Southern United States

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This article is about the political and cultural region. Southern United States_sentence_0

For the geographically southern part of the United States, see Sun Belt. Southern United States_sentence_1

For the cultural region of the southern United States, see Dixie. Southern United States_sentence_2

Southern United States_table_infobox_0

Southern United States

The SouthSouthern United States_header_cell_0_0_0

SubregionSouthern United States_header_cell_0_1_0 Southern United States_cell_0_1_1
CountrySouthern United States_header_cell_0_2_0 United StatesSouthern United States_cell_0_2_1
StatesSouthern United States_header_cell_0_3_0 Alabama
North Carolina
South Carolina
West VirginiaSouthern United States_cell_0_3_1
Population (2019 Census Bureau estimate)Southern United States_header_cell_0_4_0
TotalSouthern United States_header_cell_0_5_0 125,580,448Southern United States_cell_0_5_1
Demonym(s)Southern United States_header_cell_0_6_0 Southerner, Southron (historically)Southern United States_cell_0_6_1
LanguagesSouthern United States_header_cell_0_7_0 Creole languages

English variants

Indigenous Languages

Louisiana French Spanish Texas GermanSouthern United States_cell_0_7_1

The Southern United States, also known as the American South, the Southern States, or simply known as the South, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States. Southern United States_sentence_3

It is between the Atlantic Ocean and the Western United States, with the Midwestern United States and Northeastern United States to its north and the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico to its south. Southern United States_sentence_4

The region was historically defined as all states south of the Mason–Dixon line and Ohio River. Southern United States_sentence_5

The South does not precisely coincide with the geographic south of the United States but is commonly defined as including the states that fought for the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War. Southern United States_sentence_6

The Deep South lies entirely within the southeastern corner. Southern United States_sentence_7

California, Arizona and New Mexico, which are geographically in the southern part of the country, are rarely considered part, while West Virginia, which separated from Virginia in 1863, commonly is. Southern United States_sentence_8

Some scholars have proposed definitions of the South that do not coincide neatly with state boundaries. Southern United States_sentence_9

While the border states of Delaware, Kentucky, and Maryland, as well as the District of Columbia, continued to permit slavery during the Civil War, they remained with the Union. Southern United States_sentence_10

Since the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, they became more culturally, economically, and politically aligned with the industrial Northern states, and are often identified as part of the Mid-Atlantic or Northeast by many residents, businesses, public institutions, and private organizations; however, the United States Census Bureau continues to define them as in the South with regard to census regions. Southern United States_sentence_11

Usually, the South is defined as including the southeastern and south-central United States. Southern United States_sentence_12

The region is known for its culture and history, having developed its own customs, musical styles, and cuisines, which have distinguished it in some ways from the rest of the United States. Southern United States_sentence_13

The Southern ethnic heritage is diverse and includes strong European (mostly English, Scotch-Irish, Scottish, Irish, and French), African and some Native American components. Southern United States_sentence_14

The historical and cultural development of the South have been influenced by the institution of slave labor on plantations in the Deep South to an extent seen nowhere else in the United States; the presence of a large proportion of African Americans in the population; support for the doctrine of states' rights, and the legacy of racism magnified by the Civil War and Reconstruction Era, as seen in thousands of lynchings (mostly from 1880 to 1930), the segregated system of separate schools and public facilities known as "Jim Crow laws" that remained until the 1960s, and the widespread use of poll taxes and other methods frequently to deny black people the ability to vote or hold office until the 1960s. Southern United States_sentence_15

Since the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, black people have held many offices in Southern states, notably in the states of Virginia and South Carolina. Southern United States_sentence_16

Black people have also been elected or appointed as mayors and police chiefs in Baltimore, Charlotte, Raleigh, Birmingham, Montgomery, Richmond, Columbia, Memphis, Houston, Atlanta, Jacksonville, Jackson, and New Orleans, and serve in both the U.S. Congress and state legislatures. Southern United States_sentence_17

Scholars have characterized pockets of the Southern United States as being "authoritarian enclaves" from Reconstruction until the Civil Rights Act. Southern United States_sentence_18

Historically, the South relied heavily on agriculture, and was highly rural until after 1945. Southern United States_sentence_19

It has since become more industrialized and urban and has attracted national and international migrants. Southern United States_sentence_20

The American South is now among the fastest-growing areas in the United States. Southern United States_sentence_21

Houston is the largest city in the Southern United States. Southern United States_sentence_22

Sociological research indicates that Southern collective identity stems from political, demographic, and cultural distinctiveness from the rest of the United States. Southern United States_sentence_23

The region contains almost all of the Bible Belt, an area of high Protestant church attendance (especially evangelical churches such as the Southern Baptist Convention) and predominantly conservative, religion-influenced politics. Southern United States_sentence_24

Indeed, studies have shown that Southerners are more conservative than non-Southerners in several areas, including religion, morality, international relations, and race relations. Southern United States_sentence_25

This is evident in both the region's religious attendance figures and in the region's usually strong support for the Republican Party in political elections especially since the 1990s. Southern United States_sentence_26

Geography Southern United States_section_0

The question of how to define the subregions in the South has been the focus of research for nearly a century. Southern United States_sentence_27

As defined by the United States Census Bureau, the Southern region of the United States includes sixteen states. Southern United States_sentence_28

As of 2010, an estimated 114,555,744 people, or thirty seven percent of all U.S. residents, lived in the South, the nation's most populous region. Southern United States_sentence_29

The Census Bureau defined three smaller divisions: Southern United States_sentence_30

Southern United States_unordered_list_0

The Council of State Governments, an organization for communication and coordination between states, includes in its South regional office the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and West Virginia. Southern United States_sentence_31

Other terms related to the South include: Southern United States_sentence_32

Southern United States_unordered_list_1

The popular definition of the "South" is more informal and generally associated with the 11 states that seceded before or during the Civil War to form the Confederate States of America. Southern United States_sentence_33

In order of their secession, these were: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina. Southern United States_sentence_34

These states share commonalities of history and culture that carry on to the present day. Southern United States_sentence_35

Oklahoma was not a state during the Civil War, but all its major Native American tribes signed of alliance with the Confederacy. Southern United States_sentence_36

The South is a diverse meteorological region with numerous climatic zones, including temperate, sub-tropical, tropical and arid—though the South generally has a reputation as hot and humid, with long summers and short, mild winters. Southern United States_sentence_37

Most of the south—except for the higher elevations and areas near the western, southern and some northern fringes—fall in the humid subtropical climate zone. Southern United States_sentence_38

Crops grow readily in the South; its climate consistently provides growing seasons of at least six months before the first frost. Southern United States_sentence_39

Another common environment occurs in the bayous and swamplands of the Gulf Coast, especially in Louisiana and in Texas. Southern United States_sentence_40

Although not included in the Census definition, two U.S. Southern United States_sentence_41

territories located southeast of Florida (Puerto Rico and the U.S. Southern United States_sentence_42

Virgin Islands) are sometimes included as part of the Southern United States. Southern United States_sentence_43

The Federal Aviation Administration includes Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands as part of the South, as does the Agricultural Research Service and the U.S. Southern United States_sentence_44

National Park Service. Southern United States_sentence_45

History Southern United States_section_1

Main article: History of the Southern United States Southern United States_sentence_46

Native American culture Southern United States_section_2

The first well-dated evidence of human occupation in the south United States occurs around 9500 BC with the appearance of the earliest documented Americans, who are now referred to as Paleo-Indians. Southern United States_sentence_47

Paleoindians were hunter-gathers that roamed in bands and frequently hunted megafauna. Southern United States_sentence_48

Several cultural stages, such as Archaic (ca. 8000–1000 BC) and the Woodland (ca. 1000 BC – AD 1000), preceded what the Europeans found at the end of the 15th century—the Mississippian culture. Southern United States_sentence_49

The Mississippian culture was a complex, mound-building Native American culture that flourished in what is now the Southeastern United States from approximately 800 AD to 1500 AD. Southern United States_sentence_50

Natives had elaborate and lengthy trading routes connecting their main residential and ceremonial centers extending through the river valleys and from the East Coast to the Great Lakes. Southern United States_sentence_51

Some noted explorers who encountered and described the Mississippian culture, by then in decline, included Pánfilo de Narváez (1528), Hernando de Soto (1540), and Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville (1699). Southern United States_sentence_52

Native American descendants of the mound-builders include Alabama, Apalachee, Caddo, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Guale, Hitchiti, Houma, and Seminole peoples, all of whom still reside in the South. Southern United States_sentence_53

Other peoples whose ancestral links to the Mississippian culture are less clear but were clearly in the region before the European incursion include the Catawba and the Powhatan. Southern United States_sentence_54

European colonization Southern United States_section_3

European immigration caused a die-off of Native Americans, whose immune systems could not protect them from the diseases the Europeans unwittingly introduced. Southern United States_sentence_55

The predominant culture of the original Southern states was British. Southern United States_sentence_56

In the 17th century, most voluntary immigrants were of English origin, and settled chiefly along the eastern coast but had pushed as far inland as the Appalachian Mountains by the 18th century. Southern United States_sentence_57

The majority of early English settlers were indentured servants, who gained freedom after working off their passage. Southern United States_sentence_58

The wealthier men who paid their way received land grants known as headrights, to encourage settlement. Southern United States_sentence_59

The Spanish and French established settlements in Florida, Texas, and Louisiana. Southern United States_sentence_60

The Spanish settled Florida in the 16th century, reaching a peak in the late 17th century, but the population was small because the Spaniards were relatively uninterested in agriculture, and Florida had no mineral resources. Southern United States_sentence_61

In the British colonies, immigration began in 1607 and continued until the outbreak of the Revolution in 1775. Southern United States_sentence_62

Settlers cleared land, built houses and outbuildings, and on their own farms. Southern United States_sentence_63

The Southern rich owned large plantations that dominated export agriculture and used slaves. Southern United States_sentence_64

Many were involved in the labor-intensive cultivation of tobacco, the first cash crop of Virginia. Southern United States_sentence_65

Tobacco exhausted the soil quickly, requiring that farmers regularly clear new fields. Southern United States_sentence_66

They used old fields as pasture, and for crops such as corn wheat, or allowed them to grow into woodlots. Southern United States_sentence_67

In the mid-to-late-18th century, large groups of Ulster Scots (later called the Scotch-Irish) and people from the Anglo-Scottish border region immigrated and settled in the back country of Appalachia and the Piedmont. Southern United States_sentence_68

They were the largest group of non-English immigrants from the British Isles before the American Revolution. Southern United States_sentence_69

In the 1980 Census, 34% of Southerners reported that they were of English ancestry; English was the largest reported European ancestry in every Southern state by a large margin. Southern United States_sentence_70

The early colonists engaged in warfare, trade, and cultural exchanges. Southern United States_sentence_71

Those living in the backcountry were more likely to encounter Creek Indians, Cherokee, and Choctaws and other regional native groups. Southern United States_sentence_72

The oldest university in the South, the College of William & Mary, was founded in 1693 in Virginia; it pioneered in the teaching of political economy and educated future U.S. Presidents Jefferson, Monroe and Tyler, all from Virginia. Southern United States_sentence_73

Indeed, the entire region dominated politics in the First Party System era: for example, four of the first five PresidentsWashington, Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe—were from Virginia. Southern United States_sentence_74

The two oldest public universities are also in the South: the University of North Carolina (1789) and the University of Georgia (1785). Southern United States_sentence_75

American Revolution Southern United States_section_4

Main article: Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War Southern United States_sentence_76

With Virginia in the lead, the Southern colonies embraced the American Revolution, providing such leaders as commander in chief George Washington, and the author of the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson. Southern United States_sentence_77

In 1780 and 1781, the British largely halted reconquest of the northern states, and concentrated on the south, where they were told there was a large Loyalist population ready to leap to arms once the royal forces arrived. Southern United States_sentence_78

The British took control of Savannah and Charleston, capturing a large American army in the process, and set up a network of bases inland. Southern United States_sentence_79

There were many more Loyalists in the South than in the North, but they were concentrated in larger coastal cities and were not great enough in number to overcome the revolutionaries. Southern United States_sentence_80

Large numbers of loyalists from South Carolina fought for the British in the Battle of Camden. Southern United States_sentence_81

The British forces at the Battle of Monck's Corner and the Battle of Lenud's Ferry consisted entirely of Loyalists with the exception of the commanding officer (Banastre Tarleton). Southern United States_sentence_82

Both white and black Loyalists fought for the British at the Battle of Kemp's Landing in Virginia. Southern United States_sentence_83

Led by Nathanael Greene and other generals, the Americans engaged in Fabian tactics designed to wear down the British invasion force, and to neutralize its strong points one by one. Southern United States_sentence_84

There were numerous battles large and small, with each side claiming some victories. Southern United States_sentence_85

By 1781, however, British General Cornwallis moved north to Virginia, where an approaching army forced him to fortify and await rescue by the British Navy. Southern United States_sentence_86

The British Navy did arrive, but so did a stronger French fleet, and Cornwallis was trapped. Southern United States_sentence_87

American and French armies, led by Washington, forced Cornwallis to surrender his entire army in Yorktown, Virginia in October 1781, effectively winning the North American part of the war. Southern United States_sentence_88

The Revolution provided a shock to slavery in the South. Southern United States_sentence_89

Thousands of slaves took advantage of wartime disruption to find their own freedom, catalyzed by the British Governor Dunmore of Virginia's promise of freedom for service. Southern United States_sentence_90

