Mary, mother of Jesus

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For the 1999 television film, see Mary, Mother of Jesus (film). Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_0

"Saint Mary" and "Virgin Mary" redirect here. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_1

For other uses, see Saint Mary (disambiguation) and Virgin Mary (disambiguation). Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_2

Mary, mother of Jesus_table_infobox_0

MaryMary, mother of Jesus_header_cell_0_0_0
BornMary, mother of Jesus_header_cell_0_1_0 Date unknown; traditionally celebrated 8 September (Nativity of Mary) c. 18 BCMary, mother of Jesus_cell_0_1_1
DiedMary, mother of Jesus_header_cell_0_2_0 Unknown, after c. 30 / 33 ADMary, mother of Jesus_cell_0_2_1
Spouse(s)Mary, mother of Jesus_header_cell_0_3_0 JosephMary, mother of Jesus_cell_0_3_1
ChildrenMary, mother of Jesus_header_cell_0_4_0 Jesus, possibly the brothers and sisters of Jesus.Mary, mother of Jesus_cell_0_4_1
Parent(s)Mary, mother of Jesus_header_cell_0_5_0 unknown; according to some apocryphal writings: Joachim and AnneMary, mother of Jesus_cell_0_5_1

Mary was a first-century Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, the wife of Joseph, and the mother of Jesus, according to the canonical gospels and the Quran. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_3

The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament and the Quran describe Mary as a virgin. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_4

In Matthew and Luke she is betrothed to Joseph. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_5

According to Christian theology she conceived Jesus through the Holy Spirit while still a virgin. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_6

She accompanied Joseph to Bethlehem, where Jesus was born. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_7

According to Catholic and Eastern Christian teachings, at the end of her earthly life God raised her body directly into heaven; this is known in the Christian West as the Assumption of Mary. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_8

Mary has been venerated since early Christianity, and is considered by millions to be the most meritorious saint of the religion. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_9

She is said to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_10

The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, as mother of Jesus, is the Theotokos (Mother of God, Greek: Θεοτόκος, romanized: Theotokos, lit. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_11

'God-bearer'). Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_12

There is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_13

The Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas, namely her status as the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her perpetual virginity, and her Assumption into heaven. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_14

Many Protestants minimize Mary's role within Christianity, basing their argument on the lack of biblical support for any beliefs other than the virgin birth (actually a virginal conception). Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_15

Mary also has the highest position in Islam among all women. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_16

She is mentioned in the Quran more often than in the New Testament, where two of the longer chapters of the Quran are devoted to her and her family. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_17

Names and titles Mary, mother of Jesus_section_0

Main article: Titles of Mary Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_18

Mary's name in the original manuscripts of the New Testament was based on her original Aramaic name מרים‎, translit. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_19

Maryam or Mariam. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_20

The English name Mary comes from the Greek Μαρία, which is a shortened form of Μαριάμ. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_21

Both Μαρία and Μαριάμ appear in the New Testament. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_22

In Christianity Mary, mother of Jesus_section_1

Christians commonly refer to her as the Virgin Mary, in accordance with the belief that the Holy Spirit impregnated her, thereby conceiving her first-born Jesus miraculously, without sexual relations with her betrothed/husband Joseph, "until her son [Jesus] was born" (Mt 1:25). Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_23

The word "until" has inspired considerable analysis on the subject of Mary and Joseph producing siblings after the birth of Jesus; see e.g. Sabine R. Huebner's succinct analysis of the issue. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_24

Among her many other names and titles are the Blessed Virgin Mary (often abbreviated to "BVM", or "BMV" after the Latin "Beata Maria Virgo"), Saint Mary (occasionally), the Mother of God (primarily in Western Christianity), the Theotokos (primarily in Eastern Christianity), Our Lady (Medieval Italian: Madonna), and Queen of Heaven (Latin: Regina caeli), although the title queen of heaven was for centuries before an epithet for several ancient sky-goddesses — Nin-anna, Astarte, Ishtar et al. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_25

— including Astoreth, the Canaanite sky-goddess worshipped during the Hebrew prophet Jeremiah's lifetime. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_26

Titles in use vary among Anglicans, Lutherans, Catholics, Orthodox, Protestants, Mormons, and other Christians. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_27

The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are Theotokos (Greek: Θεοτόκος, lit. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_28

'God-bearer' or loosely "Mother of God"), Aeiparthenos (Greek: ἀειπαρθὲνος, lit. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_29

'Ever-virgin') as confirmed in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, and Panagia (Greek: Παναγία, lit. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_30

'All-holy'). Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_31

Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary, and these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_32

For example, the title Our Lady of Sorrows has inspired such masterpieces as Michelangelo's Pietà. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_33

The title Theotokos was recognized at the Council of Ephesus in 431. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_34

The direct equivalents of title in Latin are Deipara and Dei Genetrix, although the phrase is more often loosely translated into Latin as Mater Dei (Mother of God), with similar patterns for other languages used in the Latin Church. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_35

However, this same phrase in Greek (Μήτηρ Θεοῦ), in the abbreviated form ΜΡ ΘΥ, is an indication commonly attached to her image in Byzantine icons. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_36

The Council stated that the Church Fathers "did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God". Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_37

Some Marian titles have a direct scriptural basis. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_38

For instance, the title "Queen Mother" has been given to Mary since she was the mother of Jesus, who was sometimes referred to as the "King of Kings" due to his ancestral descent from King David. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_39

Other titles have arisen from reported miracles, special appeals, or occasions for calling on Mary. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_40

To give a few examples, Our Lady of Good Counsel, Our Lady of Navigators, and Our Lady Undoer of Knots fit this description. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_41

In Islam Mary, mother of Jesus_section_2

Main article: Mary in Islam Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_42

In Islam, she is known as Maryam (Arabic: مريم‎, romanized: Maryām), mother of Isa (Arabic: عيسى بن مريم‎, romanized: ʿĪsā ibn Maryām, lit. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_43

'Jesus, son of Mary'). Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_44

She is often referred to by the honorific title sayyidatuna, meaning "our lady"; this title is in parallel to sayyiduna ("our lord"), used for the prophets. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_45

A related term of endearment is Siddiqah, meaning "she who confirms the truth" and "she who believes sincerely completely". Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_46

Another title for Mary is Qānitah, which signifies both constant submission to God and absorption in prayer and invocation in Islam. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_47

She is also called "Tahira", meaning "one who has been purified" and representing her status as one of two humans in creation (and the only woman) to not be touched by Satan at any point. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_48

