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Spotify AB Spotify Technologies S.A.Spotify_table_caption_0
Type of businessSpotify_header_cell_0_0_0 Swedish share companySpotify_cell_0_0_1
Type of siteSpotify_header_cell_0_1_0 Music streaming serviceSpotify_cell_0_1_1
Traded asSpotify_header_cell_0_2_0 NYSE:Spotify_cell_0_2_1
FoundedSpotify_header_cell_0_3_0 23 April 2006; 14 years ago (2006-04-23)Spotify_cell_0_3_1
HeadquartersSpotify_header_cell_0_4_0 Stockholm, Sweden

London, England.Spotify_cell_0_4_1

Country of originSpotify_header_cell_0_5_0 SwedenSpotify_cell_0_5_1
No. of locationsSpotify_header_cell_0_6_0 17Spotify_cell_0_6_1
Founder(s)Spotify_header_cell_0_7_0 Spotify_cell_0_7_1
IndustrySpotify_header_cell_0_8_0 Spotify_cell_0_8_1
RevenueSpotify_header_cell_0_9_0 6,764,000,000 (2019)Spotify_cell_0_9_1
Net incomeSpotify_header_cell_0_10_0 186,000,000 (2019)Spotify_cell_0_10_1
EmployeesSpotify_header_cell_0_11_0 4,405 (2019)Spotify_cell_0_11_1
ParentSpotify_header_cell_0_12_0 Spotify Technology S.ASpotify_cell_0_12_1
SubsidiariesSpotify_header_cell_0_13_0 Tencent Music (46.6%)Spotify_cell_0_13_1
URLSpotify_header_cell_0_14_0 Spotify_cell_0_14_1
RegistrationSpotify_header_cell_0_15_0 RequiredSpotify_cell_0_15_1
UsersSpotify_header_cell_0_16_0 (October 2020)Spotify_cell_0_16_1
LaunchedSpotify_header_cell_0_17_0 7 October 2008; 12 years ago (2008-10-07)Spotify_cell_0_17_1

Spotify (/ˈspɒtɪfaɪ/; Swedish: [ˈspɔ̂tːɪfaj) is a Swedish audio streaming and media services provider, launched in October 2008. Spotify_sentence_0

The platform is owned by Spotify AB, a publicly traded company on the New York Stock Exchange since 2018 through its holding company Spotify Technology S.A. based in Luxembourg. Spotify_sentence_1

Spotify's global headquarters are in Stockholm, Sweden. Spotify_sentence_2

Spotify offers digital copyright restricted recorded music and podcasts, including more than 60 million songs, from record labels and media companies. Spotify_sentence_3

As a freemium service, basic features are free with advertisements and limited control, while additional features, such as offline listening and commercial-free listening, are offered via paid subscriptions. Spotify_sentence_4

Users can search for music based on artist, album, or genre, and can create, edit, and share playlists. Spotify_sentence_5

Spotify is available in most of Europe and the Americas, Oceania, and parts of Africa and Asia, and on most modern devices, including Windows, macOS, and Linux computers, and iOS, and Android smartphones and tablets and AI enabled smart speakers such as Amazon Alexa. Spotify_sentence_6

As of October 2020, the platform has 320 million monthly active users, including 144 million paying subscribers. Spotify_sentence_7

Unlike physical or download sales, which pay artists a fixed price per song or album sold, Spotify pays royalties based on the number of artist streams as a proportion of total songs streamed. Spotify_sentence_8

It distributes approximately 70% of its total revenue to rights holders (often record labels), who then pay artists based on individual agreements. Spotify_sentence_9

Spotify has faced criticism from artists and producers including Taylor Swift and Thom Yorke, who have argued that it does not compensate musicians fairly. Spotify_sentence_10

In 2017, as part of its efforts to renegotiate license deals for an interest in going public, Spotify announced that artists would be able to make albums temporarily exclusive to paid subscribers if the albums are part of Universal Music Group or the Merlin Network. Spotify_sentence_11

History Spotify_section_0

Spotify was founded in 2006 in Stockholm, Sweden, by Daniel Ek, former CTO of Stardoll, and Martin Lorentzon, co-founder of Tradedoubler. Spotify_sentence_12

According to Ek, the company's title was initially misheard from a name shouted by Lorentzon. Spotify_sentence_13

Later they thought out an etymology of a combination of "spot" and "identify." Spotify_sentence_14

Early international launches Spotify_section_1

In February 2009, Spotify opened public registration for the free service tier in the United Kingdom. Spotify_sentence_15

Registrations surged following the release of the mobile service, leading Spotify to halt registration for the free service in September, returning the UK to an invitation-only policy. Spotify_sentence_16

Spotify launched in the United States in July 2011 and offered a six-month ad-supported trial period, where new users could listen to an unlimited amount of music for free. Spotify_sentence_17

In January 2012, the free trial periods began to expire, and limited users to ten hours of streaming each month and five plays per song. Spotify_sentence_18

In March, Spotify removed all limits on the free service tier indefinitely. Spotify_sentence_19

In April 2016, Ek and Lorentzon wrote an open letter to Swedish politicians demanding action in three areas that they claimed hindered the company's ability to recruit top talent as Spotify grows, including access to flexible housing, better education in the programming and development fields, and stock options. Spotify_sentence_20

Ek and Lorentzon wrote that to continue competing in a global economy, politicians needed to respond with new policies, or else thousands of Spotify jobs would be moved from Sweden to the United States. Spotify_sentence_21

In late 2016, the company launched its "largest [marketing] campaign to date", by placing large-scale billboards in major cities around the world that humorously mocked users' listening habits. Spotify_sentence_22

Spotify's Chief Marketing Officer Seth Farbman told Creativity that "there has been some debate about whether big data is muting creativity in marketing, but we have turned that on its head ... For us, data inspires and gives an insight into the emotion that people are expressing." Spotify_sentence_23

In February 2017, Spotify announced a major expansion of its United States operations in Lower Manhattan, New York City, at 4 World Trade Center, adding approximately 1,000 new jobs and retaining 832 existing positions. Spotify_sentence_24

The company's US headquarters are located in New York City's Flatiron District. Spotify_sentence_25

On 14 November 2018, the company announced a total of 13 new markets in the MENA region, including the creation of a new Arabic hub and several playlists, while supporting right-to-left text in their apps. Spotify_sentence_26

Other developments Spotify_section_2

Streaming records Spotify_section_3

Main article: List of most-streamed artists on Spotify Spotify_sentence_27

In October 2015, "Thinking Out Loud" by Ed Sheeran became the first song to pass 500 million streams. Spotify_sentence_28