Many others were removed by Loyalist owners and became slaves elsewhere in the Empire. Southern United States_sentence_91

Between 1770 and 1790, there was a sharp decline in the percentage of blacks – from 61% to 44% in South Carolina and from 45% to 36% in Georgia. Southern United States_sentence_92

In addition, some slaveholders were inspired to free their slaves after the Revolution. Southern United States_sentence_93

They were moved by the principles of the Revolution, and Quaker and Methodist preachers worked to encourage slaveholders to free their slaves. Southern United States_sentence_94

Planters such as George Washington often freed slaves by their wills. Southern United States_sentence_95

In the upper South, more than 10 percent of all blacks were free by 1810, a significant expansion from pre-war proportions of less than 1 percent free. Southern United States_sentence_96

Antebellum years Southern United States_section_5

Cotton became dominant in the lower South after 1800. Southern United States_sentence_97

After the invention of the cotton gin, short staple cotton could be grown more widely. Southern United States_sentence_98

This led to an explosion of cotton cultivation, especially in the frontier uplands of Georgia, Alabama and other parts of the Deep South, as well as riverfront areas of the Mississippi Delta. Southern United States_sentence_99

Migrants poured into those areas in the early decades of the 19th century, when county population figures rose and fell as swells of people kept moving west. Southern United States_sentence_100

The expansion of cotton cultivation required more slave labor, and the institution became even more deeply an integral part of the South's economy. Southern United States_sentence_101

With the opening up of frontier lands after the government forced most Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi, there was a major migration of both whites and blacks to those territories. Southern United States_sentence_102

From the 1820s through the 1850s, more than one million enslaved Africans were transported to the Deep South in forced migration, two-thirds of them by slave traders and the others by masters who moved there. Southern United States_sentence_103

Planters in the Upper South sold slaves excess to their needs as they shifted from tobacco to mixed agriculture. Southern United States_sentence_104

Many enslaved families were broken up, as planters preferred mostly strong males for field work. Southern United States_sentence_105

Two major political issues that festered in the first half of the 19th century caused political alignment along sectional lines, strengthened the identities of North and South as distinct regions with certain strongly opposed interests, and fed the arguments over states' rights that culminated in secession and the Civil War. Southern United States_sentence_106

One of these issues concerned the protective tariffs enacted to assist the growth of the manufacturing sector, primarily in the North. Southern United States_sentence_107

In 1832, in resistance to federal legislation increasing tariffs, South Carolina passed an ordinance of nullification, a procedure in which a state would, in effect, repeal a Federal law. Southern United States_sentence_108

Soon a naval flotilla was sent to Charleston harbor, and the threat of landing ground troops was used to compel the collection of tariffs. Southern United States_sentence_109

A compromise was reached by which the tariffs would be gradually reduced, but the underlying argument over states' rights continued to escalate in the following decades. Southern United States_sentence_110

The second issue concerned slavery, primarily the question of whether slavery would be permitted in newly admitted states. Southern United States_sentence_111

The issue was initially finessed by political compromises designed to balance the number of "free" and "slave" states. Southern United States_sentence_112

The issue resurfaced in more virulent form, however, around the time of the Mexican–American War, which raised the stakes by adding new territories primarily on the Southern side of the imaginary geographic divide. Southern United States_sentence_113

Congress opposed allowing slavery in these territories. Southern United States_sentence_114

Before the Civil War, the number of immigrants arriving at Southern ports began to increase, although the North continued to receive the most immigrants. Southern United States_sentence_115

Hugenots were among the first settlers in Charleston, along with the largest number of Orthodox Jews outside of New York City. Southern United States_sentence_116

Numerous Irish immigrants settled in New Orleans, establishing a distinct ethnic enclave now known as the Irish Channel. Southern United States_sentence_117

Germans also went to New Orleans and its environs, resulting in a large area north of the city (along the Mississippi) becoming known as the German Coast. Southern United States_sentence_118

Still greater numbers immigrated to Texas (especially after 1848), where many bought land and were farmers. Southern United States_sentence_119

Many more German immigrants arrived in Texas after the Civil War, where they created the brewing industry in Houston and elsewhere, became grocers in numerous cities, and also established wide areas of farming. Southern United States_sentence_120

By 1840, New Orleans was the wealthiest city in the country and the third largest in population. Southern United States_sentence_121

The success of the city was based on the growth of international trade associated with products being shipped to and from the interior of the country down the Mississippi River. Southern United States_sentence_122

New Orleans also had the largest slave market in the country, as traders brought slaves by ship and overland to sell to planters across the Deep South. Southern United States_sentence_123

The city was a cosmopolitan port with a variety of jobs that attracted more immigrants than other areas of the South. Southern United States_sentence_124

Because of lack of investment, however, construction of railroads to span the region lagged behind the North. Southern United States_sentence_125

People relied most heavily on river traffic for getting their crops to market and for transportation. Southern United States_sentence_126

Civil War Southern United States_section_6

Main articles: American Civil War and Confederate States of America Southern United States_sentence_127

By 1856, the South had lost control of Congress, and was no longer able to silence calls for an end to slavery—which came mostly from the more populated, free states of the North. Southern United States_sentence_128

The Republican Party, founded in 1854, pledged to stop the spread of slavery beyond those states where it already existed. Southern United States_sentence_129

After Abraham Lincoln was elected the first Republican president in 1860, seven cotton states declared their secession and formed the Confederate States of America before Lincoln was inaugurated. Southern United States_sentence_130

The United States government, both outgoing and incoming, refused to recognize the Confederacy, and when the new Confederate President Jefferson Davis ordered his troops to open fire on Fort Sumter in April 1861, there was an overwhelming demand, North and South, for war. Southern United States_sentence_131

Only the state of Kentucky attempted to remain neutral, and it could only do so briefly. Southern United States_sentence_132

When Lincoln called for troops to suppress what he referred to as "combinations too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary" judicial or martial means, four more states decided to secede and join the Confederacy (which then moved its capital to Richmond, Virginia). Southern United States_sentence_133

Although the Confederacy had large supplies of captured munitions and many volunteers, it was slower than the Union in dealing with the border states. Southern United States_sentence_134

By March 1862, the Union largely controlled Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky and Missouri, had shut down all commercial traffic from all Confederate ports, had prevented European recognition of the Confederate government, and was poised to seize New Orleans. Southern United States_sentence_135

In the four years of war 1861–65 the South was the primary battleground, with all but two of the major battles taking place on Southern soil. Southern United States_sentence_136

Union forces relentlessly squeezed the Confederacy, controlling the border states in 1861, the Tennessee River, the Cumberland River and New Orleans in 1862, and the Mississippi River in 1863. Southern United States_sentence_137

In the East, however, the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee beat off attack after attack in its defense of their capital at Richmond. Southern United States_sentence_138

But when Lee tried to move north, he was repulsed (and nearly captured) at Sharpsburg (1862) and Gettysburg (1863). Southern United States_sentence_139

The Confederacy had the resources for a short war, but was unable to finance or supply a longer war. Southern United States_sentence_140

It reversed the traditional low-tariff policy of the South by imposing a new 15% tax on all imports from the Union. Southern United States_sentence_141

The Union blockade stopped most commerce from entering the South, and smugglers avoided the tax, so the Confederate tariff produced too little revenue to finance the war. Southern United States_sentence_142

Inflated currency was the solution, but that created distrust of the Richmond government. Southern United States_sentence_143

Because of low investment in railroads, the Southern transportation system depended primarily on river and coastal traffic by boat; both were shut down by the Union Navy. Southern United States_sentence_144

The small railroad system virtually collapsed, so that by 1864 internal travel was so difficult that the Confederate economy was crippled. Southern United States_sentence_145

The Confederate cause was hopeless by the time Atlanta fell and William T. Sherman marched through Georgia in late 1864, but the rebels fought on, refusing to give up their independence until Lee's army surrendered in April 1865. Southern United States_sentence_146

All the Confederate forces surrendered, and the region moved into the Reconstruction Era. Southern United States_sentence_147

The South suffered much more than the North overall, as the Union strategy of attrition warfare meant that Lee could not replace his casualties, and the total war waged by Sherman, Sheridan and other Union armies devastated the infrastructure and caused widespread poverty and distress. Southern United States_sentence_148

The Confederacy suffered military losses of 95,000 men killed in action and 165,000 who died of disease, for a total of 260,000, out of a total white Southern population at the time of around 5.5 million. Southern United States_sentence_149

Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6% in the North and about 18% in the South. Southern United States_sentence_150

Northern military casualties exceeded Southern casualties in absolute numbers, but were two-thirds smaller in terms of proportion of the population affected. Southern United States_sentence_151

Reconstruction and Jim Crow Southern United States_section_7

Main articles: Reconstruction Era, Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era, and Voting rights in the United States Southern United States_sentence_152

After the Civil War, the South was devastated in terms of population, infrastructure and economy. Southern United States_sentence_153

Because of states' reluctance to grant voting rights to freedmen, Congress instituted Reconstruction governments. Southern United States_sentence_154

It established military districts and governors to rule over the South until new governments could be established. Southern United States_sentence_155

Many white Southerners who had actively supported the Confederacy were temporarily disenfranchised. Southern United States_sentence_156

Rebuilding was difficult as people grappled with the effects of a new labor economy of a free market in the midst of a widespread agricultural depression. Southern United States_sentence_157

In addition, what limited infrastructure the South had was mostly destroyed by the war. Southern United States_sentence_158

At the same time, the North was rapidly industrializing. Southern United States_sentence_159

To avoid the social effects of the war, most of the Southern states initially passed black codes. Southern United States_sentence_160

Eventually, these were mostly legally nullified by federal law and anti-Confederate legislatures, which existed for a short time during Reconstruction. Southern United States_sentence_161

There were thousands of people on the move, as African Americans tried to reunite families separated by slaves sales, and sometimes migrated for better opportunities in towns or other states. Southern United States_sentence_162

Other freed people moved from plantation areas to cities or towns for a chance to get different jobs. Southern United States_sentence_163

At the same time, whites returned from refuges to reclaim plantations or town dwellings. Southern United States_sentence_164

In some areas, many whites returned to the land to farm for a while. Southern United States_sentence_165

Some freedpeople left the South altogether for states such as Ohio and Indiana, and later, Kansas. Southern United States_sentence_166

Thousands of others joined the migration to new opportunities in the Mississippi and Arkansas Delta bottomlands and Texas. Southern United States_sentence_167

With passage of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States (which outlawed slavery), the 14th Amendment (which granted full U.S. citizenship to African Americans) and the 15th amendment (which extended the right to vote to African American males), African Americans in the South were made free citizens and were given the right to vote. Southern United States_sentence_168

Under Federal protection, white and black Republicans formed constitutional conventions and state governments. Southern United States_sentence_169

Among their accomplishments were creating the first public education systems in Southern states, and providing for welfare through orphanages, hospitals and similar institutions. Southern United States_sentence_170

Northerners came south to participate in politics and business. Southern United States_sentence_171

Some were representatives of the Freedmen's Bureau and other agencies of Reconstruction; some were humanitarians with the intent to help black people. Southern United States_sentence_172

Some were adventurers who hoped to benefit themselves by questionable methods. Southern United States_sentence_173

They were all condemned with the pejorative term of carpetbagger. Southern United States_sentence_174

Some Southerners also took advantage of the disrupted environment and made money off various schemes, including bonds and financing for railroads. Southern United States_sentence_175

Secret vigilante organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan—an organization sworn to perpetuate white supremacy—had arisen quickly after the war's end and used lynching, physical attacks, house burnings and other forms of intimidation to keep African Americans from exercising their political rights. Southern United States_sentence_176

Although the first Klan was disrupted by prosecution by the Federal government in the early 1870s, other groups persisted. Southern United States_sentence_177

By the mid-to-late-1870s, elite Southerners created increasing resistance to the altered social structure. Southern United States_sentence_178

Paramilitary organizations such as the White League in Louisiana (1874), the Red Shirts in Mississippi (1875) and rifle clubs, all "White Line" organizations, used organized violence against Republicans, both black and white, to remove Republicans from political office, repress and bar black voting, and restore the Democratic Party to power. Southern United States_sentence_179

In 1876 white Democrats regained power in most of the state legislatures. Southern United States_sentence_180

They began to pass laws designed to strip African Americans and poor whites from the voter registration rolls. Southern United States_sentence_181

The success of late-19th century interracial coalitions in several states inspired a reaction among some white Democrats, who worked harder to prevent both groups from voting. Southern United States_sentence_182

Despite discrimination, many blacks became property owners in areas that were still developing. Southern United States_sentence_183

For instance, 90% of the Mississippi's bottomlands were still frontier and undeveloped after the war. Southern United States_sentence_184

By the end of the century, two-thirds of the farmers in Mississippi's Delta bottomlands were black. Southern United States_sentence_185

They had cleared the land themselves and often made money in early years by selling off timber. Southern United States_sentence_186

Tens of thousands of migrants went to the Delta, both to work as laborers to clear timber for lumber companies, and many to develop their own farms. Southern United States_sentence_187

Nonetheless, the long agricultural depression, along with disenfranchisement and lack of access to credit, led to many blacks in the Delta losing their property by 1910 and becoming sharecroppers or landless workers over the following decade. Southern United States_sentence_188

More than two generations of free African Americans lost their stake in property. Southern United States_sentence_189

Nearly all Southerners, black and white, suffered as a result of the Civil War. Southern United States_sentence_190

