Southern California

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"California Southern" redirects here. Southern California_sentence_0

For the railroad, see California Southern Railroad. Southern California_sentence_1

Southern California_table_infobox_0

Southern CaliforniaSouthern California_header_cell_0_0_0
CountrySouthern California_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesSouthern California_cell_0_1_1
StateSouthern California_header_cell_0_2_0 CaliforniaSouthern California_cell_0_2_1
CountiesSouthern California_header_cell_0_3_0 Imperial
Los Angeles
San Bernardino
San Diego
San Luis Obispo
Santa Barbara
VenturaSouthern California_cell_0_3_1
Largest citySouthern California_header_cell_0_4_0 Los AngelesSouthern California_cell_0_4_1
Area (10-county)Southern California_header_cell_0_5_0
TotalSouthern California_header_cell_0_6_0 146,350 km (56,505 sq mi)Southern California_cell_0_6_1
Population (2019)Southern California_header_cell_0_7_0 23,860,793Southern California_cell_0_7_1

Southern California (popularly known as SoCal; Spanish: Sur de California) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the southern portion of the U.S. state of California. Southern California_sentence_2

It includes the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second most populous urban agglomeration in the United States. Southern California_sentence_3

The region generally contains ten of California's 53 counties: Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo and Ventura counties. Southern California_sentence_4

The Colorado Desert and the Colorado River are located on southern California's eastern border with Arizona, and San Bernardino County shares a border with Nevada to the northeast. Southern California_sentence_5

Southern California's southern border with Baja California is part of the Mexico–United States border. Southern California_sentence_6

Constituent metropolitan areas Southern California_section_0

Southern California includes the heavily built-up urban area which stretches along the Pacific coast from Ventura through Greater Los Angeles down to Greater San Diego (the contiguous urban area in fact continuing into Tijuana, Mexico), and inland to the Inland Empire and Coachella Valley (Palm Springs area). Southern California_sentence_7

It encompasses eight metropolitan areas (MSAs), three of which together form the Greater Los Angeles Combined Statistical Area (CSA) with over 18 million people, the second-biggest CSA after the New York CSA. Southern California_sentence_8

These three MSAs are: the Los Angeles metropolitan area (Los Angeles and Orange counties, with 13.3 million people), the Inland Empire ((Riverside and San Bernardino counties, including the Coachella Valley cities, with 4.3 million people), and the Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura metropolitan area (0.8 million people). Southern California_sentence_9

In addition, Southern California contains the San Diego metropolitan area with 3.3 million people, Bakersfield metro area with 0.9 million, and the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, and El Centro (Imperial County) metropolitan areas. Southern California_sentence_10

The Southern California Megaregion (or megalopolis) is larger still, extending northeast into Las Vegas, Nevada and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana. Southern California_sentence_11

Significance Southern California_section_1

Within southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the country's largest metropolitan areas. Southern California_sentence_12

With a population of approximately 4 million, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. Southern California_sentence_13

South of Los Angeles and with a population of approximately 1.4 million is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation. Southern California_sentence_14

The counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, Orange, Riverside, and San Bernardino are the five most populous in the state, and are among the top 15 most populous counties in the United States. Southern California_sentence_15

The motion picture, television, and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in southern California. Southern California_sentence_16

Hollywood, a district of Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, which is synonymous with the neighborhood name. Southern California_sentence_17

Headquartered in southern California are The Walt Disney Company (which owns ABC), Sony Pictures, Universal Pictures, MGM, Paramount Pictures, and Warner Bros. Southern California_sentence_18

Universal, Warner Bros., and Sony also run major record companies. Southern California_sentence_19

Southern California is also home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Southern California_sentence_20

Companies such as Vans, Volcom, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, and Body Glove are all headquartered here. Southern California_sentence_21

Skateboarder Tony Hawk; surfers Rob Machado, Timmy Curran, Bobby Martinez, Pat O'Connell, Dane Reynolds, and Chris Ward live in southern California. Southern California_sentence_22

Some of the most famous surf locations are in southern California as well, including Trestles, Rincon, The Wedge, Huntington Beach, and Malibu. Southern California_sentence_23

