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This article is about the country. Spain_sentence_0

For other uses, see Spain (disambiguation). Spain_sentence_1

"España" redirects here. Spain_sentence_2

For other uses, see España (disambiguation). Spain_sentence_3

Spain (Spanish: España, [esˈpaɲa (listen)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de España), is a country in Southwestern Europe with some pockets of territory across the Strait of Gibraltar and the Atlantic Ocean. Spain_sentence_4

Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Spain_sentence_5

Its territory also includes two archipelagos: the Canary Islands off the coast of North Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. Spain_sentence_6

The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Spain_sentence_7

Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. Spain_sentence_8

The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean respectively. Spain_sentence_9

With an area of 505,990 km (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second-largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth-largest country by area on the European continent. Spain_sentence_10

With a population exceeding 47.3 million, Spain is the sixth-most populous country in Europe, and the fourth-most populous country in the European Union. Spain_sentence_11

Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid; other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Zaragoza, Málaga, and Bilbao. Spain_sentence_12

Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Spain_sentence_13

Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BC, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Sp(a)n or Spania. Spain_sentence_14

At the end of the Western Roman Empire, Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established relatively independent realms in its western provinces. Spain_sentence_15

One of them, the Visigoths, forcibly integrated all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including the Byzantine province of Spania, into the Visigothic Kingdom. Spain_sentence_16

In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom was conquered by the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate. Spain_sentence_17

The Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula (al-Andalus) soon became autonomous from Baghdad. Spain_sentence_18

A handful of small Christian pockets in the north were left out of Muslim rule, along the presence of the Carolingian Empire near the Pyrenées, eventually led to the emergence of the Christian kingdoms of León, Castile, Aragon, Portugal and Navarre. Spain_sentence_19

Over seven centuries, an intermittent southwards expansion of these kingdoms (metahistorically dubbed as a reconquest: the Reconquista) culminated with the Christian seizure of the last Muslim polity (the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada) in 1492, the same year Christopher Columbus arrived in the New World. Spain_sentence_20

A process of political conglomeration among the Christian kingdoms also ensued, and the late 15th-century saw the dynastic union of Castile and Aragon under the Catholic Monarchs, sometimes considered to be the emergence of Spain as a unified country. Spain_sentence_21

The Conquest of Navarre occurred in 1512, while the Kingdom of Portugal was also ruled by the Hapsburg Dynasty between 1580 and 1640. Spain_sentence_22

In the early modern period, Spain ruled one of the largest empires in history which was also one of the first global empires, spawning a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes over 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. Spain_sentence_23

Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain_sentence_24

Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state. Spain_sentence_25

It is a highly developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth-largest economy by nominal GDP and the sixteenth-largest by PPP. Spain_sentence_26

It is a member of the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI), the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and many other international organisations. Spain_sentence_27

While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes it a de facto member of the group. Spain_sentence_28

Etymology Spain_section_0

The origins of the Roman name Hispania, and the modern España, are uncertain, although the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most widely accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one. Spain_sentence_29

There have been a number of accounts and hypotheses of its origin: Spain_sentence_30

The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Spain_sentence_31

Jesús Luis Cunchillos [] argued that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Spain_sentence_32

Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged". Spain_sentence_33

It may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean; Roman coins struck in the region from the reign of Hadrian show a female figure with a rabbit at her feet, and Strabo called it the "land of the rabbits". Spain_sentence_34

The word in question (compare modern Hebrew Shafan) actually means "Hyrax", possibly due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Spain_sentence_35

Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia, Ἑσπερία in Greek) and Spain, being still further west, as Hesperia ultima. Spain_sentence_36

There is the claim that "Hispania" derives from the Basque word Ezpanna meaning "edge" or "border", another reference to the fact that the Iberian Peninsula constitutes the southwest corner of the European continent. Spain_sentence_37

Two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Spain_sentence_38

Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem. Spain_sentence_39

Phiros was a Grecian by birth, but who had been given a kingdom in Spain. Spain_sentence_40

Phiros became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, who also ruled over a kingdom in Spain. Spain_sentence_41

Heracles later renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, Espan, from whom the country of España (Spain) took its name. Spain_sentence_42

Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c. 350 BCE. Spain_sentence_43

History Spain_section_1

Main article: History of Spain Spain_sentence_44

Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians, Basques and Celts. Spain_sentence_45

Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe's most ancient cities Cádiz and Málaga. Spain_sentence_46

Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theatre of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. Spain_sentence_47

After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman rule. Spain_sentence_48

During the early Middle Ages it came under Visigothic rule, and then much of it was conquered by Muslim invaders from North Africa. Spain_sentence_49

In a process that took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula. Spain_sentence_50

The last Muslim state fell in 1492, the same year Columbus reached the Americas. Spain_sentence_51

A global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Spain_sentence_52

Continued wars and other problems eventually led to a diminished status. Spain_sentence_53

The Napoleonic conflict in Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire and left the country politically unstable. Spain_sentence_54

Spain suffered a devastating civil war in the 1930s and then came under the rule of an authoritarian government, which oversaw a period of stagnation that was followed by a surge in the growth of the economy. Spain_sentence_55

Eventually, democracy was restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain_sentence_56

Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a cultural renaissance and steady economic growth until the beginning of the 21st century, that started a new globalised world with economic and ecological challenges. Spain_sentence_57

Prehistory and pre-Roman peoples Spain_section_2

Main article: Prehistoric Iberia Spain_sentence_58

Archaeological research at Atapuerca indicates the Iberian Peninsula was populated by hominids 1.2 million years ago. Spain_sentence_59

In Atapuerca fossils have been found of the earliest known hominins in Europe, the Homo antecessor. Spain_sentence_60

Modern humans first arrived in Iberia, from the north on foot, about 35,000 years ago. Spain_sentence_61

The best known artefacts of these prehistoric human settlements are the famous paintings in the Altamira cave of Cantabria in northern Iberia, which were created from 35,600 to 13,500 BCE by Cro-Magnon. Spain_sentence_62

Archaeological and genetic evidence suggests that the Iberian Peninsula acted as one of several major refugia from which northern Europe was repopulated following the end of the last ice age. Spain_sentence_63

The largest groups inhabiting the Iberian Peninsula before the Roman conquest were the Iberians and the Celts. Spain_sentence_64

The Iberians inhabited the Mediterranean side of the peninsula, from the northeast to the southeast. Spain_sentence_65

The Celts inhabited much of the inner and Atlantic sides of the peninsula, from the northwest to the southwest. Spain_sentence_66

Basques occupied the western area of the Pyrenees mountain range and adjacent areas, the Phoenician-influenced Tartessians culture flourished in the southwest and the Lusitanians and Vettones occupied areas in the central west. Spain_sentence_67

Several cities were founded along the coast by Phoenicians, and trading outposts and colonies were established by Greeks in the East. Spain_sentence_68

Eventually, Phoenician-Carthaginians expanded inland towards the meseta; however, due to the bellicose inland tribes, the Carthaginians got settled in the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula. Spain_sentence_69

Roman Hispania and the Visigothic Kingdom Spain_section_3

Main articles: Hispania and Visigothic Kingdom Spain_sentence_70

During the Second Punic War, roughly between 210 and 205 BC the expanding Roman Republic captured Carthaginian trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast. Spain_sentence_71

Although it took the Romans nearly two centuries to complete the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, they retained control of it for over six centuries. Spain_sentence_72

Roman rule was bound together by law, language, and the Roman road. Spain_sentence_73

The cultures of the Celtic and Iberian populations were gradually Romanised (Latinised) at different rates depending on what part of Hispania they lived in, with local leaders being admitted into the Roman aristocratic class. Spain_sentence_74

Hispania served as a granary for the Roman market, and its harbours exported gold, wool, olive oil, and wine. Spain_sentence_75

Agricultural production increased with the introduction of irrigation projects, some of which remain in use. Spain_sentence_76

Emperors Hadrian, Trajan, Theodosius I, and the philosopher Seneca were born in Hispania. Spain_sentence_77

Christianity was introduced into Hispania in the 1st century AD and it became popular in the cities in the 2nd century AD. Spain_sentence_78

Most of Spain's present languages and religion, and the basis of its laws, originate from this period. Spain_sentence_79

The weakening of the Western Roman Empire's jurisdiction in Hispania began in 409, when the Germanic Suebi and Vandals, together with the Sarmatian Alans entered the peninsula at the invitation of a Roman usurper. Spain_sentence_80

These tribes had crossed the Rhine in early 407 and ravaged Gaul. Spain_sentence_81

The Suebi established a kingdom in what is today modern Galicia and northern Portugal whereas the Vandals established themselves in southern Spain by 420 before crossing over to North Africa in 429 and taking Carthage in 439. Spain_sentence_82

As the western empire disintegrated, the social and economic base became greatly simplified: but even in modified form, the successor regimes maintained many of the institutions and laws of the late empire, including Christianity and assimilation to the evolving Roman culture. Spain_sentence_83

The Byzantines established an occidental province, Spania, in the south, with the intention of reviving Roman rule throughout Iberia. Spain_sentence_84

Eventually, however, Hispania was reunited under Visigothic rule. Spain_sentence_85

These Visigoths, or Western Goths, after sacking Rome under the leadership of Alaric (410), turned towards the Iberian Peninsula, with Athaulf for their leader, and occupied the northeastern portion. Spain_sentence_86

Wallia extended his rule over most of the peninsula, keeping the Suebians shut up in Galicia. Spain_sentence_87

Theodoric I took part, with the Romans and Franks, in the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, where Attila was routed. Spain_sentence_88

Euric (466), who put an end to the last remnants of Roman power in the peninsula, may be considered the first monarch of Spain, though the Suebians still maintained their independence in Galicia. Spain_sentence_89

Euric was also the first king to give written laws to the Visigoths. Spain_sentence_90

In the following reigns the Catholic kings of France assumed the role of protectors of the Hispano-Roman Catholics against the Arianism of the Visigoths, and in the wars which ensued Alaric II and Amalaric lost their lives. Spain_sentence_91

Athanagild, having risen against King Agila, called in the Byzantines and, in payment for the succour they gave him, ceded to them the maritime places of the southeast (554). Spain_sentence_92

Liuvigild restored the political unity of the peninsula, subduing the Suebians, but the religious divisions of the country, reaching even the royal family, brought on a civil war. Spain_sentence_93

St. Spain_sentence_94

Hermengild, the king's son, putting himself at the head of the Catholics, was defeated and taken prisoner, and suffered martyrdom for rejecting communion with the Arians. Spain_sentence_95

Recared, son of Liuvigild and brother of St. Hermengild, added religious unity to the political unity achieved by his father, accepting the Catholic faith in the Third Council of Toledo (589). Spain_sentence_96

The religious unity established by this council was the basis of that fusion of Goths with Hispano-Romans which produced the Spanish nation. Spain_sentence_97

Sisebut and Suintila completed the expulsion of the Byzantines from Spain. Spain_sentence_98

Intermarriage between Visigoths and Hispano-Romans was prohibited, though in practice it could not be entirely prevented and was eventually legalised by Liuvigild. Spain_sentence_99

The Spanish-Gothic scholars such as Braulio of Zaragoza and Isidore of Seville played an important role in keeping the classical Greek and Roman culture. Spain_sentence_100

Isidore was one of the most influential clerics and philosophers in the Middle Ages in Europe, and his theories were also vital to the conversion of the Visigothic Kingdom from an Arian domain to a Catholic one in the Councils of Toledo. Spain_sentence_101

Isidore created the first western encyclopedia which had a huge impact during the Middle Ages. Spain_sentence_102

Muslim era and Reconquista Spain_section_4

Main articles: Al-Andalus and Reconquista Spain_sentence_103

In the 8th century, nearly all of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered (711–718) by largely Moorish Muslim armies from North Africa. Spain_sentence_104

These conquests were part of the expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate. Spain_sentence_105

Only a small area in the mountainous north-west of the peninsula managed to resist the initial invasion. Spain_sentence_106

Legend has it that Count Julian, the governor of Ceuta, in revenge for the violation of his daughter, Florinda, by King Roderic, invited the Muslims and opened to them the gates of the peninsula. Spain_sentence_107

Under Islamic law, Christians and Jews were given the subordinate status of dhimmi. Spain_sentence_108

This status permitted Christians and Jews to practice their religions as People of the Book but they were required to pay a special tax and had legal and social rights inferior to those of Muslims. Spain_sentence_109

Conversion to Islam proceeded at an increasing pace. Spain_sentence_110

The muladíes (Muslims of ethnic Iberian origin) are believed to have formed the majority of the population of Al-Andalus by the end of the 10th century. Spain_sentence_111

The Muslim community in the Iberian Peninsula was itself diverse and beset by social tensions. Spain_sentence_112

The Berber people of North Africa, who had provided the bulk of the invading armies, clashed with the Arab leadership from the Middle East. Spain_sentence_113

Over time, large Moorish populations became established, especially in the Guadalquivir River valley, the coastal plain of Valencia, the Ebro River valley and (towards the end of this period) in the mountainous region of Granada. Spain_sentence_114

Córdoba, the capital of the caliphate since Abd-ar-Rahman III, was the largest, richest and most sophisticated city in western Europe. Spain_sentence_115

Mediterranean trade and cultural exchange flourished. Spain_sentence_116

Muslims imported a rich intellectual tradition from the Middle East and North Africa. Spain_sentence_117

Some important philosophers at the time were Averroes, Ibn Arabi and Maimonides. Spain_sentence_118

The Romanised cultures of the Iberian Peninsula interacted with Muslim and Jewish cultures in complex ways, giving the region a distinctive culture. Spain_sentence_119

Outside the cities, where the vast majority lived, the land ownership system from Roman times remained largely intact as Muslim leaders rarely dispossessed landowners and the introduction of new crops and techniques led to an expansion of agriculture introducing new produces which originally came from Asia or the former territories of the Roman Empire. Spain_sentence_120