New Testament Mary, mother of Jesus_section_3

Mary, mother of Jesus_unordered_list_0

  • The Gospel of Luke mentions Mary the most often, identifying her by name twelve times, all of these in the infancy narrative .Mary, mother of Jesus_item_0_0
  • The Gospel of Matthew mentions her by name six times, five of these {{|This is only 4|}} in the infancy narrative and only once outside the infancy narrative.Mary, mother of Jesus_item_0_1
  • The Gospel of Mark names her once and mentions her as Jesus' mother without naming her in and .Mary, mother of Jesus_item_0_2
  • The Gospel of John refers to her twice but never mentions her by name. Described as Jesus' mother, she makes two appearances. She is first seen at the wedding at Cana. The second reference, listed only in this gospel, has her standing near the cross of Jesus together with Mary Magdalene, Mary of Clopas (or Cleophas), and her own sister (possibly the same as Mary of Clopas; the wording is semantically ambiguous), along with the "disciple whom Jesus loved". is the only text in the canonical gospels in which the adult Jesus has a conversation with Mary. He does not address her as "Mother" but as "Woman". In Koine Greek (the language that John's Gospel was composed in), calling one's mother "Woman" was not disrespectful, and could even be tender. Accordingly, some versions of the Bible translate it as "Dear woman". ( NLT; NCV; AMP; NIV).Mary, mother of Jesus_item_0_3
  • In the Acts of the Apostles, Mary and the brothers of Jesus are mentioned in the company of the Eleven (apostles) who are gathered in the upper room after the Ascension of Jesus.Mary, mother of Jesus_item_0_4
  • In the Revelation to John, Mary is never explicitly identified as the "woman clothed with the sun". Jean-Pierre Ruiz makes that connection in an article in New Theology Review but the belief is quite ancient, as is the association of Mary and the Ark of the Covenant, mentioned at .Mary, mother of Jesus_item_0_5

Genealogy Mary, mother of Jesus_section_4

The New Testament tells little of Mary's early history. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_49

The Gospel of Matthew does give a genealogy for Jesus by his father's paternal line, only identifying Mary as the wife of Joseph. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_50

John 19:25 states that Mary had a sister; semantically it is unclear if this sister is the same as Mary of Clopas, or if she is left unnamed. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_51

Jerome identifies Mary of Clopas as the sister of Mary, mother of Jesus. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_52

According to the early second-century historian Hegesippus, Mary of Clopas was likely Mary's sister-in-law, understanding Clopas (Cleophas) to have been Joseph's brother. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_53

According to the writer of Luke, Mary was a relative of Elizabeth, wife of the priest Zechariah of the priestly division of Abijah, who was herself part of the lineage of Aaron and so of the tribe of Levi. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_54

(Luke 1 ) Some of those who consider that the relationship with Elizabeth was on the maternal side, consider that Mary, like Joseph, to whom she was betrothed, was of the royal House of David and so of the Tribe of Judah, and that the genealogy of Jesus presented in Luke 3 from Nathan, third son of David and Bathsheba, is in fact the genealogy of Mary, while the genealogy from Solomon given in Matthew 1 is that of Joseph. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_55

(Aaron's wife Elisheba was of the tribe of Judah, so all their descendants are from both Levi and Judah.) Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_56

Annunciation Mary, mother of Jesus_section_5

Main article: Annunciation Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_57

Mary resided in "her own house" in Nazareth in Galilee, possibly with her parents, and during her betrothal—the first stage of a Jewish marriage—the angel Gabriel announced to her that she was to be the mother of the promised Messiah by conceiving him through the Holy Spirit, and, after initially expressing incredulity at the announcement, she responded, "I am the handmaid of the Lord. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_58

Let it be done unto me according to your word." Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_59

Joseph planned to quietly divorce her, but was told her conception was by the Holy Spirit in a dream by "an angel of the Lord"; the angel told him to not hesitate to take her as his wife, which Joseph did, thereby formally completing the wedding rites. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_60

Since the angel Gabriel had told Mary that Elizabeth—having previously been barren—was then miraculously pregnant, Mary hurried to see Elizabeth, who was living with her husband Zechariah in "Hebron, in the hill country of Judah". Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_61

Mary arrived at the house and greeted Elizabeth who called Mary "the mother of my Lord", and Mary spoke the words of praise that later became known as the Magnificat from her first word in the Latin version. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_62

After about three months, Mary returned to her own house. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_63

Birth of Jesus Mary, mother of Jesus_section_6

Main article: Nativity of Jesus Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_64

According to the author of the gospel according to Luke, a decree of the Roman Emperor Augustus required that Joseph return to his hometown of Bethlehem to register for a Roman census; see Census of Quirinius. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_65

While he was there with Mary, she gave birth to Jesus; but because there was no place for them in the inn, she used a manger as a cradle. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_66

After eight days, he was circumcised according to Jewish law and named "Jesus" (Hebrew: ישוע‎, romanizedYeshua), which means "Yahweh is salvation". Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_67

After Mary continued in the "blood of her purifying" another 33 days, for a total of 40 days, she brought her burnt offering and sin offering to the Temple in Jerusalem, so the priest could make atonement for her. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_68

They also presented Jesus – "As it is written in the law of the Lord, Every male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord" (). Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_69

After the prophecies of Simeon and the prophetess Anna in , the family "returned into Galilee, to their own city Nazareth". Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_70

According to the author of the gospel according to Matthew, the Magi arrived at Bethlehem where Jesus and his family were living. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_71

Joseph was warned in a dream that King Herod wanted to murder the infant, and the family fled by night to Egypt and stayed there for some time. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_72

After Herod's death in 4 BC, they returned to Nazareth in Galilee, rather than Bethlehem, because Herod's son Archelaus was ruler of Judaea. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_73

Mary is involved in the only event in Jesus' adolescent life that is recorded in the New Testament. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_74

At the age of twelve, Jesus, having become separated from his parents on their return journey from the Passover celebration in Jerusalem, was found in the Temple among the religious teachers. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_75

In the life of Jesus Mary, mother of Jesus_section_7

Mary was present when, at her suggestion, Jesus worked his first miracle during a wedding at Cana by turning water into wine. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_76

Subsequently, there are events when Mary is present along with James, Joseph, Simon, and Judas, called Jesus' brothers, and unnamed sisters. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_77

Following Jerome, the Church Fathers interpreted the words translated as "brother" and "sister" as referring to close relatives. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_78

The hagiography of Mary and the Holy Family can be contrasted with other material in the Gospels. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_79

These references include an incident which can be interpreted as Jesus rejecting his family in the New Testament: "And his mother and his brothers arrived, and standing outside, they sent in a message asking for him ... And looking at those who sat in a circle around him, Jesus said, 'These are my mother and my brothers. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_80

Whoever does the will of God is my brother, and sister, and mother'." Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_81

Mary is also depicted as being present among the women at the crucifixion during the crucifixion standing near "the disciple whom Jesus loved" along with Mary of Clopas and Mary Magdalene, to which list adds "the mother of the sons of Zebedee", presumably the Salome mentioned in . Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_82

This representation is called a Stabat Mater. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_83

While not recorded in the Gospel accounts, Mary cradling the dead body of her son is a common motif in art, called a "pietà" or "pity". Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_84

After the Ascension of Jesus Mary, mother of Jesus_section_8

In Mary is the only one other than the eleven apostles to be mentioned by name who abode in the upper room, when they returned from Mount Olivet. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_85

Some speculate that the "elect lady" mentioned in may be Mary. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_86

From this time, she disappears from the biblical accounts, although it is held by Catholics that she is again portrayed as the heavenly woman of Revelation. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_87

