Southern Africa

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Not to be confused with South Africa. Southern Africa_sentence_0

For the region of the African Union, see Regions of the African Union § Southern. Southern Africa_sentence_1

Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries. Southern Africa_sentence_2

The term southern Africa or Southern Africa, generally includes Angola, Botswana, Eswatini (formerly known as Swaziland), Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, though Angola may be included in Central Africa and Malawi and Mozambique in East Africa. Southern Africa_sentence_3

From a political perspective the region is said to be unipolar with South Africa as a first regional power. Southern Africa_sentence_4

Definitions and usage Southern Africa_section_0

Another geographic delineation for the region is the portion of Africa south of the Cunene and Zambezi Rivers – that is: South Africa, Lesotho, Eswatini, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and the part of Mozambique which lies south of the Zambezi River. Southern Africa_sentence_5

This definition is most often used in South Africa for natural sciences and particularly in guide books such as Roberts' Birds of Southern Africa, the Southern African Bird Atlas Project and Mammals of the Southern African Subregion. Southern Africa_sentence_6

It is not used in political, economic or human geography contexts because this definition cuts Mozambique in two. Southern Africa_sentence_7

UN scheme of geographic regions and SACU Southern Africa_section_1

In the United Nations scheme of geographic regions, five states constitute Southern Africa: Southern Africa_sentence_8

Southern Africa_unordered_list_0

The Southern African Customs Union (SACU), created in 1969, also comprises the five states in the UN subregion of Southern Africa. Southern Africa_sentence_9

SADC membership Southern Africa_section_2

The Southern African Development Community (SADC) was established in 1980 to facilitate co-operation in the region. Southern Africa_sentence_10

It includes: Southern Africa_sentence_11

Southern Africa_unordered_list_1

General usages Southern Africa_section_3

Prehistory Southern Africa_section_4

East and southern Africa are among the earliest regions where modern humans (Homo sapiens) and their predecessors are believed to have lived. Southern Africa_sentence_12

In September 2019, scientists reported the computerized determination, based on 260 CT scans, of a virtual skull shape of the last common human ancestor to modern humans/H. Southern Africa_sentence_13

sapiens, representative of the earliest modern humans, and suggested that modern humans arose between 350,000 and 260,000 years ago through a merging of populations in East and South Africa. Southern Africa_sentence_14

Kingdom of Mapungubwe Southern Africa_section_5

Main article: Kingdom of Mapungubwe § Origin Southern Africa_sentence_15

Kingdom of Zimbabwe Southern Africa_section_6

Main article: Kingdom of Zimbabwe § Origin Southern Africa_sentence_16

Kingdom of Mutapa Southern Africa_section_7

Main article: Kingdom of Mutapa § History Southern Africa_sentence_17

Mwene mutapa Southern Africa_sentence_18

Kingdom of Butua Southern Africa_section_8

Main article: Kingdom of Butua Southern Africa_sentence_19

Torwa dynasty Southern Africa_section_9

Main article: Torwa dynasty Southern Africa_sentence_20

Rozwi Empire Southern Africa_section_10

Main article: Rozvi Empire § History Southern Africa_sentence_21

Ndwandwe Kingdom Southern Africa_section_11

Main article: Ndwandwe Southern Africa_sentence_22

Zulu Kingdom Southern Africa_section_12

Main article: Zulu Kingdom § History Southern Africa_sentence_23

Merina Kingdom Southern Africa_section_13

Main article: Merina Kingdom § History Southern Africa_sentence_24

Mthethwa Paramountcy Southern Africa_section_14

Main article: Mthethwa Paramountcy Southern Africa_sentence_25

Post-colonial eras Southern Africa_section_15

Further information: Decolonisation of Africa and Neocolonialism Southern Africa_sentence_26

Economy Southern Africa_section_16

Environment Southern Africa_section_17

Southern Africa has a wide diversity of ecoregions including grassland, bushveld, karoo, savannah and riparian zones. Southern Africa_sentence_27

Even though considerable disturbance has occurred in some regions from habitat loss due to human overpopulation or export-focused development, there remain significant numbers of various wildlife species, including white rhino, lion, African leopard, impala, kudu, blue wildebeest, vervet monkey and elephant. Southern Africa_sentence_28

It has complex Plateaus that create massive mountain structures along the South African border. Southern Africa_sentence_29

There are numerous environmental issues in Southern Africa, including air pollution and desertification. Southern Africa_sentence_30

Culture Southern Africa_section_18

Art Southern Africa_section_19

Further information: African art § Southern Africa Southern Africa_sentence_31

Architecture Southern Africa_section_20

Further information: Architecture of Africa § Southern Africa Southern Africa_sentence_32