Within a few years cotton production and harvest was back to pre-war levels, but low prices through much of the 19th century hampered recovery. Southern United States_sentence_191

They encouraged immigration by Chinese and Italian laborers into the Mississippi Delta. Southern United States_sentence_192

While the first Chinese entered as indentured laborers from Cuba, the majority came in the early 20th century. Southern United States_sentence_193

Neither group stayed long at rural farm labor. Southern United States_sentence_194

The Chinese became merchants and established stores in small towns throughout the Delta, establishing a place between white and black. Southern United States_sentence_195

Migrations continued in the late 19th and early 20th centuries among both blacks and whites. Southern United States_sentence_196

In the last two decades of the 19th century about 141,000 blacks left the South, and more after 1900, totaling a loss of 537,000. Southern United States_sentence_197

After that the movement increased in what became known as the Great Migration from 1910 to 1940, and the Second Great Migration through 1970. Southern United States_sentence_198

Even more whites left the South, some going to California for opportunities and others heading to Northern industrial cities after 1900. Southern United States_sentence_199

Between 1880 and 1910, the loss of whites totaled 1,243,000. Southern United States_sentence_200

Five million more left between 1940 and 1970. Southern United States_sentence_201

From 1890 to 1908, ten of the eleven former Confederate states, along with Oklahoma upon statehood, passed disfranchising constitutions or amendments that introduced voter registration barriers—such as poll taxes, residency requirements and literacy tests—that were hard for many poor to meet. Southern United States_sentence_202

Most African Americans, most Mexican Americans, and tens of thousands of poor whites were disfranchised, losing the vote for decades. Southern United States_sentence_203

In some states, grandfather clauses temporarily exempted white illiterates from literacy tests. Southern United States_sentence_204

The numbers of voters dropped drastically throughout the former Confederacy as a result. Southern United States_sentence_205

This can be seen via the feature "Turnout in Presidential and Midterm Elections" at the University of Texas’ Politics: Barriers to Voting. Southern United States_sentence_206

Alabama, which had established universal white suffrage in 1819 when it became a state, also substantially reduced voting by poor whites. Southern United States_sentence_207

Democrat-controlled legislatures passed Jim Crow laws to segregate public facilities and services, including transportation. Southern United States_sentence_208

While African Americans, poor whites and civil rights groups started litigation against such provisions in the early 20th century, for decades Supreme Court decisions overturning such provisions were rapidly followed by new state laws with new devices to restrict voting. Southern United States_sentence_209

Most blacks in the former Confederacy and Oklahoma could not vote until 1965, after passage of the Voting Rights Act and Federal enforcement to ensure people could register. Southern United States_sentence_210

Despite increases in the eligible voting population with the inclusion of women, blacks, and those eighteen and over throughout this period, turnout in ex-Confederate states remained below the national average throughout the 20th century. Southern United States_sentence_211

Not until the late 1960s did all American citizens regain protected civil rights by passage of legislation following the leadership of the American Civil Rights Movement. Southern United States_sentence_212

Historian William Chafe has explored the defensive techniques developed inside the African-American community to avoid the worst features of Jim Crow as expressed in the legal system, unbalanced economic power, and intimidation and psychological pressure. Southern United States_sentence_213

Chafe says "protective socialization by blacks themselves" was created inside the community in order to accommodate white-imposed sanctions while subtly encouraging challenges to those sanctions. Southern United States_sentence_214

Known as "walking the tightrope," such efforts at bringing about change were only slightly effective Before the 1920s, but did build the foundation The younger African-Americans deployed in their aggressive, large-scale activism during the civil rights movement in the 1950s. Southern United States_sentence_215

Economy after 1880s Southern United States_section_8

Main article: Great Migration (African American) Southern United States_sentence_216

At the end of the 19th century, white Democrats in the South had created state constitutions that were hostile to industry and business development, with anti-industrial laws extensive from the time new constitutions were adopted in the 1890s. Southern United States_sentence_217

Banks were few and small; there was little access to credit. Southern United States_sentence_218

Traditional agricultural persisted across the region. Southern United States_sentence_219

Especially in Alabama and Florida, rural minorities held control in many state legislatures long after population had shifted to industrializing cities, and legislators resisted business and modernizing interests: Alabama refused to redistrict between 1901 and 1972, long after major population and economic shifts to cities. Southern United States_sentence_220

For decades Birmingham generated the majority of revenue for the state, for instance, but received little back in services or infrastructure. Southern United States_sentence_221

In the late 19th century, Texas rapidly expanded its railroad network, creating a network of cities connected on a radial plan and linked to the port of Galveston. Southern United States_sentence_222

It was the first statein which urban and economic development proceeded independently of rivers, the primary transportation network of the past. Southern United States_sentence_223

A reflection of increasing industry were strikes and labor unrest: "in 1885 Texas ranked ninth among forty states in number of workers involved in strikes (4,000); for the six-year period it ranked fifteenth. Southern United States_sentence_224

Seventy-five of the one hundred strikes, chiefly interstate strikes of telegraphers and railway workers, occurred in the year 1886." Southern United States_sentence_225

By 1890 Dallas became the largest city in Texas, and by 1900 it had a population of more than 42,000, which more than doubled to over 92,000 a decade later. Southern United States_sentence_226

Dallas was the harnessmaking capital of the world and a center of other manufacturing. Southern United States_sentence_227

As an example of its ambitions, in 1907 Dallas built the Praetorian Building, fifteen storeys tall and the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi, soon to be followed by other skyscrapers. Southern United States_sentence_228

Texas was transformed by a railroad network linking five important cities, among them Houston with its nearby port at Galveston, Dallas, Fort Worth, San Antonio, and El Paso. Southern United States_sentence_229

Each exceeded fifty thousand in population by 1920, with the major cities having three times that population. Southern United States_sentence_230

Business interests were ignored by the Southern Democrat ruling class. Southern United States_sentence_231

Nonetheless, major new industries started developing in cities such as Atlanta, GA; Birmingham, AL; and Dallas, Fort Worth and Houston, Texas. Southern United States_sentence_232

Growth began occurring at a geometric rate. Southern United States_sentence_233

Birmingham became a major steel producer and mining town, with major population growth in the early decades of the 20th century. Southern United States_sentence_234

The first major oil well in the South was drilled at Spindletop near Beaumont, Texas, on the morning of January 10, 1901. Southern United States_sentence_235

Other oil fields were later discovered nearby in Arkansas, Oklahoma, and under the Gulf of Mexico. Southern United States_sentence_236

The resulting "Oil Boom" permanently transformed the economy of the West South Central states and produced the richest economic expansion after the Civil War. Southern United States_sentence_237

In the early 20th century, invasion of the boll weevil devastated cotton crops in the South, producing an additional catalyst to African Americans' decisions to leave the South. Southern United States_sentence_238

From 1910 to 1970, more than 6.5 million African Americans left the South in the Great Migration to Northern and Western cities, defecting from persistent lynching, violence, segregation, poor education, and inability to vote. Southern United States_sentence_239

Black migration transformed many Northern and Western cities, creating new cultures and music. Southern United States_sentence_240

Many African Americans, like other groups, became industrial workers; others started their own businesses within the communities. Southern United States_sentence_241

Southern whites also migrated to industrial cities like Chicago, Detroit, Oakland, and Los Angeles, where they took jobs in the booming new auto and defense industry. Southern United States_sentence_242

Later, the Southern economy was dealt additional blows by the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl. Southern United States_sentence_243

After the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the economy suffered significant reversals and millions were left unemployed. Southern United States_sentence_244

Beginning in 1934 and lasting until 1939, an ecological disaster of severe wind and drought caused an exodus from Texas and Arkansas, the Oklahoma Panhandle region, and the surrounding plains, in which over 500,000 Americans were homeless, hungry and jobless. Southern United States_sentence_245

Thousands left the region forever to seek economic opportunities along the West Coast. Southern United States_sentence_246

President Franklin D. Roosevelt noted the South as the "number one priority" in terms of need of assistance during the Great Depression. Southern United States_sentence_247

His administration created programs such as the Tennessee Valley Authority in 1933 to provide rural electrification and stimulate development. Southern United States_sentence_248

Locked into low-productivity agriculture, the region's growth was slowed by limited industrial development, low levels of entrepreneurship, and the lack of capital investment. Southern United States_sentence_249

Economy of 1940s Southern United States_section_9

Further information: United States home front during World War II Southern United States_sentence_250

World War II marked a time of dramatic change in the poor, heavily rural South as new industries and military bases were developed by the Federal government, providing badly needed capital and infrastructure in many regions. Southern United States_sentence_251

People from all parts of the US came to the South for military training and work in the region's many bases and new industries. Southern United States_sentence_252

During and after the war millions of hard-scrabble farmers, both white and black, left agriculture for urban jobs. Southern United States_sentence_253

United States began mobilizing for war in a major way in the spring of 1940. Southern United States_sentence_254

The warm sunny weather of the South proved ideal for building 60 percent of the Army's new training camps and nearly half the new airfields, In all 40 percent of spending on new military installations went to the South. Southern United States_sentence_255

For example, it, and sleepy Starke, Florida a town of 1500 people in 1940, became the base of Camp Blanding. Southern United States_sentence_256

By March 1941, 20,000 men were constructing a permanent camp for 60,000 soldiers. Southern United States_sentence_257

Money flowed freely for the war effort, as over $4 billion went into military facilities in the South, and another $5 billion into defense plants. Southern United States_sentence_258

Major shipyards were built In Virginia, Charleston, and Along the Gulf Coast. Southern United States_sentence_259

Huge warplane plants were opened in Dallas-Fort Worth and Georgia. Southern United States_sentence_260

The most secret and expensive operation was at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, were unlimited amounts of locally generated electricity were used to prepare uranium for the atom bomb. Southern United States_sentence_261

The number of production workers doubled during the war. Southern United States_sentence_262

Most training centers, factories and shipyards were closed in 1945, but not all, and the families that left hardscrabble farms remained to find jobs in the urban South. Southern United States_sentence_263

The region had finally reached the take off stage into industrial and commercial growth, although its income and wage levels lagged well behind the national average. Southern United States_sentence_264

Nevertheless, as George B. Tindall notes, the transformation was, "The demonstration of industrial potential, new habits of mind, and a recognition that industrialization demanded community services." Southern United States_sentence_265

Per capita income jumped 140% from 1940 to 1945, compared to 100% elsewhere in the United States. Southern United States_sentence_266

Southern income rose from 59 percent to 65 percent. Southern United States_sentence_267

Dewey Grantham says the war, "brought an abrupt departure from the South's economic backwardness, poverty, and distinctive rural life, as the region moved perceptively closer to the mainstream of national economic and social life." Southern United States_sentence_268

Farming shifted from cotton and tobacco to include cattle, rice, soybeans, corn, and other foods. Southern United States_sentence_269

Industrial growth increased in the 1960s and greatly accelerated into the 1980s and 1990s. Southern United States_sentence_270

Several large urban areas in Texas, Georgia, and Florida grew to over four million people. Southern United States_sentence_271

Rapid expansion in industries such as autos, telecommunications, textiles, technology, banking, and aviation gave some states in the South an industrial strength to rival large states elsewhere in the country. Southern United States_sentence_272

By the 2000 census, the South (along with the West) was leading the nation in population growth. Southern United States_sentence_273

With this growth, however, has come long commute times and air pollution problems in cities such as Dallas, Houston, Atlanta, Austin, Charlotte, and others that rely on sprawling development and highway networks. Southern United States_sentence_274

Decline of Southern liberalism after 1945 Southern United States_section_10

Southern liberals were an essential part of the New Deal coalition – without them Roosevelt lacked majorities in Congress. Southern United States_sentence_275

Typical leaders were Lyndon B. Johnson in Texas, Jim Folsom and John Sparkman in Alabama, Claude Pepper in Florida, Earl Long in Louisiana, Luther H. Hodges in North Carolina, and Estes Kefauver in Tennessee. Southern United States_sentence_276

They promoted subsidies for small farmers, and supported the nascent labor union movement. Southern United States_sentence_277

An essential condition for this north–south coalition was for northern liberals to ignore southern racism. Southern United States_sentence_278

After 1945, however, northern liberals—led especially by young Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota—increasingly made civil rights a central issue. Southern United States_sentence_279

They convinced Truman to join them in 1948. Southern United States_sentence_280

The conservative Southern Democrats – the Dixiecrats – took control of the state parties in half the region and ran Strom Thurmond for president against Truman. Southern United States_sentence_281

Thurmond carried only the deep South, but that threat was enough to guarantee the national Democratic Party in 1952 and 1956 would not make civil rights a major issue. Southern United States_sentence_282

In 1956, 101 of the 128 southern congressmen and senators signed the Southern Manifesto denouncing forced desegregation. Southern United States_sentence_283

The labor movement in the South was divided, and lost its political influence. Southern United States_sentence_284

Southern liberals were in a quandary – most of them kept quiet or moderated their liberalism, others switched sides, and the rest continued on the liberal path. Southern United States_sentence_285

One by one, the last group was defeated; historian Numan V. Bartley states, "Indeed, the very word 'liberal' gradually disappeared from the southern political lexicon, except as a term of opprobrium." Southern United States_sentence_286

Modern economy Southern United States_section_11

In the late 20th century, the South changed dramatically. Southern United States_sentence_287

It saw a boom in its service economy, manufacturing base, high technology industries, and the financial sector. Southern United States_sentence_288

Texas in particular witnessed dramatic growth and population change with the dominance of the energy industry and tourism such as the Alamo Mission in San Antonio. Southern United States_sentence_289