Some of the world's largest action sports events, including the X Games, Boost Mobile Pro, and the U.S. Southern California_sentence_24 Open of Surfing, are held in southern California. Southern California_sentence_25

The region is also important to the world of yachting with premier events including the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii. Southern California_sentence_26

The San Diego Yacht Club held the America's Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995 and hosted three America's Cup races during that time. Southern California_sentence_27

The first modern-era triathlon was held in San Diego’s Mission Bay in 1974. Southern California_sentence_28

Since then, southern California, and San Diego in particular, have become a mecca for triathlon and multi-sport racing, products and culture. Southern California_sentence_29

Southern California is home to many sports franchises and sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Southern California_sentence_30

Many locals and tourists frequent the southern California coast for its beaches. Southern California_sentence_31

The inland desert city of Palm Springs is also popular. Southern California_sentence_32

Northern boundary Southern California_section_2

Southern California is not a formal geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes southern California vary. Southern California_sentence_33

Geographically, California's North-South midway point lies at exactly 37° 9' 58.23" latitude, around 11 miles (18 km) south of San Jose; however, this does not coincide with the popular use of the term. Southern California_sentence_34

When the state is divided into two areas (northern and southern California), the term southern California usually refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state. Southern California_sentence_35

This definition coincides neatly with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ North latitude, which form the northern borders of San Luis Obispo, Kern, and San Bernardino counties. Southern California_sentence_36

That closely matches the lower one-third of California's span of latitude. Southern California_sentence_37

Another definition for southern California uses Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains as geographical landmarks for the northern boundary. Southern California_sentence_38

Though there is no official definition for the northern boundary of southern California, such a division has existed from the time when Mexico ruled California and political disputes raged between the Californios of Monterey in the upper part and Los Angeles in the lower part of Alta California. Southern California_sentence_39

Following the acquisition of California by the United States, the division continued as part of the attempt by several pro-slavery politicians to arrange the division of Alta California at 36 degrees, 30 minutes, the line of the Missouri Compromise. Southern California_sentence_40

Instead, the passing of the Compromise of 1850 enabled California to be admitted to the Union as a free state, preventing southern California from becoming its own separate slave state. Southern California_sentence_41

Subsequently, Californians (dissatisfied with inequitable taxes and land laws) and pro-slavery Southerners in the lightly populated "cow counties" of southern California attempted three times in the 1850s to achieve a separate statehood or territorial status separate from Northern California. Southern California_sentence_42

The last attempt, the Pico Act of 1859, was passed by the California State Legislature and signed by State Governor John B. Weller. Southern California_sentence_43

It was approved overwhelmingly by nearly 75 percent of voters in the proposed Territory of Colorado. Southern California_sentence_44

This territory was to include all the counties up to the then much larger Tulare County (that included what is now Kings, most of Kern, and part of Inyo counties) and San Luis Obispo County. Southern California_sentence_45

The proposal was sent to Washington, D.C. with a strong advocate in Senator Milton Latham. Southern California_sentence_46

However, the secession crisis following the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 and the subsequent American Civil War led to the proposal never coming to a vote. Southern California_sentence_47

In 1900, the Los Angeles Times defined southern California as including "the seven counties of Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Orange, Riverside, San Diego, Ventura and Santa Barbara." Southern California_sentence_48

In 1999, the Times added a newer county, Imperial, to that list. Southern California_sentence_49

Southern California was the name of a proposed new state which failed to get on the 2018 California ballot. Southern California_sentence_50

The ballot measure proposed splitting the existing state into three parts. Southern California_sentence_51

The state is most commonly divided and promoted by its regional tourism groups, consisting of northern, central, and southern California regions. Southern California_sentence_52

The two American Automobile Association (AAA) Auto Clubs of the state, the California State Automobile Association, and the Automobile Club of Southern California, choose to simplify matters by dividing the state along the lines where their jurisdictions for membership apply, as either northern or southern California, in contrast to the three-region point of view. Southern California_sentence_53

Another influence is the geographical phrase South of the Tehachapis, which would split the southern region off at the crest of that transverse range, but in that definition, the desert portions of north Los Angeles County and eastern Kern and San Bernardino Counties would be included in the southern California region due to their remoteness from the central valley and interior desert landscape. Southern California_sentence_54

