Standardization

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Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments. Standardization_sentence_0

Standardization can help maximize , interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality. Standardization_sentence_1

It can also facilitate commoditization of formerly custom processes. Standardization_sentence_2

In social sciences, including economics, the idea of standardization is close to the solution for a coordination problem, a situation in which all parties can realize mutual gains, but only by making mutually consistent decisions. Standardization_sentence_3

History Standardization_section_0

Early examples Standardization_section_1

Standard weights and measures were developed by the Indus Valley Civilization. Standardization_sentence_4

The centralized weight and measure system served the commercial interest of Indus merchants as smaller weight measures were used to measure luxury goods while larger weights were employed for buying bulkier items, such as food grains etc. Standardization_sentence_5

Weights existed in multiples of a standard weight and in categories. Standardization_sentence_6

Technical standardisation enabled gauging devices to be effectively used in angular measurement and measurement for construction. Standardization_sentence_7

Uniform units of length were used in the planning of towns such as Lothal, Surkotada, Kalibangan, Dolavira, Harappa, and Mohenjo-daro. Standardization_sentence_8

The weights and measures of the Indus civilization also reached Persia and Central Asia, where they were further modified. Standardization_sentence_9

Shigeo Iwata describes the excavated weights unearthed from the Indus civilization: Standardization_sentence_10

18th century attempts Standardization_section_2

The implementation of standards in industry and commerce became highly important with the onset of the Industrial Revolution and the need for high-precision machine tools and interchangeable parts. Standardization_sentence_11

Henry Maudslay developed the first industrially practical screw-cutting lathe in 1800. Standardization_sentence_12

This allowed for the standardisation of screw thread sizes for the first time and paved the way for the practical application of interchangeability (an idea that was already taking hold) to nuts and bolts. Standardization_sentence_13

Before this, screw threads were usually made by chipping and filing (that is, with skilled freehand use of chisels and ). Standardization_sentence_14

Nuts were rare; metal screws, when made at all, were usually for use in wood. Standardization_sentence_15

Metal bolts passing through wood framing to a metal fastening on the other side were usually fastened in non-threaded ways (such as clinching or upsetting against a washer). Standardization_sentence_16

Maudslay standardized the screw threads used in his workshop and produced sets of taps and dies that would make nuts and bolts consistently to those standards, so that any bolt of the appropriate size would fit any nut of the same size. Standardization_sentence_17

This was a major advance in workshop technology. Standardization_sentence_18

National standard Standardization_section_3

Maudslay's work, as well as the contributions of other engineers, accomplished a modest amount of industry standardization; some companies' in-house standards spread a bit within their industries. Standardization_sentence_19

Joseph Whitworth's screw thread measurements were adopted as the first (unofficial) national standard by companies around the country in 1841. Standardization_sentence_20

It came to be known as the British Standard Whitworth, and was widely adopted in other countries. Standardization_sentence_21

This new standard specified a 55° thread angle and a thread depth of 0.640327p and a radius of 0.137329p, where p is the pitch. Standardization_sentence_22

The thread pitch increased with diameter in steps specified on a chart. Standardization_sentence_23

An example of the use of the Whitworth thread is the Royal Navy's Crimean War gunboats. Standardization_sentence_24

These were the first instance of "mass-production" techniques being applied to marine engineering. Standardization_sentence_25

With the adoption of BSW by British railway lines, many of which had previously used their own standard both for threads and for bolt head and nut profiles, and improving manufacturing techniques, it came to dominate British manufacturing. Standardization_sentence_26

American Unified Coarse was originally based on almost the same imperial fractions. Standardization_sentence_27

The Unified thread angle is 60° and has flattened crests (Whitworth crests are rounded). Standardization_sentence_28

Thread pitch is the same in both systems except that the thread pitch for the ​⁄2 in. Standardization_sentence_29

(inch) bolt is 12 threads per inch (tpi) in BSW versus 13 tpi in the UNC. Standardization_sentence_30