Her death is not recorded in the scriptures, but Catholic and Orthodox tradition and doctrine have her assumed (taken bodily) into Heaven. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_88

Belief in the corporeal assumption of Mary is a dogma of the Catholic Church, in the Latin and Eastern Catholic Churches alike, and is believed as well by the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Coptic Orthodox Church, and parts of the Anglican Communion and Continuing Anglican movement. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_89

Later Christian writings and traditions Mary, mother of Jesus_section_9

According to the apocryphal Gospel of James, Mary was the daughter of Saint Joachim and Saint Anne. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_90

Before Mary's conception, Anne had been barren and was far advanced in years. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_91

Mary was given to service as a consecrated virgin in the Temple in Jerusalem when she was three years old, much like Hannah took Samuel to the Tabernacle as recorded in the Old Testament. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_92

The idea that she was allowed in the Holy of Holies is a patent impossibility (probably blasphemy for Ancient Jews). Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_93

Some apocryphal accounts state that at the time of her betrothal to Joseph, Mary was 12–14 years old. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_94

According to ancient Jewish custom, Mary could have been betrothed at about 12. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_95

Hyppolitus of Thebes says that Mary lived for 11 years after the death of her son Jesus, dying in 41 AD. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_96

The earliest extant biographical writing on Mary is Life of the Virgin attributed to the 7th-century saint, Maximus the Confessor, which portrays her as a key element of the early Christian Church after the death of Jesus. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_97

In the 19th century, a house near Ephesus in Turkey was found, based on the visions of Anne Catherine Emmerich, an Augustinian nun in Germany. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_98

It has since been visited as the House of the Virgin Mary by Roman Catholic pilgrims who consider it the place where Mary lived until her assumption. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_99

The Gospel of John states that Mary went to live with the Disciple whom Jesus loved, identified as John the Evangelist. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_100

Irenaeus and Eusebius of Caesarea wrote in their histories that John later went to Ephesus, which may provide the basis for the early belief that Mary also lived in Ephesus with John. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_101

Perspectives on Mary Mary, mother of Jesus_section_10

Mary, mother of Jesus_table_infobox_1

Blessed Virgin MaryMary, mother of Jesus_header_cell_1_0_0
Western Christianity:

Mother of God, Queen of Heaven, Mother of the Church (see Titles of Mary) Eastern Christianity: Theotokos Islam: Sayyidatna ("Our Lady"), Greatest Woman, the Chosen One, the Purified OneMary, mother of Jesus_header_cell_1_1_0

Honored inMary, mother of Jesus_header_cell_1_2_0 Christianity, IslamMary, mother of Jesus_cell_1_2_1
CanonizedMary, mother of Jesus_header_cell_1_3_0 Pre-CongregationMary, mother of Jesus_cell_1_3_1
Major shrineMary, mother of Jesus_header_cell_1_4_0 Santa Maria Maggiore (See Marian shrines)Mary, mother of Jesus_cell_1_4_1
FeastMary, mother of Jesus_header_cell_1_5_0 See Marian feast daysMary, mother of Jesus_cell_1_5_1
AttributesMary, mother of Jesus_header_cell_1_6_0 Blue mantle, crown of 12 stars, pregnant woman, roses, woman with child, woman trampling serpent, crescent moon, woman clothed with the sun, heart pierced by sword, rosary beadsMary, mother of Jesus_cell_1_6_1
PatronageMary, mother of Jesus_header_cell_1_7_0 See Patronage of the Blessed Virgin MaryMary, mother of Jesus_cell_1_7_1

Christian Mary, mother of Jesus_section_11

See also: Mariology, Theotokos, and Hymns to Mary Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_102

Christian Marian perspectives include a great deal of diversity. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_103

While some Christians such as Catholics and Eastern Orthodox have well established Marian traditions, Protestants at large pay scant attention to Mariological themes. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_104

Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutherans venerate the Virgin Mary. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_105

This veneration especially takes the form of prayer for intercession with her Son, Jesus Christ. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_106

Additionally it includes composing poems and songs in Mary's honor, painting icons or carving statues of her, and conferring titles on Mary that reflect her position among the saints. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_107

Catholic Mary, mother of Jesus_section_12

Main articles: Roman Catholic Mariology and Veneration of Mary in Roman Catholicism Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_108

In the Catholic Church, Mary is accorded the title "Blessed" (Latin: beata, Greek: μακάρια, romanized: makaria) in recognition of her assumption to Heaven and her capacity to intercede on behalf of those who pray to her. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_109

There is a difference between the usage of the term "blessed" as pertaining to Mary and its usage as pertaining to a beatified person. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_110

"Blessed" as a Marian title refers to her exalted state as being the greatest among the saints; for a person who has been declared beatified, on the other hand, "blessed" simply indicates that they may be venerated despite not being officially canonized. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_111

Catholic teachings make clear that Mary is not considered divine and prayers to her are not answered by her, but rather by God through her intercession. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_112

The four Catholic dogmas regarding Mary are: her status as Theotokos, or Mother of God; her perpetual virginity; her Immaculate Conception; and her bodily Assumption into heaven. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_113

The Blessed Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus has a more central role in Roman Catholic teachings and beliefs than in any other major Christian group. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_114

Not only do Roman Catholics have more theological doctrines and teachings that relate to Mary, but they have more festivals, prayers, devotional, and venerative practices than any other group. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_115

The Catechism of the Catholic Church states: "The Church's devotion to the Blessed Virgin is intrinsic to Christian worship." Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_116

For centuries, Catholics have performed acts of consecration and entrustment to Mary at personal, societal and regional levels. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_117

These acts may be directed to the Virgin herself, to the Immaculate Heart of Mary and to the Immaculate Conception. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_118

In Catholic teachings, consecration to Mary does not diminish or substitute the love of God, but enhances it, for all consecration is ultimately made to God. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_119

Following the growth of Marian devotions in the 16th century, Catholic saints wrote books such as Glories of Mary and True Devotion to Mary that emphasized Marian veneration and taught that "the path to Jesus is through Mary". Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_120

Marian devotions are at times linked to Christocentric devotions (e.g. the Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary). Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_121

Key Marian devotions include: Seven Sorrows of Mary, Rosary and scapular, Miraculous Medal and Reparations to Mary. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_122

The months of May and October are traditionally "Marian months" for Roman Catholics, e.g., the daily Rosary is encouraged in October and in May Marian devotions take place in many regions. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_123

Popes have issued a number of Marian encyclicals and Apostolic Letters to encourage devotions to and the veneration of the Virgin Mary. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_124

Catholics place high emphasis on Mary's roles as protector and intercessor and the Catechism refers to Mary as "honored with the title 'Mother of God,' to whose protection the faithful fly in all their dangers and needs". Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_125

Key Marian prayers include: Ave Maria, Alma Redemptoris Mater, Sub tuum praesidum, Ave maris stella, Regina caeli, Ave Regina caelorum and the Magnificat. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_126

Mary's participation in the processes of salvation and redemption has also been emphasized in the Catholic tradition, but they are not doctrines. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_127