In the 11th century, the Muslim holdings fractured into rival Taifa states (Arab, Berber, and Slav), allowing the small Christian states the opportunity to greatly enlarge their territories. Spain_sentence_121

The arrival from North Africa of the Islamic ruling sects of the Almoravids and the Almohads restored unity upon the Muslim holdings, with a stricter, less tolerant application of Islam, and saw a revival in Muslim fortunes. Spain_sentence_122

This re-united Islamic state experienced more than a century of successes that partially reversed Christian gains. Spain_sentence_123

The Reconquista (Reconquest) was the centuries-long period in which Christian rule was re-established over the Iberian Peninsula. Spain_sentence_124

The Reconquista is viewed as beginning with the Battle of Covadonga won by Don Pelayo in 722 and was concurrent with the period of Muslim rule on the Iberian Peninsula. Spain_sentence_125

The Christian army's victory over Muslim forces led to the creation of the Christian Kingdom of Asturias along the northwestern coastal mountains. Spain_sentence_126

Shortly after, in 739, Muslim forces were driven from Galicia, which was to eventually host one of medieval Europe's holiest sites, Santiago de Compostela and was incorporated into the new Christian kingdom. Spain_sentence_127

The Vikings invaded Galicia in 844, but were heavily defeated by Ramiro I of Asturias at A Coruña. Spain_sentence_128

Many of the Vikings' casualties were caused by the Galicians' ballistas – powerful torsion-powered projectile weapons that looked rather like giant crossbows. Spain_sentence_129

70 Viking ships were captured and burned. Spain_sentence_130

Vikings raided Galicia in 859, during the reign of Ordoño I of Asturias. Spain_sentence_131

Ordoño was at the moment engaged against his constant enemies the Moors; but a count of the province, Don Pedro, attacked the Vikings and defeated them. Spain_sentence_132

The Kingdom of León was the strongest Christian kingdom for centuries. Spain_sentence_133

In 1188 the first modern parliamentary session in Europe was held in León (Cortes of León). Spain_sentence_134

The Kingdom of Castile, formed from Leonese territory, was its successor as strongest kingdom. Spain_sentence_135

The kings and the nobility fought for power and influence in this period. Spain_sentence_136

The example of the Roman emperors influenced the political objective of the Crown, while the nobles benefited from feudalism. Spain_sentence_137

Muslim armies had also moved north of the Pyrenees but they were defeated by Frankish forces at the Battle of Poitiers, Frankia and pushed out of the very southernmost region of France along the seacoast by the 760s. Spain_sentence_138

Later, Frankish forces established Christian counties on the southern side of the Pyrenees. Spain_sentence_139

These areas were to grow into the kingdoms of Navarre and Aragon. Spain_sentence_140

For several centuries, the fluctuating frontier between the Muslim and Christian controlled areas of Iberia was along the Ebro and Douro valleys. Spain_sentence_141

The Islamic transmission of the classics is the main Islamic contributions to Medieval Europe. Spain_sentence_142

The Castilian language—more commonly known (especially later in history and at present) as "Spanish" after becoming the national language and lingua franca of Spain—evolved from Vulgar Latin, as did other Romance languages of Spain like the Catalan, Asturian and Galician languages, as well as other Romance languages in Latin Europe. Spain_sentence_143

Basque, the only non-Romance language in Spain, continued evolving from Early Basque to Medieval. Spain_sentence_144

The Glosas Emilianenses (found at the Monasteries of San Millán de la Cogolla and written in Latin, Basque and Romance) hold a great value as one of the first written examples of Iberian Romance. Spain_sentence_145

The break-up of Al-Andalus into the competing taifa kingdoms helped the long embattled Iberian Christian kingdoms gain the initiative. Spain_sentence_146

The capture of the strategically central city of Toledo in 1085 marked a significant shift in the balance of power in favour of the Christian kingdoms. Spain_sentence_147

Following a great Muslim resurgence in the 12th century, the great Moorish strongholds in the south fell to Castile in the 13th century—Córdoba in 1236 and Seville in 1248. Spain_sentence_148

The County of Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon entered in a dynastic union and gained territory and power in the Mediterranean. Spain_sentence_149

In 1229 Majorca was conquered, so was Valencia in 1238. Spain_sentence_150

In the 13th and 14th centuries, the Marinid dynasty of Morocco invaded and established some enclaves on the southern coast but failed in their attempt to re-establish North African rule in Iberia and were soon driven out. Spain_sentence_151

After 781 years of Muslim presence in Spain, the last Nasrid sultanate of Granada, a tributary state would finally surrender in 1492 to the Catholic monarchs Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. Spain_sentence_152

From the mid 13th century, literature and philosophy started to flourish again in the Christian peninsular kingdoms, based on Roman and Gothic traditions. Spain_sentence_153

An important philosopher from this time is Ramon Llull. Spain_sentence_154

Abraham Cresques was a prominent Jewish cartographer. Spain_sentence_155

Roman law and its institutions were the model for the legislators. Spain_sentence_156

The king Alfonso X of Castile focused on strengthening this Roman and Gothic past, and also on linking the Iberian Christian kingdoms with the rest of medieval European Christendom. Spain_sentence_157

Alfonso worked for being elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and published the Siete Partidas code. Spain_sentence_158

The Toledo School of Translators is the name that commonly describes the group of scholars who worked together in the city of Toledo during the 12th and 13th centuries, to translate many of the philosophical and scientific works from Classical Arabic, Ancient Greek, and Ancient Hebrew. Spain_sentence_159

The 13th century also witnessed the Crown of Aragon, centred in Spain's north east, expand its reach across islands in the Mediterranean, to Sicily and Naples. Spain_sentence_160

Around this time the universities of Palencia (1212/1263) and Salamanca (1218/1254) were established. Spain_sentence_161

The Black Death of 1348 and 1349 devastated Spain. Spain_sentence_162

The Catalans and Aragonese offered themselves to the Byzantine Emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus to fight the Turks. Spain_sentence_163

Having conquered these, they turned their arms against the Byzantines, who treacherously slew their leaders; but for this treachery, the Spaniards, under Bernard of Rocafort and Berenguer of Entenca, exacted the terrible penalty celebrated in history as "The Catalan Vengeance" and seized the Frankish Duchy of Athens (1311). Spain_sentence_164

The royal line of Aragon became extinct with Martin the Humane, and the Compromise of Caspe gave the Crown to the House of Trastámara, already reigning in Castile. Spain_sentence_165

As in the rest of Europe during the Late Middle Ages, Antisemitism greatly increased during the 14th century in the Christian kingdoms (a key event in that regard was the Black Death, as Jews were accused of poisoning the waters). Spain_sentence_166

There were mass killings in Aragon in the mid-14th century, and 12,000 Jews were killed in Toledo. Spain_sentence_167

In 1391, Christian mobs went from town to town throughout Castile and Aragon, killing an estimated 50,000 Jews. Spain_sentence_168

Women and children were sold as slaves to Muslims, and many synagogues were converted into churches. Spain_sentence_169

According to Hasdai Crescas, about 70 Jewish communities were destroyed. Spain_sentence_170

St. Spain_sentence_171

Vincent Ferrer converted innumerable Jews, among them the Rabbi Josuah Halorqui, who took the name of Jerónimo de Santa Fe and in his town converted many of his former coreligionists in the famous Disputation of Tortosa (1413–14). Spain_sentence_172

Spanish Empire Spain_section_5

Main article: Spanish Empire Spain_sentence_173

In 1469, the crowns of the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon were united by the marriage of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. Spain_sentence_174

1478 commenced the completion of the conquest of the Canary Islands and in 1492, the combined forces of Castile and Aragon captured the Emirate of Granada from its last ruler Muhammad XII, ending the last remnant of a 781-year presence of Islamic rule in Iberia. Spain_sentence_175

That same year, Spain's Jews were ordered to convert to Catholicism or face expulsion from Spanish territories during the Spanish Inquisition. Spain_sentence_176

As many as 200,000 Jews were expelled from Spain. Spain_sentence_177

This was followed by expulsions in 1493 in Aragonese Sicily and Portugal in 1497. Spain_sentence_178

The Treaty of Granada guaranteed religious tolerance towards Muslims, for a few years before Islam was outlawed in 1502 in the Kingdom of Castile and 1527 in the Kingdom of Aragon, leading to Spain's Muslim population becoming nominally Christian Moriscos. Spain_sentence_179

A few decades after the Morisco rebellion of Granada known as the War of the Alpujarras, a significant proportion of Spain's formerly-Muslim population was expelled, settling primarily in North Africa. Spain_sentence_180

From 1609 to 1614, over 300,000 Moriscos were sent on ships to North Africa and other locations, and, of this figure, around 50,000 died resisting the expulsion, and 60,000 died on the journey. Spain_sentence_181

The year 1492 also marked the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the New World, during a voyage funded by Isabella. Spain_sentence_182

Columbus's first voyage crossed the Atlantic and reached the Caribbean Islands, beginning the European exploration and conquest of the Americas, although Columbus remained convinced that he had reached the Orient. Spain_sentence_183

Large numbers of indigenous Americans died in battle against the Spaniards during the conquest, while others died from various other causes. Spain_sentence_184

Some scholars consider the initial period of the Spanish conquest— from Columbus's first landing in the Bahamas until the middle of the sixteenth century—as marking the most egregious case of genocide in the history of mankind. Spain_sentence_185

The death toll may have reached some 70 million indigenous people (out of 80 million) in this period, as diseases such as smallpox, measles, influenza, and typhus, brought to the Americas by the conquest, decimated the pre-Columbian population. Spain_sentence_186

The colonisation of the Americas started with conquistadores like Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro. Spain_sentence_187

Miscegenation was the rule between the native and the Spanish cultures and people. Spain_sentence_188

Juan Sebastian Elcano completed the first voyage around the world in human history, the Magellan-Elcano circumnavigation. Spain_sentence_189

Florida was colonised by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés when he founded St. Spain_sentence_190

Augustine, Florida and then defeated an attempt led by the French Captain Jean Ribault to establish a French foothold in Spanish Florida territory. Spain_sentence_191

St. Augustine became a strategic defensive base for Spanish ships full of gold and silver sailing to Spain. Spain_sentence_192

Andrés de Urdaneta discovered the tornaviaje or return route from the Philippines to Mexico, making possible the Manila galleon trading route. Spain_sentence_193

The Spanish once again encountered Islam, but this time in Southeast Asia and in order to incorporate the Philippines, Spanish expeditions organised from newly Christianised Mexico had invaded the Philippine territories of the Sultanate of Brunei. Spain_sentence_194

The Spanish considered the war with the Muslims of Brunei and the Philippines, a repeat of the Reconquista. Spain_sentence_195

The Spanish explorer Blas Ruiz intervened in Cambodia's succession and installed Crown Prince Barom Reachea II as puppet. Spain_sentence_196

As Renaissance New Monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand centralised royal power at the expense of local nobility, and the word España, whose root is the ancient name Hispania, began to be commonly used to designate the whole of the two kingdoms. Spain_sentence_197

With their wide-ranging political, legal, religious and military reforms, Spain emerged as the first world power. Spain_sentence_198

The death of their son Prince John caused the Crown to pass to Charles I (the Emperor Charles V), son of Juana la Loca. Spain_sentence_199

The unification of the crowns of Aragon and Castile by the marriage of their sovereigns laid the basis for modern Spain and the Spanish Empire, although each kingdom of Spain remained a separate country socially, politically, legally, and in currency and language. Spain_sentence_200

There were two big revolts against the new Habsburg monarch and the more authoritarian and imperial-style crown: Revolt of the Comuneros in Castile and Revolt of the Brotherhoods in Majorca and Valencia. Spain_sentence_201

After years of combat, Comuneros Juan López de Padilla, Juan Bravo and Francisco Maldonado were executed and María Pacheco went into exile. Spain_sentence_202

Germana de Foix also finished with the revolt in the Mediterranean. Spain_sentence_203

Habsburg Spain was one of the leading world powers throughout the 16th century and most of the 17th century, a position reinforced by trade and wealth from colonial possessions and became the world's leading maritime power. Spain_sentence_204

It reached its apogee during the reigns of the first two Spanish HabsburgsCharles I (1516–1556) and Philip II (1556–1598). Spain_sentence_205

This period saw the Italian Wars, the Schmalkaldic War, the Dutch Revolt, the War of the Portuguese Succession, clashes with the Ottomans, intervention in the French Wars of Religion and the Anglo-Spanish War. Spain_sentence_206

Through exploration and conquest or royal marriage alliances and inheritance, the Spanish Empire expanded to include vast areas in the Americas, islands in the Asia-Pacific area, areas of Italy, cities in Northern Africa, as well as parts of what are now France, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. Spain_sentence_207

The first circumnavigation of the world was carried out in 1519–1521. Spain_sentence_208

It was the first empire on which it was said that the sun never set. Spain_sentence_209

This was an Age of Discovery, with daring explorations by sea and by land, the opening-up of new trade routes across oceans, conquests and the beginnings of European colonialism. Spain_sentence_210

Spanish explorers brought back precious metals, spices, luxuries, and previously unknown plants, and played a leading part in transforming the European understanding of the globe. Spain_sentence_211

The cultural efflorescence witnessed during this period is now referred to as the Spanish Golden Age. Spain_sentence_212

The expansion of the empire caused immense upheaval in the Americas as the collapse of societies and empires and new diseases from Europe devastated American indigenous populations. Spain_sentence_213

The rise of humanism, the Counter-Reformation and new geographical discoveries and conquests raised issues that were addressed by the intellectual movement now known as the School of Salamanca, which developed the first modern theories of what are now known as international law and human rights. Spain_sentence_214