Tourism in Florida and along the Gulf Coast also grew steadily throughout the last decades of the 20th century. Southern United States_sentence_290

Numerous new automobile production plants have opened in the region, or are soon to open, such as Mercedes-Benz in Tuscaloosa, Alabama; Hyundai in Montgomery, Alabama; the BMW production plant in Spartanburg, South Carolina; Toyota plants in Georgetown, Kentucky, Blue Springs, Mississippi and San Antonio; the GM manufacturing plant in Spring Hill, Tennessee; a Honda factory in Lincoln, Alabama; the Nissan North American headquarters in Franklin, Tennessee and factories in Smyrna, Tennessee and Canton, Mississippi; a Kia factory in West Point, Georgia; and the Volkswagen Chattanooga Assembly Plant in Tennessee. Southern United States_sentence_291

The two largest research parks in the country are located in the South: Research Triangle Park in North Carolina (the world's largest) and the Cummings Research Park in Huntsville, Alabama (the world's fourth largest). Southern United States_sentence_292

In medicine, the Texas Medical Center in Houston has achieved international recognition in education, research, and patient care, especially in the fields of heart disease, cancer, and rehabilitation. Southern United States_sentence_293

In 1994 the Texas Medical Center was the largest medical center in the world including fourteen hospitals, two medical schools, four colleges of nursing, and six university systems. Southern United States_sentence_294

The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center is consistently ranked the #1 cancer research and treatment center in the United States. Southern United States_sentence_295

Many major banking corporations have headquarters in the region. Southern United States_sentence_296

Bank of America is in Charlotte, North Carolina. Southern United States_sentence_297

Wachovia was headquartered there before its purchase by Wells Fargo. Southern United States_sentence_298

Regions Financial Corporation is in Birmingham, as is AmSouth Bancorporation, and BBVA Compass. Southern United States_sentence_299

SunTrust Banks is located in Atlanta as is the district headquarters of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta. Southern United States_sentence_300

BB&T is headquartered in Winston-Salem. Southern United States_sentence_301

Many corporations are headquartered in Atlanta and its surrounding area, such as The Coca-Cola Company, Delta Air Lines, and The Home Depot, and also to many cable television networks, such as the Turner Broadcasting System (CNN, TBS, TNT, Turner South, Cartoon Network), and The Weather Channel. Southern United States_sentence_302

In recent years some southern states, most notably Texas, have lured companies with lower tax burdens and lower cost of living for their workforce. Southern United States_sentence_303

Today, the states with the most Fortune 500 companies include California, New York, and Texas; closely mirroring the economic and population resources of those states. Southern United States_sentence_304

This economic expansion has enabled parts of the South to report some of the lowest unemployment rates in the United States. Southern United States_sentence_305

But in the U.S. top ten of poorest big cities, the South is represented in the rankings by two cities: Miami, Florida and Memphis, Tennessee. Southern United States_sentence_306

In 2011, nine out of ten poorest states were in the South. Southern United States_sentence_307

Education Southern United States_section_12

Southern public schools in the past ranked in the lower half of some national surveys. Southern United States_sentence_308

When allowance for race is considered, a 2007 US Government list of test scores often shows white fourth and eighth graders performing better than average for reading and math; while black fourth and eighth graders also performed better than average. Southern United States_sentence_309

This comparison does not hold across the board. Southern United States_sentence_310

Mississippi scores lower than average no matter how the statistics are compared. Southern United States_sentence_311

Newer data suggests that education in the South is on par with the nation, with 72% of high schoolers graduating compared to 73% nationwide. Southern United States_sentence_312

Culture Southern United States_section_13

Main article: Culture of the Southern United States Southern United States_sentence_313

Several Southern states (Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia) were British colonies that sent delegates to sign the Declaration of Independence and then fought against the government along with the Northern colonies during the Revolutionary War. Southern United States_sentence_314

The basis for much Southern culture derives from the pride in these states being among the 13 original colonies, and from the fact that much of the population of the South has strong ancestral links to Colonists who emigrated west. Southern United States_sentence_315

Southern manners and customs reflect the relationship with England that was held by the early population. Southern United States_sentence_316

Overall, the South has had lower percentages of high school graduates, lower housing values, lower household incomes, and lower cost of living than the rest of the United States. Southern United States_sentence_317

These factors, combined with the fact that Southerners have continued to maintain strong loyalty to family ties, has led some sociologists to label white Southerners an ethnic or quasi-ethnic group, though this interpretation has been subject to criticism on the grounds that proponents of the view do not satisfactorily indicate how Southerners meet the criteria of ethnicity. Southern United States_sentence_318

The predominant culture of the South has its origins with the settlement of the region by large groups of people from parts of southern England such as Sussex, Kent, the West Country, and East Anglia who moved to the Tidewater and the eastern parts of the Deep South in the 17th and early 18th centuries, Northern English, Scots lowlanders and Ulster-Scots (later called the Scotch-Irish) who settled in Appalachia and the Piedmont in the mid to late 18th century, and the many African slaves who were part of the Southern economy. Southern United States_sentence_319

African-American descendants of the slaves brought into the South compose the United States' second-largest racial minority, accounting for 12.1 percent of the total population according to the 2000 census. Southern United States_sentence_320

Despite Jim Crow era outflow to the North, the majority of the black population remains concentrated in the Southern states, and has heavily contributed to the cultural blend (Christianity, foods, art, music (see spiritual, blues, jazz, R&B, soul music, country music, zydeco, bluegrass and rock and roll) that characterize Southern culture today. Southern United States_sentence_321

In previous censuses, the largest ancestry group identified by Southerners was English or mostly English, with 19,618,370 self-reporting "English" as an ancestry on the 1980 census, followed by 12,709,872 listing "Irish" and 11,054,127 "Afro-American". Southern United States_sentence_322

Almost a third of all Americans who claim English ancestry can be found in the American South, and over a quarter of all Southerners claim English descent as well. Southern United States_sentence_323

The South also continues to have the highest percentage of African Americans in the country, due to the history of slavery. Southern United States_sentence_324

Religion Southern United States_section_14

The South has had a majority of its population adhering to evangelical Protestantism ever since the Second Great Awakening, although the upper classes often stayed Anglican/Episcopalian or Presbyterian. Southern United States_sentence_325

The First Great Awakening and the Second Great Awakening from about 1742 about 1850 generated large numbers of Methodists and Baptists, which remain the two main Christian confessions in the South. Southern United States_sentence_326

By 1900, the Southern Baptist Convention had become the largest Protestant denomination in the whole United States with its membership concentrated in rural areas of the South. Southern United States_sentence_327

Baptists are the most common religious group, followed by Methodists, Pentecostals and other denominations. Southern United States_sentence_328

Roman Catholics historically were concentrated in Maryland, Louisiana, and Hispanic areas such as South Texas and South Florida and along the Gulf Coast. Southern United States_sentence_329

The great majority of black Southerners are either Baptist or Methodist. Southern United States_sentence_330

Statistics show that Southern states have the highest religious attendance figures of any region in the United States, constituting the so-called Bible Belt. Southern United States_sentence_331

Pentecostalism has been strong across the South since the late 19th century. Southern United States_sentence_332

Northern and Latin influences Southern United States_section_15

Apart from its climate, the living experience in the South increasingly resembles the rest of the nation. Southern United States_sentence_333

The arrival of millions of Northerners has reshaped the culture of major metropolitan areas and coastal areas. Southern United States_sentence_334

Observers conclude that collective identity and Southern distinctiveness are thus declining, particularly when defined against "an earlier South that was somehow more authentic, real, more unified and distinct". Southern United States_sentence_335

While Hispanics have long been a major factor in Texas, millions more have arrived in other Southern states in recent years bringing values not rooted in local traditions. Southern United States_sentence_336

Historian Raymond Mohl emphasizes the role of NAFTA in lowering trade barriers and facilitating large-scale population movements. Southern United States_sentence_337

He adds other factors such as ongoing economic crisis in Mexico, new more liberal immigration policies in the United States, labor recruitment and smuggling, that have produced a major flow of Mexican and Hispanic migration to the southeast. Southern United States_sentence_338

That region's low-wage, low-skill economy readily hired cheap, reliable, nonunion labor, without asking applicants too many questions about legal status. Southern United States_sentence_339

Richard J. Gonzales argues that the rise of La Raza (Mexican American community) in terms of numbers and influence in politics, education, and language and cultural rights will grow rapidly in Texas by 2030 when demographers predict Hispanics will outnumber Anglos in Texas. Southern United States_sentence_340

However thus far their political participation and the Latino vote have been low, so the potential political impact is much higher than the actual one thus far. Southern United States_sentence_341

Scholars have suggested that in the Deep South collective identity and Southern distinctiveness are thus declining, particularly when defined against "an earlier South that was somehow more authentic, real, more unified and distinct". Southern United States_sentence_342

On the other hand, Southerners have moved west in large numbers, especially to California and to the Midwest, Thus, journalist Michael Hirsh proposed that aspects of Southern culture have spread throughout a greater portion of the rest of the United States in a process termed "Southernization". Southern United States_sentence_343

Sports Southern United States_section_16

Racial integration Southern United States_section_17

Racial integration of all-white collegiate sports teams was high on the regional agenda in the 1950s and 1960s. Southern United States_sentence_344

Involved were issues of equality, racism, and the alumni demand for the top players needed to win high-profile games. Southern United States_sentence_345

The Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) took the lead. Southern United States_sentence_346

First they started to schedule integrated teams from the North. Southern United States_sentence_347

The wake-up call came in 1966 when Don Haskins's Texas Western College team with five black starters upset the all-white University of Kentucky team to win the NCAA national basketball championship. Southern United States_sentence_348

That happened at a time when there were no black varsity basketball teams in either the Southeastern Conference or the Southwest Conference. Southern United States_sentence_349

Finally ACC schools—typically under pressure from boosters and civil rights groups—integrated their teams. Southern United States_sentence_350

With an alumni base that dominated local and state politics, society and business, the ACC flagship schools were successful in their endeavor—as Pamela Grundy argues, they had learned how to win: Southern United States_sentence_351

Southern United States_description_list_2

  • The widespread admiration that athletic ability inspired would help transform athletic fields from grounds of symbolic play to forces for social change, places where a wide range of citizens could publicly and at times effectively challenge the assumptions that cast them as unworthy of full participation in U.S. society. While athletic successes would not rid society of prejudice or stereotype—black athletes would continue to confront racial slurs...[minority star players demonstrated] the discipline, intelligence, and poise to contend for position or influence in every arena of national life.Southern United States_item_2_15

American football Southern United States_section_18

American football, especially at the college and high school level, is by far the most popular team sport in most areas of the Southern United States. Southern United States_sentence_352

The region is home to numerous decorated and historic college football programs, particularly in the Southeastern Conference (known as the "SEC"), Atlantic Coast Conference (known as the "ACC"), and the Big 12 Conference. Southern United States_sentence_353

The SEC, consisting entirely of teams based in Southern states, is widely considered to be the strongest league in contemporary college football and includes the Alabama Crimson Tide, the program with the most national championships in the sport's history. Southern United States_sentence_354

The sport is also highly competitive and has a spectator following at the high school level, particularly in rural areas where high school football games often serve as prominent community gatherings. Southern United States_sentence_355

Though not as popular on a wider basis as the collegiate game, professional football also has a growing tradition in the Southern United States. Southern United States_sentence_356

Before league expansion began in the 1960s, the only established professional team based in the South was the Washington Redskins. Southern United States_sentence_357

Now the Washington Football Team, they still retain a large following in most of Virginia, and parts of Maryland. Southern United States_sentence_358

Later on, the merger-era National Football League began to expand into the football-crazed Deep South in the 1960s with franchises like the Atlanta Falcons, New Orleans Saints, Houston Oilers, Miami Dolphins, and most prominently the Dallas Cowboys, who overtook Washington as the region's most popular team and eventually became widely considered the most popular team in the United States. Southern United States_sentence_359

In later decades, NFL expansion into Southern states continued, with the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Jacksonville Jaguars, and Carolina Panthers added to the league, while the Houston Oilers were replaced by the Houston Texans after the Oilers relocated to Nashville to become the Tennessee Titans. Southern United States_sentence_360

Southern United States_table_general_1

RankSouthern United States_header_cell_1_0_0 TeamSouthern United States_header_cell_1_0_1 SportSouthern United States_header_cell_1_0_2 LeagueSouthern United States_header_cell_1_0_3 Attendance

