range in age from Cretaceous to Present. South Carolina_sentence_23

The terrain is relatively flat and the soil is composed predominantly of sand, silt, and clay. South Carolina_sentence_24

Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland, though some land is swampy. South Carolina_sentence_25

An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of low-relief topographic depressions named Carolina bays. South Carolina_sentence_26

The bays tend to be oval, lining up in a northwest to southeast orientation. South Carolina_sentence_27

The eastern portion of the coastal plain contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. South Carolina_sentence_28

The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. South Carolina_sentence_29

The Sandhills or Carolina Sandhills is a 10–35 mi (16–56 km) wide region within the Atlantic Coastal Plain province, along the inland margin of this province. South Carolina_sentence_30

The Carolina Sandhills are interpreted as eolian (wind-blown) sand sheets and dunes that were mobilized episodically from approximately 75,000 to 6,000 years ago. South Carolina_sentence_31

Most of the published luminescence ages from the sand are coincident with the last glaciation, a time when the southeastern United States was characterized by colder air temperatures and stronger winds. South Carolina_sentence_32

Piedmont South Carolina_section_3

Much of Piedmont consists of Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks, and the landscape has relatively low relief. South Carolina_sentence_33

Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in loblolly pine for the lumber industry. South Carolina_sentence_34

These forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. South Carolina_sentence_35

At the southeastern edge of Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain. South Carolina_sentence_36

The fall line was an important early source of water power. South Carolina_sentence_37

Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia. South Carolina_sentence_38

The larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line, providing a trade route for mill towns. South Carolina_sentence_39

The northwestern part of Piedmont is also known as the Foothills. South Carolina_sentence_40

The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. South Carolina_sentence_41

This is where Table Rock State Park is located. South Carolina_sentence_42

Blue Ridge South Carolina_section_4

The Blue Ridge consists primarily of Precambrian metamorphic rocks, and the landscape has relatively high relief. South Carolina_sentence_43

The Blue Ridge Region contains an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains that continues into North Carolina and Georgia as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. South Carolina_sentence_44

Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet (1,090 m), is in this area. South Carolina_sentence_45

Also in this area is Caesars Head State Park. South Carolina_sentence_46

The environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. South Carolina_sentence_47

The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina_sentence_48

Lakes South Carolina_section_5

Main article: List of lakes in South Carolina South Carolina_sentence_49

South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles (1,770 km). South Carolina_sentence_50

All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made. South Carolina_sentence_51

The following are the lakes listed by size. South Carolina_sentence_52

South Carolina_unordered_list_0

Earthquakes South Carolina_section_6

Main article: List of earthquakes in South Carolina South Carolina_sentence_53

The Charleston area, along the central coastline of the state, demonstrates the greatest frequency of earthquakes in South Carolina. South Carolina_sentence_54

South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3 (FEMA). South Carolina_sentence_55

The Charleston earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake ever to hit the eastern United States. South Carolina_sentence_56

The 7.0–7.3 magnitude earthquake killed 60 people and destroyed much of the city. South Carolina_sentence_57

Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. South Carolina_sentence_58

Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina_sentence_59

Climate South Carolina_section_7

Main article: Climate of South Carolina South Carolina_sentence_60

South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. South Carolina_sentence_61

In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F (30–34 °C) in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F (21–24 °C) on the coast and from 66–73 °F (19–23 °C) inland. South Carolina_sentence_62

Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. South Carolina_sentence_63

Coastal areas of the state have very mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F (16 °C) and overnight lows around 40 °F (5–8 °C). South Carolina_sentence_64

Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F (0 °C) in Columbia and temperatures well below freezing in the Upstate. South Carolina_sentence_65

While precipitation is abundant the entire year in almost the entire state, the coast tends to have a slightly wetter summer, while inland, the spring and autumn transitions tend to be the wettest periods and winter the driest season, with November being the driest month. South Carolina_sentence_66

The highest recorded temperature is 113 °F (45 °C) in Johnston and Columbia on June 29, 2012, and the lowest recorded temperature is −19 °F (−28 °C) at Caesars Head on January 21, 1985. South Carolina_sentence_67

Snowfall in South Carolina is minimal in the lower elevation areas south and east of Columbia. South Carolina_sentence_68

It is not uncommon for areas along the southernmost coast to not receive measurable snowfall for several years. South Carolina_sentence_69

In the Piedmont and Foothills, especially along and north of Interstate 85, measurable snowfall occurs one to three times in most years. South Carolina_sentence_70

Annual average total amounts range from 2 to 6 inches. South Carolina_sentence_71

The Blue Ridge Escarpment receives the most average total measurable snowfall; amounts range from 7 to 12 inches. South Carolina_sentence_72

South Carolina is also prone to tropical cyclones and tornadoes. South Carolina_sentence_73

Two of the strongest hurricanes to strike South Carolina in recent history were Hurricane Hazel (1954) and Hurricane Hugo (1989). South Carolina_sentence_74

Hurricanes and tropical cyclones South Carolina_section_8

The state is occasionally affected by tropical cyclones. South Carolina_sentence_75

This is an annual concern during hurricane season, which lasts from June 1 to November 30. South Carolina_sentence_76

The peak time of vulnerability for the southeast Atlantic coast is from early August to early October, during the Cape Verde hurricane season. South Carolina_sentence_77

Memorable hurricanes to hit South Carolina include Hazel (1954), Florence (2018), and Hugo (1989), all Category 4 hurricanes. South Carolina_sentence_78

South Carolina averages around 50 days of thunderstorm activity a year. South Carolina_sentence_79

This is less than some of the states further south, and it is slightly less vulnerable to tornadoes than the states which border on the Gulf of Mexico. South Carolina_sentence_80

Some notable tornadoes have struck South Carolina, and the state averages around 14 tornadoes annually. South Carolina_sentence_81

Hail is common with many of the thunderstorms in the state, as there is often a marked contrast in temperature of warmer ground conditions compared to the cold air aloft. South Carolina_sentence_82

Climate change South Carolina_section_9

Federal lands in South Carolina South Carolina_section_10

Main article: List of federal lands in South Carolina South Carolina_sentence_83

South Carolina_unordered_list_1

Demographics South Carolina_section_11

Main articles: Demographics of South Carolina and List of cities and towns in South Carolina South Carolina_sentence_84

South Carolina_table_general_2

South Carolina racial breakdown of populationSouth Carolina_table_caption_2
Racial compositionSouth Carolina_header_cell_2_0_0 1990South Carolina_header_cell_2_0_1 2000South Carolina_header_cell_2_0_2 2010South Carolina_header_cell_2_0_3 2019South Carolina_header_cell_2_0_4
WhiteSouth Carolina_cell_2_1_0 69.0%South Carolina_cell_2_1_1 67.2%South Carolina_cell_2_1_2 66.2%South Carolina_cell_2_1_3 68.5%South Carolina_cell_2_1_4
BlackSouth Carolina_cell_2_2_0 29.8%South Carolina_cell_2_2_1 29.5%South Carolina_cell_2_2_2 27.9%South Carolina_cell_2_2_3 27.1%South Carolina_cell_2_2_4
AsianSouth Carolina_cell_2_3_0 0.6%South Carolina_cell_2_3_1 0.9%South Carolina_cell_2_3_2 1.3%South Carolina_cell_2_3_3 1.8%South Carolina_cell_2_3_4
Native AmericanSouth Carolina_cell_2_4_0 0.2%South Carolina_cell_2_4_1 0.3%South Carolina_cell_2_4_2 0.4%South Carolina_cell_2_4_3 0.5%South Carolina_cell_2_4_4
Native Hawaiian and

other Pacific IslanderSouth Carolina_cell_2_5_0

South Carolina_cell_2_5_1 South Carolina_cell_2_5_2 0.1%South Carolina_cell_2_5_3 0.1%South Carolina_cell_2_5_4
Two or more racesSouth Carolina_cell_2_6_0 South Carolina_cell_2_6_1 1.0%South Carolina_cell_2_6_2 1.7%South Carolina_cell_2_6_3 1.9%South Carolina_cell_2_6_4