Pope John Paul II's 1987 encyclical Redemptoris Mater began with the sentence: "The Mother of the Redeemer has a precise place in the plan of salvation." Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_128

In the 20th century both popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI have emphasized the Marian focus of the Church. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_129

Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI) suggested a redirection of the whole Church towards the program of Pope John Paul II in order to ensure an authentic approach to Christology via a return to the "whole truth about Mary," writing: Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_130

Eastern Orthodox Mary, mother of Jesus_section_13

Eastern Orthodox Christianity includes a large number of traditions regarding the Ever Virgin Mary, the Theotokos. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_131

The Orthodox believe that she was and remained a virgin before and after Christ's birth. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_132

The Theotokia (i.e., hymns to the Theotokos) are an essential part of the Divine Services in the Eastern Church and their positioning within the liturgical sequence effectively places the Theotokos in the most prominent place after Christ. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_133

Within the Orthodox tradition, the order of the saints begins with: The Theotokos, Angels, Prophets, Apostles, Fathers, Martyrs, etc. giving the Virgin Mary precedence over the angels. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_134

She is also proclaimed as the "Lady of the Angels". Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_135

The views of the Church Fathers still play an important role in the shaping of Orthodox Marian perspective. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_136

However, the Orthodox views on Mary are mostly doxological, rather than academic: they are expressed in hymns, praise, liturgical poetry and the veneration of icons. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_137

One of the most loved Orthodox Akathists (i.e. standing hymns) is devoted to Mary and it is often simply called the Akathist Hymn. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_138

Five of the twelve Great Feasts in Orthodoxy are dedicated to Mary. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_139

The Sunday of Orthodoxy directly links the Virgin Mary's identity as Mother of God with icon veneration. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_140

A number of Orthodox feasts are connected with the miraculous icons of the Theotokos. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_141

The Orthodox view Mary as "superior to all created beings", although not divine. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_142

As such, the designation of Saint to Mary as Saint Mary is not appropriate. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_143

The Orthodox does not venerate Mary as conceived immaculate. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_144

Gregory of Nazianzus, Archbishop of Constantinople in the 4th century AD, speaking on the Nativity of Jesus Christ argues that "Conceived by the Virgin, who first in body and soul was purified by the Holy Ghost, He came forth as God with that which He had assumed, One Person in two Natures, Flesh and Spirit, of which the latter defined the former." Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_145

The Orthodox celebrate the Dormition of the Theotokos, rather than Assumption. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_146

The Protoevangelium of James, an extra-canonical book, has been the source of many Orthodox beliefs on Mary. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_147

The account of Mary's life presented includes her consecration as a virgin at the temple at age three. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_148

The high priest Zachariah blessed Mary and informed her that God had magnified her name among many generations. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_149

Zachariah placed Mary on the third step of the altar, whereby God gave her grace. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_150

While in the temple, Mary was miraculously fed by an angel, until she was twelve years old. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_151

At that point an angel told Zachariah to betroth Mary to a widower in Israel, who would be indicated. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_152

This story provides the theme of many hymns for the Feast of Presentation of Mary, and icons of the feast depict the story. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_153

The Orthodox believe that Mary was instrumental in the growth of Christianity during the life of Jesus, and after his Crucifixion, and Orthodox theologian Sergei Bulgakov has written: "The Virgin Mary is the centre, invisible, but real, of the Apostolic Church." Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_154

Theologians from the Orthodox tradition have made prominent contributions to the development of Marian thought and devotion. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_155

John Damascene (c. 650–c. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_156

750) was one of the greatest Orthodox theologians. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_157

Among other Marian writings, he proclaimed the essential nature of Mary's heavenly Assumption or Dormition and her meditative role. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_158

More recently, Sergei Bulgakov expressed the Orthodox sentiments towards Mary as follows: Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_159

Protestant Mary, mother of Jesus_section_14

Further information: Protestant views on Mary Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_160

Protestants in general reject the veneration and invocation of the Saints. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_161

Protestants typically hold the view that Mary was the mother of Jesus, but unlike Catholics, they believe that she was an ordinary woman who was also devoted to God. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_162

Therefore, there is virtually no Marian veneration, Marian feasts, Marian pilgrimages, Marian art, Marian music or Marian spirituality in today's Protestant communities. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_163

Within these views, Roman Catholic beliefs and practices are at times rejected, e.g., theologian Karl Barth wrote that "the heresy of the Catholic Church is its Mariology". Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_164

Some early Protestants venerated and honored Mary. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_165

Martin Luther wrote that: "Mary is full of grace, proclaimed to be entirely without sin. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_166

God's grace fills her with everything good and makes her devoid of all evil." Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_167

However, as of 1532 Luther stopped celebrating the feast of the Assumption of Mary and also discontinued his support of the Immaculate Conception. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_168

John Calvin remarked, "It cannot be denied that God in choosing and destining Mary to be the Mother of his Son, granted her the highest honor." Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_169

However, Calvin firmly rejected the notion that anyone but Christ can intercede for man. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_170

Although Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli honored Mary as the Mother of God in the 16th century, they did so less than Martin Luther. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_171

Thus the idea of respect and high honor for Mary was not rejected by the first Protestants; but, they came to criticize the Roman Catholics for venerating Mary. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_172

Following the Council of Trent in the 16th century, as Marian veneration became associated with Catholics, Protestant interest in Mary decreased. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_173

During the Age of the Enlightenment, any residual interest in Mary within Protestant churches almost disappeared, although Anglicans and Lutherans continued to honor her. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_174

Protestants believe that Mary is "blessed among women" but they do not agree that Mary is to be venerated. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_175

She is considered to be an outstanding example of a life dedicated to God. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_176

In the 20th century, Protestants reacted in opposition to the Catholic dogma of the Assumption of Mary. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_177

The conservative tone of the Second Vatican Council began to mend the ecumenical differences, and Protestants began to show interest in Marian themes. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_178

In 1997 and 1998 ecumenical dialogues between Catholics and Protestants took place, but, to date, the majority of Protestants disagree with Marian veneration and often view it as a challenge to the authority of Scripture. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_179

Anglican Mary, mother of Jesus_section_15

Main article: Anglican Marian theology Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_180

The multiple churches that form the Anglican Communion and the Continuing Anglican movement have different views on Marian doctrines and venerative practices given that there is no single church with universal authority within the Communion and that the mother church (the Church of England) understands itself to be both "Catholic" and "Reformed". Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_181

Thus unlike the Protestant churches at large, the Anglican Communion includes segments which still retain some veneration of Mary. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_182

Mary's special position within God's purpose of salvation as "God-bearer" (Theotokos) is recognised in a number of ways by some Anglican Christians. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_183

All the member churches of the Anglican Communion affirm in the historic creeds that Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary, and celebrates the feast days of the Presentation of Christ in the Temple. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_184

This feast is called in older prayer books the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary on 2 February. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_185

The Annunciation of our Lord to the Blessed Virgin on 25 March was from before the time of Bede until the 18th century New Year's Day in England. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_186