(avg/game)Southern United States_header_cell_1_0_4

1Southern United States_cell_1_1_0 Alabama Crimson TideSouthern United States_cell_1_1_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_1_2 NCAA (SEC)Southern United States_cell_1_1_3 101,562Southern United States_cell_1_1_4
2Southern United States_cell_1_2_0 LSU TigersSouthern United States_cell_1_2_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_2_2 NCAA (SEC)Southern United States_cell_1_2_3 100,819Southern United States_cell_1_2_4
3Southern United States_cell_1_3_0 Texas A&M AggiesSouthern United States_cell_1_3_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_3_2 NCAA (SEC)Southern United States_cell_1_3_3 99,844Southern United States_cell_1_3_4
4Southern United States_cell_1_4_0 Texas LonghornsSouthern United States_cell_1_4_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_4_2 NCAA (Big 12)Southern United States_cell_1_4_3 97,713Southern United States_cell_1_4_4
5Southern United States_cell_1_5_0 Tennessee VolunteersSouthern United States_cell_1_5_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_5_2 NCAA (SEC)Southern United States_cell_1_5_3 92,984Southern United States_cell_1_5_4
6Southern United States_cell_1_6_0 Georgia BulldogsSouthern United States_cell_1_6_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_6_2 NCAA (SEC)Southern United States_cell_1_6_3 92,746Southern United States_cell_1_6_4
7Southern United States_cell_1_7_0 Oklahoma SoonersSouthern United States_cell_1_7_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_7_2 NCAA (Big 12)Southern United States_cell_1_7_3 86,735Southern United States_cell_1_7_4
8Southern United States_cell_1_8_0 Auburn TigersSouthern United States_cell_1_8_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_8_2 NCAA (SEC)Southern United States_cell_1_8_3 84,462Southern United States_cell_1_8_4
9Southern United States_cell_1_9_0 Florida GatorsSouthern United States_cell_1_9_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_9_2 NCAA (SEC)Southern United States_cell_1_9_3 82,328Southern United States_cell_1_9_4
10Southern United States_cell_1_10_0 Clemson TigersSouthern United States_cell_1_10_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_10_2 NCAA (ACC)Southern United States_cell_1_10_3 80,400Southern United States_cell_1_10_4
11Southern United States_cell_1_11_0 South Carolina GamecocksSouthern United States_cell_1_11_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_11_2 NCAA (SEC)Southern United States_cell_1_11_3 73,628Southern United States_cell_1_11_4
12Southern United States_cell_1_12_0 Florida State SeminolesSouthern United States_cell_1_12_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_12_2 NCAA (ACC)Southern United States_cell_1_12_3 68,288Southern United States_cell_1_12_4
13Southern United States_cell_1_13_0 Miami HurricanesSouthern United States_cell_1_13_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_13_2 NCAA (ACC)Southern United States_cell_1_13_3 61,469Southern United States_cell_1_13_4
14Southern United States_cell_1_14_0 Louisville CardinalsSouthern United States_cell_1_14_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_14_2 NCAA (ACC)Southern United States_cell_1_14_3 61,290Southern United States_cell_1_14_4
15Southern United States_cell_1_15_0 Oklahoma State CowboysSouthern United States_cell_1_15_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_15_2 NCAA (Big 12)Southern United States_cell_1_15_3 60,218Southern United States_cell_1_15_4
16Southern United States_cell_1_16_0 Virginia Tech HokiesSouthern United States_cell_1_16_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_16_2 NCAA (ACC)Southern United States_cell_1_16_3 59,574Southern United States_cell_1_16_4
17Southern United States_cell_1_17_0 West Virginia MountaineersSouthern United States_cell_1_17_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_17_2 NCAA (Big 12)Southern United States_cell_1_17_3 58,158Southern United States_cell_1_17_4
18Southern United States_cell_1_18_0 Mississippi State BulldogsSouthern United States_cell_1_18_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_18_2 NCAA (SEC)Southern United States_cell_1_18_3 58,057Southern United States_cell_1_18_4
19Southern United States_cell_1_19_0 Kentucky WildcatsSouthern United States_cell_1_19_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_19_2 NCAA (SEC)Southern United States_cell_1_19_3 57,572Southern United States_cell_1_19_4
20Southern United States_cell_1_20_0 NC State WolfpackSouthern United States_cell_1_20_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_20_2 NCAA (ACC)Southern United States_cell_1_20_3 56,855Southern United States_cell_1_20_4
21Southern United States_cell_1_21_0 Texas Tech Red RaidersSouthern United States_cell_1_21_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_21_2 NCAA (Big 12)Southern United States_cell_1_21_3 56,034Southern United States_cell_1_21_4
22Southern United States_cell_1_22_0 Ole Miss RebelsSouthern United States_cell_1_22_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_22_2 NCAA (SEC)Southern United States_cell_1_22_3 55,685Southern United States_cell_1_22_4
23Southern United States_cell_1_23_0 Baylor BearsSouthern United States_cell_1_23_1 FootballSouthern United States_cell_1_23_2 NCAA (Big 12)Southern United States_cell_1_23_3 44,915Southern United States_cell_1_23_4

Baseball Southern United States_section_19

Baseball has been played in the Southern United States since at least the years leading up to the American Civil War. Southern United States_sentence_361

It was traditionally more popular than American football until the 1980s, and still accounts for the largest annual attendance amongst sports played in the South. Southern United States_sentence_362

The first mention of a baseball team in Houston was on April 11, 1861. Southern United States_sentence_363

19th century and early 20th century games were common, especially once the professional leagues such as the Texas League, the Dixie League, and the Southern League were organized. Southern United States_sentence_364

The short-lived Louisville Colonels were a part of the early National League and American Association, but ceased to exist in 1899. Southern United States_sentence_365

The first Southern Major League Baseball team after the Colonels appeared in 1962 when the Houston Colt .45s (known today as the Houston Astros) were enfranchised. Southern United States_sentence_366

Later, the Atlanta Braves came in 1966, followed by the Texas Rangers in 1972, and finally the Miami Marlins and Tampa Bay Rays in the 1990s. Southern United States_sentence_367

College baseball appears to be more well attended in the Southern U.S. than elsewhere, as teams like Florida State, Arkansas, LSU, Virginia, Mississippi State, Ole Miss, South Carolina, Florida and Texas are commonly at the top of the NCAA's attendance. Southern United States_sentence_368

The South generally produces very successful collegiate baseball teams as well, with Virginia, Vanderbilt, LSU, South Carolina, Florida and Coastal Carolina winning recent College World Series Titles. Southern United States_sentence_369

The following is a list of each MLB team in the Southern U.S. and the total fan attendance for 2019: Southern United States_sentence_370

Southern United States_table_general_2

RankSouthern United States_header_cell_2_0_0 TeamSouthern United States_header_cell_2_0_1 LeagueSouthern United States_header_cell_2_0_2 2019 overall

annual attendanceSouthern United States_header_cell_2_0_3

1Southern United States_cell_2_1_0 Houston AstrosSouthern United States_cell_2_1_1 American LeagueSouthern United States_cell_2_1_2 2,857,367Southern United States_cell_2_1_3
2Southern United States_cell_2_2_0 Atlanta BravesSouthern United States_cell_2_2_1 National LeagueSouthern United States_cell_2_2_2 2,654,920Southern United States_cell_2_2_3
3Southern United States_cell_2_3_0 Washington NationalsSouthern United States_cell_2_3_1 National LeagueSouthern United States_cell_2_3_2 2,259,781Southern United States_cell_2_3_3
4Southern United States_cell_2_4_0 Texas RangersSouthern United States_cell_2_4_1 American LeagueSouthern United States_cell_2_4_2 2,133,004Southern United States_cell_2_4_3
5Southern United States_cell_2_5_0 Baltimore OriolesSouthern United States_cell_2_5_1 American LeagueSouthern United States_cell_2_5_2 1,307,807Southern United States_cell_2_5_3
6Southern United States_cell_2_6_0 Tampa Bay RaysSouthern United States_cell_2_6_1 American LeagueSouthern United States_cell_2_6_2 1,178,735Southern United States_cell_2_6_3
7Southern United States_cell_2_7_0 Miami MarlinsSouthern United States_cell_2_7_1 National LeagueSouthern United States_cell_2_7_2 811,302Southern United States_cell_2_7_3

Auto racing Southern United States_section_20

The Southern states are commonly associated with stock car racing and its most prominent competition NASCAR, which is based in Charlotte, North Carolina. Southern United States_sentence_371

The sport was developed in the South in the early 20th century, with stock car racing's historic mecca being Daytona Beach, Florida, where cars initially raced on the wide, flat beachfront before the construction of Daytona International Speedway. Southern United States_sentence_372

Though the sport has attained a following throughout the United States, a majority of NASCAR races continue to take place at Southern tracks. Southern United States_sentence_373

Basketball Southern United States_section_21

Basketball is very popular throughout the Southern United States as both a recreational and spectator sport, particularly in the states of Kentucky and North Carolina which are home to several college basketball programs, the most prominent of which are the Kentucky Wildcats, Louisville Cardinals, Duke Blue Devils and North Carolina Tar Heels. Southern United States_sentence_374

NBA teams based in the South include the San Antonio Spurs, Houston Rockets, Oklahoma City Thunder, Dallas Mavericks, Washington Wizards, Charlotte Hornets, Atlanta Hawks, Orlando Magic, Memphis Grizzlies, New Orleans Pelicans, and Miami Heat. Southern United States_sentence_375

Since the 21st century, the Spurs and Heat in particular have become prominent within the NBA, with eight championships won by the two between 1999 and 2013. Southern United States_sentence_376

Golf Southern United States_section_22

Golf is a popular recreational sport in most areas of the South, with the region's warm climate allowing it to host many professional tournaments and numerous destination golf resorts, particularly in the state of Florida. Southern United States_sentence_377

The region is home to The Masters, an elite invitational competition played at Augusta National Golf Club in Augusta, Georgia, which has become one of the professional game's most important tournaments. Southern United States_sentence_378

Soccer Southern United States_section_23

In recent decades association football, known in the South as in the rest of the United States as "soccer", has become a popular sport at youth and collegiate levels throughout the region. Southern United States_sentence_379

The game has been historically widespread at the college level in the Atlantic coast states of Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas, which contain many of the nation's most successful college soccer programs. Southern United States_sentence_380

The establishment of Major League Soccer has led to professional soccer clubs in the Southern cities including FC Dallas, Houston Dynamo, D.C. Southern United States_sentence_381

United, Orlando City, Inter Miami CF, Nashville SC, Atlanta United and the future Austin FC and Charlotte FC.The current United States second division soccer league, the USL Championship, was initially geographically based in the coastal Southeast around clubs in Charleston, Richmond, Charlotte, Wilmington, Raleigh, Virginia Beach, and Atlanta. Southern United States_sentence_382

Major sports teams in the South Southern United States_section_24

The Southern region is home to numerous professional sports franchises in the "Big Four" leagues (NFL, NBA, NHL, and MLB), with more than 100 championships collectively among them. Southern United States_sentence_383

Southern United States_unordered_list_3

Health Southern United States_section_25

Nine Southern states have obesity rates exceeding thirty percent of the population, the highest in the country: Mississippi, Louisiana, West Virginia, Alabama, Oklahoma, Arkansas, South Carolina, Kentucky, and Texas. Southern United States_sentence_384

Rates for hypertension and diabetes for these states are also the highest in the nation. Southern United States_sentence_385

A study reported that six Southern states have the worst incidence of sleep disturbances in the nation, attributing the disturbances to high rates of obesity and smoking. Southern United States_sentence_386

The South has a higher percentage of obese people and diabetics. Southern United States_sentence_387

It has the largest number of people dying from stroke. Southern United States_sentence_388

and the highest rates of cognitive decline. Southern United States_sentence_389

Life expectancy is lower and death rates are higher in the South than in other regions of the United States for all racial groups. Southern United States_sentence_390

This disparity reflects substantial divergence between the South and other regions since the middle of the 20th century. Southern United States_sentence_391

The East South Central Census Division of the United States (made up of Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama) had the highest rate of inpatient hospital stays in 2012. Southern United States_sentence_392

The other divisions, West South Central (Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana) and South Atlantic (West Virginia, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida) ranked seventh and fifth, respectively. Southern United States_sentence_393

The South had a significantly higher rate of hospital discharges in 2005 than other regions of the United States, but the rate had declined to be closer to the overall national rate by 2011. Southern United States_sentence_394

For cancer in a region, the South, particularly an axis from West Virginia through Texas, leads the nation in adult obesity, adult smoking, low exercise, low fruit consumption, low vegetable consumption, all known cancer risk factors, which matches a similar high risk axis in "All Cancers Combined, Death Rates by State, 2011" from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Southern United States_sentence_395

Politics Southern United States_section_26

Main article: Politics of the Southern United States Southern United States_sentence_396

In the first decades after Reconstruction, when white Democrats regained power in the state legislatures, they began to make voter registration more complicated, to reduce black voting. Southern United States_sentence_397

With a combination of intimidation, fraud and violence by paramilitary groups, they suppressed black voting and turned Republicans out of office. Southern United States_sentence_398

From 1890 to 1908, ten of eleven states ratified new constitutions or amendments that effectively disenfranchised most black voters and many poor white voters. Southern United States_sentence_399

This disfranchisement persisted for six decades into the 20th century, depriving blacks and poor whites of all political representation. Southern United States_sentence_400

Because they could not vote, they could not sit on juries. Southern United States_sentence_401

They had no one to represent their interests, resulting in state legislatures consistently underfunding programs and services, such as schools, for blacks and poor whites. Southern United States_sentence_402

Scholars have characterized pockets of the Southern United States as being "authoritarian enclaves" from Reconstruction to the Civil Rights Act. Southern United States_sentence_403

With the collapse of the Republican Party in nearly all parts of the South, the region became known as the “Solid South”, and the Democratic Party after 1900 moved to a system of primaries to select their candidates. Southern United States_sentence_404

Victory in a primary was tantamount to election. Southern United States_sentence_405

From the late 1870s to the 1960s, only rarely was a state or national Southern politician a Republican, apart from a few Appalachian mountain districts. Southern United States_sentence_406

Republicans, however, continued to control parts of the Appalachian Mountains and compete for power in the Border States. Southern United States_sentence_407

Apart from a few states (such as the Byrd Machine in Virginia, the Crump Machine in Memphis), and a few other local organizations, the Democratic Party itself was very lightly organized. Southern United States_sentence_408