A month later, Spotify announced that "Lean On" by Major Lazer and DJ Snake featuring was its most-streamed song of all time with over 525 million streams worldwide. Spotify_sentence_29

In April 2016, Rihanna overtook Justin Bieber to become the biggest artist on Spotify, with 31.3 million monthly active listeners. Spotify_sentence_30

In May 2016, Rihanna was overtaken by Drake with 31.85 million total streams. Spotify_sentence_31

In December 2016, Drake's just-under 36 million monthly listeners were overtaken by the Weeknd's 36.068 million. Spotify_sentence_32

Later that month, Drake's song "One Dance" became the first song to hit one billion streams on Spotify. Spotify_sentence_33

Upon its release in August 2017, the single "Look What You Made Me Do" by Taylor Swift earned over eight million streams within 24 hours, breaking the record for the most single-day streams for a track. Spotify_sentence_34

On 19 June 2018, XXXTentacion's hit single "Sad!" Spotify_sentence_35

broke Swift's single-day streaming record, amassing 10.4 million streams the day after he was fatally shot in Florida. Spotify_sentence_36

User growth Spotify_section_4

In March 2011, Spotify announced a customer base of one million paying subscribers across Europe, and by September 2011, the number of paying subscribers had doubled to two million. Spotify_sentence_37

In August 2012, Time reported 15 million active users, four million being paying Spotify subscribers. Spotify_sentence_38

User growth continued, reaching 20 million total active users, including five million paying customers globally and one million paying customers in the United States, in December 2012. Spotify_sentence_39

By March 2013, the service had 24 million active users, six million being paying subscribers, which grew to 40 million users (including ten million paying) in May 2014, 60 million users (including 15 million paying) in December 2014, 75 million users (20 million paying) in June 2015, 30 million paying subscribers in March 2016, 40 million paying subscribers in September 2016, and 100 million total users in June 2016. Spotify_sentence_40

In April 2020, Spotify reached 133 million premium users. Spotify_sentence_41

In countries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, Spotify registered a fall in users in late February, but it has seen a recovery. Spotify_sentence_42

Initial public offering Spotify_section_5

According to TechCrunch, Spotify was planning to become public on the stock market in 2017, but instead used an initial public offering (IPO) in 2018 to "build up a better balance sheet and work on shifting its business model to improve its margins". Spotify_sentence_43

The value of its IPO is estimated to be in a range of $6.3 billion to $23 billion. Spotify_sentence_44

The latter figure would make Spotify's IPO one of the biggest in the tech sector since 2012. Spotify_sentence_45

However, unlike in an ordinary public offering, Spotify would not issue new shares, but the company's existing shareholders would be taking their shares directly to the market. Spotify_sentence_46

This approach is not intended to raise fresh capital, but to let investors get their returns. Spotify_sentence_47

Morgan Stanley is the company's slated advisor on the matter. Spotify_sentence_48

Financial Times reported in March 2017 that, as part of its efforts to renegotiate new licensing deals with music labels, Spotify and major record labels had agreed that Spotify would restrict some newly released albums to its Premium tier, with Spotify receiving a reduction in royalty fees to do so. Spotify_sentence_49

Select albums would be available only on the Premium tier for a period of time, before general release. Spotify_sentence_50

The deal "may be months away from being finalized, but Spotify is said to have cleared this particular clause with major record labels". Spotify_sentence_51

New reports in April confirmed that Spotify and Universal Music Group had reached an agreement to allow artists part of Universal to limit their new album releases to the Premium service tier for a maximum of two weeks. Spotify_sentence_52

Spotify CEO Daniel Ek commented that "We know that not every album by every artist should be released the same way, and we’ve worked hard with UMG to develop a new, flexible release policy. Spotify_sentence_53

Starting today, Universal artists can choose to release new albums on premium only for two weeks, offering subscribers an earlier chance to explore the complete creative work, while the singles are available across Spotify for all our listeners to enjoy". Spotify_sentence_54

It was announced later in April that this type of agreement would be extended to indie artists signed to the Merlin Network agency. Spotify_sentence_55

After making its debut on the New York Stock Exchange on 3 April 2018, CNBC reported that Spotify opened at $165.90, more than 25% above its reference price of $132. Spotify_sentence_56

2020 hacking incident Spotify_section_6

On July 3, 2020, cybersecurity firm vpnMentor discovered a database containing 380 million individual records, including the logins and passwords of Spotify users. Spotify_sentence_57

The database was thought to be evidence of an impending credential stuffing cyberattack targeting Spotify as it contained the credentials of up to 350,000 compromised user accounts. Spotify_sentence_58

In response to the attack, Spotify issued a rolling reset of passwords for affected accounts in November 2020. Spotify_sentence_59

Acquisitions Spotify_section_7

In May 2013, Spotify acquired music discovery app Tunigo. Spotify_sentence_60

In March 2014, they acquired The Echo Nest, a music intelligence company. Spotify_sentence_61

In June 2015, Spotify announced they had acquired Seed Scientific, a data science consulting firm and analytics company. Spotify_sentence_62

In a comment to TechCrunch, Spotify said that Seed Scientific's team would lead an Advanced Analytics unit within the company focused on developing data services. Spotify_sentence_63

In January 2016, they acquired social and messaging startups Cord Project and Soundwave, followed in April 2016 by CrowdAlbum, a "startup that collects photos and videos of performances shared on social networks," and would "enhance the development of products that help artists understand, activate, and monetize their audiences". Spotify_sentence_64

In November 2016, Spotify acquired Preact, a "cloud-based platform and service developed for companies that operate on subscription models which helps reduce churn and build up their subscriber numbers". Spotify_sentence_65

In March 2017, Spotify acquired Sonalytic, an audio detection startup, for an undisclosed amount of money. Spotify_sentence_66

Spotify stated that Sonalytic would be used to improve the company's personalised playlists, better match songs with compositions, and improve the company's publishing data system. Spotify_sentence_67

Spotify also acquired MightyTV later in March, an app connected to television streaming services, including Netflix and HBO Go, that recommends content to users. Spotify_sentence_68

Spotify mainly uses MightyTV to improve its advertising efforts on the free tier of service. Spotify_sentence_69

In April, they acquired Mediachain, a blockchain startup that had been developing a decentralized database system for managing attribution and other metadata for media. Spotify_sentence_70

This was followed May with the acquisition of artificial intelligence startup Niland, which uses technology to improve personalisation and recommendation features for users. Spotify_sentence_71