National standards body Standardization_section_4

By the end of the 19th century, differences in standards between companies, was making trade increasingly difficult and strained. Standardization_sentence_31

For instance, an iron and steel dealer recorded his displeasure in The Times: "Architects and engineers generally specify such unnecessarily diverse types of sectional material or given work that anything like economical and continuous manufacture becomes impossible. Standardization_sentence_32

In this country no two professional men are agreed upon the size and weight of a girder to employ for given work." Standardization_sentence_33

The Engineering Standards Committee was established in London in 1901 as the world's first national standards body. Standardization_sentence_34

It subsequently extended its standardization work and became the British Engineering Standards Association in 1918, adopting the name British Standards Institution in 1931 after receiving its Royal Charter in 1929. Standardization_sentence_35

The national standards were adopted universally throughout the country, and enabled the markets to act more rationally and efficiently, with an increased level of cooperation. Standardization_sentence_36

After the First World War, similar national bodies were established in other countries. Standardization_sentence_37

The Deutsches Institut für Normung was set up in Germany in 1917, followed by its counterparts, the American National Standard Institute and the French Commission Permanente de Standardisation, both in 1918. Standardization_sentence_38

International standards Standardization_section_5

Main article: International standard Standardization_sentence_39

The first modern International Organization (Intergovernmental Organization) the International Telegraph Union (now International Telecommunication Union) was created in 1865 to set international standards in order to connect national telegraph networks, as a merger of two predecessor organizations (Bern and Paris treaties) that had similar objectives, but in more limited territories. Standardization_sentence_40

With the advent of radiocommunication soon after the creation, the work of the ITU quickly expanded from the standardization of Telegraph communications, to developing standards for telecommunications in general. Standardization_sentence_41

International Standards Associations Standardization_section_6

By the mid to late 19th century, efforts were being made to standardize electrical measurement. Standardization_sentence_42

Lord Kelvin was an important figure in this process, introducing accurate methods and apparatus for measuring electricity. Standardization_sentence_43

In 1857, he introduced a series of effective instruments, including the quadrant electrometer, which cover the entire field of electrostatic measurement. Standardization_sentence_44

He invented the current balance, also known as the Kelvin balance or Ampere balance (SiC), for the precise specification of the ampere, the standard unit of electric current. Standardization_sentence_45

R. Standardization_sentence_46 E. B. Crompton became concerned by the large range of different standards and systems used by electrical engineering companies and scientists in the early 20th century. Standardization_sentence_47

Many companies had entered the market in the 1890s and all chose their own settings for voltage, frequency, current and even the symbols used on circuit diagrams. Standardization_sentence_48

Adjacent buildings would have totally incompatible electrical systems simply because they had been fitted out by different companies. Standardization_sentence_49

Crompton could see the lack of efficiency in this system and began to consider proposals for an international standard for electric engineering. Standardization_sentence_50

In 1904, Crompton represented Britain at the International Electrical Congress, held in connection with Louisiana Purchase Exposition in Saint Louis as part of a delegation by the Institute of Electrical Engineers. Standardization_sentence_51

He presented a paper on standardisation, which was so well received that he was asked to look into the formation of a commission to oversee the process. Standardization_sentence_52

By 1906 his work was complete and he drew up a permanent constitution for the International Electrotechnical Commission. Standardization_sentence_53

The body held its first meeting that year in London, with representatives from 14 countries. Standardization_sentence_54

In honour of his contribution to electrical standardisation, Lord Kelvin was elected as the body's first President. Standardization_sentence_55

The International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISA) was founded in 1926 with a broader remit to enhance international cooperation for all technical standards and specifications. Standardization_sentence_56

The body was suspended in 1942 during World War II. Standardization_sentence_57

After the war, ISA was approached by the recently formed United Nations Standards Coordinating Committee (UNSCC) with a proposal to form a new global standards body. Standardization_sentence_58