The Annunciation is called the "Annunciation of our Lady" in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_187

Anglicans also celebrate in the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin on 31 May, though in some provinces the traditional date of 2 July is kept. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_188

The feast of the St. Mary the Virgin is observed on the traditional day of the Assumption, 15 August. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_189

The Nativity of the Blessed Virgin is kept on 8 September. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_190

The Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary is kept in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer, on 8 December. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_191

In certain Anglo-Catholic parishes this feast is called the Immaculate Conception. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_192

Again, the Assumption of Mary is believed in by most Anglo-Catholics, but is considered a pious opinion by moderate Anglicans. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_193

Protestant minded Anglicans reject the celebration of these feasts. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_194

Prayers and venerative practices vary greatly. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_195

For instance, as of the 19th century, following the Oxford Movement, Anglo-Catholics frequently pray the Rosary, the Angelus, Regina caeli, and other litanies and anthems of Our Lady that are reminiscent of Catholic practices. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_196

Conversely, Low-church Anglicans rarely invoke the Blessed Virgin except in certain hymns, such as the second stanza of Ye Watchers and Ye Holy Ones. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_197

The Anglican Society of Mary was formed in 1931 and maintains chapters in many countries. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_198

The purpose of the society is to foster devotion to Mary among Anglicans. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_199

The high-church Anglicans espouse doctrines that are closer to Roman Catholics, and retain veneration for Mary, e.g., official Anglican pilgrimages to Our Lady of Lourdes have taken place since 1963, and pilgrimages to Our Lady of Walsingham have gone on for hundreds of years. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_200

Historically, there has been enough common ground between Roman Catholics and Anglicans on Marian issues that in 2005 a joint statement called Mary: grace and hope in Christ was produced through ecumenical meetings of Anglicans and Roman Catholic theologians. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_201

This document, informally known as the "Seattle Statement", is not formally endorsed by either the Catholic Church or the Anglican Communion, but is viewed by its authors as the beginning of a joint understanding of Mary. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_202

Lutheran Mary, mother of Jesus_section_16

Main article: Lutheran Mariology Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_203

Despite Martin Luther's harsh polemics against his Roman Catholic opponents over issues concerning Mary and the saints, theologians appear to agree that Luther adhered to the Marian decrees of the ecumenical councils and dogmas of the church. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_204

He held fast to the belief that Mary was a perpetual virgin and Mother of God. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_205

Special attention is given to the assertion that Luther, some three-hundred years before the dogmatization of the Immaculate Conception by Pope Pius IX in 1854, was a firm adherent of that view. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_206

Others maintain that Luther in later years changed his position on the Immaculate Conception, which, at that time was undefined in the Church, maintaining however the sinlessness of Mary throughout her life. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_207

For Luther, early in his life, the Assumption of Mary was an understood fact, although he later stated that the Bible did not say anything about it and stopped celebrating its feast. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_208

Important to him was the belief that Mary and the saints do live on after death. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_209

"Throughout his career as a priest-professor-reformer, Luther preached, taught, and argued about the veneration of Mary with a verbosity that ranged from childlike piety to sophisticated polemics. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_210

His views are intimately linked to his Christocentric theology and its consequences for liturgy and piety." Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_211

Luther, while revering Mary, came to criticize the "Papists" for blurring the line, between high admiration of the grace of God wherever it is seen in a human being, and religious service given to another creature. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_212

He considered the Roman Catholic practice of celebrating saints' days and making intercessory requests addressed especially to Mary and other departed saints to be idolatry. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_213

His final thoughts on Marian devotion and veneration are preserved in a sermon preached at Wittenberg only a month before his death: Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_214

Certain Lutheran churches such as the Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Church however, continue to venerate Mary and the saints in the same manner that Roman Catholics do, and hold all Marian dogmas as part of their faith. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_215

Methodist Mary, mother of Jesus_section_17

Further information: Saints in Methodism § Virgin Mary Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_216

Methodists do not have any additional teachings on the Virgin Mary except from what is mentioned in Scripture and the ecumenical Creeds. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_217

As such, Methodists generally accept the doctrine of the virgin birth, but reject the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_218

John Wesley, the principal founder of the Methodist movement within the Church of England, believed that Mary "continued a pure and unspotted virgin", thus upholding the doctrine of the perpetual virginity of Mary. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_219

Contemporary Methodism does hold that Mary was a virgin before, during, and immediately after the birth of Christ. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_220

In addition, some Methodists also hold the doctrine of the Assumption of Mary as a pious opinion. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_221

Nontrinitarian Mary, mother of Jesus_section_18

Nontrinitarians, such as Unitarians, Christadelphians, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Latter Day Saints also acknowledge Mary as the biological mother of Jesus Christ, but most reject any immaculate conception and do not recognize Marian titles such as "Mother of God". Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_222

The Latter Day Saint movement's view affirms the virgin birth of Jesus and Christ's divinity but only as a separate being than God the Father. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_223

The Book of Mormon refers to Mary by name in prophecies and describes her as "most beautiful and fair above all other virgins" and as a "precious and chosen vessel." Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_224

Since most non-trinitarian groups are typically also Christian mortalists, Mary is not seen as an intercessor between humankind and Jesus, whom mortalists would consider "asleep", awaiting resurrection. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_225

Jewish Mary, mother of Jesus_section_19

The issue of the parentage of Jesus in the Talmud affects also the view of his mother. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_226

However, the Talmud does not mention Mary by name and is considerate rather than only polemic. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_227

The story about Panthera is also found in the Toledot Yeshu, the literary origins of which can not be traced with any certainty, and given that it is unlikely to go before the 4th century, the time is now far too late to include authentic remembrances of Jesus. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_228

The Blackwell Companion to Jesus states that the Toledot Yeshu has no historical facts and was perhaps created as a tool for warding off conversions to Christianity. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_229

The tales from the Toledot Yeshu did impart a negative picture of Mary to ordinary Jewish readers. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_230

The circulation of the Toledot Yeshu was widespread among European and Middle Eastern Jewish communities since the 9th century. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_231

The name Panthera may be a distortion of the term parthenos (virgin) and Raymond E. Brown considers the story of Panthera a fanciful explanation of the birth of Jesus that includes very little historical evidence. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_232

Robert Van Voorst states that because Toledot Yeshu is a medieval document with its lack of a fixed form and orientation towards a popular audience, it is "most unlikely" to have reliable historical information. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_233

Stacks of the copies of the Talmud were burnt upon a court order after the 1240 Disputation for allegedly containing material defaming the character of Mary. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_234

Islamic Mary, mother of Jesus_section_20

Main article: Mary in Islam Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_235

The Virgin Mary holds a singularly exalted place in Islam and she is considered by the Quran to have been the greatest woman in the history of humankind. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_236

The Islamic scripture recounts the Divine Promise given to Mary as being: "Mary! Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_237

God has chosen thee, and purified thee; He hath chosen thee above all the women of creation" (3:42). Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_238

Mary is often referred to by Muslims by the honorific title "sayedetina" (our lady). Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_239

She is mentioned in the Quran as the daughter of Imran. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_240