Southern California_table_general_1

Population, land area & population density (07-01-2008 est.)Southern California_table_caption_1

Ref.Southern California_header_cell_1_0_0

PopulationSouthern California_header_cell_1_0_1 Land

mi²Southern California_header_cell_1_0_2


km²Southern California_header_cell_1_0_3


/mi²Southern California_header_cell_1_0_4


/km²Southern California_header_cell_1_0_5

Los Angeles CountySouthern California_cell_1_1_0 9,862,049Southern California_cell_1_1_1 4,060.87Southern California_cell_1_1_2 10,517.61Southern California_cell_1_1_3 2,428.56Southern California_cell_1_1_4 937.67Southern California_cell_1_1_5
San Diego CountySouthern California_cell_1_2_0 3,095,313Southern California_cell_1_2_1 4,199.89Southern California_cell_1_2_2 10,877.67Southern California_cell_1_2_3 714.56Southern California_cell_1_2_4 275.89Southern California_cell_1_2_5
Orange CountySouthern California_cell_1_3_0 3,010,759Southern California_cell_1_3_1 789.40Southern California_cell_1_3_2 2,044.54Southern California_cell_1_3_3 3,813.98Southern California_cell_1_3_4 1,472.59Southern California_cell_1_3_5
Riverside CountySouthern California_cell_1_4_0 2,100,516Southern California_cell_1_4_1 7,207.37Southern California_cell_1_4_2 18,667.00Southern California_cell_1_4_3 291.44Southern California_cell_1_4_4 112.53Southern California_cell_1_4_5
San Bernardino CountySouthern California_cell_1_5_0 2,015,355Southern California_cell_1_5_1 20,052.50Southern California_cell_1_5_2 51,935.74Southern California_cell_1_5_3 100.50Southern California_cell_1_5_4 38.80Southern California_cell_1_5_5
Kern CountySouthern California_cell_1_6_0 800,458Southern California_cell_1_6_1 8,140.96Southern California_cell_1_6_2 21,084.99Southern California_cell_1_6_3 98.32Southern California_cell_1_6_4 37.96Southern California_cell_1_6_5
Ventura CountySouthern California_cell_1_7_0 797,740Southern California_cell_1_7_1 1,845.30Southern California_cell_1_7_2 4,779.31Southern California_cell_1_7_3 432.31Southern California_cell_1_7_4 166.92Southern California_cell_1_7_5
Santa Barbara CountySouthern California_cell_1_8_0 405,396Southern California_cell_1_8_1 2,737.01Southern California_cell_1_8_2 7,088.82Southern California_cell_1_8_3 148.12Southern California_cell_1_8_4 57.19Southern California_cell_1_8_5
San Luis Obispo CountySouthern California_cell_1_9_0 265,297Southern California_cell_1_9_1 3,304.32Southern California_cell_1_9_2 8,558.15Southern California_cell_1_9_3 80.29Southern California_cell_1_9_4 31.00Southern California_cell_1_9_5
Imperial CountySouthern California_cell_1_10_0 163,972Southern California_cell_1_10_1 4,174.73Southern California_cell_1_10_2 10,812.50Southern California_cell_1_10_3 39.28Southern California_cell_1_10_4 15.17Southern California_cell_1_10_5
Southern CaliforniaSouthern California_cell_1_11_0 22,422,614Southern California_cell_1_11_1 56,512.35Southern California_cell_1_11_2 146,366.31Southern California_cell_1_11_3 396.77Southern California_cell_1_11_4 153.19Southern California_cell_1_11_5
CaliforniaSouthern California_cell_1_12_0 36,756,666Southern California_cell_1_12_1 155,959.34Southern California_cell_1_12_2 403,932.84Southern California_cell_1_12_3 235.68Southern California_cell_1_12_4 91.00Southern California_cell_1_12_5

Urban landscape Southern California_section_3

Climate Southern California_section_4

Most of southern California has a Mediterranean-like climate, with warm and dry summers, mild and wet winters, where cool weather and freezing temperatures are rare. Southern California_sentence_55

Southern California contains other types of climates, including semi-arid, desert and mountain, with infrequent rain and many sunny days. Southern California_sentence_56