Juan Luis Vives was another prominent humanist during this period. Spain_sentence_215

Spain's 16th-century maritime supremacy was demonstrated by the victory over the Ottomans at Lepanto in 1571, and then after the setback of the Spanish Armada in 1588, in a series of victories against England in the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585–1604. Spain_sentence_216

However, during the middle decades of the 17th century Spain's maritime power went into a long decline with mounting defeats against the United Provinces and then England; that by the 1660s it was struggling grimly to defend its overseas possessions from pirates and privateers. Spain_sentence_217

The Protestant Reformation dragged the kingdom ever more deeply into the mire of religiously charged wars. Spain_sentence_218

The result was a country forced into ever-expanding military efforts across Europe and in the Mediterranean. Spain_sentence_219

By the middle decades of a war- and plague-ridden 17th-century Europe, the Spanish Habsburgs had enmeshed the country in continent-wide religious-political conflicts. Spain_sentence_220

These conflicts drained it of resources and undermined the economy generally. Spain_sentence_221

Spain managed to hold on to most of the scattered Habsburg empire, and help the imperial forces of the Holy Roman Empire reverse a large part of the advances made by Protestant forces, but it was finally forced to recognise the separation of Portugal and the United Provinces, and eventually suffered some serious military reverses to France in the latter stages of the immensely destructive, Europe-wide Thirty Years' War. Spain_sentence_222

In the latter half of the 17th century, Spain went into a gradual decline, during which it surrendered several small territories to France and England; however, it maintained and enlarged its vast overseas empire, which remained intact until the beginning of the 19th century. Spain_sentence_223

The decline culminated in a controversy over succession to the throne which consumed the first years of the 18th century. Spain_sentence_224

The War of the Spanish Succession was a wide-ranging international conflict combined with a civil war, and was to cost the kingdom its European possessions and its position as one of the leading powers on the Continent. Spain_sentence_225

During this war, a new dynasty originating in France, the Bourbons, was installed. Spain_sentence_226

Long united only by the Crown, a true Spanish state was established when the first Bourbon king, Philip V, united the crowns of Castile and Aragon into a single state, abolishing many of the old regional privileges and laws. Spain_sentence_227

The 18th century saw a gradual recovery and an increase in prosperity through much of the empire. Spain_sentence_228

The new Bourbon monarchy drew on the French system of modernising the administration and the economy. Spain_sentence_229

Enlightenment ideas began to gain ground among some of the kingdom's elite and monarchy. Spain_sentence_230

Bourbon reformers created formal disciplined militias across the Atlantic. Spain_sentence_231

Spain needed every hand it could take during the seemingly endless wars of the eighteenth century—the Spanish War of Succession or Queen Anne's War (1702–13), the War of Jenkins' Ear (1739–42) which became the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48), the Seven Years' War (1756–63) and the Anglo-Spanish War (1779–83)—and its new disciplined militias served around the Atlantic as needed. Spain_sentence_232

Liberalism and nation state Spain_section_6

Main articles: Mid-19th-century Spain, Spanish American wars of independence, Spanish–American War, Anarchism in Spain, and Spanish Second Republic Spain_sentence_233

In 1793, Spain went to war against the revolutionary new French Republic as a member of the first Coalition. Spain_sentence_234

The subsequent War of the Pyrenees polarised the country in a reaction against the gallicised elites and following defeat in the field, peace was made with France in 1795 at the Peace of Basel in which Spain lost control over two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola. Spain_sentence_235

The Prime Minister, Manuel Godoy, then ensured that Spain allied herself with France in the brief War of the Third Coalition which ended with the British naval victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. Spain_sentence_236

In 1807, a secret treaty between Napoleon and the unpopular prime minister led to a new declaration of war against Britain and Portugal. Spain_sentence_237

Napoleon's troops entered the country to invade Portugal but instead occupied Spain's major fortresses. Spain_sentence_238

The Spanish king abdicated in favour of Napoleon's brother, Joseph Bonaparte. Spain_sentence_239

Joseph Bonaparte was seen as a puppet monarch and was regarded with scorn by the Spanish. Spain_sentence_240

The 2 May 1808 revolt was one of many nationalist uprisings across the country against the Bonapartist regime. Spain_sentence_241

These revolts marked the beginning of a devastating war of independence against the Napoleonic regime. Spain_sentence_242

The most celebrated battles of this war were those of Bruch, in the highlands of Montserrat, in which the Catalan peasantry routed a French army; Bailén, where Castaños, at the head of the army of Andalusia, defeated Dupont; and the sieges of Zaragoza and Girona, which were worthy of the ancient Spaniards of Saguntum and Numantia. Spain_sentence_243

Napoleon was forced to intervene personally, defeating several Spanish armies and forcing a British army to retreat. Spain_sentence_244

However, further military action by Spanish armies, guerrillas and Wellington's British-Portuguese forces, combined with Napoleon's disastrous invasion of Russia, led to the ousting of the French imperial armies from Spain in 1814, and the return of King Ferdinand VII. Spain_sentence_245

During the war, in 1810, a revolutionary body, the Cortes of Cádiz, was assembled to co-ordinate the effort against the Bonapartist regime and to prepare a constitution. Spain_sentence_246

It met as one body, and its members represented the entire Spanish empire. Spain_sentence_247

In 1812, a constitution for universal representation under a constitutional monarchy was declared, but after the fall of the Bonapartist regime, Ferdinand VII dismissed the Cortes Generales and was determined to rule as an absolute monarch. Spain_sentence_248

These events foreshadowed the conflict between conservatives and liberals in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Spain_sentence_249

Spain's conquest by France benefited Latin American anti-colonialists who resented the Imperial Spanish government's policies that favoured Spanish-born citizens (Peninsulars) over those born overseas (Criollos) and demanded retroversion of the sovereignty to the people. Spain_sentence_250

Starting in 1809 Spain's American colonies began a series of revolutions and declared independence, leading to the Spanish American wars of independence that ended Spanish control over its mainland colonies in the Americas. Spain_sentence_251

King Ferdinand VII's attempt to re-assert control proved futile as he faced opposition not only in the colonies but also in Spain and army revolts followed, led by liberal officers. Spain_sentence_252

By the end of 1826, the only American colonies Spain held were Cuba and Puerto Rico. Spain_sentence_253

The Napoleonic War left Spain economically ruined, deeply divided and politically unstable. Spain_sentence_254

In the 1830s and 1840s, Carlism (a reactionary legitimist movement supportive of the branch issued from Carlos María Isidro of Bourbon, younger brother of Ferdinand VII), fought against the cristinos or isabelinos (supportive of Queen Isabella II, daughter of Ferdinand VII) in the Carlist Wars. Spain_sentence_255

Isabelline forces prevailed, but the conflict between progressives and moderates ended in a weak early constitutional period. Spain_sentence_256

After the Glorious Revolution of 1868 and the short-lived First Spanish Republic, the latter yielded to a stable monarchic period, the Restoration, a rigid bipartisan regime fuelled up by the turnismo (the prearranged rotation of government control between liberals and conservatives) and the form of political representation at the countryside (based on clientelism) known as caciquismo []. Spain_sentence_257

In the late 19th century nationalist movements arose in the Philippines and Cuba. Spain_sentence_258

In 1895 and 1896 the Cuban War of Independence and the Philippine Revolution broke out and eventually the United States became involved. Spain_sentence_259

The Spanish–American War was fought in the spring of 1898 and resulted in Spain losing the last of its once vast colonial empire outside of North Africa. Spain_sentence_260

El Desastre (the Disaster), as the war became known in Spain, gave added impetus to the Generation of '98 who were analyzing the country. Spain_sentence_261

Although the period around the turn of the century was one of increasing prosperity, the 20th century brought little social peace; Spain played a minor part in the scramble for Africa, with the colonisation of Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco and Equatorial Guinea. Spain_sentence_262

It remained neutral during World War I (see Spain in World War I). Spain_sentence_263

The heavy losses suffered during the Rif War in Morocco brought discredit to the government and undermined the monarchy. Spain_sentence_264

Industrialisation, the development of railways and incipient capitalism developed in several areas of the country, particularly in Barcelona, as well as Labour movement and socialist and anarchist ideas. Spain_sentence_265

The 1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition and the 1870 Barcelona Labour Congress are good examples of this. Spain_sentence_266

In 1879, Spanish Socialist Workers' Party is founded. Spain_sentence_267

Linked trade union to this party, Unión General de Trabajadores, was founded in 1888. Spain_sentence_268

In the anarcho-sindicalist trend of the labour movement in Spain, Confederación Nacional del Trabajo was founded in 1910 and Federación Anarquista Ibérica in 1927. Spain_sentence_269

Catalanism and vasquism, alongside other nationalisms and regionalisms in Spain, arose in that period, being the Basque Nationalist Party formed in 1895 and Regionalist League of Catalonia in 1901. Spain_sentence_270

Political corruption and repression weakened the democratic system of the constitutional monarchy of a two-parties system. Spain_sentence_271

The Tragic Week events and repression examples the social instability of the time. Spain_sentence_272

The La Canadiense strike in 1919 led to the first law limiting the working day to eight hours. Spain_sentence_273

After a period of dictatorship during the governments of Generals Miguel Primo de Rivera and Dámaso Berenguer and Admiral Aznar-Cabañas (1923–1931), the first elections since 1923, largely understood as a plebiscite on Monarchy, took place: the 12 April 1931 municipal elections. Spain_sentence_274

These gave a resounding victory to the Republican-Socialist candidacies in large cities and provincial capitals, with a majority of monarchist councilors in rural areas. Spain_sentence_275

The king left the country and the proclamation of the Republic on 14 April ensued, with the formation of a provisional government. Spain_sentence_276

A constitution for the country was passed in October 1931 following the June 1931 Constituent general election, and a series of cabinets presided by Manuel Azaña supported by republican parties and the PSOE followed. Spain_sentence_277

In the election held in 1933 the right triumphed and in 1936, the left. Spain_sentence_278

During the Second Republic there was a great political and social upheaval, marked by a sharp radicalization of the left and the right. Spain_sentence_279

The violent acts during this period included the burning of churches, the 1932 failed coup d'état led by José Sanjurjo, the Revolution of 1934 and numerous attacks against rival political leaders. Spain_sentence_280

On the other hand, it is also during the Second Republic when important reforms to modernize the country were initiated: a democratic constitution, agrarian reform, restructuring of the army, political decentralization and women's right to vote. Spain_sentence_281

Civil War and Francoist dictatorship Spain_section_7

Main articles: Spanish Civil War, Spanish Revolution of 1936, and Francoist Spain Spain_sentence_282

The Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936: on 17 and 18 July, part of the military carried out a coup d'état that triumphed in only part of the country. Spain_sentence_283

The situation led to a civil war, in which the territory was divided into two zones: one under the authority of the Republican government, that counted on outside support from the Soviet Union and Mexico (and from International Brigades), and the other controlled by the putschists (the Nationalist or rebel faction), most critically supported by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Spain_sentence_284

The Republic was not supported by the Western powers due to the British-led policy of non-intervention. Spain_sentence_285

General Francisco Franco was sworn in as the supreme leader of the rebels on 1 October 1936. Spain_sentence_286

An uneasy relationship between the Republican government and the grassroots anarchists who had initiated a partial Social revolution also ensued. Spain_sentence_287

The civil war was viciously fought and there were many atrocities committed by all sides. Spain_sentence_288

The war claimed the lives of over 500,000 people and caused the flight of up to a half-million citizens from the country. Spain_sentence_289

On 1 April 1939, five months before the beginning of World War II, the rebel side led by Franco emerged victorious, imposing a dictatorship over the whole country. Spain_sentence_290

The regime remained chiefly "neutral" from a nominal standpoint in the Second World War (it briefly switched its position to "non-belligerent"), although it was sympathetic to the Axis and provided the Nazi Wehrmacht with Spanish volunteers in the Eastern Front. Spain_sentence_291

The only legal party under Franco's dictatorship was the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS (FET y de las JONS), formed in 1937 upon the merging of the Fascist Falange Española de las JONS and the Carlist traditionalists and to which the rest of right-wing groups supporting the rebels also added. Spain_sentence_292

The name of "Movimiento Nacional", sometimes understood as a wider structure than the FET y de las JONS proper, largely imposed over the later's name in official documents along the 1950s. Spain_sentence_293

After World War II Spain was politically and economically isolated, and was kept out of the United Nations. Spain_sentence_294

This changed in 1955, during the Cold War period, when it became strategically important for the US to establish a military presence on the Iberian Peninsula as a counter to any possible move by the Soviet Union into the Mediterranean basin. Spain_sentence_295

In the 1960s, Spain registered an unprecedented rate of economic growth which was propelled by industrialisation, a mass internal migration from rural areas to Madrid, Barcelona and the Basque Country and the creation of a mass tourism industry. Spain_sentence_296

Franco's rule was also characterised by authoritarianism, promotion of a unitary national identity, National Catholicism, and discriminatory language policies. Spain_sentence_297

On 17 January 1966, a fatal collision occurred between a B-52G and a KC-135 Stratotanker over Palomares. Spain_sentence_298

The conventional explosives in two of the Mk28-type hydrogen bombs detonated upon impact with the ground, dispersing plutonium over nearby farms. Spain_sentence_299

Restoration of democracy Spain_section_8

Main articles: Spanish transition to democracy and Spanish society after the democratic transition Spain_sentence_300

In 1962, a group of politicians involved in the opposition to Franco's regime inside the country and in exile met in the congress of the European Movement in Munich, where they made a resolution in favour of democracy. Spain_sentence_301

With Franco's death in November 1975, Juan Carlos succeeded to the position of King of Spain and head of state in accordance with the franquist law. Spain_sentence_302

With the approval of the new Spanish Constitution of 1978 and the restoration of democracy, the State devolved much authority to the regions and created an internal organisation based on autonomous communities. Spain_sentence_303