In October 1946, ISA and UNSCC delegates from 25 countries met in London and agreed to join forces to create the new International Organization for Standardization (ISO); the new organization officially began operations in February 1947. Standardization_sentence_59

In general, each country or economy has a single recognized National Standards Body (NSB). Standardization_sentence_60

Examples include ABNT, AENOR, AFNOR, ANSI, BSI, DGN, DIN, IRAM, JISC, KATS, SABS, SAC, SCC, SIS. Standardization_sentence_61

An NSB is likely the sole member from that economy in ISO. Standardization_sentence_62

NSBs may be either public or private sector organizations, or combinations of the two. Standardization_sentence_63

For example, the three NSBs of Canada, Mexico and the United States are respectively the Standards Council of Canada (SCC), the General Bureau of Standards (Dirección General de Normas, DGN), and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Standardization_sentence_64

SCC is a Canadian Crown Corporation, DGN is a governmental agency within the Mexican Ministry of Economy, and ANSI and AENOR are a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization with members from both the private and public sectors. Standardization_sentence_65

The determinants of whether an NSB for a particular economy is a public or private sector body may include the historical and traditional roles that the private sector fills in public affairs in that economy or the development stage of that economy. Standardization_sentence_66

Usage Standardization_section_7

Standards can be: Standardization_sentence_67

Standardization_unordered_list_0

  • de facto standards which means they are followed by informal convention or dominant usage.Standardization_item_0_0
  • de jure standards which are part of legally binding contracts, laws or regulations.Standardization_item_0_1
  • Voluntary standards which are published and available for people to consider for use.Standardization_item_0_2

The existence of a published standard does not necessarily imply that it is useful or correct. Standardization_sentence_68

Just because an item is stamped with a standard number does not, by itself, indicate that the item is fit for any particular use. Standardization_sentence_69

The people who use the item or service (engineers, trade unions, etc.) or specify it (building codes, government, industry, etc.) have the responsibility to consider the available standards, specify the correct one, enforce compliance, and use the item correctly: validation and verification. Standardization_sentence_70

Standardization is implemented greatly when companies release new products to market. Standardization_sentence_71

Compatibility is important for products to be successful; this allows consumers to use their new items along with what they already own. Standardization_sentence_72

Clinical assessment Standardization_section_8

In the context of assessment, standardization may define how a measuring instrument or procedure is similar to every subjects or patients. Standardization_sentence_73

For example, educational psychologist may adopt structured interview to systematically interview the people in concern. Standardization_sentence_74

By delivering the same procedures, all subjects is evaluated using same criteria and minimising any confounding variable that reduce the validity. Standardization_sentence_75

Some other example includes mental status examination and personality test. Standardization_sentence_76

Social science Standardization_section_9

In the context of social criticism and social science, standardization often means the process of establishing standards of various kinds and improving efficiency to handle people, their interactions, cases, and so forth. Standardization_sentence_77

Examples include formalization of judicial procedure in court, and establishing uniform criteria for diagnosing mental disease. Standardization_sentence_78

Standardization in this sense is often discussed along with (or synonymously to) such large-scale social changes as modernization, bureaucratization, homogenization, and centralization of society. Standardization_sentence_79

Information exchange Standardization_section_10

In the context of information exchange, standardization refers to the process of developing standards for specific business processes using specific formal languages. Standardization_sentence_80

These standards are usually developed in voluntary consensus standards bodies such as the United Nations Center for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT), the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA), and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). Standardization_sentence_81

There are many specifications that govern the operation and interaction of devices and software on the Internet, but they are rarely referred to as standards, so as to preserve that word as the domain of relatively disinterested bodies such as ISO. Standardization_sentence_82

The W3C, for example, publishes "Recommendations", and the IETF publishes "Requests for Comments" (RFCs). Standardization_sentence_83

However, these publications are sometimes referred to as standards. Standardization_sentence_84