In November, Spotify acquired Soundtrap, an online music studio startup. Spotify_sentence_72

On 12 April 2018, Spotify acquired the music licensing platform Loudr. Spotify_sentence_73

On 6 February 2019, Spotify acquired the podcast networks Gimlet Media and Anchor FM Inc., with the goal of establishing themselves as a leading figure in podcasting. Spotify_sentence_74

On 26 March, Spotify announced they would acquire another podcast network, Parcast. Spotify_sentence_75

On 12 September, Spotify acquired SoundBetter, a music production marketplace for people in the music industry to collaborate on projects, and distribute music tracks for licensing. Spotify_sentence_76

On 5 February 2020, Spotify announced its intent to acquire Bill Simmons' sports and pop culture blog and podcast network The Ringer for an undisclosed amount. Spotify_sentence_77

In November, Spotify announced plans to acquire Megaphone from The Slate Group for US$235 million. Spotify_sentence_78

Company partnerships Spotify_section_8

In January 2015, Sony announced PlayStation Music, a new music service with Spotify as its exclusive partner. Spotify_sentence_79

PlayStation Music incorporates the Spotify service into Sony's PlayStation 3 and PlayStation 4 gaming consoles, and Sony Xperia mobile devices. Spotify_sentence_80

The service launched on 30 March 2015. Spotify_sentence_81

In March 2017, Spotify announced a partnership with the South by Southwest (SXSW) conference for 2017, presenting specific content in special playlists through an SXSW hub in Spotify's apps. Spotify_sentence_82

The integration also enabled Spotify within the SXSW GO app to help users discover and explore artists performing at the conference. Spotify_sentence_83

Two more partnerships were announced in March; one with WNYC Studios, and one with Waze. Spotify_sentence_84

The WNYC Studios partnership brought various podcasts from WNYC to Spotify, including Note To Self, On the Media and Here's the Thing. Spotify_sentence_85

Spotify also announced that the third season of WNYC Studios' 2 Dope Queens podcast would premiere with a two-week exclusivity period on the service on 21 March 2017. Spotify_sentence_86

The Waze partnership allows Waze app users to view directions to destinations within the Spotify app and access their Spotify playlists through the Waze app. Spotify_sentence_87

In October, Microsoft announced that it would be ending its Groove Music streaming service by December, with all music from users transferring to Spotify as part of a new partnership. Spotify_sentence_88

In December, Spotify and Tencent's music arm, Tencent Music Entertainment (TME), agreed to swap stakes and make an investment in each other's music businesses. Spotify_sentence_89

As a result of this transaction, Spotify gained a 9% stake in TME with TME gaining a 7.5% stake in Spotify. Spotify_sentence_90

In February 2018, Spotify integrated with the gaming-oriented voice chat service Discord on desktop clients, allowing users to display their currently-playing song as a rich presence on their profile, and invite other users with Spotify Premium to group "listening parties". Spotify_sentence_91

In April, Spotify announced a discounted entertainment bundle with video-on-demand provider Hulu, which included discounted rates for university students. Spotify_sentence_92

In May 2020, Spotify teamed up with ESPN and Netflix to curate podcasts around Netflix's Michael Jordan documentary, and in September, Spotify signed a deal with Chernin Entertainment to produce movies and TV shows. Spotify_sentence_93

Dispute with Apple Spotify_section_9

See also: Criticism of Apple Inc. § Spotify Spotify_sentence_94

In July 2015, Spotify launched an email campaign to urge its App Store subscribers to cancel their subscriptions and start new ones through its website, bypassing the 30% transaction fee for in-app purchases required for iOS applications by technology company Apple Inc. A later update to the Spotify app on iOS was rejected by Apple, prompting Spotify's general counsel Horacio Gutierrez to write a letter to Apple's then-general counsel Bruce Sewell, stating: "This latest episode raises serious concerns under both U.S. and EU competition law. Spotify_sentence_95

It continues a troubling pattern of behavior by Apple to exclude and diminish the competitiveness of Spotify on iOS and as a rival to Apple Music, particularly when seen against the backdrop of Apple's previous anticompetitive conduct aimed at Spotify … we cannot stand by as Apple uses the App Store approval process as a weapon to harm competitors." Spotify_sentence_96

Sewell responded to the letter: "We find it troubling that you are asking for exemptions to the rules we apply to all developers and are publicly resorting to rumors and half-truths about our service." Spotify_sentence_97

He also elaborated that "Our guidelines apply equally to all app developers, whether they are game developers, e-book sellers, video-streaming services or digital music distributors; and regardless of whether or not they compete against Apple. Spotify_sentence_98

We did not alter our behavior or our rules when we introduced our own music streaming service or when Spotify became a competitor". Spotify_sentence_99

Furthermore, he stated that "There is nothing in Apple’s conduct that ‘amounts to a violation of applicable antitrust laws.’ Far from it. Spotify_sentence_100

... Spotify_sentence_101

I would be happy to facilitate an expeditious review and approval of your app as soon as you provide us with something that is compliant with the App Store's rules". Spotify_sentence_102

In the following months, Spotify joined several other companies in filing a letter with the European Union's antitrust body indirectly accusing Apple and Google of "abusing their 'privileged position' at the top of the market", by referring to "some" companies as having "transformed into 'gatekeepers' rather than 'gateways'". Spotify_sentence_103

The complaint led to the European Union announcing that it would prepare an initiative by the end of 2017 for a possible law addressing unfair competition practices. Spotify_sentence_104

Spotify released the first version of its Apple Watch app in November 2018, allowing playback control of the iPhone via the watch. Spotify_sentence_105

Users can also choose which devices to play music on via Bluetooth. Spotify_sentence_106

In a further escalation of the spat with Apple, on 13 March 2019, Spotify filed an antitrust complaint with the European Commission over unfair app store practices. Spotify_sentence_107

Two days later Apple responded stating that the claim was misleading rhetoric and that Spotify wanted benefits of a free app without being a free app. Spotify_sentence_108

Spotify responded with a statement calling Apple a monopolist and stated that they had only filed the complaint as Apple's actions hurt competition and consumers, and was in clear violation of the law. Spotify_sentence_109

It also said that Apple believed Spotify users on the app store were Apple's customers and not Spotify's. Spotify_sentence_110

Apple responded to Spotify's claims by counter-claiming that without the Apple App Store platform, Spotify's market reach and user base would not have been possible. Spotify_sentence_111

Additionally, Apple stated that they have attempted to work with Spotify to integrate the service better with Apple's products, such as Siri and Apple Watch. Spotify_sentence_112