The Spanish 1977 Amnesty Law let people of Franco's regime continue inside institutions without consequences, even perpetrators of some crimes during transition to democracy like the Massacre of 3 March 1976 in Vitoria or 1977 Massacre of Atocha. Spain_sentence_304

In the Basque Country, moderate Basque nationalism coexisted with a radical nationalist movement led by the armed organisation ETA until the latter's dissolution in May 2018. Spain_sentence_305

The group was formed in 1959 during Franco's rule but has continued to wage its violent campaign even after the restoration of democracy and the return of a large measure of regional autonomy. Spain_sentence_306

On 23 February 1981, rebel elements among the security forces seized the Cortes in an attempt to impose a military-backed government. Spain_sentence_307

King Juan Carlos took personal command of the military and successfully ordered the coup plotters, via national television, to surrender. Spain_sentence_308

During the 1980s the democratic restoration made possible a growing open society. Spain_sentence_309

New cultural movements based on freedom appeared, like La Movida Madrileña and a culture of human rights arose with Gregorio Peces-Barba. Spain_sentence_310

On 30 May 1982 Spain joined NATO, followed by a referendum after a strong social opposition. Spain_sentence_311

That year the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE) came to power, the first left-wing government in 43 years. Spain_sentence_312

In 1986 Spain joined the European Economic Community, which later became the European Union. Spain_sentence_313

The PSOE was replaced in government by the Partido Popular (PP) in 1996 after scandals around participation of the government of Felipe González in the Dirty war against ETA; at that point the PSOE had served almost 14 consecutive years in office. Spain_sentence_314

On 1 January 2002, Spain fully adopted the euro, and Spain experienced strong economic growth, well above the EU average during the early 2000s. Spain_sentence_315

However, well-publicised concerns issued by many economic commentators at the height of the boom warned that extraordinary property prices and a high foreign trade deficit were likely to lead to a painful economic collapse. Spain_sentence_316

In 2002 the Prestige oil spill occurred with big ecological consequences along Spain's Atlantic coastline. Spain_sentence_317

In 2003 José María Aznar supported US president George W. Bush in the Iraq War, and a strong movement against war rose in Spanish society. Spain_sentence_318

On 11 March 2004 a local Islamist terrorist group inspired by Al-Qaeda carried out the largest terrorist attack in Spanish history when they killed 191 people and wounded more than 1,800 others by bombing commuter trains in Madrid. Spain_sentence_319

Though initial suspicions focused on the Basque terrorist group ETA, evidence soon emerged indicating Islamist involvement. Spain_sentence_320

Because of the proximity of the 2004 election, the issue of responsibility quickly became a political controversy, with the main competing parties PP and PSOE exchanging accusations over the handling of the incident. Spain_sentence_321

The elections on 14 March were won by the PSOE, led by José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero. Spain_sentence_322

The proportion of Spain's foreign born population increased rapidly during its economic boom in the early 2000s, but then declined due to the financial crisis. Spain_sentence_323

In 2005 the Spanish government legalised same sex marriage. Spain_sentence_324

Decentralisation was supported with much resistance of Constitutional Court and conservative opposition, so did gender politics like quotas or the law against gender violence. Spain_sentence_325

Government talks with ETA happened, and the group announced its permanent cease of violence in 2010. Spain_sentence_326

The bursting of the Spanish property bubble in 2008 led to the 2008–16 Spanish financial crisis. Spain_sentence_327

High levels of unemployment, cuts in government spending and corruption in Royal family and People's Party served as a backdrop to the 2011–12 Spanish protests. Spain_sentence_328

Catalan independentism also rose. Spain_sentence_329

In 2011, Mariano Rajoy's conservative People's Party won the election with 44.6% of votes. Spain_sentence_330

As prime minister, he continued to implement austerity measures required by the EU Stability and Growth Pact. Spain_sentence_331

On 19 June 2014, the monarch, Juan Carlos, abdicated in favour of his son, who became Felipe VI. Spain_sentence_332

A Catalan independence referendum was held on 1 October 2017 and then, on 27 October, the Catalan parliament voted to unilaterally declare independence from Spain to form a Catalan Republic on the day the Spanish Senate was discussing approving direct rule over Catalonia as called for by the Spanish Prime Minister. Spain_sentence_333

Later that day the Senate granted the power to impose direct rule and Mr Rajoy dissolved the Catalan parliament and called a new election. Spain_sentence_334

No country recognised Catalonia as a separate state. Spain_sentence_335

On 1 June 2018, the Congress of Deputies passed a motion of no-confidence against Rajoy and replaced him with the PSOE leader Pedro Sánchez. Spain_sentence_336

On 31 January 2020, the COVID-19 virus was confirmed to have spread to Spain. Spain_sentence_337

On 25 March, the death toll in Spain was the second highest in the world. Spain_sentence_338

Geography Spain_section_9

Main article: Geography of Spain Spain_sentence_339

At 505,992 km (195,365 sq mi), Spain is the world's fifty-second largest country and Europe's fourth largest country. Spain_sentence_340

It is some 47,000 km (18,000 sq mi) smaller than France and 81,000 km (31,000 sq mi) larger than the US state of California. Spain_sentence_341

Mount Teide (Tenerife) is the highest mountain peak in Spain and is the third largest volcano in the world from its base. Spain_sentence_342

Spain is a transcontinental country, having territory in both Europe and Africa. Spain_sentence_343

Spain lies between latitudes 27° and 44° N, and longitudes 19° W and 5° E. Spain_sentence_344

On the west, Spain is bordered by Portugal; on the south, it is bordered by Gibraltar (a British overseas territory) and Morocco, through its exclaves in North Africa (Ceuta and Melilla, and the peninsula of Vélez de la Gomera). Spain_sentence_345

On the northeast, along the Pyrenees mountain range, it is bordered by France and Andorra. Spain_sentence_346

Along the Pyrenees in Girona, a small exclave town called Llívia is surrounded by France. Spain_sentence_347

Extending to 1,214 km (754 mi), the Portugal–Spain border is the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union. Spain_sentence_348

Islands Spain_section_10

Main article: List of islands of Spain Spain_sentence_349

Spain also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean and a number of uninhabited islands on the Mediterranean side of the Strait of Gibraltar, known as plazas de soberanía ("places of sovereignty", or territories under Spanish sovereignty), such as the Chafarinas Islands and Alhucemas. Spain_sentence_350

The peninsula of Vélez de la Gomera is also regarded as a plaza de soberanía. Spain_sentence_351

The isle of Alborán, located in the Mediterranean between Spain and North Africa, is also administered by Spain, specifically by the municipality of Almería, Andalusia. Spain_sentence_352

The little Pheasant Island in the River Bidasoa is a Spanish-French condominium. Spain_sentence_353

The ten most populous islands of Spain (2019): Spain_sentence_354


IslandSpain_header_cell_0_0_0 PopulationSpain_header_cell_0_0_1
TenerifeSpain_cell_0_1_0 917,841Spain_cell_0_1_1
MallorcaSpain_cell_0_2_0 896,038Spain_cell_0_2_1
Gran CanariaSpain_cell_0_3_0 851,231Spain_cell_0_3_1
LanzaroteSpain_cell_0_4_0 152,289Spain_cell_0_4_1
Ibiza (Eivissa)Spain_cell_0_5_0 147,914Spain_cell_0_5_1
FuerteventuraSpain_cell_0_6_0 116,887Spain_cell_0_6_1
MenorcaSpain_cell_0_7_0 93,397Spain_cell_0_7_1
La PalmaSpain_cell_0_8_0 82,671Spain_cell_0_8_1
La GomeraSpain_cell_0_9_0 21,503Spain_cell_0_9_1
FormenteraSpain_cell_0_10_0 12,111Spain_cell_0_10_1

Mountains and rivers Spain_section_11

Mainland Spain is a mountainous country, dominated by high plateaus and mountain chains. Spain_sentence_355

After the Pyrenees, the main mountain ranges are the Cordillera Cantábrica (Cantabrian Range), Sistema Ibérico (Iberian System), Sistema Central (Central System), Montes de Toledo, Sierra Morena and the Sistema Bético (Baetic System) whose highest peak, the 3,478-metre-high (11,411-foot) Mulhacén, located in Sierra Nevada, is the highest elevation in the Iberian Peninsula. Spain_sentence_356

The highest point in Spain is the Teide, a 3,718-metre (12,198 ft) active volcano in the Canary Islands. Spain_sentence_357

The Meseta Central (often translated as "Inner Plateau") is a vast plateau in the heart of peninsular Spain. Spain_sentence_358

There are several major rivers in Spain such as the Tagus (Tajo), Ebro, Guadiana, Douro (Duero), Guadalquivir, Júcar, Segura, Turia and Minho (Miño). Spain_sentence_359

Alluvial plains are found along the coast, the largest of which is that of the Guadalquivir in Andalusia. Spain_sentence_360

Climate Spain_section_12

Main article: Climate of Spain Spain_sentence_361

Three main climatic zones can be separated, according to geographical situation and orographic conditions: Spain_sentence_362


  • The Mediterranean climate, characterised by warm/hot and dry summers, is dominant in the peninsula. It has two varieties: Csa and Csb according to the Köppen climate classification.Spain_item_0_0
    • The Csa zone is associated to areas with hot summers. It is predominant in the Mediterranean and Southern Atlantic coast and inland throughout Andalusia, Extremadura and much, if not most, of the centre of the country. The Csa zone covers climatic zones with both relatively warm and cold winters which are considered extremely different to each other at a local level, reason for which Köppen classification is often eschewed within Spain. Local climatic maps generally divide the Mediterranean zone (which covers most of the country) between warm-winter and cold-winter zones, rather than according to summer temperatures.Spain_item_0_1
    • The Csb zone has warm rather than hot summers, and extends to additional cool-winter areas not typically associated with a Mediterranean climate, such as much of central and northern-central of Spain (e.g. western Castile–León, northeastern Castilla-La Mancha and northern Madrid) and into much rainier areas (notably Galicia). Note areas with relatively high rainfall such as Galicia are not considered Mediterranean under local classifications, but classed as oceanic.Spain_item_0_2
  • The semi-arid climate (BSk, BSh), is predominant in the southeastern quarter of the country, but is also widespread in other areas of Spain. It covers most of the Region of Murcia, southern Valencia and eastern Andalusia, where true hot desert climates also exist. Further to the north, it is predominant in the upper and mid reaches of the Ebro valley, which crosses southern Navarre, central Aragon and western Catalonia. It also is found in Madrid, Extremadura, Castilla-La Mancha, and some locations of western Andalusia. The dry season extends beyond the summer and average temperature depends on altitude and latitude.Spain_item_0_3
  • The oceanic climate (Cfb), located in the northern quarter of the country, especially in the Atlantic region (Basque Country, Cantabria, Asturias, and partly Galicia and Castile–León). Additionally it is also found in northern Navarre, in most highlands areas along the Iberian System and in the Pyrenean valleys, where a humid subtropical variant (Cfa) also occurs. Winter and summer temperatures are influenced by the ocean, and have no seasonal drought.Spain_item_0_4

Apart from these main types, other sub-types can be found, like the alpine climate in areas with very high altitude, the humid subtropical climate in areas of northeastern Spain and the continental climates (Dfc, Dfb / Dsc, Dsb) in the Pyrenees as well as parts of the Cantabrian Range, the Central System, Sierra Nevada and the Iberian System, and a typical desert climate (BWk, BWh) in the zone of Almería, Murcia and eastern Canary Islands. Spain_sentence_363

Low-lying areas of the Canary Islands average above 18.0 °C (64.4 °F) during their coldest month, thus having a tropical climate. Spain_sentence_364

Fauna and flora Spain_section_13

Main article: Wildlife of Spain Spain_sentence_365

The fauna presents a wide diversity that is due in large part to the geographical position of the Iberian peninsula between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and between Africa and Eurasia, and the great diversity of habitats and biotopes, the result of a considerable variety of climates and well differentiated regions. Spain_sentence_366

The vegetation of Spain is varied due to several factors including the diversity of the relief, the climate and latitude. Spain_sentence_367

Spain includes different phytogeographic regions, each with its own floristic characteristics resulting largely from the interaction of climate, topography, soil type and fire, biotic factors. Spain_sentence_368

Politics Spain_section_14

Main article: Politics of Spain Spain_sentence_369

See also: Spanish Constitution of 1978 Spain_sentence_370

The constitutional history of Spain dates back to the constitution of 1812. Spain_sentence_371

In June 1976, Spain's new King Juan Carlos dismissed Carlos Arias Navarro and appointed the reformer Adolfo Suárez as Prime Minister. Spain_sentence_372

The resulting general election in 1977 convened the Constituent Cortes (the Spanish Parliament, in its capacity as a constitutional assembly) for the purpose of drafting and approving the constitution of 1978. Spain_sentence_373

After a national referendum on 6 December 1978, 88% of voters approved of the new constitution - a culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. Spain_sentence_374

As a result, Spain is now composed of 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities with varying degrees of autonomy thanks to its Constitution, which nevertheless explicitly states the indivisible unity of the Spanish nation. Spain_sentence_375

The constitution also specifies that Spain has no state religion and that all are free to practice and believe as they wish. Spain_sentence_376

The Spanish administration approved the Gender Equality Act in 2007 aimed at furthering equality between genders in Spanish political and economic life. Spain_sentence_377

According to Inter-Parliamentary Union data as of 1 September 2018, 137 of the 350 members of the Congress were women (39.1%), while in the Senate, there were 101 women out of 266 (39.9%), placing Spain 16th on their list of countries ranked by proportion of women in the lower (or single) House. Spain_sentence_378

The Gender Empowerment Measure of Spain in the United Nations Human Development Report is 0.794, 12th in the world. Spain_sentence_379