Moreover, Mary is the only woman named in the Quran and she is mentioned or referred to in the scripture a total of fifty times. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_241

Mary holds a singularly distinguished and honored position among women in the Quran. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_242

A Sura (chapter) in the Quran is titled "Maryam" (Mary), which is the only Sura in the Quran named after a woman, in which the story of Mary (Maryam) and Jesus (Isa) is recounted according to the view of Jesus in Islam. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_243

Birth of Mary Mary, mother of Jesus_section_21

In a narration of Hadith from Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, he mentions that Allah revealed to Imran, "I will grant you a boy, blessed, one who will cure the blind and the leper and one who will raise the dead by My permission. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_244

And I will send him as an apostle to the Children of Israel." Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_245

Then Imran related the story to his wife, Hannah, the mother of Mary. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_246

When she became pregnant, she conceived it was a boy, but when she gave birth to a girl, she stated "Oh my Lord! Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_247

Verily I have delivered a female, and the male is not like the female, for a girl will not be a prophet," to which Allah replies in the Quran Allah knows better what has been delivered [3:36]. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_248

When Allah bestowed Jesus to Mary, he fulfilled his promise to Imran. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_249

Motherhood Mary, mother of Jesus_section_22

Mary was declared (uniquely along with Jesus) to be a "Sign of God" to humanity; as one who "guarded her chastity"; an "obedient one"; "chosen of her mother" and dedicated to Allah whilst still in the womb; uniquely (amongst women) "Accepted into service by God"; cared for by (one of the prophets as per Islam) Zakariya (Zacharias); that in her childhood she resided in the Temple and uniquely had access to Al-Mihrab (understood to be the Holy of Holies), and was provided with heavenly "provisions" by God. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_250

Mary is also called a "Chosen One"; a "Purified One"; a "Truthful one"; her child conceived through "a Word from God"; and "exalted above all women of The Worlds/Universes (the material and heavenly worlds)". Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_251

The Quran relates detailed narrative accounts of Maryam (Mary) in two places, Quran and . Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_252

These state beliefs in both the Immaculate Conception of Mary and the virgin birth of Jesus. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_253

The account given in Sura 19 is nearly identical with that in the Gospel according to Luke, and both of these (Luke, Sura 19) begin with an account of the visitation of an angel upon Zakariya (Zecharias) and "Good News of the birth of Yahya (John)", followed by the account of the annunciation. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_254

It mentions how Mary was informed by an angel that she would become the mother of Jesus through the actions of God alone. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_255

In the Islamic tradition, Mary and Jesus were the only children who could not be touched by Satan at the moment of their birth, for God imposed a veil between them and Satan. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_256

According to author Shabbir Akhtar, the Islamic perspective on Mary's Immaculate Conception is compatible with the Catholic doctrine of the same topic. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_257

"O People of the Book! Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_258

Do not go beyond the bounds in your religion, and do not say anything of Allah but the truth. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_259

The Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, was but a Messenger of God, and a Word of His (Power) which He conveyed to Mary, and a spirit from Him. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_260

So believe in Allah (as the One, Unique God), and His Messengers (including Jesus, as Messenger); and do not say: (Allah is one of) a trinity. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_261

Give up (this assertion) – (it is) for your own good (to do so). Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_262

Allah is but One Allah; All-Glorified He is in that He is absolutely above having a son. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_263

To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_264

And Allah suffices as the One to be relied on, to Whom affairs should be referred." Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_265

Quran 4/171 Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_266

The Quran says that Jesus was the result of a virgin birth. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_267

The most detailed account of the annunciation and birth of Jesus is provided in Suras 3 and 19 of the Quran, where it is written that God sent an angel to announce that she could shortly expect to bear a son, despite being a virgin. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_268

Baháʼí Faith Mary, mother of Jesus_section_23

The Baháʼí Faith venerates Mary as the mother of Jesus. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_269

The Kitáb-i-Íqán, the primary theological work of the Baháʼí religion, describes Mary as "that most beauteous countenance," and "that veiled and immortal Countenance." Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_270

It claims that Jesus was "conceived of the Holy Ghost." Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_271

Others Mary, mother of Jesus_section_24

Biblical scholars Mary, mother of Jesus_section_25

The statement found in Matthew 1:25 that Joseph did not have sexual relations with Mary before she gave birth to Jesus has been debated among scholars, with some saying that she did not remain a virgin and some saying that she was a perpetual virgin. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_272

Other scholars contend that the Greek word heos (i.e., until) denotes a state up to a point, but does not mean that the state ended after that point, and that Matthew 1:25 does not confirm or deny the virginity of Mary after the birth of Jesus. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_273

According to Biblical scholar Bart Ehrman the Hebrew word almah, meaning young woman of childbearing age, was translated into Greek as parthenos, which often, though not always, refers to a young woman who has never had sex. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_274

In Isaiah 7:14 it is commonly believed by Christians to be the prophecy of the Virgin Mary referred to in Matthew 1:23. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_275

While Matthew and Luke give differing versions of the virgin birth, John quotes the uninitiated Philip and the disbelieving Jews gathered at Galilee referring to Joseph as Jesus's father. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_276

Other biblical verses have also been debated, e.g., that the reference by Paul that Jesus was made "of the seed of David according to the flesh" () may be interpreted as Joseph being the father of Jesus. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_277

Pre-Christian Rome Mary, mother of Jesus_section_26

From the early stages of Christianity, belief in the virginity of Mary and the virgin conception of Jesus, as stated in the gospels, holy and supernatural, was used by detractors, both political and religious, as a topic for discussions, debates and writings, specifically aimed to challenge the divinity of Jesus and thus Christians and Christianity alike. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_278

In the 2nd century, as part of his anti-Christian polemic The True Word, the pagan philosopher Celsus contended that Jesus was actually the illegitimate son of a Roman soldier named Panthera. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_279

The church father Origen dismissed this assertion as a complete fabrication in his apologetic treatise Against Celsus. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_280

How far Celsus sourced his view from Jewish sources remains a subject of discussion. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_281

Christian devotion Mary, mother of Jesus_section_27

Main article: Marian devotions Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_282

3rd to 5th centuries Mary, mother of Jesus_section_28

Christian devotion to Mary predates the emergence of a specific Marian liturgical system in the 5th century, following the First Council of Ephesus in 431. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_283

In Egypt the veneration of Mary had started in the 3rd century and the term Theotokos was used by Origen, the Alexandrian Father of the Church. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_284

The earliest known Marian prayer (the Sub tuum praesidium, or Beneath Thy Protection) is from the 3rd century (perhaps 270), and its text was rediscovered in 1917 on a papyrus in Egypt. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_285

Following the Edict of Milan in 313, by the 5th century artistic images of Mary began to appear in public and larger churches were being dedicated to Mary, e.g., S. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_286 Maria Maggiore in Rome. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_287

The Council of Ephesus itself was held at a church in Ephesus which had been dedicated to Mary about a hundred years before. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_288

The Church of the Seat of Mary in Palestine was built shortly after the introduction of Marian liturgy at the council of Ephesus, in 456, by a widow named Ikelia. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_289