It managed primaries but party officials had little other role. Southern United States_sentence_409

To be successful a politician built his own network of friends, neighbors and allies. Southern United States_sentence_410

Reelection was the norm, and the result from 1910 to the late 20th century was that Southern Democrats in Congress had accumulated seniority, and automatically took the chairmanships of all committees. Southern United States_sentence_411

By the 1940s the Supreme Court began to find disfranchisement measures like the “grandfather clause” and the white primary unconstitutional. Southern United States_sentence_412

Southern legislatures quickly passed other measures to keep blacks disfranchised, even after suffrage was extended more widely to poor whites. Southern United States_sentence_413

Because white Democrats controlled all the Southern seats in Congress they had outsize power in Congress and could sidetrack or filibuster efforts by Northerners to pass legislation against lynching, for example. Southern United States_sentence_414

Increasing support for civil rights legislation by the national Democratic Party beginning in 1948 caused segregationist Southern Democrats to nominate Strom Thurmond on a third-party “Dixiecrat” ticket in 1948. Southern United States_sentence_415

These Dixiecrats returned to the party by 1950, but Southern Democrats held off Republican inroads in the suburbs by arguing that only they could defend the region from the onslaught of northern liberals and the civil rights movement. Southern United States_sentence_416

In response to the Brown v. Board of Education ruling of 1954, 101 Southern congressmen (19 senators, 82 House members of which 99 were Southern Democrats and 2 were Republicans) in 1956 denounced the Brown decisions as a "clear abuse of judicial power [that] climaxes a trend in the federal judiciary undertaking to legislate in derogation of the authority of Congress and to encroach upon the reserved rights of the states and the people." Southern United States_sentence_417

The manifesto lauded, “...those states which have declared the intention to resist enforced integration by any lawful means”. Southern United States_sentence_418

It was signed by all Southern senators except Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson, and Tennessee senators Albert Gore, Sr. and Estes Kefauver. Southern United States_sentence_419

Virginia closed schools in Warren County, Prince Edward County, Charlottesville, and Norfolk rather than integrate, but no other state followed suit. Southern United States_sentence_420

Democratic governors Orval Faubus of Arkansas, Ross Barnett of Mississippi, John Connally of Texas, Lester Maddox of Georgia, and, especially, George Wallace of Alabama resisted integration and appealed to a rural and blue-collar electorate. Southern United States_sentence_421

The northern Democrats’ support of civil rights issues culminated when Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which ended legal segregation and provided federal enforcement of voting rights for blacks. Southern United States_sentence_422

In the presidential election of 1964, Barry Goldwater’s only electoral victories outside his home state of Arizona were in the states of the Deep South where few blacks could vote before the 1965 Voting Rights Act. Southern United States_sentence_423

Pockets of resistance to integration in public places broke out in violence during the 1960s by the shadowy Ku Klux Klan, which caused a backlash among moderates. Southern United States_sentence_424

Major resistance to school busing extended into the 1970s. Southern United States_sentence_425

National Republicans such as Richard Nixon began to develop their Southern strategy to attract conservative white Southerners, especially the middle class and suburban voters, in addition to migrants from the North and traditional GOP pockets in Appalachia. Southern United States_sentence_426

The transition to a Republican stronghold in the South took decades. Southern United States_sentence_427

First, the states started voting Republican in presidential elections, except for native sons Jimmy Carter in 1976 and Bill Clinton in 1992 and 1996. Southern United States_sentence_428

Then the states began electing Republican senators and finally governors. Southern United States_sentence_429

Georgia was the last state to do so, with Sonny Perdue taking the governorship in 2002. Southern United States_sentence_430

In addition to its middle class and business base, Republicans cultivated the religious right and attracted strong majorities from the evangelical or Fundamentalist vote, mostly Southern Baptists, which had not been a distinct political force prior to 1980. Southern United States_sentence_431

After the 2012 elections, the eleven states of the former Confederacy were represented by 98 Republicans, 40 Democrats. Southern United States_sentence_432

Presidents from the South Southern United States_section_27

The South produced nine of the first twelve Presidents prior to the Civil War. Southern United States_sentence_433

For more than a century after the Civil War, no politician from an antebellum slave state became president unless he either moved North (like Woodrow Wilson) or was vice president when the president died in office (like Andrew Johnson, Harry Truman and Lyndon B. Johnson). Southern United States_sentence_434

In 1976, Jimmy Carter defied this trend and became the first Southerner to break the pattern since Zachary Taylor in 1848. Southern United States_sentence_435

The South has produced five of the last nine American Presidents: Lyndon B. Johnson (1963–69), Jimmy Carter (1977–81), George H. W. Bush (1989–93), Bill Clinton (1993–2001) and George W. Bush (2001–2009). Southern United States_sentence_436

Johnson was a native of Texas, while Carter is from Georgia, and Clinton from Arkansas. Southern United States_sentence_437

While George H.W. Southern United States_sentence_438

Bush and George W. Bush began their political careers in Texas, they were both born in New England and have their ancestral roots in that region. Southern United States_sentence_439

Other politicians and political movements Southern United States_section_28

The South has produced various nationally known politicians and political movements. Southern United States_sentence_440

In 1948, a group of Democratic congressmen, led by Governor Strom Thurmond of South Carolina, split from the Democrats in reaction to an anti-segregation speech given by Minneapolis mayor and future senator Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota. Southern United States_sentence_441

They founded the States Rights Democratic or Dixiecrat Party. Southern United States_sentence_442

During that year's presidential election, the party ran Thurmond as its candidate and he carried four Deep South states. Southern United States_sentence_443

In the 1968 Presidential election, Alabama Governor George C. Wallace ran for president on the American Independent Party ticket. Southern United States_sentence_444

Wallace ran a “law and order” campaign similar to that of Republican candidate, Richard Nixon. Southern United States_sentence_445

Nixon's Southern Strategy of gaining electoral votes downplayed race issues and focused on culturally conservative values, such as family issues, patriotism, and cultural issues that appealed to Southern Baptists. Southern United States_sentence_446

In the 1994 mid-term elections, another Southern politician, Newt Gingrich, led the Republican Revolution, ushering in twelve years of GOP control of the House. Southern United States_sentence_447

Gingrich became Speaker of the United States House of Representatives in 1995 and served until his resignation in 1999. Southern United States_sentence_448

Tom DeLay was the most powerful Republican leader in Congress until he was indicted under criminal charges in 2005 and was forced to step aside by Republican rules. Southern United States_sentence_449

Apart from Bob Dole from Kansas (1985–96), the recent Republican Senate Leaders have been Southerners: Howard Baker (1981–1985) of Tennessee, Trent Lott (1996–2003) of Mississippi, Bill Frist (2003–2006) of Tennessee, and Mitch McConnell (2007–present) of Kentucky. Southern United States_sentence_450

The Republicans candidates for president have won the South in elections since 1972, except for 1976. Southern United States_sentence_451

The region is not, however, entirely monolithic, and every successful Democratic candidate since 1976 has claimed at least three Southern states. Southern United States_sentence_452

Barack Obama won Florida, Maryland, Delaware, North Carolina, and Virginia in 2008 but did not repeat his victory in North Carolina during his 2012 reelection campaign. Southern United States_sentence_453

Race relations Southern United States_section_29

Main article: Racism in the United States Southern United States_sentence_454

Native Americans Southern United States_section_30

Native Americans had lived in the south for nearly 12,000 years. Southern United States_sentence_455

They were defeated by settlers in a series of wars ending in the War of 1812 and the Seminole Wars, and most were removed west to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma and Kansas), but large numbers of Native Americans managed to stay behind by blending into the surrounding society. Southern United States_sentence_456

This was especially true of the wives of Euro-American merchants and miners. Southern United States_sentence_457

Civil rights movement Southern United States_section_31

Main articles: Civil rights movement, Montgomery bus boycott, and Martin Luther King Jr. Southern United States_sentence_458

The South witnessed two major events in the lives of 20th century African Americans: the Great Migration and the American Civil Rights Movement. Southern United States_sentence_459

The Great Migration began during World War I, hitting its high point during World War II. Southern United States_sentence_460

During this migration, Black people left the South to find work in Northern factories and other sectors of the economy. Southern United States_sentence_461

The migration also empowered the growing Civil Rights Movement. Southern United States_sentence_462

While the movement existed in all parts of the United States, its focus was against disfranchisement and the Jim Crow laws in the South. Southern United States_sentence_463

Most of the major events in the movement occurred in the South, including the Montgomery bus boycott, the Mississippi Freedom Summer, the March on Selma, Alabama, and the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. In addition, some of the most important writings to come out of the movement were written in the South, such as King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail". Southern United States_sentence_464

Most of the civil rights landmarks can be found around the South. Southern United States_sentence_465

The Birmingham Civil Rights National Monument in Birmingham includes the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute which details Birmingham's role as the center of the Civil Rights Movement. Southern United States_sentence_466

The 16th Street Baptist Church served as a rallying point for coordinating and carrying out the Birmingham campaignas well as the adjacent Kelly Ingram Park that served as ground zero for the infamous children's protest that eventually led to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 has been rededicated as a place of "Revolution and Reconciliation" and is now the setting of moving sculptures related to the battle for Civil Rights in the city, both are center pieces of the Birmingham Civil Rights District. Southern United States_sentence_467

The Martin Luther King Jr. National Historical Park in Atlanta includes a museum that chronicles the American Civil Rights Movement as well as Martin Luther King Jr.'s boyhood home on Auburn Avenue. Southern United States_sentence_468

Additionally, Ebenezer Baptist Church is located in the Sweet Auburn district as is the King Center, location of Martin Luther and Coretta Scott King's gravesites. Southern United States_sentence_469

The Civil Rights Movement ended Jim Crow laws across the South. Southern United States_sentence_470

A second migration appears to be underway, with African Americans from the North moving to the South in record numbers. Southern United States_sentence_471

While race relations are still a contentious issue in the South, the region surpasses the rest of the country in many areas of integration and racial equality. Southern United States_sentence_472

According to 2003 report by researchers at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Virginia Beach, Charlotte, Nashville-Davidson, and Jacksonville were the five most integrated of the nation's fifty largest cities, with Memphis at number six. Southern United States_sentence_473

Southern states tend to have a low disparity in incarceration rates between blacks and whites relative to the rest of the country. Southern United States_sentence_474

Congress ends segregation (1964) and guarantees voting rights (1965) Southern United States_section_32

Main articles: Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 Southern United States_sentence_475

The decisive action ending segregation came when Congress in bipartisan fashion overcame Southern filibusters to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Southern United States_sentence_476

A complex interaction of factors came together unexpectedly in the period 1954–1965 to make the momentous changes possible. Southern United States_sentence_477

The Supreme Court had taken the first initiative in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) making segregation of public schools unconstitutional. Southern United States_sentence_478

Enforcement was rapid in the North and border states, but was deliberately stopped in the South by the movement called Massive Resistance, sponsored by rural segregationists who largely controlled the state legislatures. Southern United States_sentence_479

Southern liberals, who counseled moderation, where shouted down by both sides and have limited impact. Southern United States_sentence_480

Much more significant was the Civil Rights Movement, especially the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) headed by Martin Luther King Jr.. Southern United States_sentence_481

It largely displaced the old, much more moderate NAACP in taking leadership roles. Southern United States_sentence_482

King organize massive demonstrations, that seiozed massive media attention in an era when network television news was an innovative and universally watched phenomenon. Southern United States_sentence_483

SCLC, student activists and smaller local organizations staged demonstrations across the South. Southern United States_sentence_484

National attention focused on Birmingham, Alabama, where protesters deliberately provoked Bull Connor and his police forces by using young teenagers as demonstrators – and Connor arrested 900 on one day alone. Southern United States_sentence_485

The next day Connor unleashed billy clubs, police dogs, and high-pressure water hoses to disperse and punish the young demonstrators with a brutality that horrified the nation. Southern United States_sentence_486

It was very bad for business, and for the image of a modernizing progressive urban South. Southern United States_sentence_487

President John F. Kennedy, who had been calling for moderation, threatened to use federal troops to restore order in Birmingham. Southern United States_sentence_488

The result in Birmingham was compromise by which the new mayor opened the library, golf courses, and other city facilities to both races, against the backdrop of church bombings and assassinations. Southern United States_sentence_489

Confrontations continued to escalate, In summer 1963, there were 800 demonstrations in 200 southern cities and towns, with over 100,000 participants, and 15,000 arrests. Southern United States_sentence_490

In Alabama in June 1963 Governor George Wallace escalated the crisis by defying court orders to admit the first two black students to the University of Alabama. Southern United States_sentence_491

Kennedy responded by sending Congress a comprehensive civil rights bill, and ordered Attorney General Robert Kennedy to file federal lawsuits against segregated schools, and to deny funds for discriminatory programs. Southern United States_sentence_492

Doctor King launched a massive march on Washington in August, 1963, bringing out 200,000 demonstrators in front of the Lincoln Memorial, the largest political assembly in the nation's history. Southern United States_sentence_493

The Kennedy administration now gave full-fledged support to the civil rights movement, but powerful southern congressman blocked any legislation. Southern United States_sentence_494

After Kennedy was assassinated President Lyndon Johnson called for immediate passage of Kennedy civil rights legislation as a memorial to the martyred president. Southern United States_sentence_495

Johnson formed a coalition with Northern Republicans that led to passage in the House, and with the help of Republican Senate leader Everett Dirksen with passage in the Senate early in 1964. Southern United States_sentence_496