Government Spain_section_15

Spain is a constitutional monarchy, with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral parliament, the Cortes Generales (General Courts). Spain_sentence_380

The legislative branch is made up of the Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados), a lower house with 350 members, elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and the Senate (Senado), an upper house with 259 seats of which 208 are directly elected by popular vote, using a limited voting method, and the other 51 appointed by the regional legislatures to also serve four-year terms. Spain_sentence_381

The executive branch consists of a Council of Ministers presided over by the Prime Minister, who is nominated as candidate by the monarch after holding consultations with representatives from the different parliamentary groups, voted in by the members of the lower house during an investiture session and then formally appointed by the monarch. Spain_sentence_382


  • Head of State (King)Spain_item_1_5
    • Felipe VI, since 19 June 2014Spain_item_1_6
  • GovernmentSpain_item_1_7

Main article: Government of Spain Spain_sentence_383

See also: Spanish government departments Spain_sentence_384


The Prime Minister, deputy prime ministers and the rest of ministers convene at the Council of Ministers. Spain_sentence_385

Spain is organisationally structured as a so-called Estado de las Autonomías ("State of Autonomies"); it is one of the most decentralised countries in Europe, along with Switzerland, Germany and Belgium; for example, all autonomous communities have their own elected parliaments, governments, public administrations, budgets, and resources. Spain_sentence_386

Health and education systems among others are managed by the Spanish communities, and in addition, the Basque Country and Navarre also manage their own public finances based on foral provisions. Spain_sentence_387

In Catalonia, the Basque Country, Navarre and the Canary Islands, a full-fledged autonomous police corps replaces some of the State police functions (see Mossos d'Esquadra, Ertzaintza, Policía Foral/Foruzaingoa and Policía Canaria). Spain_sentence_388

Human rights Spain_section_16

Main article: Human rights in Spain Spain_sentence_389

See also: LGBT rights in Spain Spain_sentence_390

The Spanish Constitution of 1978 "protect all Spaniards and all the peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions". Spain_sentence_391

According to Amnesty International (AI), government investigations of alleged police abuses are often lengthy and punishments were light. Spain_sentence_392

Violence against women was a problem, which the Government took steps to address. Spain_sentence_393

Spain provides one of the highest degrees of liberty in the world for its LGBT community. Spain_sentence_394

Among the countries studied by Pew Research Center in 2013, Spain is rated first in acceptance of homosexuality, with 88% of those surveyed saying that homosexuality should be accepted. Spain_sentence_395

Administrative divisions Spain_section_17

Main article: Political divisions of Spain Spain_sentence_396

The Spanish State is divided into 17 autonomous communities and 2 autonomous cities, both groups being the highest or first-order administrative division in the country. Spain_sentence_397

Autonomous communities are divided into provinces, of which there are 50 in total, and in turn, provinces are divided into municipalities. Spain_sentence_398

In Catalonia, two additional divisions exist, the comarques (sing. Spain_sentence_399

comarca) and the vegueries (sing. Spain_sentence_400

vegueria) both of which have administrative powers; comarques being aggregations of municipalities, and the vegueries being aggregations of comarques. Spain_sentence_401

The concept of a comarca exists in all autonomous communities, however, unlike Catalonia, these are merely historical or geographical subdivisions. Spain_sentence_402

Autonomous communities Spain_section_18

Main article: Autonomous communities of Spain Spain_sentence_403

See also: Nationalities and regions of Spain Spain_sentence_404

Spain's autonomous communities are the first level administrative divisions of the country. Spain_sentence_405

They were created after the current constitution came into effect (in 1978) in recognition of the right to self-government of the "nationalities and regions of Spain". Spain_sentence_406

The autonomous communities were to comprise adjacent provinces with common historical, cultural, and economic traits. Spain_sentence_407

This territorial organisation, based on devolution, is known in Spain as the "State of Autonomies". Spain_sentence_408

The basic institutional law of each autonomous community is the Statute of Autonomy. Spain_sentence_409

The Statutes of Autonomy establish the name of the community according to its historical and contemporary identity, the limits of its territories, the name and organisation of the institutions of government and the rights they enjoy according to the constitution. Spain_sentence_410

The governments of all autonomous communities must be based on a division of powers and comprise Spain_sentence_411


  • a legislative assembly whose members must be elected by universal suffrage according to the system of proportional representation and in which all areas that integrate the territory are fairly represented;Spain_item_3_12
  • a government council, with executive and administrative functions headed by a president, elected by the Legislative Assembly and nominated by the King of Spain;Spain_item_3_13
  • a supreme court, under the supreme court of Spain, which heads the judiciary in the autonomous community.Spain_item_3_14

Catalonia, Galicia and the Basque Country, which identified themselves as nationalities, were granted self-government through a rapid process. Spain_sentence_412

Andalusia also took that denomination in its first Statute of Autonomy, even though it followed the longer process stipulated in the constitution for the rest of the country. Spain_sentence_413

Progressively, other communities in revisions to their Statutes of Autonomy have also taken that denomination in accordance to their historical and modern identities, such as the Valencian Community, the Canary Islands, the Balearic Islands, and Aragon. Spain_sentence_414

The autonomous communities have wide legislative and executive autonomy, with their own parliaments and regional governments. Spain_sentence_415

The distribution of powers may be different for every community, as laid out in their Statutes of Autonomy, since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical. Spain_sentence_416

Only two communities—the Basque Country and Navarre—have full fiscal autonomy. Spain_sentence_417

Beyond fiscal autonomy, the nationalities—Andalusia, the Basque Country, Catalonia, and Galicia—were devolved more powers than the rest of the communities, among them the ability of the regional president to dissolve the parliament and call for elections at any time. Spain_sentence_418

In addition, the Basque Country, Catalonia and Navarre have police corps of their own: Ertzaintza, Mossos d'Esquadra and the Policía Foral respectively. Spain_sentence_419

Other communities have more limited forces or none at all, like the Policía Autónoma Andaluza in Andalusia or the BESCAM in Madrid. Spain_sentence_420

Nonetheless, recent amendments to existing Statutes of Autonomy or the promulgation of new Statutes altogether, have reduced the asymmetry between the powers originally granted to the nationalities and the rest of the regions. Spain_sentence_421

Finally, along with the 17 autonomous communities, two autonomous cities are also part of the State of Autonomies and are first-order territorial divisions: Ceuta and Melilla. Spain_sentence_422

These are two exclaves located in the northern African coast. Spain_sentence_423

Provinces and municipalities Spain_section_19

Main articles: Provinces of Spain and Municipalities of Spain Spain_sentence_424

Autonomous communities are divided into provinces, which served as their territorial building blocks. Spain_sentence_425

In turn, provinces are divided into municipalities. Spain_sentence_426

The existence of both the provinces and the municipalities is guaranteed and protected by the constitution, not necessarily by the Statutes of Autonomy themselves. Spain_sentence_427

Municipalities are granted autonomy to manage their internal affairs, and provinces are the territorial divisions designed to carry out the activities of the State. Spain_sentence_428

The current provincial division structure is based—with minor changes—on the 1833 territorial division by Javier de Burgos, and in all, the Spanish territory is divided into 50 provinces. Spain_sentence_429

The communities of Asturias, Cantabria, La Rioja, the Balearic Islands, Madrid, Murcia and Navarre are the only communities that comprise a single province, which is coextensive with the community itself. Spain_sentence_430

In these cases, the administrative institutions of the province are replaced by the governmental institutions of the community. Spain_sentence_431

Foreign relations Spain_section_20

Main article: Foreign relations of Spain Spain_sentence_432

After the return of democracy following the death of Franco in 1975, Spain's foreign policy priorities were to break out of the diplomatic isolation of the Franco years and expand diplomatic relations, enter the European Community, and define security relations with the West. Spain_sentence_433

As a member of NATO since 1982, Spain has established itself as a participant in multilateral international security activities. Spain_sentence_434

Spain's EU membership represents an important part of its foreign policy. Spain_sentence_435

Even on many international issues beyond western Europe, Spain prefers to coordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political co-operation mechanisms. Spain_sentence_436

Spain has maintained its special relations with Hispanic America and the Philippines. Spain_sentence_437

Its policy emphasises the concept of an Ibero-American community, essentially the renewal of the concept of "Hispanidad" or "Hispanismo", as it is often referred to in English, which has sought to link the Iberian Peninsula with Hispanic America through language, commerce, history and culture. Spain_sentence_438

It is fundamentally "based on shared values and the recovery of democracy." Spain_sentence_439


Spain claims Gibraltar, a 6-square-kilometre (2.3 sq mi) Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom in the southernmost part of the Iberian Peninsula. Spain_sentence_440

Then a Spanish town, it was conquered by an Anglo-Dutch force in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of Archduke Charles, pretender to the Spanish throne. Spain_sentence_441

The legal situation concerning Gibraltar was settled in 1713 by the Treaty of Utrecht, in which Spain ceded the territory in perpetuity to the British Crown stating that, should the British abandon this post, it would be offered to Spain first. Spain_sentence_442

Since the 1940s Spain has called for the return of Gibraltar. Spain_sentence_443

The overwhelming majority of Gibraltarians strongly oppose this, along with any proposal of shared sovereignty. Spain_sentence_444

UN resolutions call on the United Kingdom and Spain to reach an agreement over the status of Gibraltar. Spain_sentence_445

The Spanish claim makes a distinction between the isthmus that connects the Rock to the Spanish mainland on the one hand, and the Rock and city of Gibraltar on the other. Spain_sentence_446

While the Rock and city were ceded by the Treaty of Utrecht, Spain asserts that the "occupation of the isthmus is illegal and against the principles of International Law". Spain_sentence_447

The United Kingdom relies on de facto arguments of possession by prescription in relation to the isthmus, as there has been "continuous possession [of the isthmus] over a long period". Spain_sentence_448

Another claim by Spain is about the Savage Islands, part of Portugal. Spain_sentence_449

In clash with the Portuguese position, Spain claims that they are rocks rather than islands, and therefore Spain does not accept any extension of the Portuguese Exclusive Economic Zone (200 nautical miles) generated by the islands, while acknowledging the Selvagens having territorial waters (12 nautical miles). Spain_sentence_450

On 5 July 2013, Spain sent a letter to the UN expressing these views. Spain_sentence_451

Spain claims the sovereignty over the Perejil Island, a small, uninhabited rocky islet located in the South shore of the Strait of Gibraltar. Spain_sentence_452

The island lies 250 metres (820 ft) just off the coast of Morocco, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from Ceuta and 13.5 kilometres (8.4 mi) from mainland Spain. Spain_sentence_453

Its sovereignty is disputed between Spain and Morocco. Spain_sentence_454

It was the subject of an armed incident between the two countries in 2002. Spain_sentence_455

The incident ended when both countries agreed to return to the status quo ante which existed prior to the Moroccan occupation of the island. Spain_sentence_456

The islet is now deserted and without any sign of sovereignty. Spain_sentence_457

Besides the Perejil Island, the Spanish-held territories claimed by other countries are two: Morocco claims the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla and the plazas de soberanía islets off the northern coast of Africa. Spain_sentence_458

Portugal does not recognise Spain's sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza which was annexed by Spain in 1801 after the War of the Oranges. Spain_sentence_459

Portugal stance has been the territory being de iure Portuguese territory and de facto Spanish. Spain_sentence_460

Military Spain_section_21

Main article: Spanish Armed Forces Spain_sentence_461

The armed forces of Spain are known as the Spanish Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Españolas). Spain_sentence_462

Their Commander-in-chief is the King of Spain, Felipe VI. Spain_sentence_463

The next military authorities in line are the Prime Minister and the Minister of Defence. Spain_sentence_464

The fourth military authority of the State is the Chief of the Defence Staff (JEMAD). Spain_sentence_465

The Defence Staff (Estado Mayor de la Defensa) assists the JEMAD as auxiliary body. Spain_sentence_466

The Spanish Armed Forces are divided into three branches: Spain_sentence_467


Military conscription was suppressed in 2001. Spain_sentence_468

Ecology Spain_section_22

See also: Renewable energy in Spain Spain_sentence_469

Since 1996, CO2 emissions have risen notably, not reaching the reduction emissions promised in the Kyoto Protocol for fighting climate change. Spain_sentence_470

In the period 1880–2000 more than half of the years have been qualified as dry or very dry. Spain_sentence_471

Spain is the country in Europe more exposed to climate change effects, according to Al Gore. Spain_sentence_472

Electricity from renewable sources in Spain represented 42.8% of electricity demand coverage during 2014. Spain_sentence_473

The country has a very large wind power capability built up over many years and is one of the world leaders in wind power generation. Spain_sentence_474

Spain also positioned itself as a European leader in Solar power, by 2007–2010 the country was second only to Germany in installed capacity. Spain_sentence_475

Vitoria-Gasteiz was awarded with the European Green Capital in 2012 after implementing good practices by the Agenda 21 and recovering Salburua wetland, protected by Ramsar Convention and Natura 2000 and a part of Green Belt of Vitoria-Gasteiz, funded partially with The LIFE Programme. Spain_sentence_476

Economy Spain_section_23

Main article: Economy of Spain Spain_sentence_477

Spain's capitalist mixed economy is the 14th largest worldwide and the 5th largest in the European Union, as well as the Eurozone's 4th largest. Spain_sentence_478

The centre-right government of former prime minister José María Aznar worked successfully to gain admission to the group of countries launching the euro in 1999. Spain_sentence_479

Unemployment stood at 17.1% in June 2017, below Spain's early 1990s unemployment rate of at over 20%. Spain_sentence_480

The youth unemployment rate (35% in March 2018) is extremely high compared to EU standards. Spain_sentence_481

Perennial weak points of Spain's economy include a large informal economy, and an education system which OECD reports place among the poorest for developed countries, together with the United States and UK. Spain_sentence_482