4th-century Arabia Mary, mother of Jesus_section_29

According to the 4th-century heresiologist Epiphanius of Salamis the Virgin Mary was worshipped as a mother goddess in the Christian sect of Collyridianism, which was found throughout Arabia sometime during the 300s AD. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_290

Collyridianism had women performing priestly acts. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_291

They made bread offerings to the Virgin Mary. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_292

The group was condemned as heretical by the Roman Catholic Church and was preached against by Epiphanius of Salamis, who wrote about the group in his writings titled Panarion. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_293

The adoption of the mother of Jesus as a virtual goddess may represent a reintroduction of aspects of the worship of Isis. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_294

According to Sabrina Higgins, "When looking at images of the Egyptian goddess Isis and those of the Virgin Mary, one may initially observe iconographic similarities. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_295

These parallels have led many scholars to suggest that there is a distinct iconographic relationship between Isis and Mary. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_296

In fact, some scholars have gone even further, and have suggested, on the basis of this relationship, a direct link between the cult of Mary and that of Isis." Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_297

Conversely, Carl Olson and Sandra Miesel dispute the idea that Christianity copied elements of Isis's iconography, saying that the symbol of a mother and her child is part of the universal human experience. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_298

Byzantium Mary, mother of Jesus_section_30

Ephesus is a cultic centre of Mary, the site of the first Church dedicated to her and the rumoured place of her death. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_299

Ephesus was previously a centre for worship of Artemis a virgin goddess; the Temple of Artemis there is regarded as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_300

The cult of Mary was furthered by Queen Theodora in the 6th century. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_301

According to William E. Phipps, in the book Survivals of Roman Religion "Gordon Laing argues convincingly that the worship of Artemis as both virgin and mother at the grand Ephesian temple contributed to the veneration of Mary." Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_302

Middle Ages Mary, mother of Jesus_section_31

The Middle Ages saw many legends about Mary, her parents, and even her grandparents. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_303

The Virgin's popularity increased dramatically from the 12th century. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_304

This rise in popularity was linked to the Vatican's designation of Mary as the mediatrix. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_305

Depiction in Renaissance art Mary, mother of Jesus_section_32

In paintings, Mary is traditionally portrayed in blue. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_306

This tradition can trace its origin to the Byzantine Empire, from c.500 AD, where blue was "the colour of an empress". Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_307

A more practical explanation for the use of this colour is that in Medieval and Renaissance Europe, the blue pigment was derived from the rock lapis lazuli, a stone imported from Afghanistan of greater value than gold. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_308

Beyond a painter's retainer, patrons were expected to purchase any gold or lapis lazuli to be used in the painting. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_309

Hence, it was an expression of devotion and glorification to swathe the Virgin in gowns of blue. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_310

Transformations in visual depictions of the Virgin from the 13th to 15th centuries mirror her "social" standing within the Church as well as in society. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_311

Since the Reformation Mary, mother of Jesus_section_33

Over the centuries, devotion and veneration to Mary has varied greatly among Christian traditions. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_312

For instance, while Protestants show scant attention to Marian prayers or devotions, of all the saints whom the Orthodox venerate, the most honored is Mary, who is considered "more honorable than the Cherubim and more glorious than the Seraphim". Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_313

Orthodox theologian Sergei Bulgakov wrote: "Love and veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary is the soul of Orthodox piety. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_314

A faith in Christ which does not include his mother is another faith, another Christianity from that of the Orthodox church." Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_315

Although the Catholics and the Orthodox may honor and venerate Mary, they do not view her as divine, nor do they worship her. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_316

Roman Catholics view Mary as subordinate to Christ, but uniquely so, in that she is seen as above all other creatures. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_317

Similarly Theologian Sergei Bulgakov wrote that the Orthodox view Mary as "superior to all created beings" and "ceaselessly pray for her intercession". Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_318

However, she is not considered a "substitute for the One Mediator" who is Christ. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_319

"Let Mary be in honor, but let worship be given to the Lord", he wrote. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_320

Similarly, Catholics do not worship Mary as a divine being, but rather "hyper-venerate" her. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_321

In Roman Catholic theology, the term hyperdulia is reserved for Marian veneration, latria for the worship of God, and dulia for the veneration of other saints and angels. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_322

The definition of the three level hierarchy of latria, hyperdulia and dulia goes back to the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_323

Devotions to artistic depictions of Mary vary among Christian traditions. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_324

There is a long tradition of Catholic Marian art and no image permeates Catholic art as does the image of Madonna and Child. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_325

The icon of the Virgin Theotokos with Christ is without doubt the most venerated icon in the Orthodox Church. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_326

Both Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christians venerate images and icons of Mary, given that the Second Council of Nicaea in 787 permitted their veneration with the understanding that those who venerate the image are venerating the reality of the person it represents, and the 842 Synod of Constantinople confirming the same. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_327

According to Orthodox piety and traditional practice, however, believers ought to pray before and venerate only flat, two-dimensional icons, and not three-dimensional statues. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_328

The Anglican position towards Mary is in general more conciliatory than that of Protestants at large and in a book he wrote about praying with the icons of Mary, Rowan Williams, former archbishop of Canterbury, said: "It is not only that we cannot understand Mary without seeing her as pointing to Christ; we cannot understand Christ without seeing his attention to Mary." Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_329

On 4 September 1781, 11 families of pobladores arrived from the Gulf of California and established a city in the name of King Carlos III. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_330

The small town was named El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles de la Porciúncula (after our Lady of the Angels), a city that today is known simply as Los Angeles. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_331

In an attempt to revive the custom of religious processions within the Archdiocese of Los Angeles, in September 2011 the Queen of Angels Foundation, and founder Mark Anchor Albert, inaugurated an annual Grand Marian Procession in the heart of Downtown Los Angeles' historic core. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_332

This yearly procession, held on the last Saturday of August and intended to coincide with the anniversary of the founding of the City of Los Angeles, begins at the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels and concludes at the parish of La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora Reina de los Angeles which is part of the Los Angeles Plaza Historic District, better known as "La Placita". Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_333

Marian feasts Mary, mother of Jesus_section_34

Main article: Marian feast days Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_334

The earliest feasts that relate to Mary grew out of the cycle of feasts that celebrated the Nativity of Jesus. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_335

Given that according to the Gospel of Luke (), forty days after the birth of Jesus, along with the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple Mary was purified according to Jewish customs, the Feast of the Purification began to be celebrated by the 5th century, and became the "Feast of Simeon" in Byzantium. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_336

In the 7th and 8th centuries four more Marian feasts were established in Eastern Christianity. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_337

In the West, a feast dedicated to Mary, just before Christmas was celebrated in the Churches of Milan and Ravenna in Italy in the 7th century. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_338

The four Roman Marian feasts of Purification, Annunciation, Assumption and Nativity of Mary were gradually and sporadically introduced into England by the 11th century. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_339

Over time, the number and nature of feasts (and the associated Titles of Mary) and the venerative practices that accompany them have varied a great deal among diverse Christian traditions. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_340