In 2019, under iOS 13, it became possible to play Spotify music using Siri commands. Spotify_sentence_113

In September 2020, Spotify joined The Coalition for App Fairness which aims for better conditions for the inclusion of apps in app stores. Spotify_sentence_114

Business model Spotify_section_10

Spotify operates under a freemium business model (basic services are free, while additional features are offered via paid subscriptions). Spotify_sentence_115

Spotify generates revenues by selling premium streaming subscriptions to users and advertising placements to third parties. Spotify_sentence_116

In December 2013, the company launched a new website, "Spotify for Artists", that explained its business model and revenue data. Spotify_sentence_117

Spotify gets its content from major record labels as well as independent artists and pays copyright holders royalties for streamed music. Spotify_sentence_118

The company pays 70% of its total revenue to rights holders. Spotify_sentence_119

Spotify for Artists states that the company does not have a fixed per-play rate; instead it considers factors such as the user's home country and the individual artist's royalty rate. Spotify_sentence_120

Rightsholders received an average per-play payout between $.006 and $.0084. Spotify_sentence_121

Spotify offers an unlimited subscription package, close to the Open Music Model (OMM) estimated economic equilibrium for the recording industry. Spotify_sentence_122

However, the incorporation of digital rights management (DRM) limitation diverges from the OMM and competitors such as iTunes Store and Amazon Music that have dropped DRM. Spotify_sentence_123

BBC Music Week editor Tim Ingham wrote: "Unlike buying a CD or download, streaming is not a one-off payment. Spotify_sentence_124

Hundreds of millions of streams of tracks are happening each and every day, which quickly multiplies the potential revenues on offer – and is a constant long-term source of income for artists." Spotify_sentence_125

Accounts and subscriptions Spotify_section_11

As of November 2018, the two Spotify subscription types, all offering unlimited listening time, are: Spotify_sentence_126


TypeSpotify_header_cell_1_0_0 Remove adsSpotify_header_cell_1_0_1 Mobile listeningSpotify_header_cell_1_0_2 Sound qualitySpotify_header_cell_1_0_3 Listen offlineSpotify_header_cell_1_0_4 Spotify ConnectSpotify_header_cell_1_0_5
Spotify FreeSpotify_header_cell_1_1_0 NoSpotify_cell_1_1_1 Limited

(shuffle-only mode)Spotify_cell_1_1_2

Up to 160 kbit/sSpotify_cell_1_1_3 NoSpotify_cell_1_1_4 Limited

(Spotify Connect speaker with new SDK)Spotify_cell_1_1_5

Spotify PremiumSpotify_header_cell_1_2_0 YesSpotify_cell_1_2_1 YesSpotify_cell_1_2_2 Up to 320 kbit/sSpotify_cell_1_2_3 YesSpotify_cell_1_2_4 YesSpotify_cell_1_2_5

In March 2014, Spotify introduced a new, discounted Premium subscription tier for students. Spotify_sentence_127

Students in the United States enrolled in a university can pay half-price for a Premium subscription. Spotify_sentence_128

In April 2017, the Students offer was expanded to 33 more countries. Spotify_sentence_129

Spotify introduced its Family subscription in October 2014, connecting up to five family members for a shared Premium subscription. Spotify_sentence_130

Spotify Family was upgraded in May 2016, letting up to six people share a subscription and reducing the price. Spotify_sentence_131

In November 2018, Spotify announced it was opening up Spotify Connect to all of the users using its Free service, however, these changes still required products supporting Spotify Connect to support the latest software development kit (SDK). Spotify_sentence_132

Monetization Spotify_section_12

In 2008, just after launch, the company made a loss of 31.8 million Swedish kronor ($4.4 million). Spotify_sentence_133

In October 2010, Wired reported that Spotify was making more money for labels in Sweden than any other retailer "online or off". Spotify_sentence_134

Years after growth and expansion, a November 2012 report suggested strong momentum for the company. Spotify_sentence_135

In 2011, it reported a near US$60 million net loss from revenue of $244 million, while it was expected to generate a net loss of $40 million from revenue of $500 million in 2012. Spotify_sentence_136

Another source of income was music purchases from within the app, however this service was removed in January 2013. Spotify_sentence_137

In May 2016, Spotify announced "Sponsored Playlists", a monetisation opportunity in which brands can specify the audiences they have in mind, with Spotify matching the marketer with suitable music in a playlist. Spotify_sentence_138

That September, Spotify announced that it had paid a total of over $5 billion to the music industry. Spotify_sentence_139

In June 2017, as part of renegotiated licenses with Universal Music Group and Merlin Network, Spotify's financial filings revealed its agreement to pay more than $2 billion in minimum payments over the next two years. Spotify_sentence_140

As of 2017, Spotify was not yet a profitable company. Spotify_sentence_141

Spotify's revenue for Q1 2020 amounted to €1.85 billion ($2 billion). Spotify_sentence_142

A large part of this sum, €1.7 billion ($1.84 billion), came from Spotify Premium subscribers. Spotify_sentence_143

Gross profit in the same quarter amounted to €472 million ($511 million), with an operating loss of €17 million ($18 million). Spotify_sentence_144

Despite subscriber and podcasts growth, during Q2 of 2020, Spotify reported a loss of €356 million (€1.91 per share). Spotify_sentence_145

The "deeper" loss came as a result of the company's tax debt to over one-third of its employees in Sweden. Spotify_sentence_146

Funding Spotify_section_13

In February 2010, Spotify received a small investment from Founders Fund, where board member Sean Parker was recruited to assist Spotify in "winning the labels over in the world's largest music market". Spotify_sentence_147

In June 2011, Spotify secured $100 million of funding and planned to use this to support its US launch. Spotify_sentence_148

The new round of funding valued the company at $1 billion. Spotify_sentence_149

A Goldman Sachs-led round of funding closed in November 2012, raising around $100 million at a $3 billion valuation. Spotify_sentence_150

In April 2015, Spotify began another round of fundraising, with a report from The Wall Street Journal stating it was seeking $400 million, which would value the company at $8.4 billion. Spotify_sentence_151

The financing was closed in June 2015, with Spotify raising $526 million, at a value of $8.53 billion. Spotify_sentence_152

In January 2016, Spotify raised another $500 million through convertible bonds. Spotify_sentence_153

In March 2016, Spotify raised $1 billion in financing by debt plus a discount of 20% on shares once the initial public offering (IPO) of shares takes place. Spotify_sentence_154