For the first time in history, the southern filibuster was broken and The Senate finally passed its version on June 19 by vote of 73 to 27. Southern United States_sentence_497

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was the most powerful affirmation of equal rights ever made by Congress. Southern United States_sentence_498

It guaranteed access to public accommodations such as restaurants and places of amusement, authorized the Justice Department to bring suits does desegregate facilities in schools, gave new powers to the Civil Rights Commission; and allowed federal funds to be cut off in cases of discrimination. Southern United States_sentence_499

Furthermore, racial, religious and gender discrimination was outlawed for businesses with 25 or more employees, as well as apartment houses. Southern United States_sentence_500

The South resisted until the last moment, but as soon as the new law was signed by President Johnson on July 2, 1963, it was widely accepted across the nation. Southern United States_sentence_501

There was only a scattering of diehard opposition, typified by restaurant owner Lester Maddox in Georgia, who became governor, but the great majority of restaurants and hotels in Georgia followed the new law as the business community realized that peaceful integration was the only way forward. Southern United States_sentence_502

Symbolism Southern United States_section_33

Some Southerners use the Confederate flag to identify themselves with the South, states' rights and Southern tradition. Southern United States_sentence_503

Groups, such as the League of the South, have a high regard for the secession movement of 1860, citing a desire to protect and defend Southern heritage. Southern United States_sentence_504

Numerous political battles have erupted over flying the Confederate flag over state capitols, and the naming of public buildings or highways after Confederate leaders, the prominence of certain statues, and the everyday display of Confederate insignia. Southern United States_sentence_505

Other symbols of the South include the Bonnie Blue Flag, magnolia trees, and the song "Dixie". Southern United States_sentence_506

Major cities Southern United States_section_34

The South was heavily rural as late as the 1940s, but now the population is increasingly concentrated in metropolitan areas. Southern United States_sentence_507

The following tables show the twenty largest cities, metropolitan, and combined statistical areas in the South. Southern United States_sentence_508

Houston is the largest city in the South. Southern United States_sentence_509

Southern United States_table_general_3

RankSouthern United States_header_cell_3_0_0 CitySouthern United States_header_cell_3_0_1 StateSouthern United States_header_cell_3_0_2 PopulationSouthern United States_header_cell_3_0_3 National RankSouthern United States_header_cell_3_0_4
1Southern United States_cell_3_1_0 HoustonSouthern United States_cell_3_1_1 TXSouthern United States_cell_3_1_2 2,340,888Southern United States_cell_3_1_3 4Southern United States_cell_3_1_4
2Southern United States_cell_3_2_0 San AntonioSouthern United States_cell_3_2_1 TXSouthern United States_cell_3_2_2 1,578,027Southern United States_cell_3_2_3 7Southern United States_cell_3_2_4
3Southern United States_cell_3_3_0 DallasSouthern United States_cell_3_3_1 TXSouthern United States_cell_3_3_2 1,382,267Southern United States_cell_3_3_3 9Southern United States_cell_3_3_4
4Southern United States_cell_3_4_0 AustinSouthern United States_cell_3_4_1 TXSouthern United States_cell_3_4_2 988,218Southern United States_cell_3_4_3 11Southern United States_cell_3_4_4
5Southern United States_cell_3_5_0 Fort WorthSouthern United States_cell_3_5_1 TXSouthern United States_cell_3_5_2 932,116Southern United States_cell_3_5_3 12Southern United States_cell_3_5_4
6Southern United States_cell_3_6_0 JacksonvilleSouthern United States_cell_3_6_1 FLSouthern United States_cell_3_6_2 926,371Southern United States_cell_3_6_3 13Southern United States_cell_3_6_4
7Southern United States_cell_3_7_0 CharlotteSouthern United States_cell_3_7_1 NCSouthern United States_cell_3_7_2 905,318Southern United States_cell_3_7_3 16Southern United States_cell_3_7_4
8Southern United States_cell_3_8_0 WashingtonSouthern United States_cell_3_8_1 DCSouthern United States_cell_3_8_2 720,687Southern United States_cell_3_8_3 20Southern United States_cell_3_8_4
9Southern United States_cell_3_9_0 El PasoSouthern United States_cell_3_9_1 TXSouthern United States_cell_3_9_2 685,575Southern United States_cell_3_9_3 22Southern United States_cell_3_9_4
10Southern United States_cell_3_10_0 NashvilleSouthern United States_cell_3_10_1 TNSouthern United States_cell_3_10_2 673,167Southern United States_cell_3_10_3 23Southern United States_cell_3_10_4
11Southern United States_cell_3_11_0 Oklahoma CitySouthern United States_cell_3_11_1 OKSouthern United States_cell_3_11_2 655,407Southern United States_cell_3_11_3 27Southern United States_cell_3_11_4
12Southern United States_cell_3_12_0 MemphisSouthern United States_cell_3_12_1 TNSouthern United States_cell_3_12_2 647,374Southern United States_cell_3_12_3 28Southern United States_cell_3_12_4
13Southern United States_cell_3_13_0 LouisvilleSouthern United States_cell_3_13_1 KYSouthern United States_cell_3_13_2 624,890Southern United States_cell_3_13_3 29Southern United States_cell_3_13_4
14Southern United States_cell_3_14_0 BaltimoreSouthern United States_cell_3_14_1 MDSouthern United States_cell_3_14_2 590,479Southern United States_cell_3_14_3 30Southern United States_cell_3_14_4
15Southern United States_cell_3_15_0 AtlantaSouthern United States_cell_3_15_1 GASouthern United States_cell_3_15_2 523,738Southern United States_cell_3_15_3 36Southern United States_cell_3_15_4
16Southern United States_cell_3_16_0 MiamiSouthern United States_cell_3_16_1 FLSouthern United States_cell_3_16_2 486,388Southern United States_cell_3_16_3 39Southern United States_cell_3_16_4
17Southern United States_cell_3_17_0 RaleighSouthern United States_cell_3_17_1 NCSouthern United States_cell_3_17_2 481,958Southern United States_cell_3_17_3 41Southern United States_cell_3_17_4
18Southern United States_cell_3_18_0 Virginia BeachSouthern United States_cell_3_18_1 VASouthern United States_cell_3_18_2 447,841Southern United States_cell_3_18_3 44Southern United States_cell_3_18_4
19Southern United States_cell_3_19_0 TampaSouthern United States_cell_3_19_1 FLSouthern United States_cell_3_19_2 413,704Southern United States_cell_3_19_3 47Southern United States_cell_3_19_4
20Southern United States_cell_3_20_0 ArlingtonSouthern United States_cell_3_20_1 TXSouthern United States_cell_3_20_2 402,762Southern United States_cell_3_20_3 48Southern United States_cell_3_20_4

Major counties Southern United States_section_35

Southern United States_table_general_4

RankSouthern United States_header_cell_4_0_0 CountySouthern United States_header_cell_4_0_1 SeatSouthern United States_header_cell_4_0_2 StateSouthern United States_header_cell_4_0_3 PopulationSouthern United States_header_cell_4_0_4
1Southern United States_cell_4_1_0 Harris CountySouthern United States_cell_4_1_1 HoustonSouthern United States_cell_4_1_2 TXSouthern United States_cell_4_1_3 4,698,619Southern United States_cell_4_1_4
2Southern United States_cell_4_2_0 Miami-Dade CountySouthern United States_cell_4_2_1 MiamiSouthern United States_cell_4_2_2 FLSouthern United States_cell_4_2_3 2,794,990Southern United States_cell_4_2_4
3Southern United States_cell_4_3_0 Dallas CountySouthern United States_cell_4_3_1 DallasSouthern United States_cell_4_3_2 TXSouthern United States_cell_4_3_3 2,637,772Southern United States_cell_4_3_4
4Southern United States_cell_4_4_0 Tarrant CountySouthern United States_cell_4_4_1 Fort WorthSouthern United States_cell_4_4_2 TXSouthern United States_cell_4_4_3 2,084,931Southern United States_cell_4_4_4
5Southern United States_cell_4_5_0 Bexar CountySouthern United States_cell_4_5_1 San AntonioSouthern United States_cell_4_5_2 TXSouthern United States_cell_4_5_3 1,986,049Southern United States_cell_4_5_4
6Southern United States_cell_4_6_0 Broward CountySouthern United States_cell_4_6_1 Fort LauderdaleSouthern United States_cell_4_6_2 FLSouthern United States_cell_4_6_3 1,951,260Southern United States_cell_4_6_4
7Southern United States_cell_4_7_0 Palm Beach CountySouthern United States_cell_4_7_1 West Palm BeachSouthern United States_cell_4_7_2 FLSouthern United States_cell_4_7_3 1,485,941Southern United States_cell_4_7_4
8Southern United States_cell_4_8_0 Hillsborough CountySouthern United States_cell_4_8_1 TampaSouthern United States_cell_4_8_2 FLSouthern United States_cell_4_8_3 1,436,888Southern United States_cell_4_8_4
9Southern United States_cell_4_9_0 Orange CountySouthern United States_cell_4_9_1 OrlandoSouthern United States_cell_4_9_2 FLSouthern United States_cell_4_9_3 1,380,645Southern United States_cell_4_9_4
10Southern United States_cell_4_10_0 Travis CountySouthern United States_cell_4_10_1 AustinSouthern United States_cell_4_10_2 TXSouthern United States_cell_4_10_3 1,248,743Southern United States_cell_4_10_4
11Southern United States_cell_4_11_0 Fairfax CountySouthern United States_cell_4_11_1 FairfaxSouthern United States_cell_4_11_2 VASouthern United States_cell_4_11_3 1,150,795Southern United States_cell_4_11_4
12Southern United States_cell_4_12_0 Mecklenburg CountySouthern United States_cell_4_12_1 CharlotteSouthern United States_cell_4_12_2 NCSouthern United States_cell_4_12_3 1,093,901Southern United States_cell_4_12_4
13Southern United States_cell_4_13_0 Wake CountySouthern United States_cell_4_13_1 RaleighSouthern United States_cell_4_13_2 NCSouthern United States_cell_4_13_3 1,092,305Southern United States_cell_4_13_4
14Southern United States_cell_4_14_0 Montgomery CountySouthern United States_cell_4_14_1 RockvilleSouthern United States_cell_4_14_2 MDSouthern United States_cell_4_14_3 1,052,567Southern United States_cell_4_14_4
15Southern United States_cell_4_15_0 Fulton CountySouthern United States_cell_4_15_1 AtlantaSouthern United States_cell_4_15_2 GASouthern United States_cell_4_15_3 1,050,114Southern United States_cell_4_15_4
16Southern United States_cell_4_16_0 Collin CountySouthern United States_cell_4_16_1 McKinneySouthern United States_cell_4_16_2 TXSouthern United States_cell_4_16_3 1,005,146Southern United States_cell_4_16_4
17Southern United States_cell_4_17_0 Pinellas CountySouthern United States_cell_4_17_1 ClearwaterSouthern United States_cell_4_17_2 FLSouthern United States_cell_4_17_3 975,280Southern United States_cell_4_17_4
18Southern United States_cell_4_18_0 Duval CountySouthern United States_cell_4_18_1 JacksonvilleSouthern United States_cell_4_18_2 FLSouthern United States_cell_4_18_3 950,181Southern United States_cell_4_18_4
19Southern United States_cell_4_19_0 Shelby CountySouthern United States_cell_4_19_1 MemphisSouthern United States_cell_4_19_2 TNSouthern United States_cell_4_19_3 935,764Southern United States_cell_4_19_4
20Southern United States_cell_4_20_0 Gwinnett CountySouthern United States_cell_4_20_1 LawrencevilleSouthern United States_cell_4_20_2 GASouthern United States_cell_4_20_3 927,781Southern United States_cell_4_20_4

Major metropolitan areas Southern United States_section_36

Southern United States_table_general_5

RankSouthern United States_header_cell_5_0_0 Metropolitan Statistical AreaSouthern United States_header_cell_5_0_1 State(s)Southern United States_header_cell_5_0_2 Population