By the mid-1990s the economy had commenced the growth that had been disrupted by the global recession of the early 1990s. Spain_sentence_483

The strong economic growth helped the government to reduce the government debt as a percentage of GDP and Spain's high unemployment rate began to steadily decline. Spain_sentence_484

With the government budget in balance and inflation under control Spain was admitted into the Eurozone in 1999. Spain_sentence_485

Since the 1990s some Spanish companies have gained multinational status, often expanding their activities in culturally close Latin America. Spain_sentence_486

Spain is the second biggest foreign investor there, after the United States. Spain_sentence_487

Spanish companies have also expanded into Asia, especially China and India. Spain_sentence_488

This early global expansion is a competitive advantage over its competitors and European neighbours. Spain_sentence_489

The reason for this early expansion is the booming interest towards Spanish language and culture in Asia and Africa and a corporate culture that learned to take risks in unstable markets. Spain_sentence_490

Spanish companies invested in fields like renewable energy commercialisation (Iberdrola was the world's largest renewable energy operator), technology companies like Telefónica, Abengoa, Mondragon Corporation (which is the world's largest worker-owned cooperative), Movistar, Hisdesat, Indra, train manufacturers like CAF, Talgo, global corporations such as the textile company Inditex, petroleum companies like Repsol or Cepsa and infrastructure, with six of the ten biggest international construction firms specialising in transport being Spanish, like Ferrovial, Acciona, ACS, OHL and FCC. Spain_sentence_491

In 2005 the Economist Intelligence Unit's quality of life survey placed Spain among the top 10 in the world. Spain_sentence_492

In 2013 the same survey (now called the "Where-to-be-born index"), ranked Spain 28th in the world. Spain_sentence_493

In 2010, the Basque city of Bilbao was awarded with the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize, and its mayor at the time, Iñaki Azkuna, was awarded the World Mayor Prize in 2012. Spain_sentence_494

The Basque capital city of Vitoria-Gasteiz received the European Green Capital Award in 2012. Spain_sentence_495

Automotive industry Spain_section_24

Main article: Automotive industry in Spain Spain_sentence_496

The automotive industry is one of the largest employers in the country. Spain_sentence_497

In 2015 Spain was the 8th largest automobile producer country in the world and the 2nd largest car manufacturer in Europe after Germany. Spain_sentence_498

By 2016, the automotive industry was generating 8.7 percent of Spain's gross domestic product, employing about nine percent of the manufacturing industry. Spain_sentence_499

By 2008 the automobile industry was the 2nd most exported industry while in 2015 about 80% of the total production was for export. Spain_sentence_500

German companies poured €4.8 billion into Spain in 2015, making the country the second-largest destination for German foreign direct investment behind only the U.S. Spain_sentence_501

The lion's share of that investment—€4 billion—went to the country's auto industry. Spain_sentence_502

Agriculture Spain_section_25

Main article: Agriculture in Spain Spain_sentence_503

Crop areas were farmed in two highly diverse manners. Spain_sentence_504

Areas relying on non-irrigated cultivation (secano), which made up 85% of the entire crop area, depended solely on rainfall as a source of water. Spain_sentence_505

They included the humid regions of the north and the northwest, as well as vast arid zones that had not been irrigated. Spain_sentence_506

The much more productive regions devoted to irrigated cultivation (regadío) accounted for 3 million hectares in 1986, and the government hoped that this area would eventually double, as it already had doubled since 1950. Spain_sentence_507

Particularly noteworthy was the development in Almería—one of the most arid and desolate provinces of Spain—of winter crops of various fruits and vegetables for export to Europe. Spain_sentence_508

Though only about 17% of Spain's cultivated land was irrigated, it was estimated to be the source of between 40 and 45% of the gross value of crop production and of 50% of the value of agricultural exports. Spain_sentence_509

More than half of the irrigated area was planted in corn, fruit trees, and vegetables. Spain_sentence_510

Other agricultural products that benefited from irrigation included grapes, cotton, sugar beets, potatoes, legumes, olive trees, mangos, strawberries, tomatoes, and fodder grasses. Spain_sentence_511

Depending on the nature of the crop, it was possible to harvest two successive crops in the same year on about 10% of the country's irrigated land. Spain_sentence_512

Citrus fruits, vegetables, cereal grains, olive oil, and wine—Spain's traditional agricultural products—continued to be important in the 1980s. Spain_sentence_513

In 1983 they represented 12%, 12%, 8%, 6%, and 4%, respectively, of the country's agricultural production. Spain_sentence_514

Because of the changed diet of an increasingly affluent population, there was a notable increase in the consumption of livestock, poultry, and dairy products. Spain_sentence_515

Meat production for domestic consumption became the single most important agricultural activity, accounting for 30% of all farm-related production in 1983. Spain_sentence_516

Increased attention to livestock was the reason that Spain became a net importer of grains. Spain_sentence_517

Ideal growing conditions, combined with proximity to important north European markets, made citrus fruits Spain's leading export. Spain_sentence_518

Fresh vegetables and fruits produced through intensive irrigation farming also became important export commodities, as did sunflower seed oil that was produced to compete with the more expensive olive oils in oversupply throughout the Mediterranean countries of the European Community. Spain_sentence_519

Tourism Spain_section_26

Main article: Tourism in Spain Spain_sentence_520

In 2017, Spain was the second most visited country in the world, recording 82 million tourists which marked the fifth consecutive year of record-beating numbers. Spain_sentence_521

The headquarters of the World Tourism Organization are located in Madrid. Spain_sentence_522

Spain's geographic location, popular coastlines, diverse landscapes, historical legacy, vibrant culture, and excellent infrastructure has made the country's international tourist industry among the largest in the world. Spain_sentence_523

In the last five decades, international tourism in Spain has grown to become the second largest in the world in terms of spending, worth approximately 40 billion Euros or about 5% of GDP in 2006. Spain_sentence_524

Castile and Leon is the Spanish leader in rural tourism linked to its environmental and architectural heritage. Spain_sentence_525

Energy Spain_section_27

Main article: Energy in Spain Spain_sentence_526

Spain is one of the world's leading countries in the development and production of renewable energy. Spain_sentence_527

In 2010 Spain became the solar power world leader when it overtook the United States with a massive power station plant called La Florida, near Alvarado, Badajoz. Spain_sentence_528

Spain is also Europe's main producer of wind energy. Spain_sentence_529

In 2010 its wind turbines generated 42,976 GWh, which accounted for 16.4% of all electrical energy produced in Spain. Spain_sentence_530

On 9 November 2010, wind energy reached an instantaneous historic peak covering 53% of mainland electricity demand and generating an amount of energy that is equivalent to that of 14 nuclear reactors. Spain_sentence_531

Other renewable energies used in Spain are hydroelectric, biomass and marine (2 power plants under construction). Spain_sentence_532

Non-renewable energy sources used in Spain are nuclear (8 operative reactors), gas, coal, and oil. Spain_sentence_533

Fossil fuels together generated 58% of Spain's electricity in 2009, just below the OECD mean of 61%. Spain_sentence_534

Nuclear power generated another 19%, and wind and hydro about 12% each. Spain_sentence_535

Transport Spain_section_28

Main article: Transport in Spain Spain_sentence_536

The Spanish road system is mainly centralised, with six highways connecting Madrid to the Basque Country, Catalonia, Valencia, West Andalusia, Extremadura and Galicia. Spain_sentence_537

Additionally, there are highways along the Atlantic (Ferrol to Vigo), Cantabrian (Oviedo to San Sebastián) and Mediterranean (Girona to Cádiz) coasts. Spain_sentence_538

Spain aims to put one million electric cars on the road by 2014 as part of the government's plan to save energy and boost energy efficiency. Spain_sentence_539

The former Minister of Industry Miguel Sebastián said that "the electric vehicle is the future and the engine of an industrial revolution." Spain_sentence_540

Spain has the most extensive high-speed rail network in Europe, and the second-most extensive in the world after China. Spain_sentence_541

As of 2019, Spain has a total of over 3,400 km (2,112.66 mi) of high-speed tracks linking Málaga, Seville, Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and Valladolid, with the trains operated at commercial speeds up to 310 km/h (190 mph). Spain_sentence_542

On average, the Spanish high-speed train is the fastest one in the world, followed by the Japanese bullet train and the French TGV. Spain_sentence_543

Regarding punctuality, it is second in the world (98.5% on-time arrival) after the Japanese Shinkansen (99%). Spain_sentence_544

Should the aims of the ambitious AVE programme (Spanish high speed trains) be met, by 2020 Spain will have 7,000 km (4,300 mi) of high-speed trains linking almost all provincial cities to Madrid in less than three hours and Barcelona within four hours. Spain_sentence_545

There are 47 public airports in Spain. Spain_sentence_546

The busiest one is the airport of Madrid (Barajas), with 50 million passengers in 2011, being the world's 15th busiest airport, as well as the European Union's fourth busiest. Spain_sentence_547

The airport of Barcelona (El Prat) is also important, with 35 million passengers in 2011, being the world's 31st-busiest airport. Spain_sentence_548

Other main airports are located in Majorca (23 million passengers), Málaga (13 million passengers), Las Palmas (Gran Canaria) (11 million passengers), Alicante (10 million passengers) and smaller, with the number of passengers between 4 and 10 million, for example Tenerife (two airports), Valencia, Seville, Bilbao, Ibiza, Lanzarote, Fuerteventura. Spain_sentence_549

Also, more than 30 airports with the number of passengers below 4 million. Spain_sentence_550

Science and technology Spain_section_29

Main article: Science and technology in Spain Spain_sentence_551

In the 19th and 20th centuries, science in Spain was held back by severe political instability and consequent economic underdevelopment. Spain_sentence_552

Despite the conditions, some important scientists and engineers emerged. Spain_sentence_553

The most notable were Miguel Servet, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Narcís Monturiol, Celedonio Calatayud, Juan de la Cierva, Leonardo Torres y Quevedo, Margarita Salas and Severo Ochoa. Spain_sentence_554

The Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) is the leading public agency dedicated to scientific research in the country. Spain_sentence_555

It ranked as the 5th top governmental scientific institution worldwide (and 32nd overall) in the 2018 SCImago Institutions Rankings. Spain_sentence_556

Since 2006, the Mobile World Congress has taken place in Barcelona. Spain_sentence_557

Demographics Spain_section_30

Main article: Demographics of Spain Spain_sentence_558

See also: List of Spanish autonomous communities by population Spain_sentence_559

In 2019, the population of Spain officially reached 47 million people, as recorded by the Padrón municipal (Spain's Municipal Register). Spain_sentence_560

Spain's population density, at 91/km (235/sq mi), is lower than that of most Western European countries and its distribution across the country is very unequal. Spain_sentence_561

With the exception of the region surrounding the capital, Madrid, the most populated areas lie around the coast. Spain_sentence_562

The population of Spain has risen 2 1/2 times since 1900, when it stood at 18.6 million, principally due to the spectacular demographic boom in the 1960s and early 1970s. Spain_sentence_563

In 2017, the average total fertility rate (TFR) across Spain was 1.33 children born per woman, one of the lowest in the world, below the replacement rate of 2.1, it remains considerably below the high of 5.11 children born per woman in 1865. Spain_sentence_564

Spain subsequently has one of the oldest populations in the world, with the average age of 43.1 years. Spain_sentence_565

Native Spaniards make up 88% of the total population of Spain. Spain_sentence_566

After the birth rate plunged in the 1980s and Spain's population growth rate dropped, the population again trended upward initially upon the return of many Spaniards who had emigrated to other European countries during the 1970s, and more recently, fuelled by large numbers of immigrants who make up 12% of the population. Spain_sentence_567

The immigrants originate mainly in Latin America (39%), North Africa (16%), Eastern Europe (15%), and Sub-Saharan Africa (4%). Spain_sentence_568

In 2005, Spain instituted a three-month amnesty programme through which certain hitherto undocumented aliens were granted legal residency. Spain_sentence_569

In 2008, Spain granted citizenship to 84,170 persons, mostly to people from Ecuador, Colombia and Morocco. Spain_sentence_570

A sizeable portion of foreign residents in Spain also comes from other Western and Central European countries. Spain_sentence_571

These are mostly British, French, German, Dutch, and Norwegian. Spain_sentence_572

They reside primarily on the Mediterranean coast and the Balearic islands, where many choose to live their retirement or telecommute. Spain_sentence_573

Substantial populations descended from Spanish colonists and immigrants exist in other parts of the world, most notably in Latin America. Spain_sentence_574

Beginning in the late 15th century, large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America and at present most white Latin Americans (who make up about one-third of Latin America's population) are of Spanish or Portuguese origin. Spain_sentence_575

Around 240,000 Spaniards emigrated in the 16th century, mostly to Mexico. Spain_sentence_576

Another 450,000 left in the 17th century. Spain_sentence_577

The estimate between 1492 and 1832 is 1.86 million. Spain_sentence_578

Between 1846 and 1932 it is estimated that nearly 5 million Spaniards emigrated to the Americas, especially to Argentina and Brazil. Spain_sentence_579

Approximately two million Spaniards migrated to other Western European countries between 1960 and 1975. Spain_sentence_580

During the same period perhaps 300,000 went to Latin America. Spain_sentence_581

Urbanisation Spain_section_31


Main article: List of metropolitan areas in Spain Spain_sentence_582

Source: "Áreas urbanas +50", Ministry of Public Works and Transport (2013) Spain_sentence_583