Summers are hot or warm, and dry, while winters are mild, and rainfall is low to moderate depending on the area. Southern California_sentence_57

Although heavy rain can occur, it is unusual. Southern California_sentence_58

This climatic pattern was alluded to in the hit song "It Never Rains (In Southern California)". Southern California_sentence_59

While snow is very rare in lower elevations, mountains above 5,000 feet (1,500 m) receive plentiful snowfall in the winter. Southern California_sentence_60

Natural landscape Southern California_section_5

Main article: Geography of southern California Southern California_sentence_61

Southern California consists of one of the more varied collections of geologic, topographic, and natural ecosystem landscapes in a diversity outnumbering other major regions in the state and country. Southern California_sentence_62

The region spans from Pacific Ocean islands, shorelines, beaches, and coastal plains, through the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges with their peaks, and into the large and small interior valleys, to the vast deserts of California. Southern California_sentence_63

Southern California_description_list_0

  • Introductory categories include:Southern California_item_0_0

Southern California_unordered_list_1

Geography Southern California_section_6

Southern California is divided into: Southern California_sentence_64

Southern California_unordered_list_2

  • The Coastal Region, which is densely populated and includes the coastal interior valleys west of the coastal mountains with all of Orange County and portions of San Diego, Los Angeles, Ventura, Santa Barbara, and San Luis Obispo counties.Southern California_item_2_6
  • A related florist province term is the Cismontane Region on the coastal side of the Transverse and Peninsular mountain ranges, with the term "southern California" popularly referring to this more populated and visited zone.Southern California_item_2_7
  • The Desert Region, which is larger and sparsely populated with portions of Kern, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside, Imperial, and San Diego counties. The division between the Coastal Region and the Inland Empire/Imperial Valley winds along the backs of coastal mountain ranges such as the Santa Ana Mountains.Southern California_item_2_8
  • A related floristic province term is the Transmontane Region on the rain shadow side of the same mountain ranges, with the term southern California including this zone geographically and when distinguishing all the 'southland' from northern California.Southern California_item_2_9

Geographic features Southern California_section_7

Geology Southern California_section_8

Much of the west coast of North America was part of a large convergent plate boundary between the Farallon Plate and North American Plate from 165 to 55 million years ago. Southern California_sentence_65

Here, the Farallon Plate subducted under the North American Plate creating volcanoes about 100 miles east of this boundary which can still be seen as the Sierra Nevada which it has its southern border about 30 miles east of Grapevine, California in the Tejon Pass. Southern California_sentence_66

The Farallon Plate was subjected to high temperatures and pressures as it subducted under the North American Plate. Southern California_sentence_67

This led to the formation of molten plutons which rose because they were less dense than the surrounding magma. Southern California_sentence_68

When they rose, they cooled and some formed enormous granite monoliths. Southern California_sentence_69

Only less than 1% of these plutons ever made it to the surface out of a volcano or fissure vent. Southern California_sentence_70

The 1% that did make it all the way to the surface erupted in andesitic lava which would pile on top of each previous flow. Southern California_sentence_71

This would create steep volcanoes with extremely high elevations. Southern California_sentence_72

Most of the ejecta that came out of a volcano is gas. Southern California_sentence_73

About 60% is just carbon (C) and water vapor (H2O). Southern California_sentence_74

About 30% is sulfur (S). Southern California_sentence_75

The sulfur mixes with the water vapor to form sulfuric acid which is notorious for eating away at almost anything from plants to rocks. Southern California_sentence_76

For the 99% percent of plutons that didn't make it to the surface they cooled to form granite monoliths under these volcanoes. Southern California_sentence_77

When subduction activities ceased about 55 million years ago, these volcanoes were subject to erosion due to their steep slopes. Southern California_sentence_78

Because granite is classified as a hard igneous rock, it is the only remnant of the volcanic chain from this subduction zone. Southern California_sentence_79

These enormous granite monoliths can still be seen in Yosemite National Park as Half Dome and El Capitan about 300 miles from Los Angeles. Southern California_sentence_80

Please refer to the Geologic History of Yosemite page to learn more specifically of the area's local geology. Southern California_sentence_81