Overall, there are significantly more titles, feasts and venerative Marian practices among Roman Catholics than any other Christians traditions. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_341

Some such feasts relate to specific events, e.g., the Feast of Our Lady of Victory was based on the 1571 victory of the Papal States in the Battle of Lepanto. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_342

Differences in feasts may also originate from doctrinal issues—the Feast of the Assumption is such an example. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_343

Given that there is no agreement among all Christians on the circumstances of the death, Dormition or Assumption of Mary, the feast of assumption is celebrated among some denominations and not others. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_344

While the Catholic Church celebrates the Feast of the Assumption on 15 August, some Eastern Catholics celebrate it as Dormition of the Theotokos, and may do so on 28 August, if they follow the Julian calendar. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_345

The Eastern Orthodox also celebrate it as the Dormition of the Theotokos, one of their 12 Great Feasts. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_346

Protestants do not celebrate this, or any other Marian feasts. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_347

Catholic Mariology Mary, mother of Jesus_section_35

Main articles: Mariology and Roman Catholic Mariology Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_348

There is significant diversity in the Marian doctrines attributed to her primarily by the Catholic Church. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_349

The key Marian doctrines held primarily in Catholicism can be briefly outlined as follows: Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_350

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  • Immaculate Conception: Mary was conceived without original sin.Mary, mother of Jesus_item_1_6
  • Mother of God: Mary, as the mother of Jesus, is the Theotokos (God-bearer), or Mother of God.Mary, mother of Jesus_item_1_7
  • Virgin birth of Jesus: Mary conceived Jesus by action of the Holy Spirit while remaining a virgin.Mary, mother of Jesus_item_1_8
  • Perpetual Virginity: Mary remained a virgin all her life, even after the act of giving birth to Jesus.Mary, mother of Jesus_item_1_9
  • Dormition: commemorates Mary's "falling asleep" or natural death shortly before her Assumption.Mary, mother of Jesus_item_1_10
  • Assumption: Mary was taken bodily into Heaven either at, or before, her death.Mary, mother of Jesus_item_1_11

The acceptance of these Marian doctrines by Roman Catholics can be summarized as follows: Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_351

Mary, mother of Jesus_table_general_2

DoctrineMary, mother of Jesus_header_cell_2_0_0 Church actionMary, mother of Jesus_header_cell_2_0_1 Accepted byMary, mother of Jesus_header_cell_2_0_2
Mother of GodMary, mother of Jesus_cell_2_1_0 First Council of Ephesus, 431Mary, mother of Jesus_cell_2_1_1 Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglicans, Lutherans, some MethodistsMary, mother of Jesus_cell_2_1_2
Virgin birth of JesusMary, mother of Jesus_cell_2_2_0 First Council of Nicaea, 325Mary, mother of Jesus_cell_2_2_1 Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrians, Anglicans, Baptists, mainline ProtestantsMary, mother of Jesus_cell_2_2_2
Assumption of MaryMary, mother of Jesus_cell_2_3_0 Munificentissimus Deus encyclical

Pope Pius XII, 1950Mary, mother of Jesus_cell_2_3_1

Catholics, Eastern and Oriental Orthodox (only following her natural death), some Anglicans, some LutheransMary, mother of Jesus_cell_2_3_2
Immaculate ConceptionMary, mother of Jesus_cell_2_4_0 Ineffabilis Deus encyclical

Pope Pius IX, 1854Mary, mother of Jesus_cell_2_4_1

Catholics, some Anglicans, some Lutherans (early Martin Luther)Mary, mother of Jesus_cell_2_4_2
Perpetual VirginityMary, mother of Jesus_cell_2_5_0 Second Ecumenical Council of Constantinople, 553

Smalcald Articles, 1537Mary, mother of Jesus_cell_2_5_1

Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrians, some Anglicans, some Lutherans (Martin Luther)Mary, mother of Jesus_cell_2_5_2

The title "Mother of God" (Theotokos) for Mary was confirmed by the First Council of Ephesus, held at the Church of Mary in 431. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_352

The Council decreed that Mary is the Mother of God because her son Jesus is one person who is both God and man, divine and human. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_353

This doctrine is widely accepted by Christians in general, and the term Mother of God had already been used within the oldest known prayer to Mary, the Sub tuum praesidium which dates to around 250 AD. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_354

The Virgin birth of Jesus was an almost universally held belief among Christians from the 2nd until the 19th century. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_355

It is included in the two most widely used Christian creeds, which state that Jesus "was incarnate of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary" (the Nicene Creed in what is now its familiar form) and the Apostles' Creed. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_356

The Gospel of Matthew describes Mary as a virgin who fulfilled the prophecy of , mistranslating the Hebrew word alma ("young woman") in Isaiah 7:14 as "virgin", though. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_357

The authors of the Gospels of Matthew and Luke consider Jesus' conception not the result of intercourse and assert that Mary had "no relations with man" before Jesus' birth. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_358

This alludes to the belief that Mary conceived Jesus through the action of God the Holy Spirit, and not through intercourse with Joseph or anyone else. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_359

The doctrines of the Assumption or Dormition of Mary relate to her death and bodily assumption to Heaven. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_360

The Roman Catholic Church has dogmatically defined the doctrine of the Assumption, which was done in 1950 by Pope Pius XII in Munificentissimus Deus. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_361

Whether the Virgin Mary died or not is not defined dogmatically, however, although a reference to the death of Mary are made in Munificentissimus Deus. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_362

In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Assumption of the Virgin Mary is believed, and celebrated with her Dormition, where they believe she died. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_363

Catholics believe in the Immaculate Conception of Mary, as proclaimed ex cathedra by Pope Pius IX in 1854, namely that she was filled with grace from the very moment of her conception in her mother's womb and preserved from the stain of original sin. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_364

The Latin Church has a liturgical feast by that name, kept on 8 December. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_365

Orthodox Christians reject the Immaculate Conception dogma principally because their understanding of ancestral sin (the Greek term corresponding to the Latin "original sin") differs from the Augustinian interpretation and that of the Catholic Church. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_366

The Perpetual Virginity of Mary asserts Mary's real and perpetual virginity even in the act of giving birth to the Son of God made Man. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_367

The term Ever-Virgin (Greek ἀειπάρθενος) is applied in this case, stating that Mary remained a virgin for the remainder of her life, making Jesus her biological and only son, whose conception and birth are held to be miraculous. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_368

While the Orthodox Churches hold the position articulated in the Protoevangelium of James that Jesus' brothers and sisters are older children of Joseph the Betrothed, step-siblings from an earlier marriage that left him widowed, Roman Catholic teaching follows the Latin father Jerome in considering them Jesus' cousins. Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_369

Cinematic portrayals Mary, mother of Jesus_section_36

Mary has been portrayed in various films and on television, including: Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_370

Image gallery Mary, mother of Jesus_section_37

See also: Life of the Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_371

For a larger gallery, see . Mary, mother of Jesus_sentence_372

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Music Mary, mother of Jesus_section_38

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary, mother of Jesus.