RankSpain_header_cell_1_0_0 Metro areaSpain_header_cell_1_0_1 Autonomous


Government dataSpain_header_cell_1_1_0 Other estimationsSpain_header_cell_1_1_1
1Spain_cell_1_2_0 MadridSpain_cell_1_2_1 MadridSpain_cell_1_2_2 6,052,247Spain_cell_1_2_3 5.4 – 6.5 mSpain_cell_1_2_4
2Spain_cell_1_3_0 BarcelonaSpain_cell_1_3_1 CataloniaSpain_cell_1_3_2 5,030,679Spain_cell_1_3_3 4.2 – 5.1 mSpain_cell_1_3_4
3Spain_cell_1_4_0 ValenciaSpain_cell_1_4_1 ValenciaSpain_cell_1_4_2 1,551,585Spain_cell_1_4_3 1.5 – 2.3 mSpain_cell_1_4_4
4Spain_cell_1_5_0 SevilleSpain_cell_1_5_1 AndalusiaSpain_cell_1_5_2 1,294,867Spain_cell_1_5_3 1.2 – 1.3 mSpain_cell_1_5_4
5Spain_cell_1_6_0 MálagaSpain_cell_1_6_1 AndalusiaSpain_cell_1_6_2 953,251Spain_cell_1_6_3 Spain_cell_1_6_4
6Spain_cell_1_7_0 BilbaoSpain_cell_1_7_1 Basque CountrySpain_cell_1_7_2 910,578Spain_cell_1_7_3 Spain_cell_1_7_4
7Spain_cell_1_8_0 OviedoGijónAvilésSpain_cell_1_8_1 AsturiasSpain_cell_1_8_2 835,053Spain_cell_1_8_3 Spain_cell_1_8_4
8Spain_cell_1_9_0 ZaragozaSpain_cell_1_9_1 AragonSpain_cell_1_9_2 746,152Spain_cell_1_9_3 Spain_cell_1_9_4
9Spain_cell_1_10_0 AlicanteElcheSpain_cell_1_10_1 ValenciaSpain_cell_1_10_2 698,662Spain_cell_1_10_3 Spain_cell_1_10_4
10Spain_cell_1_11_0 MurciaSpain_cell_1_11_1 MurciaSpain_cell_1_11_2 643,854Spain_cell_1_11_3 Spain_cell_1_11_4

Peoples Spain_section_32

Main articles: Spanish people and National and regional identity in Spain Spain_sentence_584

The Spanish Constitution of 1978, in its second article, recognises several contemporary entitiesnationalities— and regions, within the context of the Spanish nation. Spain_sentence_585

Spain has been described as a de facto plurinational state. Spain_sentence_586

The identity of Spain rather accrues of an overlap of different territorial and ethnolinguistic identities than of a sole Spanish identity. Spain_sentence_587

In some cases some of the territorial identities may conflict with the dominant Spanish culture. Spain_sentence_588

Distinct traditional identities within Spain include the Basques, Catalans, Galicians, Andalusians and Valencians, although to some extent all of the 17 autonomous communities may claim a distinct local identity. Spain_sentence_589

It is this last feature of "shared identity" between the more local level or autonomous community and the Spanish level which makes the identity question in Spain complex and far from univocal. Spain_sentence_590

Minority groups Spain_section_33

Spain has a number of descendants of populations from former colonies, especially Latin America and North Africa. Spain_sentence_591

Smaller numbers of immigrants from several Sub-Saharan countries have recently been settling in Spain. Spain_sentence_592

There are also sizeable numbers of Asian immigrants, most of whom are of Middle Eastern, South Asian and Chinese origin. Spain_sentence_593

The single largest group of immigrants are European; represented by large numbers of Romanians, Britons, Germans, French and others. Spain_sentence_594

The arrival of the gitanos, a Romani people, began in the 16th century; estimates of the Spanish Roma population range from 750,000 to over one million. Spain_sentence_595

There are also the mercheros (also quinquis), a formerly nomadic minority group. Spain_sentence_596

Their origin is unclear. Spain_sentence_597

Historically, Sephardi Jews and Moriscos are the main minority groups originated in Spain and with a contribution to Spanish culture. Spain_sentence_598

The Spanish government is offering Spanish nationality to Sephardi Jews. Spain_sentence_599

Immigration Spain_section_34

Main article: Immigration to Spain Spain_sentence_600

According to the Spanish government there were 5.7 million foreign residents in Spain in 2011, or 12% of the total population. Spain_sentence_601

According to residence permit data for 2011, more than 860,000 were Romanian, about 770,000 were Moroccan, approximately 390,000 were British, and 360,000 were Ecuadorian. Spain_sentence_602

Other sizeable foreign communities are Colombian, Bolivian, German, Italian, Bulgarian, and Chinese. Spain_sentence_603

There are more than 200,000 migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa living in Spain, principally Senegaleses and Nigerians. Spain_sentence_604

Since 2000, Spain has experienced high population growth as a result of immigration flows, despite a birth rate that is only half the replacement level. Spain_sentence_605

This sudden and ongoing inflow of immigrants, particularly those arriving illegally by sea, has caused noticeable social tension. Spain_sentence_606

Within the EU, Spain had the 2nd highest immigration rate in percentage terms after Cyprus, but by a great margin, the highest in absolute numbers, up to 2008. Spain_sentence_607

The number of immigrants in Spain had grown up from 500,000 people in 1996 to 5.2 million in 2008 out of a total population of 46 million. Spain_sentence_608

In 2005 alone, a regularisation programme increased the legal immigrant population by 700,000 people. Spain_sentence_609

There are a number of reasons for the high level of immigration, including Spain's cultural ties with Latin America, its geographical position, the porosity of its borders, the large size of its underground economy and the strength of the agricultural and construction sectors, which demand more low cost labour than can be offered by the national workforce. Spain_sentence_610

Another statistically significant factor is the large number of residents of EU origin typically retiring to Spain's Mediterranean coast. Spain_sentence_611

In fact, Spain was Europe's largest absorber of migrants from 2002 to 2007, with its immigrant population more than doubling as 2.5 million people arrived. Spain_sentence_612

In 2008, prior to the onset of the economic crisis, the Financial Times reported that Spain was the most favoured destination for Western Europeans considering a move from their own country and seeking jobs elsewhere in the EU. Spain_sentence_613

In 2008, the government instituted a "Plan of Voluntary Return" which encouraged unemployed immigrants from outside the EU to return to their home countries and receive several incentives, including the right to keep their unemployment benefits and transfer whatever they contributed to the Spanish Social Security. Spain_sentence_614

The programme had little effect; during its first two months, just 1,400 immigrants took up the offer. Spain_sentence_615

What the programme failed to do, the sharp and prolonged economic crisis has done from 2010 to 2011 in that tens of thousands of immigrants have left the country due to lack of jobs. Spain_sentence_616

In 2011 alone, more than half a million people left Spain. Spain_sentence_617

For the first time in decades the net migration rate was expected to be negative, and nine out of 10 emigrants were foreigners. Spain_sentence_618

Languages Spain_section_35

Main article: Languages of Spain Spain_sentence_619

Spain is legally multilingual, and the constitution establishes that the nation will protect "all Spaniards and the peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions. Spain_sentence_620

Spanish (español)— recognised in the constitution as Castilian (castellano)—is the official language of the entire country, and it is the right and duty of every Spaniard to know the language. Spain_sentence_621

The constitution also establishes that "the other Spanish languages"—that is, the other languages of Spain—will also be official in their respective autonomous communities in accordance to their Statutes, their organic regional legislations, and that the "richness of the distinct linguistic modalities of Spain represents a patrimony which will be the object of special respect and protection." Spain_sentence_622

The other official languages of Spain, co-official with Spanish are: Spain_sentence_623


As a percentage of the general population of all Spain, Spanish is natively spoken by 74%, Catalan by 17%, Galician by 7% and Basque by 2% of all Spaniards. Spain_sentence_624

Occitan is spoken by less than 5,000 people, only in the small region of Val d'Aran. Spain_sentence_625

Other Romance minority languages, though not official, have special recognition, such as the Astur-Leonese language (asturianu, bable or llionés) in Asturias and in northwestern Castile and León, and Aragonese (aragonés) in Aragon. Spain_sentence_626

In the North African Spanish autonomous city of Melilla, Riff Berber is spoken by a significant part of the population. Spain_sentence_627

Similarly, in Ceuta Darija Arabic is spoken by a significant percentage of the population. Spain_sentence_628

In the tourist areas of the Mediterranean coast and the islands, English and German are widely spoken by tourists, foreign residents, and tourism workers. Spain_sentence_629

Education Spain_section_36

Main article: Education in Spain Spain_sentence_630

State education in Spain is free and compulsory from the age of six to sixteen. Spain_sentence_631

The current education system is regulated by the 2006 educational law, LOE (Ley Orgánica de Educación), or Fundamental Law for the Education. Spain_sentence_632

In 2014, the LOE was partially modified by the newer and controversial LOMCE law (Ley Orgánica para la Mejora de la Calidad Educativa), or Fundamental Law for the Improvement of the Education System, commonly called Ley Wert (Wert Law). Spain_sentence_633

Since 1970 to 2014, Spain has had seven different educational laws (LGE, LOECE, LODE, LOGSE, LOPEG, LOE and LOMCE). Spain_sentence_634

The levels of education are preschool education, primary education, secondary education and post-16 education. Spain_sentence_635

In regards to the professional development education or the vocational education, there are three levels besides the university degrees: the Formación Profesional Básica (basic vocational education); the Ciclo Formativo de Grado Medio or CFGM (medium level vocation education) which can be studied after studying the secondary education, and the Ciclo Formativo de Grado Superior or CFGS (higher level vocational education), which can be studied after studying the post-16 education level. Spain_sentence_636

Health Spain_section_37

Main articles: Health care in Spain and Abortion in Spain Spain_sentence_637

The health care system of Spain (Spanish National Health System) is considered one of the best in the world, in 7th position in the ranking elaborated by the World Health Organization. Spain_sentence_638

The health care is public, universal and free for any legal citizen of Spain. Spain_sentence_639

The total health spending is 9.4% of the GDP, slightly above the average of 9.3% of the OECD. Spain_sentence_640

Religion Spain_section_38

Main article: Religion in Spain Spain_sentence_641

Roman Catholicism, which has a long history in Spain, remains the dominant religion. Spain_sentence_642

Although it no longer has official status by law, in all public schools in Spain students have to choose either a religion or ethics class. Spain_sentence_643

Catholicism is the religion most commonly taught, although the teaching of Islam, Judaism, and evangelical Christianity is also recognised in law. Spain_sentence_644

According to a June 2016 study by the Spanish Centre for Sociological Research about 70% of Spaniards self-identify as Catholics, 2% other faith, and about 25% identify with no religion. Spain_sentence_645

Most Spaniards do not participate regularly in religious services. Spain_sentence_646

This same study shows that of the Spaniards who identify themselves as religious, 59% hardly ever or never go to church, 16% go to church some times a year, 9% some time per month and 15% every Sunday or multiple times per week. Spain_sentence_647

Recent polls and surveys have revealed that 20% to 27% of the Spanish population is irreligious. Spain_sentence_648

The Spanish constitution enshrines secularism in governance, as well as freedom of religion or belief for all, saying that no religion should have a "state character," while allowing for the state to "cooperate" with religious groups. Spain_sentence_649

There have been four Spanish Popes. Spain_sentence_650

Damasus I, Calixtus III, Alexander VI and Benedict XIII. Spain_sentence_651

Spanish mysticism provided an important intellectual resource against Protestantism with Carmelites like Teresa of Ávila, a reformist nun and John of the Cross, a priest, taking the lead in their reform movement. Spain_sentence_652

Later, they became Doctors of the Church. Spain_sentence_653

The Society of Jesus was co-founded by Ignatius of Loyola, whose Spiritual Exercises and movement led to the establishment of hundreds of colleges and universities in the world, including 28 in the United States alone. Spain_sentence_654

The Society's co-founder, Francis Xavier, was a missionary who reached India and later Japan. Spain_sentence_655

In the 1960s, Jesuits Pedro Arrupe and Ignacio Ellacuría supported the movement of Liberation Theology. Spain_sentence_656

Protestant churches have about 1,200,000 members. Spain_sentence_657

There are about 105,000 Jehovah's Witnesses. Spain_sentence_658

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has approximately 46,000 adherents in 133 congregations in all regions of the country and has a temple in the Moratalaz District of Madrid. Spain_sentence_659

A study made by the Union of Islamic Communities of Spain demonstrated that there were more than 2,100,000 inhabitants of Muslim background living in Spain as of 2019, accounting for 4–5% of the total population of Spain. Spain_sentence_660

The vast majority was composed of immigrants and descendants originating from the Maghreb (especially Morocco) and other African countries. Spain_sentence_661

More than 879,000 (42%) of them had Spanish nationality. Spain_sentence_662

The recent waves of immigration have also led to an increasing number of Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs and Muslims. Spain_sentence_663

After the Reconquista in 1492, Muslims did not live in Spain for centuries. Spain_sentence_664

Late 19th-century colonial expansion in northwestern Africa gave a number of residents in Spanish Morocco and Western Sahara full citizenship. Spain_sentence_665

Their ranks have since been bolstered by recent immigration, especially from Morocco and Algeria. Spain_sentence_666

Judaism was practically non-existent in Spain from the 1492 expulsion until the 19th century, when Jews were again permitted to enter the country. Spain_sentence_667

Currently there are around 62,000 Jews in Spain, or 0.14% of the total population. Spain_sentence_668

Most are arrivals in the past century, while some are descendants of earlier Spanish Jews. Spain_sentence_669

Approximately 80,000 Jews are thought to have lived in Spain prior to its expulsion. Spain_sentence_670

However the Jewish Encyclopedia states the number over 800,000 to be too large and 235,000 as too small: 165,000 is given as expelled as possibly too small in favour or 200,000, and the numbers of converts after the 1391 pogroms as less. Spain_sentence_671

Other sources suggest 200,000 converts mostly after the pogroms of 1391 and upwards of 100,000 expelled. Spain_sentence_672

Descendants of these Sephardic Jews expelled in 1492 are given Spanish nationality if they request it. Spain_sentence_673

Culture Spain_section_39

Main article: Culture of Spain Spain_sentence_674

Spain is a Western country. Spain_sentence_675

Almost every aspect of Spanish life is permeated by its Roman heritage, making Spain one of the major Latin countries of Europe. Spain_sentence_676

Spanish culture is marked by strong historic ties to Catholicism, which played a pivotal role in the country's formation and subsequent identity. Spain_sentence_677

Spanish art, architecture, cuisine, and music have been shaped by successive waves of foreign invaders, as well as by the country's Mediterranean climate and geography. Spain_sentence_678

The centuries-long colonial era globalised Spanish language and culture, with Spain also absorbing the cultural and commercial products of its diverse empire. Spain_sentence_679

World Heritage Sites Spain_section_40

Main article: World Heritage Sites in Spain Spain_sentence_680

See also: Castles in Spain and Cathedrals in Spain Spain_sentence_681

Spain has 47 World Heritage Sites. Spain_sentence_682

These include the landscape of Monte Perdido in the Pyrenees, which is shared with France, the Prehistoric Rock Art Sites of the Côa Valley and Siega Verde, which is shared with Portugal, the Heritage of Mercury, shared with Slovenia and the Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests, shared with other countries of Europe. Spain_sentence_683

In addition, Spain has also 14 Intangible cultural heritage, or "Human treasures". Spain_sentence_684

Literature Spain_section_41

Philosophy Spain_section_42

Seneca was a philosopher residing in Spain during the time of the Roman Empire. Spain_sentence_685

During the period of Muslim rule in Al-Andalus, Muslim, Jewish and Christian philosophies flourished, including the works of such philosophers such as Ibn Arabi, Averroes and Maimonides. Spain_sentence_686

In the Middle Ages Ramon Llull flourished in Spain. Spain_sentence_687

Humanist Luis Vives worked in Spain during the Renaissance, as did Francisco de Vitoria (creator of the School of Salamanca and scholar on international law) and Bartolomé de las Casas. Spain_sentence_688

The Enlightenment in Spain arrived later and was less strong than in other European countries, but during the XIX century liberal ideas arrived in Spanish society. Spain_sentence_689

At the end of the century, socialist and libertarian ideas also flourished, with thinkers such as Francisco Pi y Margall, Ricardo Mella and Francisco Ferrer Guardia. Spain_sentence_690

In the first half of the 20th century among the most prominent philosophers were Maria Zambrano and José Ortega y Gasset. Spain_sentence_691

Contemporary philosophers include Fernando Savater and Adela Cortina, creator of the term aporophobia. Spain_sentence_692

Art Spain_section_43

Main article: Spanish art Spain_sentence_693

Artists from Spain have been highly influential in the development of various European and American artistic movements. Spain_sentence_694

Due to historical, geographical and generational diversity, Spanish art has known a great number of influences. Spain_sentence_695

The Mediterranean heritage with Greco-Roman and some Moorish and influences in Spain, especially in Andalusia, is still evident today. Spain_sentence_696

European influences include Italy, Germany and France, especially during the Renaissance, Spanish Baroque and Neoclassical periods. Spain_sentence_697

There are many other autochthonous styles such as the Pre-Romanesque art and architecture, Herrerian architecture or the Isabelline Gothic. Spain_sentence_698

During the Golden Age painters working in Spain included El Greco, José de Ribera, Bartolomé Esteban Murillo and Francisco Zurbarán. Spain_sentence_699

Also in the Baroque period, Diego Velázquez created some of the most famous Spanish portraits, such as Las Meninas and Las Hilanderas. Spain_sentence_700

Francisco Goya painted during a historical period that includes the Spanish Independence War, the fights between liberals and absolutists, and the rise of contemporary nations-states. Spain_sentence_701

Joaquín Sorolla is a well-known modern impressionist painter and there are many important Spanish painters belonging to the modernism art movement, including Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí, Juan Gris and Joan Miró. Spain_sentence_702

Sculpture Spain_section_44

The Plateresque style extended from beginnings of the 16th century until the last third of the century and its stylistic influence pervaded the works of all great Spanish artists of the time. Spain_sentence_703

Alonso Berruguete (Valladolid School) is called the "Prince of Spanish sculpture". Spain_sentence_704

His main works were the upper stalls of the choir of the Cathedral of Toledo, the tomb of Cardinal Tavera in the same Cathedral, and the altarpiece of the Visitation in the church of Santa Úrsula in the same locality. Spain_sentence_705

Other notable sculptors were Bartolomé Ordóñez, Diego de Siloé, Juan de Juni and Damián Forment. Spain_sentence_706

There were two Schools of special flair and talent: the Seville School, to which Juan Martínez Montañés belonged, whose most celebrated works are the Crucifix in the Cathedral of Seville, another in Vergara, and a Saint John; and the Granada School, to which Alonso Cano belonged, to whom an Immaculate Conception and a Virgin of Rosary, are attributed. Spain_sentence_707

Other notable Andalusian Baroque sculptors were Pedro de Mena, Pedro Roldán and his daughter Luisa Roldán, Juan de Mesa and Pedro Duque Cornejo. Spain_sentence_708

In the 20th century the most important Spanish sculptors were Julio González, Pablo Gargallo, Eduardo Chillida, and Pablo Serrano. Spain_sentence_709

Cinema Spain_section_45

Main article: Cinema of Spain Spain_sentence_710

Spanish cinema has achieved major international success including Oscars for recent films such as Pan's Labyrinth and Volver. Spain_sentence_711

In the long history of Spanish cinema, the great filmmaker Luis Buñuel was the first to achieve world recognition, followed by Pedro Almodóvar in the 1980s (La Movida Madrileña). Spain_sentence_712

Mario Camus and Pilar Miró worked together in Curro Jiménez. Spain_sentence_713

Spanish cinema has also seen international success over the years with films by directors like Segundo de Chomón, Florián Rey, Luis García Berlanga, Carlos Saura, Julio Medem, Isabel Coixet, Alejandro Amenábar, Icíar Bollaín and brothers David Trueba and Fernando Trueba. Spain_sentence_714

Actresses Sara Montiel and Penélope Cruz or actor Antonio Banderas are among those who have become Hollywood stars. Spain_sentence_715

International Film Festivals of Valladolid and San Sebastian are the oldest and more relevant in Spain. Spain_sentence_716

Architecture Spain_section_46

Main article: Spanish architecture Spain_sentence_717

Due to its historical and geographical diversity, Spanish architecture has drawn from a host of influences. Spain_sentence_718

An important provincial city founded by the Romans and with an extensive Roman era infrastructure, Córdoba became the cultural capital, including fine Arabic style architecture, during the time of the Islamic Umayyad dynasty. Spain_sentence_719

Later Arab style architecture continued to be developed under successive Islamic dynasties, ending with the Nasrid, which built its famed palace complex in Granada. Spain_sentence_720

Simultaneously, the Christian kingdoms gradually emerged and developed their own styles; developing a pre-Romanesque style when for a while isolated from contemporary mainstream European architectural influences during the earlier Middle Ages, they later integrated the Romanesque and Gothic streams. Spain_sentence_721

There was then an extraordinary flowering of the Gothic style that resulted in numerous instances being built throughout the entire territory. Spain_sentence_722

The Mudéjar style, from the 12th to 17th centuries, was developed by introducing Arab style motifs, patterns and elements into European architecture. Spain_sentence_723

The arrival of Modernism in the academic arena produced much of the architecture of the 20th century. Spain_sentence_724

An influential style centred in Barcelona, known as modernisme, produced a number of important architects, of which Gaudí is one. Spain_sentence_725

The International style was led by groups like GATEPAC. Spain_sentence_726

Spain is currently experiencing a revolution in contemporary architecture and Spanish architects like Rafael Moneo, Santiago Calatrava, Ricardo Bofill as well as many others have gained worldwide renown. Spain_sentence_727

Music and dance Spain_section_47

Main article: Music of Spain Spain_sentence_728

Spanish music is often considered abroad to be synonymous with flamenco, a West Andalusian musical genre, which, contrary to popular belief, is not widespread outside that region. Spain_sentence_729

Various regional styles of folk music abound in Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Castile, the Basque Country, Galicia, Cantabria and Asturias. Spain_sentence_730

Pop, rock, hip hop and heavy metal are also popular. Spain_sentence_731

In the field of classical music, Spain has produced a number of noted composers such as Isaac Albéniz, Manuel de Falla and Enrique Granados and singers and performers such as Plácido Domingo, José Carreras, Montserrat Caballé, Alicia de Larrocha, Alfredo Kraus, Pablo Casals, Ricardo Viñes, José Iturbi, Pablo de Sarasate, Jordi Savall and Teresa Berganza. Spain_sentence_732

In Spain there are over forty professional orchestras, including the Orquestra Simfònica de Barcelona, Orquesta Nacional de España and the Orquesta Sinfónica de Madrid. Spain_sentence_733

Major opera houses include the Teatro Real, the Gran Teatre del Liceu, Teatro Arriaga and the El Palau de les Arts Reina Sofía. Spain_sentence_734

Thousands of music fans also travel to Spain each year for internationally recognised summer music festivals Sónar which often features the top up and coming pop and techno acts, and Benicàssim which tends to feature alternative rock and dance acts. Spain_sentence_735

Both festivals mark Spain as an international music presence and reflect the tastes of young people in the country. Spain_sentence_736

Vitoria-Gasteiz jazz festival is one of the main ones on its genre. Spain_sentence_737

The most popular traditional musical instrument, the guitar, originated in Spain. Spain_sentence_738

Typical of the north are the traditional bag pipers or gaiteros, mainly in Asturias and Galicia. Spain_sentence_739

Cuisine Spain_section_48

Main article: Spanish cuisine Spain_sentence_740

Spanish cuisine consists of a great variety of dishes which stem from differences in geography, culture and climate. Spain_sentence_741

It is heavily influenced by seafood available from the waters that surround the country, and reflects the country's deep Mediterranean roots. Spain_sentence_742

Spain's extensive history with many cultural influences has led to a unique cuisine. Spain_sentence_743

In particular, three main divisions are easily identified: Spain_sentence_744

Mediterranean Spain – all such coastal regions, from Catalonia to Andalusia – heavy use of seafood, such as pescaíto frito (fried fish); several cold soups like gazpacho; and many rice-based dishes like paella from Valencia and arròs negre (black rice) from Catalonia. Spain_sentence_745

Inner Spain – Castile – hot, thick soups such as the bread and garlic-based Castilian soup, along with substantial stews such as cocido madrileño. Spain_sentence_746

Food is traditionally conserved by salting, such as Spanish ham, or immersed in olive oil, such as Manchego cheese. Spain_sentence_747

Atlantic Spain – the whole Northern coast, including Asturian, Basque, Cantabrian and Galician cuisine – vegetable and fish-based stews like caldo gallego and marmitako. Spain_sentence_748

Also, the lightly cured lacón ham. Spain_sentence_749

The best known cuisine of the northern countries often rely on ocean seafood, as in the Basque-style cod, albacore or anchovy or the Galician octopus-based polbo á feira and shellfish dishes. Spain_sentence_750

Sport Spain_section_49

Main article: Sport in Spain Spain_sentence_751

While varieties of football have been played in Spain as far back as Roman times, sport in Spain has been dominated by football since the early 20th century. Spain_sentence_752

Real Madrid C.F. and FC Barcelona are two of the most successful football clubs in the world. Spain_sentence_753

The country's national football team won the UEFA European Football Championship in 1964, 2008 and 2012 and the FIFA World Cup in 2010, and is the first team ever to win three back-to-back major international tournaments. Spain_sentence_754

Basketball, tennis, cycling, handball, futsal, motorcycling and, lately, Formula One also can boast of Spanish champions. Spain_sentence_755

Today, Spain is a major world sports powerhouse, especially since the 1992 Summer Olympics that were hosted in Barcelona, which stimulated a great deal of interest in sports in the country. Spain_sentence_756

The tourism industry has led to an improvement in sports infrastructure, especially for water sports, golf and skiing. Spain_sentence_757

In their respective regions, the traditional games of Basque pelota and Valencian pilota both are popular. Spain_sentence_758

Public holidays and festivals Spain_section_50

Main articles: National Day of Spain, Public holidays in Spain, Fiestas of International Tourist Interest of Spain, and Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain Spain_sentence_759

Public holidays celebrated in Spain include a mix of religious (Roman Catholic), national and regional observances. Spain_sentence_760

Each municipality is allowed to declare a maximum of 14 public holidays per year; up to nine of these are chosen by the national government and at least two are chosen locally. Spain_sentence_761

Spain's National Day (Fiesta Nacional de España) is 12 October, the anniversary of the Discovery of America and commemorate Our Lady of the Pillar feast, patroness of Aragon and throughout Spain. Spain_sentence_762

There are many festivals and festivities in Spain. Spain_sentence_763

Some of them are known worldwide, and every year millions of people from all over the world go to Spain to experience one of these festivals. Spain_sentence_764

One of the most famous is San Fermín, in Pamplona. Spain_sentence_765

While its most famous event is the encierro, or the running of the bulls, which happens at 8:00 am from 7 to 14 July, the week-long celebration involves many other traditional and folkloric events. Spain_sentence_766

Its events were central to the plot of The Sun Also Rises, by Ernest Hemingway, which brought it to the general attention of English-speaking people. Spain_sentence_767

As a result, it has become one of the most internationally renowned fiestas in Spain, with over 1,000,000 people attending every year. Spain_sentence_768

Other festivals include: La Tomatina tomato festival in Buñol, Valencia, the carnivals in the Canary Islands, the Falles in Valencia or the Holy Week in Andalusia and Castile and León. Spain_sentence_769

See also Spain_section_51


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