(2018 est.)Southern United States_header_cell_5_0_3

National RankSouthern United States_header_cell_5_0_4
1Southern United States_cell_5_1_0 Dallas-Fort Worth-ArlingtonSouthern United States_cell_5_1_1 TXSouthern United States_cell_5_1_2 7,573,136Southern United States_cell_5_1_3 4Southern United States_cell_5_1_4
2Southern United States_cell_5_2_0 Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar LandSouthern United States_cell_5_2_1 TXSouthern United States_cell_5_2_2 6,997,384Southern United States_cell_5_2_3 5Southern United States_cell_5_2_4
3Southern United States_cell_5_3_0 Washington-Arlington-AlexandriaSouthern United States_cell_5_3_1 VA-MD-WV-DCSouthern United States_cell_5_3_2 6,280,487Southern United States_cell_5_3_3 6Southern United States_cell_5_3_4
4Southern United States_cell_5_4_0 Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm BeachSouthern United States_cell_5_4_1 FLSouthern United States_cell_5_4_2 6,166,488Southern United States_cell_5_4_3 7Southern United States_cell_5_4_4
5Southern United States_cell_5_5_0 Atlanta-Sandy Springs-RoswellSouthern United States_cell_5_5_1 GASouthern United States_cell_5_5_2 6,020,364Southern United States_cell_5_5_3 9Southern United States_cell_5_5_4
6Southern United States_cell_5_6_0 Tampa-St. Petersburg-ClearwaterSouthern United States_cell_5_6_1 FLSouthern United States_cell_5_6_2 3,194,831Southern United States_cell_5_6_3 18Southern United States_cell_5_6_4
7Southern United States_cell_5_7_0 Baltimore-Columbia-TowsonSouthern United States_cell_5_7_1 MDSouthern United States_cell_5_7_2 2,800,053Southern United States_cell_5_7_3 21Southern United States_cell_5_7_4
9Southern United States_cell_5_8_0 Orlando-Kissimmee-SanfordSouthern United States_cell_5_8_1 FLSouthern United States_cell_5_8_2 2,608,147Southern United States_cell_5_8_3 23Southern United States_cell_5_8_4
8Southern United States_cell_5_9_0 Charlotte-Concord-GastoniaSouthern United States_cell_5_9_1 NC-SCSouthern United States_cell_5_9_2 2,636,883Southern United States_cell_5_9_3 22Southern United States_cell_5_9_4
10Southern United States_cell_5_10_0 San Antonio-New BraunfelsSouthern United States_cell_5_10_1 TXSouthern United States_cell_5_10_2 2,518,036Southern United States_cell_5_10_3 24Southern United States_cell_5_10_4
11Southern United States_cell_5_11_0 Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky*Southern United States_cell_5_11_1 OH-IN-KYSouthern United States_cell_5_11_2 2,190,209Southern United States_cell_5_11_3 29Southern United States_cell_5_11_4
12Southern United States_cell_5_12_0 Austin-Round Rock-San MarcosSouthern United States_cell_5_12_1 TXSouthern United States_cell_5_12_2 2,168,316Southern United States_cell_5_12_3 30Southern United States_cell_5_12_4
Southern United States_cell_5_13_0 San Juan–Caguas–Guaynabo*Southern United States_cell_5_13_1 PRSouthern United States_cell_5_13_2 2,020,000Southern United States_cell_5_13_3 Southern United States_cell_5_13_4
13Southern United States_cell_5_14_0 Nashville-Davidson-Murfreesboro-FranklinSouthern United States_cell_5_14_1 TNSouthern United States_cell_5_14_2 1,930,961Southern United States_cell_5_14_3 36Southern United States_cell_5_14_4
14Southern United States_cell_5_15_0 Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport NewsSouthern United States_cell_5_15_1 VA-NCSouthern United States_cell_5_15_2 1,676,822Southern United States_cell_5_15_3 37Southern United States_cell_5_15_4
15Southern United States_cell_5_16_0 JacksonvilleSouthern United States_cell_5_16_1 FLSouthern United States_cell_5_16_2 1,559,514Southern United States_cell_5_16_3 40Southern United States_cell_5_16_4
16Southern United States_cell_5_17_0 Oklahoma City-NormanSouthern United States_cell_5_17_1 OKSouthern United States_cell_5_17_2 1,396,445Southern United States_cell_5_17_3 41Southern United States_cell_5_17_4
17Southern United States_cell_5_18_0 Raleigh-CarySouthern United States_cell_5_18_1 NCSouthern United States_cell_5_18_2 1,362,540Southern United States_cell_5_18_3 42Southern United States_cell_5_18_4
18Southern United States_cell_5_19_0 Memphis-Forrest CitySouthern United States_cell_5_19_1 TN-MS-ARSouthern United States_cell_5_19_2 1,350,620Southern United States_cell_5_19_3 43Southern United States_cell_5_19_4
19Southern United States_cell_5_20_0 Richmond-PetersburgSouthern United States_cell_5_20_1 VASouthern United States_cell_5_20_2 1,291,900Southern United States_cell_5_20_3 44Southern United States_cell_5_20_4
20Southern United States_cell_5_21_0 Louisville-Jefferson County*Southern United States_cell_5_21_1 KY-INSouthern United States_cell_5_21_2 1,297,310Southern United States_cell_5_21_3 45Southern United States_cell_5_21_4
  • Asterisk indicates part of the metropolitan area is outside the states classified as Southern by the U.S. Census Bureau. Southern United States_sentence_510

Major combined statistical areas Southern United States_section_37

Southern United States_table_general_6

RankSouthern United States_header_cell_6_0_0 Combined Statistical AreaSouthern United States_header_cell_6_0_1 State(s)Southern United States_header_cell_6_0_2 Population (2017 est.)Southern United States_header_cell_6_0_3
1Southern United States_cell_6_1_0 Washington-Baltimore-ArlingtonSouthern United States_cell_6_1_1 DC-MD-VA-WV-PASouthern United States_cell_6_1_2 9,764,315Southern United States_cell_6_1_3
2Southern United States_cell_6_2_0 Dallas-Fort WorthSouthern United States_cell_6_2_1 TXSouthern United States_cell_6_2_2 7,846,293Southern United States_cell_6_2_3
3Southern United States_cell_6_3_0 Houston-The Woodlands-BaytownSouthern United States_cell_6_3_1 TXSouthern United States_cell_6_3_2 7,093,190Southern United States_cell_6_3_3
4Southern United States_cell_6_4_0 Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Port St. LucieSouthern United States_cell_6_4_1 FLSouthern United States_cell_6_4_2 6,828,241Southern United States_cell_6_4_3
5Southern United States_cell_6_5_0 Atlanta-Athens-Clarke County-Sandy SpringsSouthern United States_cell_6_5_1 GASouthern United States_cell_6_5_2 6,555,956Southern United States_cell_6_5_3
6Southern United States_cell_6_6_0 Orlando-Deltona-Daytona BeachSouthern United States_cell_6_6_1 FLSouthern United States_cell_6_6_2 3,284,198Southern United States_cell_6_6_3
7Southern United States_cell_6_7_0 Charlotte-ConcordSouthern United States_cell_6_7_1 NC-SCSouthern United States_cell_6_7_2 2,684,121Southern United States_cell_6_7_3
8Southern United States_cell_6_8_0 Cincinnati-Wilmington-MaysvilleSouthern United States_cell_6_8_1 OH-KY-INSouthern United States_cell_6_8_2 2,238,265Southern United States_cell_6_8_3
9Southern United States_cell_6_9_0 Raleigh-Durham-Chapel HillSouthern United States_cell_6_9_1 NCSouthern United States_cell_6_9_2 2,199,459Southern United States_cell_6_9_3
10Southern United States_cell_6_10_0 Nashville-Davidson–MurfreesboroSouthern United States_cell_6_10_1 TNSouthern United States_cell_6_10_2 2,027,489Southern United States_cell_6_10_3
11Southern United States_cell_6_11_0 Virginia Beach-NorfolkSouthern United States_cell_6_11_1 VA-NCSouthern United States_cell_6_11_2 1,829,195Southern United States_cell_6_11_3
12Southern United States_cell_6_12_0 Greensboro-Winston-Salem-High PointSouthern United States_cell_6_12_1 NCSouthern United States_cell_6_12_2 1,663,532Southern United States_cell_6_12_3
13Southern United States_cell_6_13_0 Jacksonville-St. Marys-PalatkaSouthern United States_cell_6_13_1 FL-GASouthern United States_cell_6_13_2 1,631,488Southern United States_cell_6_13_3
14Southern United States_cell_6_14_0 Louisville/Jefferson County-Elizabethtown-MadisonSouthern United States_cell_6_14_1 KY-INSouthern United States_cell_6_14_2 1,522,112Southern United States_cell_6_14_3
15Southern United States_cell_6_15_0 New Orleans-Metairie-HammondSouthern United States_cell_6_15_1 LA-MSSouthern United States_cell_6_15_2 1,510,162Southern United States_cell_6_15_3
16Southern United States_cell_6_16_0 Oklahoma City-ShawneeSouthern United States_cell_6_16_1 OKSouthern United States_cell_6_16_2 1,455,935Southern United States_cell_6_16_3
17Southern United States_cell_6_17_0 Greenville-Spartanburg-AndersonSouthern United States_cell_6_17_1 SCSouthern United States_cell_6_17_2 1,460,036Southern United States_cell_6_17_3
18Southern United States_cell_6_18_0 Memphis-Forrest CitySouthern United States_cell_6_18_1 TN-MS-ARSouthern United States_cell_6_18_2 1,374,190Southern United States_cell_6_18_3
19Southern United States_cell_6_19_0 Birmingham-Hoover-TalladegaSouthern United States_cell_6_19_1 ALSouthern United States_cell_6_19_2 1,364,062Southern United States_cell_6_19_3
20Southern United States_cell_6_20_0 Tulsa-Muskogee-BartlesvilleSouthern United States_cell_6_20_1 OKSouthern United States_cell_6_20_2 1,160,612Southern United States_cell_6_20_3

Southern states and territories Southern United States_section_38

Southern United States_table_general_7

RankSouthern United States_header_cell_7_0_0 StateSouthern United States_header_cell_7_0_1 CapitalSouthern United States_header_cell_7_0_2 National RankSouthern United States_header_cell_7_0_3 PopulationSouthern United States_header_cell_7_0_4
1Southern United States_cell_7_1_0 TexasSouthern United States_cell_7_1_1 AustinSouthern United States_cell_7_1_2 2Southern United States_cell_7_1_3 29,472,295Southern United States_cell_7_1_4
2Southern United States_cell_7_2_0 FloridaSouthern United States_cell_7_2_1 TallahasseeSouthern United States_cell_7_2_2 3Southern United States_cell_7_2_3 21,992,985Southern United States_cell_7_2_4
3Southern United States_cell_7_3_0 GeorgiaSouthern United States_cell_7_3_1 AtlantaSouthern United States_cell_7_3_2 8Southern United States_cell_7_3_3 10,736,059Southern United States_cell_7_3_4
4Southern United States_cell_7_4_0 North CarolinaSouthern United States_cell_7_4_1 RaleighSouthern United States_cell_7_4_2 9Southern United States_cell_7_4_3 10,611,862Southern United States_cell_7_4_4
5Southern United States_cell_7_5_0 VirginiaSouthern United States_cell_7_5_1 RichmondSouthern United States_cell_7_5_2 12Southern United States_cell_7_5_3 8,626,207Southern United States_cell_7_5_4
6Southern United States_cell_7_6_0 TennesseeSouthern United States_cell_7_6_1 NashvilleSouthern United States_cell_7_6_2 16Southern United States_cell_7_6_3 6,897,576Southern United States_cell_7_6_4
7Southern United States_cell_7_7_0 MarylandSouthern United States_cell_7_7_1 AnnapolisSouthern United States_cell_7_7_2 19Southern United States_cell_7_7_3 6,083,116Southern United States_cell_7_7_4
8Southern United States_cell_7_8_0 South CarolinaSouthern United States_cell_7_8_1 ColumbiaSouthern United States_cell_7_8_2 23Southern United States_cell_7_8_3 5,210,095Southern United States_cell_7_8_4
9Southern United States_cell_7_9_0 AlabamaSouthern United States_cell_7_9_1 MontgomerySouthern United States_cell_7_9_2 24Southern United States_cell_7_9_3 4,908,621Southern United States_cell_7_9_4
10Southern United States_cell_7_10_0 LouisianaSouthern United States_cell_7_10_1 Baton RougeSouthern United States_cell_7_10_2 25Southern United States_cell_7_10_3 4,645,184Southern United States_cell_7_10_4
11Southern United States_cell_7_11_0 KentuckySouthern United States_cell_7_11_1 FrankfortSouthern United States_cell_7_11_2 26Southern United States_cell_7_11_3 4,499,692Southern United States_cell_7_11_4
12Southern United States_cell_7_12_0 OklahomaSouthern United States_cell_7_12_1 Oklahoma CitySouthern United States_cell_7_12_2 28Southern United States_cell_7_12_3 3,954,821Southern United States_cell_7_12_4
13Southern United States_cell_7_13_0 ArkansasSouthern United States_cell_7_13_1 Little RockSouthern United States_cell_7_13_2 33Southern United States_cell_7_13_3 3,038,999Southern United States_cell_7_13_4
14Southern United States_cell_7_14_0 MississippiSouthern United States_cell_7_14_1 JacksonSouthern United States_cell_7_14_2 35Southern United States_cell_7_14_3 2,989,260Southern United States_cell_7_14_4
15Southern United States_cell_7_15_0 West VirginiaSouthern United States_cell_7_15_1 CharlestonSouthern United States_cell_7_15_2 40Southern United States_cell_7_15_3 1,778,070Southern United States_cell_7_15_4
16Southern United States_cell_7_16_0 DelawareSouthern United States_cell_7_16_1 DoverSouthern United States_cell_7_16_2 46Southern United States_cell_7_16_3 982,895Southern United States_cell_7_16_4

Outlying areas Southern United States_section_39

Southern United States_table_general_8

RankSouthern United States_header_cell_8_0_0 TerritorySouthern United States_header_cell_8_0_1 CapitalSouthern United States_header_cell_8_0_2 National RankSouthern United States_header_cell_8_0_3 PopulationSouthern United States_header_cell_8_0_4
Southern United States_cell_8_1_0 Puerto RicoSouthern United States_cell_8_1_1 San JuanSouthern United States_cell_8_1_2 Southern United States_cell_8_1_3 3,193,694Southern United States_cell_8_1_4
Southern United States_cell_8_2_0 U.S. Virgin IslandsSouthern United States_cell_8_2_1 Charlotte AmalieSouthern United States_cell_8_2_2 Southern United States_cell_8_2_3 106,235Southern United States_cell_8_2_4

See also Southern United States_section_40

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: United States.