The company was, according to TechCrunch, planning to launch on the stock market in 2017, but in 2017 it was seen as planning on doing the IPO in 2018 in order to "build up a better balance sheet and work on shifting its business model to improve its margins". Spotify_sentence_155

Downloads Spotify_section_14

In March 2009, Spotify began offering music downloads in the United Kingdom, France, and Spain. Spotify_sentence_156

Users could purchase tracks from Spotify, which partnered with 7digital to incorporate the feature. Spotify_sentence_157

The ability to purchase and download music tracks via the app was removed on 4 January 2013. Spotify_sentence_158

Spotify for Artists Spotify_section_15

In November 2015, Spotify introduced a "Fan Insights" panel in limited beta form, letting artists and managers access data on monthly listeners, geographical data, demographic information, music preferences and more. Spotify_sentence_159

In April 2017, the panel was upgraded to leave beta status, renamed as "Spotify for Artists", and opened to all artists and managers. Spotify_sentence_160

Additional features include the ability to get "verified" status with a blue checkmark on an artist's profile, receiving artist support from Spotify, customising the profile page with photos and promoting a certain song as their "pick". Spotify_sentence_161

In September 2018, Spotify announced "Upload Beta", allowing artists to upload directly to the platform instead of going through a distributor or record label. Spotify_sentence_162

The feature was rolled out to a small number of US-based artists by invitation only. Spotify_sentence_163

Uploading was free and artists received 100% of the revenue from songs they uploaded; artists were able to control when their release went public. Spotify_sentence_164

On 1 July 2019, Spotify deprecated the program and announced plans to stop accepting direct uploads by the end of that month, and eventually remove all content uploaded in this manner. Spotify_sentence_165

Industry initiatives Spotify_section_16

In June 2017, Variety reported that Spotify would announce "Secret Genius", a new initiative aimed at highlighting songwriters and producers, and the effect those people have to the music industry and the artists' careers. Spotify_sentence_166

The project, which would feature awards, "Songshops" songwriting workshops, curated playlists, and podcasts, is an effort to "shine a light on these people behind the scenes who play such a big role in some of the most important moments of our lives. Spotify_sentence_167

When the general public hears a song they automatically associate it with the artist who sings it, not the people behind the scenes who make it happen, so we thought the title Secret Genius was appropriate", Spotify's Global Head of Creator Services Troy Carter told Variety the first awards ceremony would take place in late 2017, and was intended to honour "the top songwriters, producers and publishers in the industry as well as up-and-coming talent". Spotify_sentence_168

Additionally, as part of "The Ambassador Program", 13 songwriters would each host a Songshop workshop, in which their peers would collaboratively attempt to create a hit song, with the first workshop taking place in Los Angeles in June 2017. Spotify_sentence_169

In October 2017, Spotify launched "Rise", a program aimed at promoting emerging artists. Spotify_sentence_170

In February 2020, Spotify announced it would be featuring new songwriter pages and 'written by' playlists. Spotify_sentence_171

This was aimed at giving fans a behind the scenes look at the process of some of their favorite songwirters. Spotify_sentence_172

Initial pages added included Justin Trantor, Meghan Trainor, and Missy Elliott. Spotify_sentence_173

Spotify thereafter announced it was planning to add more of these pages and playlists to highlight songwriters. Spotify_sentence_174

Stations by Spotify Spotify_section_17

On 31 January 2018, Spotify started testing a new Pandora-styled standalone app called Stations by Spotify for Australian Android users. Spotify_sentence_175

It features 62 music channels, each devoted to a particular genre. Spotify_sentence_176

Spotify itself has two channels named after its playlists that link directly to the users' profile: "Release Radar" and "Discover Weekly". Spotify_sentence_177

The aim is to help users to listen to the music they want without information overload or spending time building their own playlists. Spotify_sentence_178

At launch, the skipping feature was not featured to "reinforce the feel of radio", but it was quietly added later, and with no limits. Spotify_sentence_179

Songs can be "loved" but can't be "hated". Spotify_sentence_180

If a song is "loved", a custom radio channel will be created based on it, and when there are at least 15 of these songs, a "My Favourites" channel is unlocked. Spotify_sentence_181

Platforms Spotify_section_18


Developer(s)Spotify_header_cell_2_0_0 Spotify ABSpotify_cell_2_0_1
Initial releaseSpotify_header_cell_2_1_0 7 October 2008 (2008-10-07)Spotify_cell_2_1_1
Stable release(s)Spotify_header_cell_2_2_0
Android8.5.86.854 / November 26, 2020; 19 days ago (2020-11-26)Android Wear8.5.47.1006 / February 26, 2020; 9 months ago (2020-02-26)iOS8.5.86 / November 25, 2020; 20 days ago (2020-11-25)Windows 10 (Microsoft Store)1.148.625.0 / December 11, 2020; 4 days ago (2020-12-11)macOS1.1.46.916 / November 16, 2020; 29 days ago (2020-11-16)Linux1.1.46.916 / November 16, 2020; 29 days ago (2020-11-16)Spotify_cell_2_3_0
AndroidSpotify_header_cell_2_4_0 / November 26, 2020; 19 days ago (2020-11-26)Spotify_cell_2_4_1
Android WearSpotify_header_cell_2_5_0 / February 26, 2020; 9 months ago (2020-02-26)Spotify_cell_2_5_1
iOSSpotify_header_cell_2_6_0 8.5.86 / November 25, 2020; 20 days ago (2020-11-25)Spotify_cell_2_6_1
Windows 10 (Microsoft Store)Spotify_header_cell_2_7_0 1.148.625.0 / December 11, 2020; 4 days ago (2020-12-11)Spotify_cell_2_7_1
macOSSpotify_header_cell_2_8_0 / November 16, 2020; 29 days ago (2020-11-16)Spotify_cell_2_8_1
LinuxSpotify_header_cell_2_9_0 / November 16, 2020; 29 days ago (2020-11-16)Spotify_cell_2_9_1
Preview release(s)Spotify_header_cell_2_10_0
Android8.5.31.349 / October 29, 2019; 13 months ago (2019-10-29)iOS8.5.31.525 / October 29, 2019; 13 months ago (2019-10-29)Spotify_cell_2_11_0
AndroidSpotify_header_cell_2_12_0 / October 29, 2019; 13 months ago (2019-10-29)Spotify_cell_2_12_1
iOSSpotify_header_cell_2_13_0 / October 29, 2019; 13 months ago (2019-10-29)Spotify_cell_2_13_1
Written inSpotify_header_cell_2_14_0 Primarily Python, with some Java, C, and C++ componentsSpotify_cell_2_14_1
Operating systemSpotify_header_cell_2_15_0 Android, iOS, Windows, macOS and LinuxSpotify_cell_2_15_1
Available inSpotify_header_cell_2_16_0 ListSpotify_cell_2_16_1
TypeSpotify_header_cell_2_17_0 Music streamingSpotify_cell_2_17_1
LicenseSpotify_header_cell_2_18_0 ProprietarySpotify_cell_2_18_1
WebsiteSpotify_header_cell_2_19_0 Q689141?uselang=en#P856Spotify_cell_2_19_1