When the subduction zone ceased about 55 million years ago, the Farallon Plate was split into two distinctive plates which can still be observed today as the Juan de Fuca Plate and the Cocos Plate. Southern California_sentence_82

Both were part of the same plate, but were discovered independently before this connection was made. Southern California_sentence_83

At the time of this break off, the Pacific Plate had a general north west movement while the North American Plate had a general south east movement. Southern California_sentence_84

This created a new fault zone when a weak point gave way between these two plates. Southern California_sentence_85

This is the beginnings of the infamous San Andreas Fault. Southern California_sentence_86

The San Andreas Fault is a right-lateral strike strip transverse fault. Southern California_sentence_87

When this fault was just created, a volcano from the ancient subduction zone was situated about 3/4th on the Pacific Plate and 1/4th on the North American plate somewhere in what is today Central California. Southern California_sentence_88

Nearly 55 million years later, this volcano was offset by about 250 miles. Southern California_sentence_89

It is the largest known offset of the San Andreas Fault and it help geologist determine important information such as average slip movement and the age of the fault. Southern California_sentence_90

The northern part of this offset is now called Pinnacles National Park near Soledad, California. Southern California_sentence_91

The other half of Pinnacles is in Three Points, California in Los Angeles County. Southern California_sentence_92

The Pacific Plate is the largest known plate on Earth. Southern California_sentence_93

It is considered an oceanic plate because it is much more dense than a continental plate. Southern California_sentence_94

That is the reason why oceanic plates always subduct under another plate. Southern California_sentence_95

There are only a few places where the Pacific Plate is actually above the ocean. Southern California_sentence_96

Most of the coastline of the state, below Eureka, California is part of the Pacific plate. Southern California_sentence_97

The thickest part on land in California can be observed as far inland as the Salton Sea. Southern California_sentence_98

To the south of the Salon Sea, there is a gap between plate boundaries. Southern California_sentence_99

This gap acts like a divergent plate boundary where the land is being pulled apart. Southern California_sentence_100

Mud volcanoes can be observed just at the southern edge of the sea as well as hot springs. Southern California_sentence_101

Geothermal energy plants are abundant in the area, which power much of the local rural communities. Southern California_sentence_102

When the San Andreas Fault originally formed, tension on the North American Plate grew. Southern California_sentence_103

The plate buckled and began uplifting similar to swelling in nearly all portions of the west. Southern California_sentence_104

Numerous faults were created as a result; geologic blocks that rose and fell over and over again in patterns and in sequences. Southern California_sentence_105

The extension of surface led to cracks which formed many independent faults. Southern California_sentence_106

This is the creation of the Basin and Range Province. Southern California_sentence_107

Sometimes these faults created a pathway, which molten rock could flow up to the surface creating cinder cone volcanoes. Southern California_sentence_108

The Los Angeles Area has a few volcanoes that formed. Southern California_sentence_109

Along Route 66 in Amboy, California, is the extinct volcano Amboy Crater which is estimated to be aged at 80,000 years. Southern California_sentence_110

It is relatively new in geologic terms, but heavily eroded by wind. Southern California_sentence_111

While driving along Interstate 40, lava fields can stretch for miles. Southern California_sentence_112

Within Death Valley National Park is another, much larger cinder cone volcano called Ubehebe Crater. Southern California_sentence_113

It is extremely young, although many geologists dispute the numbers with some estimates as old as 10,000 years with recent ages such as 800 years. Southern California_sentence_114

One thing is for sure: this volcano is still very active and can erupt. Southern California_sentence_115

Because of its location, it will likely not affect many people. Southern California_sentence_116

Within Orange County, lava flows and dikes can be seen in El Modena although no actual crater can be seen, likely because either it has been totally eroded or it was formed in a small fissure, which would explain why it's so localized. Southern California_sentence_117

The land on which the Los Angeles metropolitan area sits is among the newest rocks in the continental United States. Southern California_sentence_118

It is estimated to be about 20 million years old. Southern California_sentence_119

Most of the rocks in this area are part of the larger Monterey Formation which covers most of the California coastal ranges. Southern California_sentence_120

The Monterey Formation consists of shale rocks, which were created from the accumulation calcium-rich shells of dead marine life of millions of years. Southern California_sentence_121