The United States Census Bureau estimates the population of South Carolina was 5,148,714 on July 1, 2019, an 11.31 percentage increase since the 2010 census. South Carolina_sentence_85

As of the 2017 census estimate, the racial make up of the state is 68.5% White (63.8% non-Hispanic white), 27.3% Black or African American, 0.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.7% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 1.9% from two or more races. South Carolina_sentence_86

5.7% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin of any race. South Carolina_sentence_87

According to the United States Census Bureau, as of 2019, South Carolina had an estimated population of 5,148,714, which is an increase of 64,587 from the prior year and an increase of 523,350, or 11.31%, since the year 2010. South Carolina_sentence_88

Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 36,401 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 115,084 people. South Carolina_sentence_89

According to the University of South Carolina's Arnold School of Public Health, Consortium for Latino Immigration Studies, South Carolina's foreign-born population grew faster than any other state between 2000 and 2005. South Carolina_sentence_90

South Carolina has banned sanctuary cities. South Carolina_sentence_91

South Carolina_table_infobox_3

LegendSouth Carolina_table_caption_3

Historical South Carolina Racial Breakdown of Population South Carolina_sentence_92

Population centers South Carolina_section_12

See also: South Carolina statistical areas South Carolina_sentence_93

Some Primary Statistical Areas of South Carolina overlap with neighbouring states of North Carolina and Georgia South Carolina_sentence_94

South Carolina_table_general_4

RankSouth Carolina_header_cell_4_0_0 Primary Statistical AreaSouth Carolina_header_cell_4_0_1 PopulationSouth Carolina_header_cell_4_0_2 CountiesSouth Carolina_header_cell_4_0_3
1South Carolina_cell_4_1_0 Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson, SC CSASouth Carolina_cell_4_1_1 1,460,036South Carolina_cell_4_1_2 Greenville, Spartanburg, Anderson, Pickens, Oconee, Laurens, Cherokee, UnionSouth Carolina_cell_4_1_3
2South Carolina_cell_4_2_0 Columbia-Orangeburg-Newberry, SC CSASouth Carolina_cell_4_2_1 950,997South Carolina_cell_4_2_2 Richland, Lexington, Orangeburg, Kershaw, Newberry, Fairfield, Saluda, CalhounSouth Carolina_cell_4_2_3
3South Carolina_cell_4_3_0 Charleston-North Charleston-Summerville, SC MSASouth Carolina_cell_4_3_1 775,831South Carolina_cell_4_3_2 Charleston, Dorchester, BerkeleySouth Carolina_cell_4_3_3
4South Carolina_cell_4_4_0 Myrtle Beach-Conway-Georgetown, SC CSASouth Carolina_cell_4_4_1 525,772South Carolina_cell_4_4_2 Horry, Brunswick, GeorgetownSouth Carolina_cell_4_4_3
5South Carolina_cell_4_5_0 Charlotte-Gastonia-Salisbury, NC-SC CSASouth Carolina_cell_4_5_1 415,321 in SCSouth Carolina_cell_4_5_2 York, Lancaster, Chesterfield, ChesterSouth Carolina_cell_4_5_3

The following table shows the major metropolitan areas of South Carolina. South Carolina_sentence_95

South Carolina_table_general_5

RankSouth Carolina_header_cell_5_0_0 Metropolitan AreaSouth Carolina_header_cell_5_0_1 PopulationSouth Carolina_header_cell_5_0_2 CountiesSouth Carolina_header_cell_5_0_3
1South Carolina_cell_5_1_0 Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin, SC MSASouth Carolina_cell_5_1_1 895,923South Carolina_cell_5_1_2 Greenville, Anderson, Laurens, PickensSouth Carolina_cell_5_1_3
2South Carolina_cell_5_2_0 Columbia, SC MSASouth Carolina_cell_5_2_1 825,033South Carolina_cell_5_2_2 Calhoun, Kershaw, Fairfield, Richland, Lexington, SaludaSouth Carolina_cell_5_2_3
3South Carolina_cell_5_3_0 Charleston-North Charleston-Summerville, SC MSASouth Carolina_cell_5_3_1 775,831South Carolina_cell_5_3_2 Charleston, Dorchester, BerkeleySouth Carolina_cell_5_3_3
4South Carolina_cell_5_4_0 Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach, SC MSASouth Carolina_cell_5_4_1 464,165South Carolina_cell_5_4_2 Horry, Georgetown, BrunswickSouth Carolina_cell_5_4_3
5South Carolina_cell_5_5_0 Spartanburg, SC MSASouth Carolina_cell_5_5_1 334,391South Carolina_cell_5_5_2 SpartanburgSouth Carolina_cell_5_5_3
6South Carolina_cell_5_6_0 Charlotte-Gastonia-Concord, NC-SC MSASouth Carolina_cell_5_6_1 251,195 in SCSouth Carolina_cell_5_6_2 YorkSouth Carolina_cell_5_6_3
7South Carolina_cell_5_7_0 Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort, SC MSASouth Carolina_cell_5_7_1 215,302South Carolina_cell_5_7_2 Beaufort, JasperSouth Carolina_cell_5_7_3
8South Carolina_cell_5_8_0 Florence, SC MSASouth Carolina_cell_5_8_1 205,831South Carolina_cell_5_8_2 Florence, DarlingtonSouth Carolina_cell_5_8_3
9South Carolina_cell_5_9_0 Sumter, SC MSASouth Carolina_cell_5_9_1 106,847South Carolina_cell_5_9_2 SumterSouth Carolina_cell_5_9_3

In 2019, the U.S. Census Bureau released 2018 population estimates for South Carolina's most populous cities. South Carolina_sentence_96