Spotify has client software available for Windows, macOS, Android, and iOS smartphones and tablets. Spotify_sentence_182

Spotify also offers an official, although unsupported (developed as a "labour of love" by Spotify engineers; support is offered through the Spotify Community), version of Spotify for Linux clients. Spotify_sentence_183

Spotify also offers a proprietary protocol known as "Spotify Connect", which lets users listen to music through a wide range of entertainment systems, including speakers, receivers, TVs, cars, and smartwatches. Spotify_sentence_184

Spotify also has a web player. Spotify_sentence_185

Unlike the apps, the web player does not have the ability to download music for offline listening. Spotify_sentence_186

In June 2017, Spotify became available as an app through Windows Store. Spotify_sentence_187

Features Spotify_section_19

In Spotify's apps, music can be browsed or searched for via various parameters, such as artist, album, genre, playlist, or record label. Spotify_sentence_188

Users can create, edit and share playlists, share tracks on social media, and make playlists with other users. Spotify_sentence_189

Spotify provides access to over 60 million songs, 450,000 podcasts and 3 billion playlists. Spotify_sentence_190

In November 2011, Spotify introduced a Spotify Apps service that made it possible for third-party developers to design applications that could be hosted within the Spotify computer software. Spotify_sentence_191

The applications provided features such as synchronised lyrics, music reviews, and song recommendations. Spotify_sentence_192

In June 2012, Soundrop became the first Spotify app to attract major funding, receiving $3 million from Spotify investor Northzone. Spotify_sentence_193

However, after the June 2014 announcement of a Web API that allowed third-party developers to integrate Spotify content in their own web applications,the company discontinued its Spotify Apps platform in October, stating that its new development tools for the Spotify web player fulfilled many of the advantages of the former Spotify Apps service, but "would ensure the Spotify platform remained relevant and easy to develop on, as well as enabling you to build innovative and engaging music experiences". Spotify_sentence_194

In April 2012, Spotify introduced a "Spotify Play Button", an embeddable music player that can be added to blogs, websites, or social media profiles, that lets visitors listen to a specific song, playlist, or album without leaving the page. Spotify_sentence_195

The following November, the company began rolling out a web player, with a similar design to its computer programs, but without the requirement of any installation. Spotify_sentence_196

In December 2012, Spotify introduced a "Follow" tab and a "Discover" tab, along with a "Collection" section. Spotify_sentence_197

"Follow" lets users follow artists and friends to see what they are listening to, while "Discover" gives users new releases from their favourite artists, as well as music, review, and concert recommendations based on listening history. Spotify_sentence_198

Users can add tracks to a "Collection" section of the app, rather than adding them to a specific playlist. Spotify_sentence_199

The features were announced by CEO Daniel Ek at a press conference, with Ek saying that a common user complaint about the service was that "Spotify is great when you know what music you want to listen to, but not when you don't". Spotify_sentence_200

In May 2015, Spotify announced a new "Home" start-page that could recommend music. Spotify_sentence_201

The company also introduced "Spotify Running", a feature aimed at improving music while running with music matched to running tempo, and announced that podcasts and videos ("entertainment, news and clips") would be coming to Spotify, along with "Spotify Originals" content. Spotify_sentence_202

In January 2016, Spotify and music annotation service Genius formed a partnership, bringing annotation information from Genius into infocards presented while songs are playing in Spotify. Spotify_sentence_203

The functionality is limited to selected playlists and was only available on Spotify's iOS app at launch, being expanded to the Android app in April 2017. Spotify_sentence_204

This feature is currently known as "Behind the Lyrics". Spotify_sentence_205

In May 2017, Spotify introduced Spotify Codes for its mobile apps, a way for users to share specific artists, tracks, playlists or albums with other people. Spotify_sentence_206

Users find the relevant content to share and press a "soundwave-style barcode" on the display. Spotify_sentence_207

A camera icon in the apps' search fields lets other users point their device's camera at the code, which takes them to the same content. Spotify_sentence_208

In January 2019, Spotify introduced Car View for Android, allowing devices running Android to have a compact Now Playing screen when the device is connected to a car's Bluetooth. Spotify_sentence_209

Also in January 2019, Spotify beta-tested its Canvas feature, where artists and/or labels can upload looping 3 to 8-second moving visuals to their tracks, replacing album covers in the "Now Playing" view; users have the option to turn off this feature. Spotify_sentence_210

Canvas is only available for Spotify's iOS and Android mobile apps. Spotify_sentence_211

Playlists and discovery Spotify_section_20

In July 2015, Spotify launched Discover Weekly, a weekly generated playlist, updated on Mondays, that brings users two hours of custom-made music recommendations, mixing a user's personal taste with songs enjoyed by similar listeners. Spotify_sentence_212

In December 2015, Quartz reported that songs in Discover Weekly playlists had been streamed 1.7 billion times, and Spotify wrote in May 2016 that Discover Weekly had reached "nearly" 5 billion tracks streamed since the July 2015 launch. Spotify_sentence_213

In March 2016, building on Discover Weekly's success, Spotify launched six newly generated playlists branded as Fresh Finds including the main playlist and Fire Emoji, Basement, Hiptronix, Six Strings, and Cyclone (hip-hop, electronic, pop, guitar-driven, and experimental music respectively). Spotify_sentence_214

The playlists spotlight lesser-known musicians and their songs which are listened to by 100,000 randomly chosen users and are talked about on 10 to 20,000 music blogs. Spotify_sentence_215

They are updated every Wednesday, and can contain a maximum of up to 50 songs. Spotify_sentence_216

In August 2016, Spotify launched Release Radar, a personalised playlist that allows users to stay up-to-date on new music released by artists they listen to the most. Spotify_sentence_217

It also helps users discover new music, by mixing in other artists' music. Spotify_sentence_218

The playlist is updated every Friday, and can be a maximum of up to two hours in length. Spotify_sentence_219

In September 2016, Spotify introduced Daily Mix, a series of (up to six) playlists that have "near endless playback" and mix the user's favourite tracks with new, recommended songs. Spotify_sentence_220