Before then, it was submerged and was part a shallow ocean floor. Southern California_sentence_122

It has since been uplifted due to pressures between the many different fault zones at an average rate of 2 millimeters per year. Southern California_sentence_123

The Los Angeles area is known to be geologically active. Southern California_sentence_124

The San Andreas Fault is about 40 miles north east of Downtown Los Angeles. Southern California_sentence_125

The closest towns and cities to Los Angeles which contain the San Andreas Fault are Gorman and Palmdale, California. Southern California_sentence_126

Historically, major earthquakes have occurred along the fault, large enough to cause fatalities and millions of dollars in damages. Southern California_sentence_127

A major earthquake hasn't happened in the southern section of the San Andreas Fault in over 150 years and geologist have determined a 50% probability of a 7.0 earthquake, registered on the moment magnitude scale within the years 2010 to 2040. Southern California_sentence_128

Some geologists say this probably is over speculated. Southern California_sentence_129

There is no way to accurately predict an earthquake anywhere on any specific fault. Southern California_sentence_130

On the contrary, major efforts have been made to fund a practical earthquake warning system, similar to what Japan used in Tokyo during the 2011 Japan earthquake, in Southern California. Southern California_sentence_131

Today, the area gets hits with many earthquakes per day, most reregistering below a 2.5 on the moment magnitude scale, too insignificant to feel any shaking on the surface. Southern California_sentence_132

List of major fault zones Southern California_section_9

Note: Plate boundary faults are indicated with a (#) symbol. Southern California_sentence_133

Earthquakes Southern California_section_10

Each year, southern California has about 10,000 earthquakes. Southern California_sentence_134

Nearly all of them are so small that they are not felt. Southern California_sentence_135

Only several hundred have been greater than magnitude 3.0, and only about 15–20 have been greater than magnitude 4.0. Southern California_sentence_136

The magnitude 6.7 1994 Northridge earthquake was particularly destructive, causing a substantial number of deaths, injuries, and structural collapses as well as the most property damage of any earthquake in U.S. history at an estimated $20 billion. Southern California_sentence_137

Many faults are able to produce a magnitude greater than 6.7 earthquake, such as the San Andreas Fault, which can produce a magnitude 8.0 event. Southern California_sentence_138

Other faults include the San Jacinto Fault, the Puente Hills Fault, and the Elsinore Fault Zone. Southern California_sentence_139

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has released a California earthquake forecast, which models earthquake occurrence in California. Southern California_sentence_140

List of earthquakes Southern California_section_11

This is a partial list of earthquakes in Southern California. Southern California_sentence_141

For a full list, see List of earthquakes in California. Southern California_sentence_142

Note: Earthquakes with epicenters in the Los Angeles Metro Area are marked with the (#) symbol. Southern California_sentence_143

Other earthquakes mentioned means shaking was felt. Southern California_sentence_144

Regions Southern California_section_12

Divisions Southern California_section_13

Cities Southern California_section_14

See also: Largest cities in southern California Southern California_sentence_145

Los Angeles (with a 2017 census-estimated population of 4.0 million people) and San Diego (at 1.4 million people) are the two largest cities in all of California and are in the top eight largest cities in the United States. Southern California_sentence_146

In southern California, there are also 12 cities with more than 200,000 residents and 34 cities over 100,000 residents. Southern California_sentence_147

Many of southern California's most developed cities lie along or in close proximity to the coast, with the exception of San Bernardino and Riverside. Southern California_sentence_148

Counties Southern California_section_15

Southern California_unordered_list_3

Economy Southern California_section_16

Industries Southern California_section_17

Southern California has a diverse economy and is one of the largest economies in the United States. Southern California_sentence_149

It is dominated by and heavily dependent upon the abundance of petroleum, as opposed to other regions where automobiles are not nearly as dominant, due to the vast majority of transport that runs on this fuel. Southern California_sentence_150

Southern California is famous for tourism and the entertainment industry. Southern California_sentence_151

Other industries include software, automotive, ports, finance, biomedical, and regional logistics. Southern California_sentence_152

The region was a leader in the housing bubble from 2001 to 2007 and has been heavily impacted by the housing crash. Southern California_sentence_153