Clothing Southern Africa_section_21

Further information: Folk costume § Southern Africa Southern Africa_sentence_33

Cuisine Southern Africa_section_22

Further information: African cuisine § Southern Africa, and List of African cuisines § Southern African cuisine Southern Africa_sentence_34

Music Southern Africa_section_23

Further information: Music of Africa § West, Central, Southeast and South Africa; and Sub-Saharan African music traditions § Southern Africa Southern Africa_sentence_35

Religion Southern Africa_section_24

Further information: Traditional African religions § Southern Africa, Islam in Africa, Christianity in Africa, and Religion in Africa Southern Africa_sentence_36

Film industry Southern Africa_section_25

Further information: Cinema of Africa § Southern Africa Southern Africa_sentence_37

Demographics and languages Southern Africa_section_26

Further information: Demographics of Africa, List of African countries by population, List of ethnic groups of Africa § Southern Africa, African diaspora, and Writing systems of Africa § Southern Africa Southern Africa_sentence_38

Southern Africa is home to many people. Southern Africa_sentence_39

It was initially populated by indigenous or native Africans San, Khoikhoi and Pygmies in widely dispersed concentrations. Southern Africa_sentence_40

Due to the Bantu expansion which edged the previous native African peoples to the more remote areas of the region, the majority of African ethnic groups in this region, including the Xhosa, Zulu, Tsonga, Swazi, Northern Ndebele, Southern Ndebele, Tswana, Sotho, Northern Sotho, Shona people, Mbundu, Ovimbundu, Shona, Chaga and Sukuma, speak Bantu languages. Southern Africa_sentence_41

The process of colonization and settling resulted in a significant population of native European (Afrikaner, British, Portuguese Africans, etc.) and Asian descent (Cape Malays, Indian South Africans, etc.) in many southern African countries. Southern Africa_sentence_42

Science and technology Southern Africa_section_27

Further information: History of science and technology in Africa § Southern Africa Southern Africa_sentence_43

See also: Science and technology in Botswana Southern Africa_sentence_44

See also: Science and technology in South Africa and List of South African inventions and discoveries Southern Africa_sentence_45

Agriculture and food security Southern Africa_section_28

Some key factors affecting the food security within the regions including political instability, poor governance, droughts, population growth, urbanisation, poverty, low economic growth, inadequate agricultural policies, trade terms and regimes, resource degradation and the recent increase in HIV/AIDS. Southern Africa_sentence_46

These factors vary from country to country. Southern Africa_sentence_47

For example, the Democratic Republic of the Congo has favourable climatic and physical conditions, but performs far below its capacity in food provision due to political instability and poor governance. Southern Africa_sentence_48

In contrast, semi-arid countries such as Botswana and Namibia, produce insufficient food, but successfully achieve food security through food imports due to economic growth, political stability and good governance. Southern Africa_sentence_49

The Republic of South Africa is a major food producer and exporter in the region. Southern Africa_sentence_50

Data on agricultural production trends and food insecurity especially in term of food availability for Southern Africa is readily available through the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) and Southern African Development Community (SADC) - Food, Agriculture and Nature Resource Directorate (FARN). Southern Africa_sentence_51

However, this data might not fully capture the reality of a region with large urban populations and where food insecurity goes beyond per-capita availability to issues of access and dietary adequacy. Southern Africa_sentence_52

Urban food security has been noted as an emerging area of concern in the region, with recent data showing high levels of food insecurity amongst low-income households. Southern Africa_sentence_53

In a study of eleven cities in nine countries: Blantyre, Cape Town, Gaborone, Harare, Johannesburg, Lusaka, Maputo, Manzini, Maseru, Msunduzi (Durban Metro) and Windhoek, only 17% of households were categorized as ‘food-secure’ while more than half (57%) of all households surveyed were found to be ‘severely food-insecure’. Southern Africa_sentence_54

Some factors affecting urban food insecurity include climate change with potential impact on agricultural productivity, the expansion of supermarkets in the region, which is changing the way people obtain food in the city, rural-to-urban migration, unemployment, and poverty. Southern Africa_sentence_55

The issue of food insecurity in general and urban food insecurity in particular in the region is also characterized by an increased consumption of caloric junk food and processed foods leading to potential increase in the co-existence of undernutrition and dietary-related chronic diseases such as obesity and hypertension. Southern Africa_sentence_56

In South Africa for example, while over 50% experience hunger, 61% are overweight or morbidly obese. Southern Africa_sentence_57

There is only limited data on the other Southern African countries. Southern Africa_sentence_58

As of early 2019, parts of the region are suffering from a period of drought. Southern Africa_sentence_59

See also Southern Africa_section_29

Southern Africa_unordered_list_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Africa.