Government and politics South Carolina_section_13

Main article: South Carolina government and politics South Carolina_sentence_97

South Carolina_table_general_6

Gubernatorial election resultsSouth Carolina_table_caption_6
YearSouth Carolina_header_cell_6_0_0 DemocraticSouth Carolina_header_cell_6_0_1 RepublicanSouth Carolina_header_cell_6_0_2
1950South Carolina_cell_6_1_0 99.9% 50,633South Carolina_cell_6_1_1 South Carolina_cell_6_1_2
1954South Carolina_cell_6_2_0 99.9% 214,204South Carolina_cell_6_2_1 South Carolina_cell_6_2_2
1958South Carolina_cell_6_3_0 99.9% 77,714South Carolina_cell_6_3_1 South Carolina_cell_6_3_2
1962South Carolina_cell_6_4_0 99.9% 253,704South Carolina_cell_6_4_1 South Carolina_cell_6_4_2
1966South Carolina_cell_6_5_0 58.2% 255,854South Carolina_cell_6_5_1 41.8% 184,088South Carolina_cell_6_5_2
1970South Carolina_cell_6_6_0 52.1% 251,151South Carolina_cell_6_6_1 45.9% 221,236South Carolina_cell_6_6_2
1974South Carolina_cell_6_7_0 47.0% 248,861South Carolina_cell_6_7_1 50.3% 266,338South Carolina_cell_6_7_2
1978South Carolina_cell_6_8_0 61.3% 384,898South Carolina_cell_6_8_1 37.7% 236,946South Carolina_cell_6_8_2
1982South Carolina_cell_6_9_0 69.8% 468,787South Carolina_cell_6_9_1 30.2% 202,806South Carolina_cell_6_9_2
1986South Carolina_cell_6_10_0 47.9% 361,328South Carolina_cell_6_10_1 51.0% 384,565South Carolina_cell_6_10_2
1990South Carolina_cell_6_11_0 27.8% 212,048South Carolina_cell_6_11_1 69.5% 528,831South Carolina_cell_6_11_2
1994South Carolina_cell_6_12_0 47.9% 447,002South Carolina_cell_6_12_1 50.4% 470,756South Carolina_cell_6_12_2
1998South Carolina_cell_6_13_0 53.2% 570,070South Carolina_cell_6_13_1 45.2% 484,088South Carolina_cell_6_13_2
2002South Carolina_cell_6_14_0 47.0% 521,140South Carolina_cell_6_14_1 52.9% 585,422South Carolina_cell_6_14_2
2006South Carolina_cell_6_15_0 44.8% 489,076South Carolina_cell_6_15_1 55.1% 601,868South Carolina_cell_6_15_2
2010South Carolina_cell_6_16_0 46.9% 630,534South Carolina_cell_6_16_1 51.4% 690,525South Carolina_cell_6_16_2
2014South Carolina_cell_6_17_0 41.4% 516,166South Carolina_cell_6_17_1 55.9% 696,645South Carolina_cell_6_17_2
2018South Carolina_cell_6_18_0 45.9% 784,182South Carolina_cell_6_18_1 54.0% 921,342South Carolina_cell_6_18_2

South Carolina_table_general_7

Presidential election resultsSouth Carolina_table_caption_7
YearSouth Carolina_header_cell_7_0_0 DemocraticSouth Carolina_header_cell_7_0_1 RepublicanSouth Carolina_header_cell_7_0_2
1952South Carolina_cell_7_1_0 50.7% 173,004South Carolina_cell_7_1_1 49.3% 168,082South Carolina_cell_7_1_2
1956South Carolina_cell_7_2_0 45.4% 136,372South Carolina_cell_7_2_1 25.2% 75,700South Carolina_cell_7_2_2
1960South Carolina_cell_7_3_0 51.2% 198,129South Carolina_cell_7_3_1 48.8% 188,558South Carolina_cell_7_3_2
1964South Carolina_cell_7_4_0 41.1% 215,700South Carolina_cell_7_4_1 58.9% 309,048South Carolina_cell_7_4_2
1968South Carolina_cell_7_5_0 29.6% 197,486South Carolina_cell_7_5_1 38.1% 254,062South Carolina_cell_7_5_2
1972South Carolina_cell_7_6_0 27.9% 189,270South Carolina_cell_7_6_1 70.6% 478,427South Carolina_cell_7_6_2
1976South Carolina_cell_7_7_0 56.2% 450,825South Carolina_cell_7_7_1 43.1% 346,140South Carolina_cell_7_7_2
1980South Carolina_cell_7_8_0 48.0% 427,560South Carolina_cell_7_8_1 49.6% 441,207South Carolina_cell_7_8_2
1984South Carolina_cell_7_9_0 35.6% 344,470South Carolina_cell_7_9_1 63.6% 615,539South Carolina_cell_7_9_2
1988South Carolina_cell_7_10_0 37.6% 370,554South Carolina_cell_7_10_1 61.5% 606,443South Carolina_cell_7_10_2
1992South Carolina_cell_7_11_0 39.9% 479,514South Carolina_cell_7_11_1 48.0% 577,507South Carolina_cell_7_11_2
1996South Carolina_cell_7_12_0 43.9% 504,051South Carolina_cell_7_12_1 49.9% 573,458South Carolina_cell_7_12_2
2000South Carolina_cell_7_13_0 40.9% 566,039South Carolina_cell_7_13_1 56.8% 786,426South Carolina_cell_7_13_2
2004South Carolina_cell_7_14_0 40.9% 661,699South Carolina_cell_7_14_1 58.0% 937,974South Carolina_cell_7_14_2
2008South Carolina_cell_7_15_0 44.9% 862,449South Carolina_cell_7_15_1 53.9% 1,034,896South Carolina_cell_7_15_2
2012South Carolina_cell_7_16_0 44.1% 865,941South Carolina_cell_7_16_1 54.6% 1,071,645South Carolina_cell_7_16_2
2016South Carolina_cell_7_17_0 40.7% 855,373South Carolina_cell_7_17_1 54.9% 1,155,389South Carolina_cell_7_17_2
2020South Carolina_cell_7_18_0 43.5% 1,091,348South Carolina_cell_7_18_1 55.1% 1,384,852South Carolina_cell_7_18_2

South Carolina's state government consists of the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches. South Carolina_sentence_98

Also relevant are the state constitution, law enforcement agencies, federal representation, state finances, and state taxes. South Carolina_sentence_99

South Carolina has historically had a weak executive branch and a strong legislature. South Carolina_sentence_100

Before 1865, governors in South Carolina were appointed by the General Assembly, and held the title "President of State". South Carolina_sentence_101

The 1865 Constitution changed this process, requiring a popular election. South Carolina_sentence_102

Local governments were also weak. South Carolina_sentence_103

But, the 1867 Constitution, passed during the Reconstruction era, extended democratization by establishing home rule for counties, which were established from the formerly designated districts of the state. South Carolina_sentence_104

The 1895 state constitution overturned this, reducing the role of counties and strengthening the relative role of the state legislature; essentially the counties were agents of the state and ruled by the General Assembly through the legislative delegation for each county. South Carolina_sentence_105

They are geographically comprehensive; all areas of the state are included in counties. South Carolina_sentence_106

As each county had one state senator, that position was particularly powerful. South Carolina_sentence_107

This status continued until 1973, when the state constitution was amended to provide for home rule for the counties. South Carolina_sentence_108

During this time the state had changed, with increasing urbanization, but rural counties retained proportionally more power as the legislature was based in representatives elected from counties rather than population districts. South Carolina_sentence_109

The federal court case, Reynolds v. Sims (1964), "established the one-man, one-vote concept for electoral representation at the state level. South Carolina_sentence_110

Legislators were now supposed to represent more or less equal numbers of people." South Carolina_sentence_111

Residents of urban areas had been found to be markedly underrepresented in the legislature under the county-based system. South Carolina_sentence_112

Reapportionment made obvious the need for other changes to county structure, leading to the legislature passing the constitutional amendment. South Carolina_sentence_113

The Home Rule Act of 1975 implemented the amendment giving more power to the counties. South Carolina_sentence_114

With urbanization, their governments have become increasingly important in the state. South Carolina_sentence_115

Several changes to the state constitution have affected the office of the governor and the cabinet. South Carolina_sentence_116

In 1926 the governor's term was extended from two to four years; in 1982 the governor was allowed to run for a second succeeding term. South Carolina_sentence_117

In 1993, the state passed an amendment requiring a limited cabinet (all of whom must be popularly elected). South Carolina_sentence_118

As of January 2, 2016, there were 2,948,772 registered voters. South Carolina_sentence_119

History South Carolina_section_14

Main article: History of South Carolina South Carolina_sentence_120

Precolonial period South Carolina_section_15

There is evidence of human activity in the area about 40,000 years ago. South Carolina_sentence_121

At the time Europeans arrived, marking the end of the Pre-Columbian era around 1600, there were many separate Native American tribes, the largest being the Cherokee, and the Catawba, and the total population being up to 20,000. South Carolina_sentence_122

Up the rivers of the eastern coastal plain lived about a dozen tribes of Siouan background. South Carolina_sentence_123

Along the Savannah River were the Apalachee, Yuchi, and the Yamasee. South Carolina_sentence_124

Further west were the Cherokee, and along the Catawba River, the Catawba. South Carolina_sentence_125

These tribes were village-dwellers, relying on agriculture as their primary food source. South Carolina_sentence_126

The Cherokee lived in wattle and daub houses made with wood and clay, roofed with wood or thatched grass. South Carolina_sentence_127

About a dozen separate small tribes summered on the coast harvesting oysters and fish, and cultivating corn, peas and beans. South Carolina_sentence_128

Travelling inland as much as 50 miles (80 km) mostly by canoe, they wintered on the coastal plain, hunting deer and gathering nuts and fruit. South Carolina_sentence_129

The names of these tribes survive in place names like Edisto Island, Kiawah Island, and the Ashepoo River. South Carolina_sentence_130

Exploration South Carolina_section_16

The Spanish were the first Europeans in the area. South Carolina_sentence_131

From June 24 to July 14, 1521, they explored the land around Winyah Bay. South Carolina_sentence_132

On October 8, 1526, they founded San Miguel de Gualdape, near present-day Georgetown, South Carolina. South Carolina_sentence_133

It was the first European settlement in what is now mainland USA. South Carolina_sentence_134

Established with five hundred settlers, it was abandoned eight months later by one hundred and fifty survivors. South Carolina_sentence_135

In 1540, Hernando de Soto explored the region and the main town of Cofitachequi, where he captured the queen of the Maskoki (Muscogee) and the Chelaque (Cherokee) who had welcomed him. South Carolina_sentence_136

In 1562 French Huguenots established a settlement at what is now the Charlesfort-Santa Elena archaeological site on Parris Island. South Carolina_sentence_137

Many of these settlers preferred a natural life far from civilization and the atrocities of the Wars of Religion. South Carolina_sentence_138

The garrison lacked supplies, however, and the soldiers (as in the France Antarctique) soon ran away. South Carolina_sentence_139

The French returned two years later but settled in present-day Florida rather than South Carolina. South Carolina_sentence_140

Colonization South Carolina_section_17

Main articles: Province of Carolina and Province of South Carolina South Carolina_sentence_141

Sixty years later, in 1629, King of England Charles I established the Province of Carolina, an area covering what is now South and North Carolina, Georgia and Tennessee. South Carolina_sentence_142

In 1663, Charles II granted the land to eight Lords Proprietors in return for their financial and political assistance in restoring him to the throne in 1660. South Carolina_sentence_143

Anthony Ashley Cooper, one of the Lord Proprietors, planned the Grand Model for the Province of Carolina and wrote the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina, which laid the basis for the future colony. South Carolina_sentence_144

His utopia was inspired by John Locke, an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism". South Carolina_sentence_145

The Carolina slave trade, which included both trading and direct raids by colonists, was the largest among the British colonies in North America. South Carolina_sentence_146

Between 1670 and 1715, between 24,000 and 51,000 captive Native Americans were exported from South Carolina — more than the number of Africans imported to the colonies of the future United States during the same period. South Carolina_sentence_147

Additional enslaved Native Americans were exported from South Carolina to other U.S. colonies. South Carolina_sentence_148

The historian Alan Gallay says, "the trade in Indian slaves was at the center of the English empire's development in the American South. South Carolina_sentence_149

The trade in Indian slaves was the most important factor affecting the South in the period 1670 to 1715". South Carolina_sentence_150

In the 1670s, English planters from Barbados established themselves near what is now Charleston. South Carolina_sentence_151

Settlers from all over Europe built rice plantations in the South Carolina Lowcountry, east of the Atlantic Seaboard fall line. South Carolina_sentence_152

Plantation labor was done by African slaves who formed the majority of the population by 1720. South Carolina_sentence_153

Another cash crop was the indigo plant, a plant source of blue dye, developed by Eliza Lucas. South Carolina_sentence_154

Meanwhile, Upstate South Carolina, west of the Fall Line, was settled by small farmers and traders, who displaced Native American tribes westward. South Carolina_sentence_155

Colonists overthrew the proprietors' rule, seeking more direct representation. South Carolina_sentence_156

In 1719, the colony was officially made a crown colony. South Carolina_sentence_157

In 1729, North Carolina was split off into a separate colony. South Carolina_sentence_158

South Carolina prospered from the fertility of the lowcountry and the harbors, such as at Charleston. South Carolina_sentence_159

It allowed religious toleration, encouraging settlement, and trade in deerskin, lumber, and beef thrived. South Carolina_sentence_160

Rice cultivation was developed on a large scale. South Carolina_sentence_161

By the second half of the 1700s, South Carolina was one of the richest of the Thirteen Colonies. South Carolina_sentence_162

The American Revolution South Carolina_section_18

Main articles: South Carolina in the American Revolution and Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War South Carolina_sentence_163

On March 26, 1776, the colony adopted the Constitution of South Carolina, electing John Rutledge as the state's first president. South Carolina_sentence_164

In February, 1778, South Carolina became the first state to ratify the Articles of Confederation, the initial governing document of the United States, and in May 1788, South Carolina ratified the United States Constitution, becoming the eighth state to enter the union. South Carolina_sentence_165

During the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), about a third of combat action took place in South Carolina, more than in any other state. South Carolina_sentence_166

Inhabitants of the state endured being invaded by British forces and an ongoing civil war between loyalists and partisans that devastated the backcountry. South Carolina_sentence_167

It is estimated 25,000 slaves (30% of those in South Carolina) fled, migrated or died during the war. South Carolina_sentence_168

Antebellum South Carolina_section_19

Main article: Antebellum South Carolina South Carolina_sentence_169

America's first census in 1790 put the state's population at nearly 250,000. South Carolina_sentence_170

By the 1800 census, the population had increased 38 per cent to nearly 340,000 of which 146,000 were slaves. South Carolina_sentence_171

At that time South Carolina had the largest population of Jews in the 16 United States, mostly based in Savannah and Charleston, the latter being the country's fifth largest city. South Carolina_sentence_172

In the Antebellum period (before the Civil War) the state's economy and population grew. South Carolina_sentence_173

Cotton became an important crop after the invention of the cotton gin. South Carolina_sentence_174

While nominally democratic, from 1790 until 1865, wealthy landowners were in control of South Carolina. South Carolina_sentence_175

For example, a man was not eligible to sit in the State House of Representatives unless he possessed an estate of 500 acres of land and 10 Negroes, or at least 150 pounds sterling, diminishing the electorate. South Carolina_sentence_176

Further, the state maintained indirect election of electors by the state legislature until 1868, the last state to do so. South Carolina_sentence_177

Voters thus did not participate in presidential elections, other than through state-wide elections. South Carolina_sentence_178

Columbia, the new state capital was founded in the center of the state, and the State Legislature first met there in 1790. South Carolina_sentence_179

The town grew after it was connected to Charleston by the Santee Canal in 1800, one of the first canals in the United States. South Carolina_sentence_180

As dissatisfaction with the federal government grew, in the 1820s John C. Calhoun became a leading proponent of states' rights, limited government, nullification of the U.S. Constitution, and free trade. South Carolina_sentence_181

In 1832, the Ordinance of Nullification declared federal tariff laws unconstitutional and not to be enforced in the state, leading to the Nullification Crisis. South Carolina_sentence_182

The federal Force Bill was enacted to use whatever military force necessary to enforce federal law in the state, bringing South Carolina back into line. South Carolina_sentence_183

In the United States presidential election of 1860, voting was sharply divided, with the south voting for the Southern Democrats and the north for Abraham Lincoln's Republican Party. South Carolina_sentence_184

Lincoln was anti-slavery, did not acknowledge the right to secession, and would not yield federal property in Southern states. South Carolina_sentence_185

Southern secessionists believed Lincoln's election meant long-term doom for their slavery-based agrarian economy and social system. South Carolina_sentence_186

Lincoln was elected president on November 6, 1860. South Carolina_sentence_187

The state House of Representatives three days later passed the "Resolution to Call the Election of Abraham Lincoln as U.S. President a Hostile Act", and within weeks South Carolina became the first state to secede. South Carolina_sentence_188

Civil War 1861–1865 South Carolina_section_20

Main articles: Ordinance of Secession, Confederate States of America, and South Carolina in the American Civil War South Carolina_sentence_189

On April 12, 1861, Confederate (southern) batteries began shelling the Union (northern) Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, and the American Civil War began. South Carolina_sentence_190

In November of that year the Union attacked Port Royal Sound and soon occupied Beaufort County and the neighboring Sea Islands. South Carolina_sentence_191

For the rest of the war this area served as a Union base and staging point for other operations. South Carolina_sentence_192

Whites abandoned their plantations, leaving behind about ten thousand slaves. South Carolina_sentence_193

Several Northern charities partnered with the federal government to help these people run the cotton farms themselves under the Port Royal Experiment. South Carolina_sentence_194

Workers were paid by the pound harvested and thus became the first former slaves freed by the Union forces to earn wages. South Carolina_sentence_195

Although the state was not a major battleground, the war ruined the economy. South Carolina_sentence_196

Under conscription, all men aged 18–35 (later 45) were drafted for Confederate service. South Carolina_sentence_197

More than 60,000 served, and the state lost nearly one-third of the white male population of fighting age. South Carolina_sentence_198

At the end of the war in early 1865, the troops of General William Tecumseh Sherman marched across the state devastating plantations and most of Columbia. South Carolina_sentence_199

Reconstruction 1865–1877 South Carolina_section_21

Main article: Reconstruction era South Carolina_sentence_200

After the war, South Carolina was restored to the United States during Reconstruction. South Carolina_sentence_201

Under presidential Reconstruction (1865–66), freedmen (former slaves) were given limited rights. South Carolina_sentence_202

Under Radical reconstruction (1867–1877), a Republican coalition of freedmen, carpetbaggers and scalawags was in control, supported by Union Army forces. South Carolina_sentence_203

They established public education, welfare institutions, and home rule for counties, expanding democracy. South Carolina_sentence_204

In Texas vs. White (1869), the Supreme Court ruled the ordinances of secession (including that of South Carolina) were invalid, and thus those states had never left the Union. South Carolina_sentence_205

However, South Carolina did not regain representation in Congress until that date. South Carolina_sentence_206

Until the 1868 presidential election, South Carolina's legislature, not the voters, chose the state's electors for the presidential election. South Carolina_sentence_207

South Carolina was the last state to choose its electors in this manner. South Carolina_sentence_208

On October 19, 1871, President Ulysses S. Grant suspended habeas corpus in nine South Carolina counties under the authority of the Ku Klux Klan Act. South Carolina_sentence_209

Led by Grant's Attorney General Amos T. Akerman, hundreds of Klansmen were arrested while 2,000 Klansmen fled the state. South Carolina_sentence_210

This was done to suppress Klan violence against African-American and white voters in the South. South Carolina_sentence_211

In the mid to late 1870s, white Democrats used paramilitary groups such as the Red Shirts to intimidate and terrorize black voters. South Carolina_sentence_212

They regained political control of the state under conservative white "Redeemers" and pro-business Bourbon Democrats. South Carolina_sentence_213

In 1877, the federal government withdrew its troops as part of the Compromise of 1877 that ended Reconstruction. South Carolina_sentence_214

Populist and agrarian movements South Carolina_section_22

The state became a hotbed of racial and economic tensions during the Populist and Agrarian movements of the 1890s. South Carolina_sentence_215

A Republican-Populist biracial coalition took power away from White Democrats temporarily. South Carolina_sentence_216

To prevent that from happening again, Democrats gained passage of a new constitution in 1895 which effectively disenfranchised almost all blacks and many poor whites by new requirements for poll taxes, residency, and literacy tests that dramatically reduced the voter rolls. South Carolina_sentence_217

By 1896, only 5,500 black voters remained on the voter registration rolls, although they constituted a majority of the state's population. South Carolina_sentence_218

The 1900 census demonstrated the extent of disenfranchisement: the 782,509 African American citizens comprised more than 58% of the state's population, but they were essentially without any political representation in the Jim Crow society. South Carolina_sentence_219

The 1895 constitution overturned local representative government, reducing the role of the counties to agents of state government, effectively ruled by the General Assembly, through the legislative delegations for each county. South Carolina_sentence_220

As each county had one state senator, that person had considerable power. South Carolina_sentence_221

The counties lacked representative government until home rule was passed in 1975. South Carolina_sentence_222

Governor "Pitchfork Ben Tillman", a Populist, led the effort to disenfranchise the blacks and poor whites, although he controlled Democratic state politics from the 1890s to 1910 with a base among poor white farmers. South Carolina_sentence_223

During the constitutional convention in 1895, he supported another man's proposal that the state adopt a one-drop rule, as well as prohibit marriage between whites and anyone with any known African ancestry. South Carolina_sentence_224

Some members of the convention realized prominent white families with some African ancestry could be affected by such legislation. South Carolina_sentence_225

In terms similar to a debate in Virginia in 1853 on a similar proposal (which was dropped), George Dionysius Tillman said in opposition: South Carolina_sentence_226

The state postponed such a one-drop law for years. South Carolina_sentence_227

Virginian legislators adopted a one-drop law in 1924, forgetting that their state had many people of mixed ancestry among those who identified as white. South Carolina_sentence_228

20th century South Carolina_section_23

Early in the 20th century, South Carolina developed a thriving textile industry. South Carolina_sentence_229

The state also converted its agricultural base from cotton to more profitable crops; attracted large military bases through its powerful Democratic congressional delegation, part of the one-party South following disfranchisement of blacks at the turn of the century; and created tourism industries. South Carolina_sentence_230

During the early part of the 20th century, millions of African Americans left South Carolina and other southern states for jobs, opportunities and relative freedom in U.S. cities outside the former Confederate states. South Carolina_sentence_231

In total from 1910 to 1970, 6.5 million blacks left the South in the Great Migration. South Carolina_sentence_232

By 1930 South Carolina had a white majority for the first time since 1708. South Carolina_sentence_233

South Carolina was one of several states that initially rejected the Nineteenth Amendment (1920) giving women the right to vote. South Carolina_sentence_234

The South Carolina legislature later ratified the amendment on July 1, 1969. South Carolina_sentence_235

See also: South Carolina in the civil rights movement South Carolina_sentence_236

The struggle of the civil rights movement took place in South Carolina as they did in other Southern states. South Carolina_sentence_237

However, South Carolina experienced a much less violent movement than other Southern states. South Carolina_sentence_238

This tranquil transition from a Jim Crow society occurred because the state's white and black leaders were willing to accept slow change rather than being utterly unwilling to accept change at all. South Carolina_sentence_239

Other South Carolinians, like Sen. Strom Thurmond, on the other hand, were among the nation's most radical and effective opponents of social equality and integration. South Carolina_sentence_240

21st century South Carolina_section_24

Religion South Carolina_section_25

According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), in 2010, the largest religion is Christianity, of which the largest denominations were the Southern Baptist Convention with 913,763 adherents, the United Methodist Church with 274,111 adherents, and the Roman Catholic Church with 181,743 adherents. South Carolina_sentence_241

Fourth-largest is the African Methodist Episcopal Church with 564 congregations and 121,000 members and fifth-largest is the Presbyterian Church (USA) with 320 congregations and almost 100,000 members. South Carolina_sentence_242

As of 2010, South Carolina is the American state with the highest per capita proportion of citizens who follow the Baháʼí Faith, with 17,559 adherents, making Baháʼí the second-largest religion in the state. South Carolina_sentence_243

Sports South Carolina_section_26

Main article: Sports in South Carolina South Carolina_sentence_244

Although no major league professional sports teams are based in South Carolina, the Carolina Panthers do have training facilities in the state and played their inaugural season's home games at Clemson's Memorial Stadium, however, they currently play in North Carolina. South Carolina_sentence_245

The Panthers consider themselves "The Carolinas' Team" and refrained from naming themselves after Charlotte or either of the Carolinas. South Carolina_sentence_246

The state is also home to numerous minor league professional teams. South Carolina_sentence_247

College teams represent their particular South Carolina institutions, and are the primary options for football, basketball and baseball attendance in the state. South Carolina_sentence_248

South Carolina is also a top destination for golf and water sports. South Carolina_sentence_249

South Carolina is also home to one of NASCAR's first tracks and its first paved speedway, Darlington Raceway northwest of Florence. South Carolina_sentence_250

Economy and infrastructure South Carolina_section_27

See also: Economy of South Carolina and South Carolina locations by per capita income South Carolina_sentence_251

South Carolina_unordered_list_2

  • Total employment (2016): 1,716,496South Carolina_item_2_24
  • Total employer establishments: 105,959South Carolina_item_2_25

In 2019, South Carolina's GDP was $249.9 billion, making the state the 26th largest by GDP in the United States. South Carolina_sentence_252

According to the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, South Carolina's gross state product (GSP) in was $97 billion in 1997 and $153 billion in 2007. South Carolina_sentence_253

Its per-capita real gross domestic product (GDP) in chained 2000 dollars was $26,772 in 1997 and $28,894 in 2007; which represented 85% of the $31,619 per-capita real GDP for the United States overall in 1997, and 76% of the $38,020 for the U.S. in 2007. South Carolina_sentence_254

The state debt in 2012 was calculated by one source to be $22.9bn, or $7,800 per taxpayer. South Carolina_sentence_255

Industrial outputs include textile goods, chemical products, paper products, machinery, automobiles, automotive products and tourism. South Carolina_sentence_256

Major agricultural outputs of the state are tobacco, poultry, cotton, cattle, dairy products, soybeans, hay, rice, and swine. South Carolina_sentence_257

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, as of March 2012, South Carolina had 1,852,700 nonfarm jobs of which 12% are in manufacturing, 11.5% are in leisure and hospitality, 19% are in trade, transportation, and utilities, and 11.8% are in education and health services. South Carolina_sentence_258

The service sector accounts for 83.7% of the South Carolina economy. South Carolina_sentence_259

Many large corporations have moved their locations to South Carolina. South Carolina_sentence_260

Boeing opened an aircraft manufacturing facility in Charleston in 2011, which serves as one of two final assembly sites for the 787 Dreamliner. South Carolina_sentence_261

South Carolina is a right-to-work state and many businesses utilize staffing agencies to temporarily fill positions. South Carolina_sentence_262

Domtar, in Rock Hill, is the only Fortune 500 company headquartered in South Carolina. South Carolina_sentence_263

The Fortune 1000 list includes SCANA, Sonoco Products and ScanSource. South Carolina_sentence_264

South Carolina also benefits from foreign investment. South Carolina_sentence_265

There are 1,950 foreign-owned firms operating in South Carolina employing almost 135,000 people. South Carolina_sentence_266

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) brought 1.06 billion dollars to the state economy in 2010. South Carolina_sentence_267

Since 1994, BMW has had a production facility in Spartanburg County near Greer and since 1996 the Zapp Group operates in Summerville near Charleston. South Carolina_sentence_268

Media South Carolina_section_28

There are 36 TV stations (including PBS affiliates) serving South Carolina with terrestrial, and some online streaming access. South Carolina_sentence_269

Markets in which the stations are located include Columbia, Florence, Allendale, Myrtle Beach, Greenville, Charleston, Conway, Beaufort, Hardeeville, Spartanburg, Greenwood, Anderson and Sumter. South Carolina_sentence_270

Transportation South Carolina_section_29

Roads South Carolina_section_30

The state has the fourth largest state-maintained system in the country, consisting of 11 Interstates, numbered highways, state highways, and secondary roads, totalling approximately 41,500 miles. South Carolina_sentence_271

On secondary roads, South Carolina uses a numbering system to keep track of all non-interstate and primary highways that the South Carolina Department of Transportation maintains. South Carolina_sentence_272

Secondary roads are numbered by the number of the county followed by a unique number for the particular road. South Carolina_sentence_273

Rail South Carolina_section_31

Passenger rail Amtrak operates four passenger routes in South Carolina: the Crescent, the Palmetto, the Silver Meteor, and the Silver Star. South Carolina_sentence_274

The Crescent route serves the Upstate cities, the Silver Star serves the Midlands cities, and the Palmetto and Silver Meteor routes serve the lowcountry cities. South Carolina_sentence_275

Station stops South Carolina_sentence_276

South Carolina_table_general_8

StationSouth Carolina_header_cell_8_0_0 ConnectionsSouth Carolina_header_cell_8_0_1
CamdenSouth Carolina_cell_8_1_0 Silver StarSouth Carolina_cell_8_1_1
North CharlestonSouth Carolina_cell_8_2_0 Palmetto  Silver MeteorSouth Carolina_cell_8_2_1
ColumbiaSouth Carolina_cell_8_3_0 Silver StarSouth Carolina_cell_8_3_1
ClemsonSouth Carolina_cell_8_4_0 CrescentSouth Carolina_cell_8_4_1
DenmarkSouth Carolina_cell_8_5_0 Silver StarSouth Carolina_cell_8_5_1
DillonSouth Carolina_cell_8_6_0 PalmettoSouth Carolina_cell_8_6_1
FlorenceSouth Carolina_cell_8_7_0 Palmetto  Silver MeteorSouth Carolina_cell_8_7_1
GreenvilleSouth Carolina_cell_8_8_0 CrescentSouth Carolina_cell_8_8_1
KingstreeSouth Carolina_cell_8_9_0 Palmetto  Silver MeteorSouth Carolina_cell_8_9_1
SpartanburgSouth Carolina_cell_8_10_0 CrescentSouth Carolina_cell_8_10_1
YemasseeSouth Carolina_cell_8_11_0 Palmetto  Silver MeteorSouth Carolina_cell_8_11_1

Freight CSX Transportation and Norfolk Southern are the only Class I railroad companies in South Carolina, as other freight companies in the state are short lines. South Carolina_sentence_277

Major and regional airports South Carolina_section_32

Main article: List of airports in South Carolina South Carolina_sentence_278

There are seven significant airports in South Carolina, all of which act as regional airport hubs. South Carolina_sentence_279

The busiest by passenger volume is Charleston International Airport. South Carolina_sentence_280

Just across the border in North Carolina is Charlotte/Douglas International Airport, the 30th busiest airport in the world, in terms of passengers. South Carolina_sentence_281

Education South Carolina_section_33

As of 2010, South Carolina is one of three states that have not agreed to use competitive international math and language standards. South Carolina_sentence_282

In 2014, the South Carolina Supreme Court ruled the state had failed to provide a "minimally adequate" education to children in all parts of the state as required by the state's constitution. South Carolina_sentence_283

South Carolina has 1,144 K–12 schools in 85 school districts with an enrollment of 712,244 as of fall 2009. South Carolina_sentence_284

As of the 2008–2009 school year, South Carolina spent $9,450 per student which places it 31st in the country for per student spending. South Carolina_sentence_285

In 2015, the national average SAT score was 1490 and the South Carolina average was 1442, 48 points lower than the national average. South Carolina_sentence_286

South Carolina is the only state which owns and operates a statewide school bus system. South Carolina_sentence_287

As of December 2016, the state maintains a 5,582-bus fleet with the average vehicle in service being fifteen years old (the national average is six) having logged 236,000 miles. South Carolina_sentence_288

Half of the state's school buses are more than 15 years old and some are reportedly up to 30 years old. South Carolina_sentence_289

In 2017 in the budget proposal, Superintendent of Education Molly Spearman requested the state lease to purchase 1,000 buses to replace the most decrepit vehicles. South Carolina_sentence_290

An additional 175 buses could be purchased immediately through the State Treasurer's master lease program. South Carolina_sentence_291

On January 5, 2017, the U.S. South Carolina_sentence_292 Environmental Protection Agency awarded South Carolina more than $1.1 million to replace 57 school buses with new cleaner models through its Diesel Emissions Reduction Act program. South Carolina_sentence_293

Institutions of higher education South Carolina_section_34

See also: List of colleges and universities in South Carolina South Carolina_sentence_294

South Carolina has diverse institutions from large state-funded research universities to small colleges that cultivate a liberal arts, religious or military tradition. South Carolina_sentence_295

South Carolina_unordered_list_3

South Carolina_unordered_list_4

  • Furman University is a private, coeducational, non-sectarian, liberal arts university in Greenville. Founded in 1826, Furman enrolls approximately 2,900 undergraduate and 500 graduate students. Furman is the largest private institution in South Carolina. The university is primarily focused on undergraduate education (only two departments, education and chemistry, offer graduate degrees).South Carolina_item_4_28
  • Erskine College is a private, coeducational liberal arts college in Due West, South Carolina. The college was founded in 1839 and is affiliated with the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, which maintains a theological seminary on the campus.South Carolina_item_4_29
  • The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina is a state-supported, comprehensive college in Charleston. Founded in 1842, it is best known for its undergraduate Corps of Cadets military program for men and women, which combines academics, physical challenges and military discipline. In addition to the cadet program, the Citadel Graduate College offers evening certificate, undergraduate and graduate programs to civilians. The Citadel has 2,200 undergraduate cadets in its residential military program and 1,200 civilian students in the evening programs.South Carolina_item_4_30
  • Wofford College is a small liberal arts college in Spartanburg. Wofford was founded in 1854 with a bequest of $100,000 from the Rev. Benjamin Wofford (1780–1850), a Methodist minister and Spartanburg native who sought to create a college for "literary, classical, and scientific education in my native district of Spartanburg". It is one of the few four-year institutions in the southeastern United States founded before the American Civil War that operates on its original campus.South Carolina_item_4_31
  • Newberry College is a small liberal arts college in Newberry. Founded in 1856, Newberry is a co-educational, private liberal-arts college of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) on a historic 90-acre (36 ha) campus in Newberry, South Carolina. It has roughly 1,110 students and a 14:1 student-teacher ratio. According to U.S. News & World Report's America's Best Colleges, Newberry College ranks among the nation's top colleges in the southern region.South Carolina_item_4_32
  • Claflin University, founded in 1869 by the American Missionary Association, is the oldest historically black college in the state. After the Democratic-dominated legislature closed the university in 1877, before passing a law to restrict admission to whites, it designated Claflin as the only state college for blacks.South Carolina_item_4_33
  • Lander University is a public liberal arts university in Greenwood. Lander was founded in 1872 as Willamston Female College. The school moved to Greenwood in 1904 and was renamed Lander College in honor of its founder, Samuel Lander. In 1973 Lander became part of the state's higher education system and is now a co-educational institution. The university is focused on undergraduate education and enrolls approximately 3,000 undergraduates.South Carolina_item_4_34
  • Presbyterian College (PC) is a private liberal arts college founded in 1880 in Clinton. Presbyterian College enrolls around 1000 undergraduate students and around 200 graduate students in its pharmacy school. In 2007, Washington Monthly ranked PC as the No. 1 Liberal Arts College in the nation.South Carolina_item_4_35
  • Winthrop University, founded in 1886 as an all-female teaching school in Rock Hill, became a co-ed institution in 1974. It is now a public university with an enrollment of just over 6,100 students. It is one of the fastest growing universities in the state, with several new academic and recreational buildings being added to the main campus in the past five years, as well as several more planned for the near future. The Richard W. Riley College of Education is still the school's most well-known area of study.South Carolina_item_4_36
  • Clemson University, founded in 1889, is a public, coeducational, land-grant research university in Clemson. It has more than 19,000 undergraduate students and 5,200 graduate students from all 50 states and from more than 70 countries. Clemson is also the home to the South Carolina Botanical Garden.South Carolina_item_4_37
  • North Greenville University, founded in 1891, is a comprehensive university in Tigerville. It is affiliated with South Carolina Baptist Convention and the Southern Baptist Convention, and is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. It has an enrollment of around 2,500 undergraduates.South Carolina_item_4_38
  • South Carolina State University, founded in 1896, is a historically black university in Orangeburg. SCSU has an enrollment of nearly 5,000, and offers undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate degrees. SCSU boasts the only Doctor of Education program in the state.South Carolina_item_4_39
  • Anderson University, founded in 1911, is a selective comprehensive university that offers bachelor's and master's degrees. It enrolls about 2,900 students.South Carolina_item_4_40
  • Webster University, founded in 1915 in St. Louis, MO, with five extended campuses in SC, offers undergraduate and graduate degrees.South Carolina_item_4_41
  • Bob Jones University, founded in 1927, is a non-denominational University founded on fundamentalist Christian beliefs (e.g., inspiration and inerrancy of the Scriptures, the creation of man by the direct act of God, the fall of man, the "young earth" and flood geology, and man's need for personal faith in the finished work of the Lord Jesus Christ). BJU also offers over 60 undergraduate majors and has over 70 graduate programs.South Carolina_item_4_42
  • Coastal Carolina University, founded in 1954, became an independent state-supported liberal arts university in 1993. The university enrolls approximately 10,500 students on its 307-acre (1.24 km2) campus in Conway, part of the Myrtle Beach metropolitan area. Baccalaureate programs are offered in 51 major fields of study, along with graduate programs in education, business administration (MBA), and coastal marine and wetland studies.South Carolina_item_4_43
  • Charleston Southern University, founded in 1969, is a liberal arts university, and is affiliated with the South Carolina Baptist Convention. Charleston Southern (CSU) is on 300 acres, formerly the site of a rice and indigo plantation, in the City of North Charleston one of South Carolina's largest accredited, independent universities, enrolling approximately 3,400 students.South Carolina_item_4_44
  • Francis Marion University,(formerly Francis Marion College), is a state-supported liberal arts university near Florence, South Carolina. It was founded in 1970 and achieved university status in 1992.South Carolina_item_4_45

Universities and colleges ranked by endowment, 2010 South Carolina_section_35

South Carolina_table_general_9


RankSouth Carolina_header_cell_9_0_0


RankSouth Carolina_header_cell_9_0_1

InstitutionSouth Carolina_header_cell_9_0_2 LocationSouth Carolina_header_cell_9_0_3 Public or

PrivateSouth Carolina_header_cell_9_0_4

Endowment FundsSouth Carolina_header_cell_9_0_5 Percentage Change YOYSouth Carolina_header_cell_9_0_6
1South Carolina_cell_9_1_0 142South Carolina_cell_9_1_1 Furman UniversitySouth Carolina_cell_9_1_2 GreenvilleSouth Carolina_cell_9_1_3 PrivateSouth Carolina_cell_9_1_4 $650,000,000South Carolina_cell_9_1_5 7.8%South Carolina_cell_9_1_6
2South Carolina_cell_9_2_0 151South Carolina_cell_9_2_1 University of South CarolinaSouth Carolina_cell_9_2_2 Columbia &

regional campusesSouth Carolina_cell_9_2_3

PublicSouth Carolina_cell_9_2_4 $625,186,000South Carolina_cell_9_2_5 6.0%South Carolina_cell_9_2_6
3South Carolina_cell_9_3_0 153South Carolina_cell_9_3_1 Clemson UniversitySouth Carolina_cell_9_3_2 ClemsonSouth Carolina_cell_9_3_3 PublicSouth Carolina_cell_9_3_4 $623,200,000South Carolina_cell_9_3_5 9.5%South Carolina_cell_9_3_6
4South Carolina_cell_9_4_0 236South Carolina_cell_9_4_1 Medical University of South CarolinaSouth Carolina_cell_9_4_2 CharlestonSouth Carolina_cell_9_4_3 PublicSouth Carolina_cell_9_4_4 $272,319,000South Carolina_cell_9_4_5 13.7%South Carolina_cell_9_4_6
5South Carolina_cell_9_5_0 270South Carolina_cell_9_5_1 The CitadelSouth Carolina_cell_9_5_2 CharlestonSouth Carolina_cell_9_5_3 PublicSouth Carolina_cell_9_5_4 $244,000,000South Carolina_cell_9_5_5 8.1%South Carolina_cell_9_5_6
6South Carolina_cell_9_6_0 324South Carolina_cell_9_6_1 Wofford CollegeSouth Carolina_cell_9_6_2 SpartanburgSouth Carolina_cell_9_6_3 PrivateSouth Carolina_cell_9_6_4 $166,619,000South Carolina_cell_9_6_5 10.2%South Carolina_cell_9_6_6
7South Carolina_cell_9_7_0 447South Carolina_cell_9_7_1 Presbyterian CollegeSouth Carolina_cell_9_7_2 ClintonSouth Carolina_cell_9_7_3 PrivateSouth Carolina_cell_9_7_4 $97,590,000South Carolina_cell_9_7_5 11.0%South Carolina_cell_9_7_6
8South Carolina_cell_9_8_0 530South Carolina_cell_9_8_1 Converse CollegeSouth Carolina_cell_9_8_2 SpartanburgSouth Carolina_cell_9_8_3 PrivateSouth Carolina_cell_9_8_4 $78,240,004South Carolina_cell_9_8_5 6.4%South Carolina_cell_9_8_6
9South Carolina_cell_9_9_0 782South Carolina_cell_9_9_1 Winthrop UniversitySouth Carolina_cell_9_9_2 Rock HillSouth Carolina_cell_9_9_3 PublicSouth Carolina_cell_9_9_4 $43,600,000South Carolina_cell_9_9_5 13.6%South Carolina_cell_9_9_6
10South Carolina_cell_9_10_0 658South Carolina_cell_9_10_1 Coker CollegeSouth Carolina_cell_9_10_2 HartsvilleSouth Carolina_cell_9_10_3 PrivateSouth Carolina_cell_9_10_4 $37,660,000South Carolina_cell_9_10_5 4.9%South Carolina_cell_9_10_6

Health care South Carolina_section_36

For overall health care, South Carolina is ranked 33rd out of the 50 states, according to the Commonwealth Fund, a private health foundation working to improve the health care system. South Carolina_sentence_296

The state's teen birth rate was 53 births per 1,000 teens, compared to the national average of 41.9 births, according to the Kaiser Family Foundation. South Carolina_sentence_297

The state's infant mortality rate was 9.4 deaths per 1,000 births compared to the national average of 6.9 deaths. South Carolina_sentence_298

There were 2.6 physicians per 1,000 people compared to the national average of 3.2 physicians. South Carolina_sentence_299

There was $5,114 spent on health expenses per capita in the state, compared to the national average of $5,283. South Carolina_sentence_300

There were 26 percent of children and 13 percent of elderly living in poverty in the state, compared to 23 percent and 13 percent, respectively, doing so in the U.S. And, 34 percent of children were overweight or obese, compared to the national average of 32 percent. South Carolina_sentence_301

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Carolina.