Since the 1920s, motion pictures, petroleum, and aircraft manufacturing have been major industries. Southern California_sentence_154

In one of the richest agricultural regions in the U.S., cattle and citrus were major industries until farmlands were turned into suburbs. Southern California_sentence_155

Although military spending cutbacks have had an impact, aerospace continues to be a major factor. Southern California_sentence_156

Major central business districts Southern California_section_18

Southern California is home to many major business districts. Southern California_sentence_157

Central business districts (CBD) include Downtown Los Angeles, Downtown San Diego, Downtown San Bernardino and South Coast Metro. Southern California_sentence_158

Within the Los Angeles Area are the major business districts of Downtown Pasadena, Downtown Burbank, Downtown Santa Monica, Downtown Glendale and Downtown Long Beach. Southern California_sentence_159

Los Angeles itself has many business districts, such as Downtown Los Angeles and those lining the Wilshire Boulevard Miracle Mile, including Century City, Westwood, and Warner Center in the San Fernando Valley. Southern California_sentence_160

The area of Santa Monica and Venice (and perhaps some of Culver City) is informally referred to as "Silicon Beach" because of the concentration of financial and marketing technology-centric firms located in the region. Southern California_sentence_161

The San Bernardino-Riverside area maintains the business districts of Downtown San Bernardino, Hospitality Business/Financial Centre, University Town which are in San Bernardino and Downtown Riverside. Southern California_sentence_162

Orange County is a rapidly developing business center that includes Downtown Santa Ana, the South Coast Metro, and Newport Center districts, as well as the Irvine business centers of The Irvine Spectrum, West Irvine, and international corporations headquartered at the University of California, Irvine. Southern California_sentence_163

West Irvine includes the Irvine Tech Center and Jamboree Business Parks. Southern California_sentence_164

Downtown San Diego is the CBD of San Diego, though the city is filled with business districts. Southern California_sentence_165

These include Carmel Valley, Del Mar Heights, Mission Valley, Rancho Bernardo, Sorrento Mesa, and University City. Southern California_sentence_166

Most of these districts are located in Northern San Diego and some within North County regions. Southern California_sentence_167

Theme parks and waterparks Southern California_section_19

Vinyard-Winery American Viticultural Area (AVA) districts Southern California_section_20

Southern California_description_list_4

Transportation Southern California_section_21

Communication Southern California_section_22

Telephone area codes Southern California_section_23

Colleges and universities Southern California_section_24

Main article: List of colleges and universities in southern California Southern California_sentence_168

The Tech Coast is a moniker that has gained use as a descriptor for the region's diversified technology and industrial base as well as its multitude of prestigious and world-renowned research universities and other public and private institutions. Southern California_sentence_169

Amongst these include five University of California campuses (Irvine, Los Angeles, Riverside, Santa Barbara, and San Diego), 12 California State University campuses (Bakersfield, Channel Islands, Dominguez Hills, Fullerton, Los Angeles, Long Beach, Northridge, Pomona, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Marcos, and San Luis Obispo); and private institutions such as the California Institute of Technology, Azusa Pacific University, Chapman University, the Claremont Colleges (Claremont McKenna College, Harvey Mudd College, Pitzer College, Pomona College, Scripps College, Claremont Graduate University and Keck Graduate Institute), Loma Linda University, Loyola Marymount University, Occidental College, Pepperdine University, University of Redlands, University of San Diego, and the University of Southern California. Southern California_sentence_170

Parks and recreation areas Southern California_section_25

Numerous parks provide recreation opportunities and open space. Southern California_sentence_171

Locations include: Southern California_sentence_172

Sports Southern California_section_26

See also: Freeway Series, Lakers–Clippers rivalry, and Sports in California § Northern California–Southern California rivalry Southern California_sentence_173

Major professional sports teams in southern California include: Southern California_sentence_174

Southern California_unordered_list_5

Southern California also is home to a number of popular NCAA sports programs such as the UCLA Bruins, the USC Trojans, and the San Diego State Aztecs. Southern California_sentence_175

The Bruins and the Trojans both field football teams in NCAA Division I in the Pac-12 Conference, and there is a longtime rivalry between the schools. Southern California_sentence_176

See also Southern California_section_27

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: California.