New users can access Daily Mix after approximately two weeks of listening to music through Spotify. Spotify_sentence_221

Daily Mixes were only available on the Android and iOS mobile apps at launch, but the feature was later expanded to Spotify's computer app in December 2016. Spotify_sentence_222

In 2017, Spotify introduced RapCaviar, one of the most influential playlists in the hip-hop industry, which gained over 10.9 million followers by 2019, becoming one of Spotify's Top 5 playlists worldwide. Spotify_sentence_223

RapCaviar was originally curated by Tuma Basa, and as of 2019, was relaunched by Carl Chery. Spotify_sentence_224

In July 2018, Spotify introduced a new beta feature that gives artists, labels and teams an easy way to submit unreleased music directly to Spotify's editorial team for playlist consideration. Spotify_sentence_225

In June 2019, Spotify launched a custom playlist titled "Your Daily Drive" that closely replicates the drive time format of many traditional radio stations. Spotify_sentence_226

It combines short-form podcast news updates from The Wall Street Journal, NPR, and PRI with a mix of a user's favorite songs and artists interspersed with tracks the listener has yet to discover. Spotify_sentence_227

"Your Daily Drive", which is found in a user's library under the "Made For You" section, updates throughout the day to keep both the music and news fresh. Spotify_sentence_228

In May 2020, Spotify introduced the 'Group Session' feature. Spotify_sentence_229

This feature allows two or more Premium users in the same location to share control over the music that's being played. Spotify_sentence_230

Listening limitations Spotify_section_21

Spotify has experimented with different limitations to users' listening on the Free service tier. Spotify_sentence_231

In April 2011, Spotify announced via a blog post that they would drastically cut the amount of music that free members could access, effective 1 May 2011. Spotify_sentence_232

The post stated that all free members would be limited to ten hours of music streaming per month, and in addition, individual tracks were limited to five plays. Spotify_sentence_233

New users were exempt from these changes for six months. Spotify_sentence_234

In March 2013, the five-play individual track limit was removed for users in the United Kingdom, and media reports stated that users in the United States, Australia and New Zealand never had the limit in the first place. Spotify_sentence_235

In December 2013, CEO Daniel Ek announced that Android and iOS smartphone users with the free service tier could listen to music in Shuffle mode, a feature in which users can stream music by specific artists and playlists without being able to pick which songs to hear. Spotify_sentence_236

Mobile listening previously was not allowed in Spotify Free accounts. Spotify_sentence_237

Ek stated that "We're giving people the best free music experience in the history of the smartphone." Spotify_sentence_238

This shuffle feature is not available on Android and iOS tablets, or computers. Spotify_sentence_239

In January 2014, Spotify removed all time limits for Free users on all platforms, including on computers, which previously had a 10-hour monthly listening limit after a 6-month grace period. Spotify_sentence_240

In April 2018, Spotify began to allow Free users to listen on-demand to whatever songs they want for an unlimited number of times, as long as the song is on one of the user's 15 personalized discovery playlists. Spotify_sentence_241

Before April 2020, all service users were limited to 10,000 songs in their library, after which they would receive an "Epic collection, friend" notification, and would not be able to save more music to their library. Spotify_sentence_242

Adding playlists at this point also arbitrarily removed older playlists from the users' library. Spotify_sentence_243

Spotify later removed this limit. Spotify_sentence_244

Technical information Spotify_section_22

Spotify is proprietary and uses digital rights management (DRM) controls. Spotify_sentence_245

Spotify's terms and conditions do not permit users to reverse-engineer the application. Spotify_sentence_246

Spotify allows users to add local audio files for music not in its catalogue into the user's library through Spotify's desktop application, and then allows users to synchronise those music files to Spotify's mobile apps or other computers over the same Wi-Fi network as the primary computer by creating a Spotify playlist, and adding those local audio files to the playlist. Spotify_sentence_247

Audio files must either be in the .mp3, .mp4 (.mp4 files that have video streams are not supported), or .m4p media formats. Spotify_sentence_248

This feature is available only for Premium subscribers. Spotify_sentence_249

Spotify has a median playback latency of 265 ms (including local cache). Spotify_sentence_250

In April 2014, Spotify moved away from the peer-to-peer (P2P) system they had used to distribute music to users. Spotify_sentence_251

Previously, a desktop user would listen to music from one of three sources: a cached file on the computer, one of Spotify's servers, or from other subscribers through the P2P system. Spotify_sentence_252

P2P, a well-established Internet distribution system, served as an alternative that reduced Spotify's server resources and costs. Spotify_sentence_253

However, Spotify ended the P2P setup in 2014, with Spotify's Alison Bonny telling TorrentFreak: "We’re gradually phasing out the use of our desktop P2P technology which has helped our users enjoy their music both speedily and seamlessly. Spotify_sentence_254

We’re now at a stage where we can power music delivery through our growing number of servers and ensure our users continue to receive a best-in-class service." Spotify_sentence_255