Customer service Standardization_section_11

In the context of customer service, standardization refers to the process of developing an international standard that enables organizations to focus on customer service, while at the same time providing recognition of success through a third party organization, such as the British Standards Institution. Standardization_sentence_85

An international standard has been developed by The International Customer Service Institute. Standardization_sentence_86

Supply and materials management Standardization_section_12

In the context of supply chain management and materials management, standardization covers the process of specification and use of any item the company must buy in or make, allowable substitutions, and build or buy decisions. Standardization_sentence_87

Defense Standardization_section_13

In the context of defense, standardization has been defined by NATO as The development and implementation of concepts, doctrines, procedures and designs to achieve and maintain the required levels of , interchangeability or commonality in the operational, procedural, material, technical and administrative fields to attain interoperability. Standardization_sentence_88

Process Standardization_section_14

Effects Standardization_section_15

Standardization has a variety of benefits and drawbacks for firms and consumers participating in the market, and on technology and innovation. Standardization_sentence_89

Effect on firms Standardization_section_16

The primary effect of standardization on firms is that the basis of competition is shifted from integrated systems to individual components within the system. Standardization_sentence_90

Prior to standardization a company's product must span the entire system because individual components from different competitors are incompatible, but after standardization each company can focus on providing an individual component of the system. Standardization_sentence_91

When the shift toward competition based on individual components takes place, firms selling tightly integrated systems must quickly shift to a modular approach, supplying other companies with subsystems or components. Standardization_sentence_92

Effect on consumers Standardization_section_17

Standardization has a variety of benefits for consumers, but one of the greatest benefits is enhanced network effects. Standardization_sentence_93

Standards increase compatibility and interoperability between products, allowing information to be shared within a larger network and attracting more consumers to use the new technology, further enhancing network effects. Standardization_sentence_94

Other benefits of standardization to consumers are reduced uncertainty, because consumers can be more certain that they are not choosing the wrong product, and reduced lock-in, because the standard makes it more likely that there will be competing products in the space. Standardization_sentence_95

Consumers may also get the benefit of being able to mix and match components of a system to align with their specific preferences. Standardization_sentence_96

Once these initial benefits of standardization are realized, further benefits that accrue to consumers as a result of using the standard are driven mostly by the quality of the technologies underlying that standard. Standardization_sentence_97

Probably the greatest downside of standardization for consumers is lack of variety. Standardization_sentence_98

There is no guarantee that the chosen standard will meet all consumers' needs or even that the standard is the best available option. Standardization_sentence_99

Another downside is that if a standard is agreed upon before products are available in the market, then consumers are deprived of the penetration pricing that often results when rivals are competing to rapidly increase market share in an attempt to increase the likelihood that their product will become the standard. Standardization_sentence_100

It is also possible that a consumer will choose a product based upon a standard that fails to become dominant. Standardization_sentence_101

In this case, the consumer will have spent resources on a product that is ultimately less useful to him or her as the result of the standardization process. Standardization_sentence_102

Effect on technology Standardization_section_18

Much like the effect on consumers, the effect of standardization on technology and innovation is mixed. Standardization_sentence_103

Meanwhile, the various links between research and standardization have been identified, also as a platform of knowledge transfer and translated into policy measures (e.g. ). Standardization_sentence_104

Increased adoption of a new technology as a result of standardization is important because rival and incompatible approaches competing in the marketplace can slow or even kill the growth of the technology (a state known as market fragmentation). Standardization_sentence_105

The shift to a modularized architecture as a result of standardization brings increased flexibility, rapid introduction of new products, and the ability to more closely meet individual customer's needs. Standardization_sentence_106

The negative effects of standardization on technology have to do with its tendency to restrict new technology and innovation. Standardization_sentence_107

Standards shift competition from features to price because the features are defined by the standard. Standardization_sentence_108

The degree to which this is true depends on the specificity of the standard. Standardization_sentence_109

Standardization in an area also rules out alternative technologies as options while encouraging others. Standardization_sentence_110

See also Standardization_section_19

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standardization.