Geographic availability Spotify_section_23

Spotify is available in 92 countries. Spotify_sentence_256


History of expansionSpotify_header_cell_3_0_0
DateSpotify_header_cell_3_1_0 Countries/RegionsSpotify_header_cell_3_1_1 Reference(s)Spotify_header_cell_3_1_2
7 October 2008Spotify_cell_3_2_0 Spotify_cell_3_2_1 Spotify_cell_3_2_2
10 February 2009Spotify_cell_3_3_0 Spotify_cell_3_3_1 Spotify_cell_3_3_2
18 May 2010Spotify_cell_3_4_0 Spotify_cell_3_4_1 Spotify_cell_3_4_2
14 July 2011Spotify_cell_3_5_0 Spotify_cell_3_5_1 Spotify_cell_3_5_2
12 October 2011Spotify_cell_3_6_0 Spotify_cell_3_6_1 Spotify_cell_3_6_2
15 November 2011Spotify_cell_3_7_0 Spotify_cell_3_7_1 Spotify_cell_3_7_2
16 November 2011Spotify_cell_3_8_0 Spotify_cell_3_8_1 Spotify_cell_3_8_2
13 March 2012Spotify_cell_3_9_0 Spotify_cell_3_9_1 Spotify_cell_3_9_2
22 May 2012Spotify_cell_3_10_0 Spotify_cell_3_10_1 Spotify_cell_3_10_2
13 November 2012Spotify_cell_3_11_0 Spotify_cell_3_11_1 Spotify_cell_3_11_2
12 February 2013Spotify_cell_3_12_0 Spotify_cell_3_12_1 Spotify_cell_3_12_2
16 April 2013Spotify_cell_3_13_0 Spotify_cell_3_13_1 Spotify_cell_3_13_2
24 September 2013Spotify_cell_3_14_0 Spotify_cell_3_14_1 Spotify_cell_3_14_2
12 December 2013Spotify_cell_3_15_0 Spotify_cell_3_15_1 Spotify_cell_3_15_2
8 April 2014Spotify_cell_3_16_0 Spotify_cell_3_16_1 Spotify_cell_3_16_2
28 May 2014Spotify_cell_3_17_0 Spotify_cell_3_17_1 Spotify_cell_3_17_2
30 September 2014Spotify_cell_3_18_0 Spotify_cell_3_18_1 Spotify_cell_3_18_2
30 March 2016Spotify_cell_3_19_0 Spotify_cell_3_19_1 Spotify_cell_3_19_2
29 September 2016Spotify_cell_3_20_0 Spotify_cell_3_20_1 Spotify_cell_3_20_2
22 August 2017Spotify_cell_3_21_0 Spotify_cell_3_21_1 Spotify_cell_3_21_2
13 March 2018Spotify_cell_3_22_0 Spotify_cell_3_22_1 <Spotify_cell_3_22_2
13 November 2018Spotify_cell_3_23_0 Spotify_cell_3_23_1 Spotify_cell_3_23_2
26 February 2019Spotify_cell_3_24_0 Spotify_cell_3_24_1 Spotify_cell_3_24_2
14 July 2020Spotify_cell_3_25_0 Spotify_cell_3_25_1 Spotify_cell_3_25_2

Accolades Spotify_section_24

In September 2010, the World Economic Forum (WEF) announced the company as a Technology Pioneer for 2011. Spotify_sentence_257

In March 2020, Spotify was the most downloaded music app on the iOS platform in the United States. Spotify_sentence_258

International Dance Music Awards Spotify_section_25


YearSpotify_header_cell_4_0_0 CategorySpotify_header_cell_4_0_1 WorkSpotify_header_cell_4_0_2 ResultSpotify_header_cell_4_0_3 Ref.Spotify_header_cell_4_0_4
2018Spotify_cell_4_1_0 Best Streaming ServiceSpotify_cell_4_1_1 SpotifySpotify_cell_4_1_2 WonSpotify_cell_4_1_3 Spotify_cell_4_1_4
2019Spotify_cell_4_2_0 WonSpotify_cell_4_2_1 Spotify_cell_4_2_2
2020Spotify_cell_4_3_0 WonSpotify_cell_4_3_1 Spotify_cell_4_3_2

Criticism Spotify_section_26

Main article: Criticism of Spotify Spotify_sentence_259

Spotify has attracted significant criticism since its 2008 launch. Spotify_sentence_260

The primary point of criticism centres around what artists, music creators, and the media have described as "unsustainable" compensation. Spotify_sentence_261

Unlike physical sales or legal downloads (both of which were the main medium of listening to music at the time), which pay artists a fixed price per song or album sold, Spotify pays royalties based on their "market share"—the number of streams for their songs as a proportion of total songs streamed on the service. Spotify_sentence_262

Spotify distributes approximately 70% of its total revenue to rights-holders, who will then pay artists based on their individual agreements. Spotify_sentence_263

Spotify has been criticized by artists including Thom Yorke and Taylor Swift, who withdrew their music from the service. Spotify_sentence_264

Their catalogues returned to the service in 2017. Spotify_sentence_265

While the streaming music industry in general faces the same critique about inadequate payments, Spotify, being the leading service, faces particular scrutiny due to its free service tier, allowing users to listen to music for free, though with advertisements between tracks. Spotify_sentence_266

The free service tier has led to a variety of major album releases being delayed or withdrawn from the service. Spotify_sentence_267

In response to the allegations about unfair compensation, Spotify claims that it is benefitting the industry by migrating users away from unauthorized copying and less monetised platforms to its free service tier, and then encouraging them to upgrade to paid accounts. Spotify_sentence_268

A study has shown that record labels keep a high amount of the money earned from Spotify, and the CEO of Merlin Network, a representative body for over 10,000 independent labels, has also observed significant yearly growth rates in earnings from Spotify, while clarifying that Spotify pays labels, not artists. Spotify_sentence_269

In May 2018, Spotify attracted criticism for its "Hate Content & Hateful Conduct policy" that removed the music of R. Spotify_sentence_270 Kelly and XXXTentacion from its editorial and algorithmic playlists because "When we look at promotion, we look at issues around hateful conduct, where you have an artist or another creator who has done something off-platform that is so particularly out of line with our values, egregious, in a way that it becomes something that we don't want to associate ourselves with". Spotify_sentence_271

R. Kelly has faced accusations of sexual abuse, while XXXTentacion was on trial for domestic abuse in a case that did not reach a judgement before his death that June. Spotify_sentence_272

This policy was revoked in June because the company deemed the original wording to be too "vague"; they stated that "Across all genres, our role is not to regulate artists. Spotify_sentence_273

Therefore, we are moving away from implementing a policy around artist conduct". Spotify_sentence_274

However, artists such as Gary Glitter and Lostprophets are still hidden from Spotify's radio stations and search results. Spotify_sentence_275

According to some computer science and music experts, various music communities are often ignored or overlooked by music streaming services, such as Spotify. Spotify_sentence_276

The most commonly perceived error is said to be caused by a lack of diverse scope within curation staffs, including overlooking mainstay artists in large genres, potentially causing a categorical homogenization of musical styles; even impacting mainline artists like within hip hop with A Tribe Called Quest. Spotify_sentence_277

This can potentially even have a negative impact on heritage styles, amongst both popular and traditional genres of New Mexico music and folk music, even harming the growth of popular styles like country rap and contemporary Christian music. Spotify_sentence_278

In 2016, Spotify was also the centre of criticism for allegedly making certain artists' music harder to find than others as these artists would release their music to the rival streaming service Apple Music before releasing it to Spotify. Spotify_sentence_279

In 2020, Spotify received criticism from anti-misinformation groups when conspiracy theorist Alex Jones appeared on The Joe Rogan Experience podcast. Spotify_sentence_280

Spotify's own employees raised concerns about Jones' appearance on the show. Spotify_sentence_281

Literature Spotify_section_27


  • Maria Eriksson et al. (2019): Spotify Teardown: Inside the Black Box of Streaming Music, The MIT Press, ISBN 978-0262038904.Spotify_item_0_0

See also Spotify_section_28


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: