Stonewall riots

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The Stonewall riots (also referred to as the Stonewall uprising or the Stonewall rebellion) were a series of spontaneous demonstrations by members of the gay (LGBT) community in response to a police raid that began in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. Stonewall riots_sentence_0

Patrons of the Stonewall, other Village lesbian and gay bars, and neighborhood street people fought back when the police became violent. Stonewall riots_sentence_1

The riots are widely considered to constitute one of the most important events leading to the gay liberation movement and the twentieth century fight for LGBT rights in the United States. Stonewall riots_sentence_2

Gay Americans in the 1950s and 1960s faced an anti-gay legal system. Stonewall riots_sentence_3

Early homosexual groups in the U.S. sought to prove that gay people could be assimilated into society, and they favored non-confrontational education for homosexuals and heterosexuals alike. Stonewall riots_sentence_4

The last years of the 1960s, however, were contentious, as many social/political movements were active, including the civil rights movement, the counterculture of the 1960s and the anti-Vietnam War movement. Stonewall riots_sentence_5

These influences, along with the liberal environment of Greenwich Village, served as catalysts for the Stonewall riots. Stonewall riots_sentence_6

Very few establishments welcomed gay people in the 1950s and 1960s. Stonewall riots_sentence_7

Those that did were often bars, although bar owners and managers were rarely gay. Stonewall riots_sentence_8

At the time, the Stonewall Inn was owned by the Mafia. Stonewall riots_sentence_9

It catered to an assortment of patrons and was known to be popular among the poorest and most marginalized people in the gay community: butch lesbians, effeminate young men, drag queens, male prostitutes, transgender people, and homeless youth. Stonewall riots_sentence_10

While police raids on gay bars were routine in the 1960s, officers quickly lost control of the situation at the Stonewall Inn on June 28. Stonewall riots_sentence_11

Tensions between New York City police and gay residents of Greenwich Village erupted into more protests the next evening, and again several nights later. Stonewall riots_sentence_12

Within weeks, Village residents quickly organized into activist groups to concentrate efforts on establishing places for gay men and lesbians to be open about their sexual orientation without fear of being arrested. Stonewall riots_sentence_13

After the Stonewall riots, gay men and lesbians in New York City faced gender, race, class, and generational obstacles to becoming a cohesive community. Stonewall riots_sentence_14

Within six months, two gay activist organizations were formed in New York, concentrating on confrontational tactics, and three newspapers were established to promote rights for gay men and lesbians. Stonewall riots_sentence_15

A year after the uprising, to mark the anniversary on June 28, 1970, the first gay pride marches took place in New York, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. Stonewall riots_sentence_16

The anniversary of the riots was also commemorated in Chicago and similar marches were organized in other cities. Stonewall riots_sentence_17

Within a few years, gay rights organizations were founded across the U.S. and the world. Stonewall riots_sentence_18

The Stonewall National Monument was established at the site in 2016. Stonewall riots_sentence_19

Today, LGBT Pride events are held annually throughout the world toward the end of June to mark the Stonewall riots. Stonewall riots_sentence_20

Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019 commemorated the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall uprising with city officials estimating 5 million attendees in Manhattan, and on June 6, 2019, New York City Police Commissioner James P. O'Neill rendered a formal apology on behalf of the New York Police Department for the actions of its officers at Stonewall in 1969. Stonewall riots_sentence_21

Background Stonewall riots_section_0

Homosexuality in 20th-century United States Stonewall riots_section_1

Further information: LGBT history in the United States Stonewall riots_sentence_22

Following the social upheaval of World War II, many people in the United States felt a fervent desire to "restore the prewar social order and hold off the forces of change", according to historian Barry Adam. Stonewall riots_sentence_23

Spurred by the national emphasis on anti-communism, Senator Joseph McCarthy conducted hearings searching for communists in the U.S. government, the U.S. Stonewall riots_sentence_24 Army, and other government-funded agencies and institutions, leading to a national paranoia. Stonewall riots_sentence_25

Anarchists, communists, and other people deemed un-American and subversive were considered security risks. Stonewall riots_sentence_26

Gay men and lesbians were included in this list by the U.S. Stonewall riots_sentence_27 State Department on the theory that they were susceptible to blackmail. Stonewall riots_sentence_28

In 1950, a Senate investigation chaired by Clyde R. Hoey noted in a report, "It is generally believed that those who engage in overt acts of perversion lack the emotional stability of normal persons", and said all of the government's intelligence agencies "are in complete agreement that sex perverts in Government constitute security risks". Stonewall riots_sentence_29

Between 1947 and 1950, 1,700 federal job applications were denied, 4,380 people were discharged from the military, and 420 were fired from their government jobs for being suspected homosexuals. Stonewall riots_sentence_30

Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and police departments kept lists of known homosexuals, their favored establishments, and friends; the U.S. Stonewall riots_sentence_31 Post Office kept track of addresses where material pertaining to homosexuality was mailed. Stonewall riots_sentence_32

State and local governments followed suit: bars catering to gay men and lesbians were shut down, and their customers were arrested and exposed in newspapers. Stonewall riots_sentence_33

Cities performed "sweeps" to rid neighborhoods, parks, bars, and beaches of gay people. Stonewall riots_sentence_34

They outlawed the wearing of opposite gender clothes, and universities expelled instructors suspected of being homosexual. Stonewall riots_sentence_35

In 1952, the American Psychiatric Association listed homosexuality in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) as a mental disorder. Stonewall riots_sentence_36

A large-scale study of homosexuality in 1962 was used to justify inclusion of the disorder as a supposed pathological hidden fear of the opposite sex caused by traumatic parent–child relationships. Stonewall riots_sentence_37

This view was widely influential in the medical profession. Stonewall riots_sentence_38

In 1956, however, the psychologist Evelyn Hooker performed a study that compared the happiness and well-adjusted nature of self-identified homosexual men with heterosexual men and found no difference. Stonewall riots_sentence_39

Her study stunned the medical community and made her a hero to many gay men and lesbians, but homosexuality remained in the DSM until 1974. Stonewall riots_sentence_40

Homophile activism Stonewall riots_section_2

Main article: Homophile Stonewall riots_sentence_41

In response to this trend, two organizations formed independently of each other to advance the cause of gay men and lesbians and provide social opportunities where they could socialize without fear of being arrested. Stonewall riots_sentence_42

Los Angeles area homosexuals created the Mattachine Society in 1950, in the home of communist activist Harry Hay. Stonewall riots_sentence_43

Their objectives were to unify homosexuals, educate them, provide leadership, and assist "sexual deviants" with legal troubles. Stonewall riots_sentence_44

Facing enormous opposition to their radical approach, in 1953 the Mattachine shifted their focus to assimilation and respectability. Stonewall riots_sentence_45

They reasoned that they would change more minds about homosexuality by proving that gay men and lesbians were normal people, no different from heterosexuals. Stonewall riots_sentence_46

Soon after, several women in San Francisco met in their living rooms to form the Daughters of Bilitis (DOB) for lesbians. Stonewall riots_sentence_47

Although the eight women who created the DOB initially came together to be able to have a safe place to dance, as the DOB grew they developed similar goals to the Mattachine, and urged their members to assimilate into general society. Stonewall riots_sentence_48

One of the first challenges to government repression came in 1953. Stonewall riots_sentence_49

An organization named ONE, Inc. published a magazine called ONE. Stonewall riots_sentence_50

The U.S. Stonewall riots_sentence_51

Postal Service refused to mail its August issue, which concerned homosexual people in heterosexual marriages, on the grounds that the material was obscene despite it being covered in brown paper wrapping. Stonewall riots_sentence_52

The case eventually went to the Supreme Court, which in 1958 ruled that ONE, Inc. could mail its materials through the Postal Service. Stonewall riots_sentence_53

Homophile organizations—as homosexual groups self-identified in this era—grew in number and spread to the East Coast. Stonewall riots_sentence_54

Gradually, members of these organizations grew bolder. Stonewall riots_sentence_55

Frank Kameny founded the Mattachine of Washington, D.C. He had been fired from the U.S. Army Map Service for being a homosexual, and sued unsuccessfully to be reinstated. Stonewall riots_sentence_56

Kameny wrote that homosexuals were no different from heterosexuals, often aiming his efforts at mental health professionals, some of whom attended Mattachine and DOB meetings telling members they were abnormal. Stonewall riots_sentence_57

In 1965, news on Cuban prison work camps for homosexuals inspired Mattachine New York and D.C. to organize protests at the United Nations and the White House. Stonewall riots_sentence_58

Similar demonstrations were then held also at other government buildings. Stonewall riots_sentence_59

The purpose was to protest the treatment of gay people in Cuba and U.S. employment discrimination. Stonewall riots_sentence_60

These pickets shocked many gay people, and upset some of the leadership of Mattachine and the DOB. Stonewall riots_sentence_61

At the same time, demonstrations in the civil rights movement and opposition to the Vietnam War all grew in prominence, frequency, and severity throughout the 1960s, as did their confrontations with police forces. Stonewall riots_sentence_62

Earlier resistance and riots Stonewall riots_section_3

Main article: List of LGBT actions in the United States prior to the Stonewall riots Stonewall riots_sentence_63

See also: Cooper Do-nuts Riot and Compton's Cafeteria riot Stonewall riots_sentence_64

On the outer fringes of the few small gay communities were people who challenged gender expectations. Stonewall riots_sentence_65

They were effeminate men and masculine women, or people who dressed and lived in contrast to their gender assigned at birth, either part or full-time. Stonewall riots_sentence_66

Contemporaneous nomenclature classified them as transvestites, and they were the most visible representatives of sexual minorities. Stonewall riots_sentence_67

They belied the carefully crafted image portrayed by the Mattachine Society and DOB that asserted homosexuals were respectable, normal people. Stonewall riots_sentence_68

The Mattachine and DOB considered the trials of being arrested for wearing clothing of the opposite gender as a parallel to the struggles of homophile organizations: similar but distinctly separate. Stonewall riots_sentence_69

Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender people staged a small riot at the Cooper Do-nuts cafe in Los Angeles in 1959 in response to police harassment. Stonewall riots_sentence_70

In a larger 1966 event in San Francisco, drag queens, hustlers, and trans women were sitting in Compton's Cafeteria when the police arrived to arrest people appearing to be physically male who were dressed as women. Stonewall riots_sentence_71

A riot ensued, with the cafeteria patrons slinging cups, plates, and saucers, and breaking the plexiglass windows in the front of the restaurant, and returning several days later to smash the windows again after they were replaced. Stonewall riots_sentence_72

Professor Susan Stryker classifies the Compton's Cafeteria riot as an "act of anti-transgender discrimination, rather than an act of discrimination against sexual orientation" and connects the uprising to the issues of gender, race, and class that were being downplayed by homophile organizations. Stonewall riots_sentence_73

It marked the beginning of transgender activism in San Francisco. Stonewall riots_sentence_74

Greenwich Village Stonewall riots_section_4

The Manhattan neighborhoods of Greenwich Village and Harlem were home to sizable gay and lesbian populations after World War I, when people who had served in the military took advantage of the opportunity to settle in larger cities. Stonewall riots_sentence_75

The enclaves of gay men and lesbians, described by a newspaper story as "short-haired women and long-haired men", developed a distinct subculture through the following two decades. Stonewall riots_sentence_76

Prohibition inadvertently benefited gay establishments, as drinking alcohol was pushed underground along with other behaviors considered immoral. Stonewall riots_sentence_77

New York City passed laws against homosexuality in public and private businesses, but because alcohol was in high demand, speakeasies and impromptu drinking establishments were so numerous and temporary that authorities were unable to police them all. Stonewall riots_sentence_78

However, police raids continued, resulting in the closure of iconic establishments such as Eve's Hangout in 1926. Stonewall riots_sentence_79

The social repression of the 1950s resulted in a cultural revolution in Greenwich Village. Stonewall riots_sentence_80

A cohort of poets, later named the Beat poets, wrote about the evils of the social organization at the time, glorifying anarchy, drugs, and hedonistic pleasures over unquestioning social compliance, consumerism, and closed mindedness. Stonewall riots_sentence_81

Of them, Allen Ginsberg and William S. Burroughs—both Greenwich Village residents—also wrote bluntly and honestly about homosexuality. Stonewall riots_sentence_82

Their writings attracted sympathetic liberal-minded people, as well as homosexuals looking for a community. Stonewall riots_sentence_83

By the early 1960s, a campaign to rid New York City of gay bars was in full effect by order of Mayor Robert F. Wagner, Jr., who was concerned about the image of the city in preparation for the 1964 World's Fair. Stonewall riots_sentence_84

The city revoked the liquor licenses of the bars, and undercover police officers worked to entrap as many homosexual men as possible. Stonewall riots_sentence_85

Entrapment usually consisted of an undercover officer who found a man in a bar or public park, engaged him in conversation; if the conversation headed toward the possibility that they might leave together—or the officer bought the man a drink—he was arrested for solicitation. Stonewall riots_sentence_86

One story in the New York Post described an arrest in a gym locker room, where the officer grabbed his crotch, moaning, and a man who asked him if he was all right was arrested. Stonewall riots_sentence_87

Few lawyers would defend cases as undesirable as these, and some of those lawyers kicked back their fees to the arresting officer. Stonewall riots_sentence_88

The Mattachine Society succeeded in getting newly elected mayor John Lindsay to end the campaign of police entrapment in New York City. Stonewall riots_sentence_89

They had a more difficult time with the New York State Liquor Authority (SLA). Stonewall riots_sentence_90

While no laws prohibited serving homosexuals, courts allowed the SLA discretion in approving and revoking liquor licenses for businesses that might become "disorderly". Stonewall riots_sentence_91

Despite the high population of gay men and lesbians who called Greenwich Village home, very few places existed, other than bars, where they were able to congregate openly without being harassed or arrested. Stonewall riots_sentence_92

In 1966 the New York Mattachine held a "sip-in" at a Greenwich Village bar named Julius, which was frequented by gay men, to illustrate the discrimination homosexuals faced. Stonewall riots_sentence_93

None of the bars frequented by gay men and lesbians were owned by gay people. Stonewall riots_sentence_94

Almost all of them were owned and controlled by organized crime, who treated the regulars poorly, watered down the liquor, and overcharged for drinks. Stonewall riots_sentence_95

However, they also paid off police to prevent frequent raids. Stonewall riots_sentence_96

Stonewall Inn Stonewall riots_section_5

Main article: Stonewall Inn Stonewall riots_sentence_97

Stonewall riots_table_general_0

[Interactive fullscreen mapStonewall riots_cell_0_0_0
Location of the Stonewall Inn in relation to Greenwich Village

1 Stonewall Inn 2 Christopher Park 3 Sheridan SquareStonewall riots_cell_0_1_0

The Stonewall Inn, located at 51 and 53 Christopher Street, along with several other establishments in the city, was owned by the Genovese crime family. Stonewall riots_sentence_98

In 1966, three members of the Mafia invested $3,500 to turn the Stonewall Inn into a gay bar, after it had been a restaurant and a nightclub for heterosexuals. Stonewall riots_sentence_99

Once a week a police officer would collect envelopes of cash as a payoff known as a gayola, as the Stonewall Inn had no liquor license. Stonewall riots_sentence_100

It had no running water behind the bar—dirty glasses were run through tubs of water and immediately reused. Stonewall riots_sentence_101

There were no fire exits, and the toilets overran consistently. Stonewall riots_sentence_102

Though the bar was not used for prostitution, drug sales and other "cash transactions" took place. Stonewall riots_sentence_103

It was the only bar for gay men in New York City where dancing was allowed; dancing was its main draw since its re-opening as a gay club. Stonewall riots_sentence_104

Visitors to the Stonewall Inn in 1969 were greeted by a bouncer who inspected them through a peephole in the door. Stonewall riots_sentence_105

The legal drinking age was 18, and to avoid unwittingly letting in undercover police (who were called "Lily Law", "Alice Blue Gown", or "Betty Badge"), visitors would have to be known by the doorman, or look gay. Stonewall riots_sentence_106

The entrance fee on weekends was $3, for which the customer received two tickets that could be exchanged for two drinks. Stonewall riots_sentence_107

Patrons were required to sign their names in a book to prove that the bar was a private "bottle club", but rarely signed their real names. Stonewall riots_sentence_108

There were two dance floors in the Stonewall; the interior was painted black, making it very dark inside, with pulsing gel lights or black lights. Stonewall riots_sentence_109

If police were spotted, regular white lights were turned on, signaling that everyone should stop dancing or touching. Stonewall riots_sentence_110

In the rear of the bar was a smaller room frequented by "queens"; it was one of two bars where effeminate men who wore makeup and teased their hair (though dressed in men's clothing) could go. Stonewall riots_sentence_111

Only a few transvestites, or men in full drag, were allowed in by the bouncers. Stonewall riots_sentence_112

The customers were "98 percent male" but a few lesbians sometimes came to the bar. Stonewall riots_sentence_113

Younger homeless adolescent males, who slept in nearby Christopher Park, would often try to get in so customers would buy them drinks. Stonewall riots_sentence_114

The age of the clientele ranged between the upper teens and early thirties, and the racial mix was evenly distributed among white, black, and Hispanic patrons. Stonewall riots_sentence_115

Because of its even mix of people, its location, and the attraction of dancing, the Stonewall Inn was known by many as "the gay bar in the city". Stonewall riots_sentence_116

Police raids on gay bars were frequent—occurring on average once a month for each bar. Stonewall riots_sentence_117

Many bars kept extra liquor in a secret panel behind the bar, or in a car down the block, to facilitate resuming business as quickly as possible if alcohol was seized. Stonewall riots_sentence_118

Bar management usually knew about raids beforehand due to police tip-offs, and raids occurred early enough in the evening that business could commence after the police had finished. Stonewall riots_sentence_119

During a typical raid, the lights were turned on, and customers were lined up and their identification cards checked. Stonewall riots_sentence_120

Those without identification or dressed in full drag were arrested; others were allowed to leave. Stonewall riots_sentence_121

Some of the men, including those in drag, used their draft cards as identification. Stonewall riots_sentence_122

Women were required to wear three pieces of feminine clothing, and would be arrested if found not wearing them. Stonewall riots_sentence_123

Employees and management of the bars were also typically arrested. Stonewall riots_sentence_124

The period immediately before June 28, 1969, was marked by frequent raids of local bars—including a raid at the Stonewall Inn on the Tuesday before the riots—and the closing of the Checkerboard, the Tele-Star, and two other clubs in Greenwich Village. Stonewall riots_sentence_125

Riots Stonewall riots_section_6

Police raid Stonewall riots_section_7

At 1:20 a.m. on Saturday, June 28, 1969, four plainclothes policemen in dark suits, two patrol officers in uniform, and Detective Charles Smythe and Deputy Inspector Seymour Pine arrived at the Stonewall Inn's double doors and announced "Police! Stonewall riots_sentence_126

We're taking the place!" Stonewall riots_sentence_127

Stonewall employees do not recall being tipped off that a raid was to occur that night, as was the custom. Stonewall riots_sentence_128

According to Duberman (p. 194), there was a rumor that one might happen, but since it was much later than raids generally took place, Stonewall management thought the tip was inaccurate. Stonewall riots_sentence_129

Historian David Carter presents information indicating that the Mafia owners of the Stonewall and the manager were blackmailing wealthier customers, particularly those who worked in the Financial District. Stonewall riots_sentence_130

They appeared to be making more money from extortion than they were from liquor sales in the bar. Stonewall riots_sentence_131

Carter deduces that when the police were unable to receive kickbacks from blackmail and the theft of negotiable bonds (facilitated by pressuring gay Wall Street customers), they decided to close the Stonewall Inn permanently. Stonewall riots_sentence_132

Two undercover policewomen and two undercover policemen had entered the bar earlier that evening to gather visual evidence, as the Public Morals Squad waited outside for the signal. Stonewall riots_sentence_133

Once inside, they called for backup from the Sixth Precinct using the bar's pay telephone. Stonewall riots_sentence_134

The music was turned off and the main lights were turned on. Stonewall riots_sentence_135

Approximately 205 people were in the bar that night. Stonewall riots_sentence_136

Patrons who had never experienced a police raid were confused. Stonewall riots_sentence_137

A few who realized what was happening began to run for doors and windows in the bathrooms, but police barred the doors. Stonewall riots_sentence_138

Michael Fader remembered, Stonewall riots_sentence_139

The raid did not go as planned. Stonewall riots_sentence_140

Standard procedure was to line up the patrons, check their identification, and have female police officers take customers dressed as women to the bathroom to verify their sex, upon which any people appearing to be physically male and dressed as women would be arrested. Stonewall riots_sentence_141

Those dressed as women that night refused to go with the officers. Stonewall riots_sentence_142

Men in line began to refuse to produce their identification. Stonewall riots_sentence_143

The police decided to take everyone present to the police station, after separating those suspected of cross-dressing in a room in the back of the bar. Stonewall riots_sentence_144

Maria Ritter, then known as male to her family, recalled, "My biggest fear was that I would get arrested. Stonewall riots_sentence_145

My second biggest fear was that my picture would be in a newspaper or on a television report in my mother's dress!" Stonewall riots_sentence_146

Both patrons and police recalled that a sense of discomfort spread very quickly, spurred by police who began to assault some of the lesbians by "feeling some of them up inappropriately" while frisking them. Stonewall riots_sentence_147

The police were to transport the bar's alcohol in patrol wagons. Stonewall riots_sentence_148

Twenty-eight cases of beer and nineteen bottles of hard liquor were seized, but the patrol wagons had not yet arrived, so patrons were required to wait in line for about 15 minutes. Stonewall riots_sentence_149

Those who were not arrested were released from the front door, but they did not leave quickly as usual. Stonewall riots_sentence_150

Instead, they stopped outside and a crowd began to grow and watch. Stonewall riots_sentence_151

Within minutes, between 100 and 150 people had congregated outside, some after they were released from inside the Stonewall, and some after noticing the police cars and the crowd. Stonewall riots_sentence_152

Although the police forcefully pushed or kicked some patrons out of the bar, some customers released by the police performed for the crowd by posing and saluting the police in an exaggerated fashion. Stonewall riots_sentence_153

The crowd's applause encouraged them further: "Wrists were limp, hair was primped, and reactions to the applause were classic." Stonewall riots_sentence_154

When the first patrol wagon arrived, Inspector Pine recalled that the crowd—most of whom were homosexual—had grown to at least ten times the number of people who were arrested, and they all became very quiet. Stonewall riots_sentence_155

Confusion over radio communication delayed the arrival of a second wagon. Stonewall riots_sentence_156

The police began escorting Mafia members into the first wagon, to the cheers of the bystanders. Stonewall riots_sentence_157

Next, regular employees were loaded into the wagon. Stonewall riots_sentence_158

A bystander shouted, "Gay power! Stonewall riots_sentence_159

", someone began singing "We Shall Overcome", and the crowd reacted with amusement and general good humor mixed with "growing and intensive hostility". Stonewall riots_sentence_160

An officer shoved a transvestite, who responded by hitting him on the head with her purse as the crowd began to boo. Stonewall riots_sentence_161

Author Edmund White, who had been passing by, recalled, "Everyone's restless, angry, and high-spirited. Stonewall riots_sentence_162

No one has a slogan, no one even has an attitude, but something's brewing." Stonewall riots_sentence_163

Pennies, then beer bottles, were thrown at the wagon as a rumor spread through the crowd that patrons still inside the bar were being beaten. Stonewall riots_sentence_164

A scuffle broke out when a woman in handcuffs was escorted from the door of the bar to the waiting police wagon several times. Stonewall riots_sentence_165

She escaped repeatedly and fought with four of the police, swearing and shouting, for about ten minutes. Stonewall riots_sentence_166

Described as "a typical New York butch" and "a dyke–stone butch", she had been hit on the head by an officer with a baton for, as one witness claimed, complaining that her handcuffs were too tight. Stonewall riots_sentence_167

Bystanders recalled that the woman, whose identity remains unknown (Stormé DeLarverie has been identified by some, including herself, as the woman, but accounts vary), sparked the crowd to fight when she looked at bystanders and shouted, "Why don't you guys do something?" Stonewall riots_sentence_168

After an officer picked her up and heaved her into the back of the wagon, the crowd became a mob and went "berserk": "It was at that moment that the scene became explosive." Stonewall riots_sentence_169

Violence breaks out Stonewall riots_section_8

The police tried to restrain some of the crowd, knocking a few people down, which incited bystanders even more. Stonewall riots_sentence_170

Some of those handcuffed in the wagon escaped when police left them unattended (deliberately, according to some witnesses). Stonewall riots_sentence_171

As the crowd tried to overturn the police wagon, two police cars and the wagon—with a few slashed tires—left immediately, with Inspector Pine urging them to return as soon as possible. Stonewall riots_sentence_172

The commotion attracted more people who learned what was happening. Stonewall riots_sentence_173

Someone in the crowd declared that the bar had been raided because "they didn't pay off the cops", to which someone else yelled "Let's pay them off!" Stonewall riots_sentence_174

Coins sailed through the air towards the police as the crowd shouted "Pigs!" Stonewall riots_sentence_175

and "Faggot cops!" Stonewall riots_sentence_176

Beer cans were thrown and the police lashed out, dispersing some of the crowd who found a construction site nearby with stacks of bricks. Stonewall riots_sentence_177

The police, outnumbered by between 500 and 600 people, grabbed several people, including folk singer and mentor of Bob Dylan, Dave Van Ronk—who had been attracted to the revolt from a bar two doors away from the Stonewall. Stonewall riots_sentence_178

Though Van Ronk was not gay, he had experienced police violence when he participated in antiwar demonstrations: "As far as I was concerned, anybody who'd stand against the cops was all right with me, and that's why I stayed in... Every time you turned around the cops were pulling some outrage or another." Stonewall riots_sentence_179

Van Ronk was one of thirteen arrested that night. Stonewall riots_sentence_180

Ten police officers—including two policewomen—barricaded themselves, Van Ronk, Howard Smith (a column writer for The Village Voice), and several handcuffed detainees inside the Stonewall Inn for their own safety. Stonewall riots_sentence_181

Multiple accounts of the riot assert that there was no pre-existing organization or apparent cause for the demonstration; what ensued was spontaneous. Stonewall riots_sentence_182

Michael Fader explained, Stonewall riots_sentence_183

The only known photograph taken during the first night of the riots shows the homeless youth who slept in nearby Christopher Park, scuffling with police. Stonewall riots_sentence_184

The Mattachine Society newsletter a month later offered its explanation of why the riots occurred: "It catered largely to a group of people who are not welcome in, or cannot afford, other places of homosexual social gathering... Stonewall riots_sentence_185

The Stonewall became home to these kids. Stonewall riots_sentence_186

When it was raided, they fought for it. Stonewall riots_sentence_187

That, and the fact that they had nothing to lose other than the most tolerant and broadminded gay place in town, explains why." Stonewall riots_sentence_188

Garbage cans, garbage, bottles, rocks, and bricks were hurled at the building, breaking the windows. Stonewall riots_sentence_189

Witnesses attest that "flame queens", hustlers, and gay "street kids"—the most outcast people in the gay community—were responsible for the first volley of projectiles, as well as the uprooting of a parking meter used as a battering ram on the doors of the Stonewall Inn. Stonewall riots_sentence_190

Sylvia Rivera, a self-identified street queen remembered: Stonewall riots_sentence_191

The mob lit garbage on fire and stuffed it through the broken windows as the police grabbed a fire hose. Stonewall riots_sentence_192

Because it had no water pressure, the hose was ineffective in dispersing the crowd, and seemed only to encourage them. Stonewall riots_sentence_193

Escalation Stonewall riots_section_9

The Tactical Patrol Force (TPF) of the New York City Police Department arrived to free the police trapped inside the Stonewall. Stonewall riots_sentence_194

One officer's eye was cut, and a few others were bruised from being struck by flying debris. Stonewall riots_sentence_195

Bob Kohler, who was walking his dog by the Stonewall that night, saw the TPF arrive: "I had been in enough riots to know the fun was over... Stonewall riots_sentence_196

The cops were totally humiliated. Stonewall riots_sentence_197

This never, ever happened. Stonewall riots_sentence_198

They were angrier than I guess they had ever been, because everybody else had rioted... but the fairies were not supposed to riot... no group had ever forced cops to retreat before, so the anger was just enormous. Stonewall riots_sentence_199

I mean, they wanted to kill." Stonewall riots_sentence_200

With larger numbers, police detained anyone they could and put them in patrol wagons to go to jail, though Inspector Pine recalled, "Fights erupted with the transvestites, who wouldn't go into the patrol wagon." Stonewall riots_sentence_201

His recollection was corroborated by another witness across the street who said, "All I could see about who was fighting was that it was transvestites and they were fighting furiously." Stonewall riots_sentence_202

The TPF formed a phalanx and attempted to clear the streets by marching slowly and pushing the crowd back. Stonewall riots_sentence_203

The mob openly mocked the police. Stonewall riots_sentence_204

The crowd cheered, started impromptu kick lines, and sang to the tune of Ta-ra-ra Boom-de-ay: "We are the Stonewall girls/ We wear our hair in curls/ We don't wear underwear/ We show our pubic hair." Stonewall riots_sentence_205

Lucian Truscott reported in The Village Voice: "A stagnant situation there brought on some gay tomfoolery in the form of a chorus line facing the line of helmeted and club-carrying cops. Stonewall riots_sentence_206

Just as the line got into a full kick routine, the TPF advanced again and cleared the crowd of screaming gay power[-]ites down Christopher to Seventh Avenue." Stonewall riots_sentence_207

One participant who had been in the Stonewall during the raid recalled, "The police rushed us, and that's when I realized this is not a good thing to do, because they got me in the back with a nightstick." Stonewall riots_sentence_208

Another account stated, "I just can't ever get that one sight out of my mind. Stonewall riots_sentence_209

The cops with the [nightsticks] and the kick line on the other side. Stonewall riots_sentence_210

It was the most amazing thing... And all the sudden that kick line, which I guess was a spoof on the machismo... Stonewall riots_sentence_211

I think that's when I felt rage. Stonewall riots_sentence_212

Because people were getting smashed with bats. Stonewall riots_sentence_213

And for what? Stonewall riots_sentence_214

A kick line." Stonewall riots_sentence_215

Craig Rodwell, owner of the Oscar Wilde Memorial Bookshop, reported watching police chase participants through the crooked streets, only to see them appear around the next corner behind the police. Stonewall riots_sentence_216

Members of the mob stopped cars, overturning one of them to block Christopher Street. Stonewall riots_sentence_217

Jack Nichols and Lige Clarke, in their column printed in Screw, declared that "massive crowds of angry protesters chased [the police] for blocks screaming, 'Catch them!' Stonewall riots_sentence_218

" Stonewall riots_sentence_219

By 4:00 a.m., the streets had nearly been cleared. Stonewall riots_sentence_220

Many people sat on stoops or gathered nearby in Christopher Park throughout the morning, dazed in disbelief at what had transpired. Stonewall riots_sentence_221

Many witnesses remembered the surreal and eerie quiet that descended upon Christopher Street, though there continued to be "electricity in the air". Stonewall riots_sentence_222

One commented: "There was a certain beauty in the aftermath of the riot... Stonewall riots_sentence_223

It was obvious, at least to me, that a lot of people really were gay and, you know, this was our street." Stonewall riots_sentence_224

Thirteen people had been arrested. Stonewall riots_sentence_225

Some in the crowd were hospitalized, and four police officers were injured. Stonewall riots_sentence_226

Almost everything in the Stonewall Inn was broken. Stonewall riots_sentence_227

Inspector Pine had intended to close and dismantle the Stonewall Inn that night. Stonewall riots_sentence_228

Pay phones, toilets, mirrors, jukeboxes, and cigarette machines were all smashed, possibly in the riot and possibly by the police. Stonewall riots_sentence_229

A second night of rioting Stonewall riots_section_10

During the siege of the Stonewall, Craig Rodwell called The New York Times, the New York Post, and the Daily News to inform them what was happening. Stonewall riots_sentence_230

All three papers covered the riots; the Daily News placed coverage on the front page. Stonewall riots_sentence_231

News of the riot spread quickly throughout Greenwich Village, fueled by rumors that it had been organized by the Students for a Democratic Society, the Black Panthers, or triggered by "a homosexual police officer whose roommate went dancing at the Stonewall against the officer's wishes". Stonewall riots_sentence_232

All day Saturday, June 28, people came to stare at the burned and blackened Stonewall Inn. Stonewall riots_sentence_233

Graffiti appeared on the walls of the bar, declaring "Drag power", "They invaded our rights", "Support gay power", and "Legalize gay bars", along with accusations of police looting, and—regarding the status of the bar—"We are open." Stonewall riots_sentence_234

The next night, rioting again surrounded Christopher Street; participants remember differently which night was more frantic or violent. Stonewall riots_sentence_235

Many of the same people returned from the previous evening—hustlers, street youths, and "queens"—but they were joined by "police provocateurs", curious bystanders, and even tourists. Stonewall riots_sentence_236

Remarkable to many was the sudden exhibition of homosexual affection in public, as described by one witness: "From going to places where you had to knock on a door and speak to someone through a peephole in order to get in. Stonewall riots_sentence_237

We were just out. Stonewall riots_sentence_238

We were in the streets." Stonewall riots_sentence_239

Thousands of people had gathered in front of the Stonewall, which had opened again, choking Christopher Street until the crowd spilled into adjoining blocks. Stonewall riots_sentence_240

The throng surrounded buses and cars, harassing the occupants unless they either admitted they were gay or indicated their support for the demonstrators. Stonewall riots_sentence_241

Sylvia Rivera saw a friend of hers jump on a nearby car trying to drive through; the crowd rocked the car back and forth, terrifying its occupants. Stonewall riots_sentence_242

Another of Rivera's friends, Marsha P. Johnson, an African-American street queen, climbed a lamppost and dropped a heavy bag onto the hood of a police car, shattering the windshield. Stonewall riots_sentence_243

As on the previous evening, fires were started in garbage cans throughout the neighborhood. Stonewall riots_sentence_244

More than a hundred police were present from the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Ninth Precincts, but after 2:00 a.m. the TPF arrived again. Stonewall riots_sentence_245

Kick lines and police chases waxed and waned; when police captured demonstrators, whom the majority of witnesses described as "sissies" or "swishes", the crowd surged to recapture them. Stonewall riots_sentence_246

Street battling ensued again until 4:00 a.m. Stonewall riots_sentence_247

Beat poet and longtime Greenwich Village resident Allen Ginsberg lived on Christopher Street, and happened upon the jubilant chaos. Stonewall riots_sentence_248

After he learned of the riot that had occurred the previous evening, he stated, "Gay power! Stonewall riots_sentence_249

Isn't that great!... Stonewall riots_sentence_250

It's about time we did something to assert ourselves", and visited the open Stonewall Inn for the first time. Stonewall riots_sentence_251

While walking home, he declared to Lucian Truscott, "You know, the guys there were so beautiful—they've lost that wounded look that fags all had 10 years ago." Stonewall riots_sentence_252

Leaflets, press coverage, and more violence Stonewall riots_section_11

Activity in Greenwich Village was sporadic on Monday and Tuesday, partly due to rain. Stonewall riots_sentence_253

Police and Village residents had a few altercations, as both groups antagonized each other. Stonewall riots_sentence_254

Craig Rodwell and his partner Fred Sargeant took the opportunity the morning after the first riot to print and distribute 5,000 leaflets, one of them reading: "Get the Mafia and the Cops out of Gay Bars." Stonewall riots_sentence_255

The leaflets called for gay people to own their own establishments, for a boycott of the Stonewall and other Mafia-owned bars, and for public pressure on the mayor's office to investigate the "intolerable situation". Stonewall riots_sentence_256

Not everyone in the gay community considered the revolt a positive development. Stonewall riots_sentence_257

To many older homosexuals and many members of the Mattachine Society who had worked throughout the 1960s to promote homosexuals as no different from heterosexuals, the display of violence and effeminate behavior was embarrassing. Stonewall riots_sentence_258

Randy Wicker, who had marched in the first gay picket lines before the White House in 1965, said the "screaming queens forming chorus lines and kicking went against everything that I wanted people to think about homosexuals... that we were a bunch of drag queens in the Village acting disorderly and tacky and cheap." Stonewall riots_sentence_259

Others found the closing of the Stonewall Inn, termed a "sleaze joint", as advantageous to the Village. Stonewall riots_sentence_260

On Wednesday, however, The Village Voice ran reports of the riots, written by Howard Smith and Lucian Truscott, that included unflattering descriptions of the events and its participants: "forces of faggotry", "limp wrists", and "Sunday fag follies". Stonewall riots_sentence_261

A mob descended upon Christopher Street once again and threatened to burn down the offices of The Village Voice. Stonewall riots_sentence_262

Also in the mob of between 500 and 1,000 were other groups that had had unsuccessful confrontations with the police, and were curious how the police were defeated in this situation. Stonewall riots_sentence_263

Another explosive street battle took place, with injuries to demonstrators and police alike, local shops getting looted (apparently by nongay protesters), and arrests of five people. Stonewall riots_sentence_264

The incidents on Wednesday night lasted about an hour, and were summarized by one witness: "The word is out. Stonewall riots_sentence_265

Christopher Street shall be liberated. Stonewall riots_sentence_266

The fags have had it with oppression." Stonewall riots_sentence_267

Aftermath Stonewall riots_section_12

The feeling of urgency spread throughout Greenwich Village, even to people who had not witnessed the riots. Stonewall riots_sentence_268

Many who were moved by the rebellion attended organizational meetings, sensing an opportunity to take action. Stonewall riots_sentence_269

On July 4, 1969, the Mattachine Society performed its annual picketing in front of Independence Hall in Philadelphia, called the Annual Reminder. Stonewall riots_sentence_270

Organizers Craig Rodwell, Frank Kameny, Randy Wicker, Barbara Gittings, and Kay Lahusen, who had all participated for several years, took a bus along with other picketers from New York City to Philadelphia. Stonewall riots_sentence_271

Since 1965, the pickets had been very controlled: women wore skirts and men wore suits and ties, and all marched quietly in organized lines. Stonewall riots_sentence_272

This year Rodwell remembered feeling restricted by the rules Kameny had set. Stonewall riots_sentence_273

When two women spontaneously held hands, Kameny broke them apart, saying, "None of that! Stonewall riots_sentence_274

None of that!" Stonewall riots_sentence_275

Rodwell, however, convinced about ten couples to hold hands. Stonewall riots_sentence_276

The hand-holding couples made Kameny furious, but they earned more press attention than all of the previous marches. Stonewall riots_sentence_277

Participant Lilli Vincenz remembered, "It was clear that things were changing. Stonewall riots_sentence_278

People who had felt oppressed now felt empowered." Stonewall riots_sentence_279

Rodwell returned to New York City determined to change the established quiet, meek ways of trying to get attention. Stonewall riots_sentence_280

One of his first priorities was planning Christopher Street Liberation Day. Stonewall riots_sentence_281

Gay Liberation Front Stonewall riots_section_13

Although the Mattachine Society had existed since the 1950s, many of their methods now seemed too mild for people who had witnessed or been inspired by the riots. Stonewall riots_sentence_282

Mattachine recognized the shift in attitudes in a story from their newsletter entitled, "The Hairpin Drop Heard Around the World." Stonewall riots_sentence_283

When a Mattachine officer suggested an "amicable and sweet" candlelight vigil demonstration, a man in the audience fumed and shouted, "Sweet! Stonewall riots_sentence_284

Bullshit! Stonewall riots_sentence_285

That's the role society has been forcing these queens to play." Stonewall riots_sentence_286

With a flyer announcing: "Do You Think Homosexuals Are Revolting? Stonewall riots_sentence_287

You Bet Your Sweet Ass We Are! Stonewall riots_sentence_288

", the Gay Liberation Front (GLF) was soon formed, the first gay organization to use "gay" in its name. Stonewall riots_sentence_289

Previous organizations such as the Mattachine Society, the Daughters of Bilitis, and various homophile groups had masked their purpose by deliberately choosing obscure names. Stonewall riots_sentence_290

The rise of militancy became apparent to Frank Kameny and Barbara Gittings—who had worked in homophile organizations for years and were both very public about their roles—when they attended a GLF meeting to see the new group. Stonewall riots_sentence_291

A young GLF member demanded to know who they were and what their credentials were. Stonewall riots_sentence_292

Gittings, nonplussed, stammered, "I'm gay. Stonewall riots_sentence_293

That's why I'm here." Stonewall riots_sentence_294

The GLF borrowed tactics from and aligned themselves with black and antiwar demonstrators with the ideal that they "could work to restructure American society". Stonewall riots_sentence_295

They took on causes of the Black Panthers, marching to the Women's House of Detention in support of Afeni Shakur, and other radical New Left causes. Stonewall riots_sentence_296

Four months after the group formed, however, it disbanded when members were unable to agree on operating procedure. Stonewall riots_sentence_297

Gay Activists Alliance Stonewall riots_section_14

Within six months of the Stonewall riots, activists started a citywide newspaper called Gay; they considered it necessary because the most liberal publication in the city—The Village Voice—refused to print the word "gay" in GLF advertisements seeking new members and volunteers. Stonewall riots_sentence_298

Two other newspapers were initiated within a six-week period: Come Out! Stonewall riots_sentence_299

and Gay Power; the readership of these three periodicals quickly climbed to between 20,000 and 25,000. Stonewall riots_sentence_300

GLF members organized several same-sex dances, but GLF meetings were chaotic. Stonewall riots_sentence_301

When Bob Kohler asked for clothes and money to help the homeless youth who had participated in the riots, many of whom slept in Christopher Park or Sheridan Square, the response was a discussion on the downfall of capitalism. Stonewall riots_sentence_302

In late December 1969, several people who had visited GLF meetings and left out of frustration formed the Gay Activists Alliance (GAA). Stonewall riots_sentence_303

The GAA was to be entirely focused on gay issues, and more orderly. Stonewall riots_sentence_304

Their constitution started, "We as liberated homosexual activists demand the freedom for expression of our dignity and value as human beings." Stonewall riots_sentence_305

The GAA developed and perfected a confrontational tactic called a zap, where they would catch a politician off guard during a public relations opportunity, and force him or her to acknowledge gay and lesbian rights. Stonewall riots_sentence_306

City councilmen were zapped, and Mayor John Lindsay was zapped several times—once on television when GAA members made up the majority of the audience. Stonewall riots_sentence_307

Raids on gay bars did not stop after the Stonewall riots. Stonewall riots_sentence_308

In March 1970, Deputy Inspector Seymour Pine raided the Zodiac and 17 Barrow Street. Stonewall riots_sentence_309

An after-hours gay club with no liquor or occupancy licenses called The Snake Pit was soon raided, and 167 people were arrested. Stonewall riots_sentence_310

One of them was Diego Viñales, an Argentinian national so frightened that he might be deported as a homosexual that he tried to escape the police precinct by jumping out of a two-story window, impaling himself on a 14-inch (36 cm) spike fence. Stonewall riots_sentence_311

The New York Daily News printed a graphic photo of the young man's impalement on the front page. Stonewall riots_sentence_312

GAA members organized a march from Christopher Park to the Sixth Precinct in which hundreds of gay men, lesbians, and liberal sympathizers peacefully confronted the TPF. Stonewall riots_sentence_313

They also sponsored a letter-writing campaign to Mayor Lindsay in which the Greenwich Village Democratic Party and Congressman Ed Koch sent pleas to end raids on gay bars in the city. Stonewall riots_sentence_314

The Stonewall Inn lasted only a few weeks after the riot. Stonewall riots_sentence_315

By October 1969 it was up for rent. Stonewall riots_sentence_316

Village residents surmised it was too notorious a location, and Rodwell's boycott discouraged business. Stonewall riots_sentence_317

Gay Pride Stonewall riots_section_15

Main article: NYC Pride March § Origins Stonewall riots_sentence_318

Christopher Street Liberation Day on June 28, 1970 marked the first anniversary of the Stonewall riots with an assembly on Christopher Street; with simultaneous Gay Pride marches in Los Angeles and Chicago, these were the first Gay Pride marches in U.S. history. Stonewall riots_sentence_319

The next year, Gay Pride marches took place in Boston, Dallas, Milwaukee, London, Paris, West Berlin, and Stockholm. Stonewall riots_sentence_320

The march in New York covered 51 blocks, from Christopher Street to Central Park. Stonewall riots_sentence_321

The march took less than half the scheduled time due to excitement, but also due to wariness about walking through the city with gay banners and signs. Stonewall riots_sentence_322

Although the parade permit was delivered only two hours before the start of the march, the marchers encountered little resistance from onlookers. Stonewall riots_sentence_323

The New York Times reported (on the front page) that the marchers took up the entire street for about 15 city blocks. Stonewall riots_sentence_324

Reporting by The Village Voice was positive, describing "the out-front resistance that grew out of the police raid on the Stonewall Inn one year ago". Stonewall riots_sentence_325

By 1972, the participating cities included Atlanta, Buffalo, Detroit, Washington, D.C., Miami, Minneapolis, and Philadelphia, as well as San Francisco. Stonewall riots_sentence_326

Frank Kameny soon realized the pivotal change brought by the Stonewall riots. Stonewall riots_sentence_327

An organizer of gay activism in the 1950s, he was used to persuasion, trying to convince heterosexuals that gay people were no different than they were. Stonewall riots_sentence_328

When he and other people marched in front of the White House, the State Department, and Independence Hall only five years earlier, their objective was to look as if they could work for the U.S. government. Stonewall riots_sentence_329

Ten people marched with Kameny then, and they alerted no press to their intentions. Stonewall riots_sentence_330

Although he was stunned by the upheaval by participants in the Annual Reminder in 1969, he later observed, "By the time of Stonewall, we had fifty to sixty gay groups in the country. Stonewall riots_sentence_331

A year later there was at least fifteen hundred. Stonewall riots_sentence_332

By two years later, to the extent that a count could be made, it was twenty-five hundred." Stonewall riots_sentence_333

Similar to Kameny's regret at his own reaction to the shift in attitudes after the riots, Randy Wicker came to describe his embarrassment as "one of the greatest mistakes of his life". Stonewall riots_sentence_334

The image of gay people retaliating against police, after so many years of allowing such treatment to go unchallenged, "stirred an unexpected spirit among many homosexuals". Stonewall riots_sentence_335

Kay Lahusen, who photographed the marches in 1965, stated, "Up to 1969, this movement was generally called the homosexual or homophile movement... Stonewall riots_sentence_336

Many new activists consider the Stonewall uprising the birth of the gay liberation movement. Stonewall riots_sentence_337

Certainly it was the birth of gay pride on a massive scale." Stonewall riots_sentence_338

David Carter, in his article "What made Stonewall different", explained that even though there were several uprisings before Stonewall, the reason Stonewall was so historical was that thousands of people were involved, the riot lasted a long time (six days), it was the first to get major media coverage, and it sparked the formation of many gay rights groups. Stonewall riots_sentence_339

Legacy Stonewall riots_section_16

Unlikely community Stonewall riots_section_17

Within two years of the Stonewall riots there were gay rights groups in every major American city, as well as Canada, Australia, and Western Europe. Stonewall riots_sentence_340

People who joined activist organizations after the riots had very little in common other than their same-sex attraction. Stonewall riots_sentence_341

Many who arrived at GLF or GAA meetings were taken aback by the number of gay people in one place. Stonewall riots_sentence_342

Race, class, ideology, and gender became frequent obstacles in the years after the riots. Stonewall riots_sentence_343

This was illustrated during the 1973 Stonewall rally when, moments after Barbara Gittings exuberantly praised the diversity of the crowd, feminist activist Jean O'Leary protested what she perceived as the mocking of women by cross-dressers and drag queens in attendance. Stonewall riots_sentence_344

During a speech by O'Leary, in which she claimed that drag queens made fun of women for entertainment value and profit, Sylvia Rivera and Lee Brewster jumped on the stage and shouted "You go to bars because of what drag queens did for you, and these bitches tell us to quit being ourselves!" Stonewall riots_sentence_345

Both the drag queens and lesbian feminists in attendance left in disgust. Stonewall riots_sentence_346

O'Leary also worked in the early 1970s to exclude transgender people from gay rights issues because she felt that rights for transgender people would be too difficult to attain. Stonewall riots_sentence_347

Sylvia Rivera left New York City in the mid-1970s, relocating to upstate New York, but later returned to the city in the mid-1990s to advocate for homeless members of the gay community. Stonewall riots_sentence_348

The initial disagreements between participants in the movements, however, often evolved after further reflection. Stonewall riots_sentence_349

O'Leary later regretted her stance against the drag queens attending in 1973: "Looking back, I find this so embarrassing because my views have changed so much since then. Stonewall riots_sentence_350

I would never pick on a transvestite now." Stonewall riots_sentence_351

"It was horrible. Stonewall riots_sentence_352

How could I work to exclude transvestites and at the same time criticize the feminists who were doing their best back in those days to exclude lesbians?" Stonewall riots_sentence_353

O'Leary was referring to the Lavender Menace, a description by second wave feminist Betty Friedan for attempts by members of the National Organization for Women (NOW) to distance themselves from the perception of NOW as a haven for lesbians. Stonewall riots_sentence_354

As part of this process, Rita Mae Brown and other lesbians who had been active in NOW were forced out. Stonewall riots_sentence_355

They staged a protest in 1970 at the Second Congress to Unite Women, and earned the support of many NOW members, finally gaining full acceptance in 1971. Stonewall riots_sentence_356

The growth of lesbian feminism in the 1970s at times so conflicted with the gay liberation movement that some lesbians refused to work with gay men. Stonewall riots_sentence_357

Many lesbians found men's attitudes patriarchal and chauvinistic, and saw in gay men the same misguided notions about women as they saw in heterosexual men. Stonewall riots_sentence_358

The issues most important to gay men—entrapment and public solicitation—were not shared by lesbians. Stonewall riots_sentence_359

In 1977 a Lesbian Pride Rally was organized as an alternative to sharing gay men's issues, especially what Adrienne Rich termed "the violent, self-destructive world of the gay bars". Stonewall riots_sentence_360

Veteran gay activist Barbara Gittings chose to work in the gay rights movement, explaining "It's a matter of where does it hurt the most? Stonewall riots_sentence_361

For me it hurts the most not in the female arena, but the gay arena." Stonewall riots_sentence_362

Throughout the 1970s, gay activism had significant successes. Stonewall riots_sentence_363

One of the first and most important was the "zap" in May 1970 by the Los Angeles GLF at a convention of the American Psychiatric Association (APA). Stonewall riots_sentence_364

At a conference on behavior modification, during a film demonstrating the use of electroshock therapy to decrease same-sex attraction, Morris Kight and GLF members in the audience interrupted the film with shouts of "Torture!" Stonewall riots_sentence_365

and "Barbarism!" Stonewall riots_sentence_366

They took over the microphone to announce that medical professionals who prescribed such therapy for their homosexual patients were complicit in torturing them. Stonewall riots_sentence_367

Although 20 psychiatrists in attendance left, the GLF spent the hour following the zap with those remaining, trying to convince them that homosexual people were not mentally ill. Stonewall riots_sentence_368

When the APA invited gay activists to speak to the group in 1972, activists brought John E. Fryer, a gay psychiatrist who wore a mask, because he felt his practice was in danger. Stonewall riots_sentence_369

In December 1973—in large part due to the efforts of gay activists—the APA voted unanimously to remove homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Stonewall riots_sentence_370

Gay men and lesbians came together to work in grassroots political organizations responding to organized resistance in 1977. Stonewall riots_sentence_371

A coalition of conservatives named Save Our Children staged a campaign to repeal a civil rights ordinance in Dade County, Florida. Stonewall riots_sentence_372

Save Our Children was successful enough to influence similar repeals in several American cities in 1978. Stonewall riots_sentence_373

However, the same year a campaign in California called the Briggs Initiative, designed to force the dismissal of homosexual public school employees, was defeated. Stonewall riots_sentence_374

Reaction to the influence of Save Our Children and the Briggs Initiative in the gay community was so significant that it has been called the second Stonewall for many activists, marking their initiation into political participation. Stonewall riots_sentence_375

The subsequent 1979 National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights was timed to coincide with the ten-year anniversary of the Stonewall riots. Stonewall riots_sentence_376

Rejection of prior gay subculture Stonewall riots_section_18

The Stonewall riots marked such a significant turning point that many aspects of prior gay and lesbian culture, such as bar culture formed from decades of shame and secrecy, were forcefully ignored and denied. Stonewall riots_sentence_377

Historian Martin Duberman writes, "The decades preceding Stonewall... continue to be regarded by most gay men and lesbians as some vast neolithic wasteland." Stonewall riots_sentence_378

Sociologist Barry Adam notes, "Every social movement must choose at some point what to retain and what to reject out of its past. Stonewall riots_sentence_379

What traits are the results of oppression and what are healthy and authentic?" Stonewall riots_sentence_380

In conjunction with the growing feminist movement of the early 1970s, roles of butch and femme that developed in lesbian bars in the 1950s and 1960s were rejected, because as one writer put it: "all role playing is sick." Stonewall riots_sentence_381

Lesbian feminists considered the butch roles as archaic imitations of masculine behavior. Stonewall riots_sentence_382

Some women, according to Lillian Faderman, were eager to shed the roles they felt forced into playing. Stonewall riots_sentence_383

The roles returned for some women in the 1980s, although they allowed for more flexibility than before Stonewall. Stonewall riots_sentence_384

Author Michael Bronski highlights the "attack on pre-Stonewall culture", particularly gay pulp fiction for men, where the themes often reflected self-hatred or ambivalence about being gay. Stonewall riots_sentence_385

Many books ended unsatisfactorily and drastically, often with suicide, and writers portrayed their gay characters as alcoholics or deeply unhappy. Stonewall riots_sentence_386

These books, which he describes as "an enormous and cohesive literature by and for gay men", have not been reissued and are lost to later generations. Stonewall riots_sentence_387

Dismissing the reason simply as political correctness, Bronski writes, "gay liberation was a youth movement whose sense of history was defined to a large degree by rejection of the past." Stonewall riots_sentence_388

Lasting impact and recognition Stonewall riots_section_19

The riots spawned from a bar raid became a literal example of gay men and lesbians fighting back, and a symbolic call to arms for many people. Stonewall riots_sentence_389

Historian David Carter remarks in his book about the Stonewall riots that the bar itself was a complex business that represented a community center, an opportunity for the Mafia to blackmail its own customers, a home, and a place of "exploitation and degradation". Stonewall riots_sentence_390

The true legacy of the Stonewall riots, Carter insists, is the "ongoing struggle for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender equality". Stonewall riots_sentence_391

Historian Nicholas Edsall writes, Stonewall riots_sentence_392

Before the rebellion at the Stonewall Inn, homosexuals were, as historians Dudley Clendinen and Adam Nagourney write, Stonewall riots_sentence_393

Historian Lillian Faderman calls the riots the "shot heard round the world", explaining, "The Stonewall Rebellion was crucial because it sounded the rally for that movement. Stonewall riots_sentence_394

It became an emblem of gay and lesbian power. Stonewall riots_sentence_395

By calling on the dramatic tactic of violent protest that was being used by other oppressed groups, the events at the Stonewall implied that homosexuals had as much reason to be disaffected as they." Stonewall riots_sentence_396

Joan Nestle co-founded the Lesbian Herstory Archives in 1974, and credits "its creation to that night and the courage that found its voice in the streets." Stonewall riots_sentence_397

Cautious, however, not to attribute the start of gay activism to the Stonewall riots, Nestle writes, Stonewall riots_sentence_398

The events of the early morning of June 28, 1969 were not the first instances of gay men and lesbians fighting back against police in New York City and elsewhere. Stonewall riots_sentence_399

Not only had the Mattachine Society been active in major cities such as Los Angeles and Chicago, but similarly marginalized people started the riot at Compton's Cafeteria in 1966, and another riot responded to a raid on Los Angeles' Black Cat Tavern in 1967. Stonewall riots_sentence_400

However, several circumstances were in place that made the Stonewall riots memorable. Stonewall riots_sentence_401

The location of the Lower Manhattan raid was a factor: it was across the street from The Village Voice offices, and the narrow crooked streets gave the rioters advantage over the police. Stonewall riots_sentence_402

Many of the participants and residents of Greenwich Village were involved in political organizations that were effectively able to mobilize a large and cohesive gay community in the weeks and months after the rebellion. Stonewall riots_sentence_403

The most significant facet of the Stonewall riots, however, was the commemoration of them in Christopher Street Liberation Day, which grew into the annual Gay Pride events around the world. Stonewall riots_sentence_404

Stonewall (officially Stonewall Equality Limited) is an LGBT rights charity in the United Kingdom, founded in 1989, and named after the Stonewall Inn because of the Stonewall riots. Stonewall riots_sentence_405

The Stonewall Awards is an annual event the charity has held since 2006 to recognize people who have affected the lives of British lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. Stonewall riots_sentence_406

The middle of the 1990s was marked by the inclusion of bisexuals as a represented group within the gay community, when they successfully sought to be included on the platform of the 1993 March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay and Bi Equal Rights and Liberation. Stonewall riots_sentence_407

Transgender people also asked to be included, but were not, though trans-inclusive language was added to the march's list of demands. Stonewall riots_sentence_408

The transgender community continued to find itself simultaneously welcome and at odds with the gay community as attitudes about non-binary gender discrimination and pansexual orientation developed and came increasingly into conflict. Stonewall riots_sentence_409

In 1994, New York City celebrated "Stonewall 25" with a march that went past the United Nations Headquarters and into Central Park. Stonewall riots_sentence_410

Estimates put the attendance at 1.1 million people. Stonewall riots_sentence_411

Sylvia Rivera led an alternate march in New York City in 1994 to protest the exclusion of transgender people from the events. Stonewall riots_sentence_412

Attendance at LGBT Pride events has grown substantially over the decades. Stonewall riots_sentence_413

Most large cities around the world now have some kind of Pride demonstration. Stonewall riots_sentence_414

Pride events in some cities mark the largest annual celebration of any kind. Stonewall riots_sentence_415

The growing trend towards commercializing marches into parades—with events receiving corporate sponsorship—has caused concern about taking away the autonomy of the original grassroots demonstrations that put inexpensive activism in the hands of individuals. Stonewall riots_sentence_416

A "Stonewall Shabbat Seder" was first held at B'nai Jeshurun, a synagogue on New York's Upper West Side, in 1995. Stonewall riots_sentence_417

President Barack Obama declared June 2009 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, citing the riots as a reason to "commit to achieving equal justice under law for LGBT Americans". Stonewall riots_sentence_418

The year marked the 40th anniversary of the riots, giving journalists and activists cause to reflect on progress made since 1969. Stonewall riots_sentence_419

Frank Rich noted in The New York Times that no federal legislation exists to protect the rights of gay Americans. Stonewall riots_sentence_420

An editorial in the Washington Blade compared the scruffy, violent activism during and following the Stonewall riots to the lackluster response to failed promises given by President Obama; for being ignored, wealthy LGBT activists reacted by promising to give less money to Democratic causes. Stonewall riots_sentence_421

Two years later, the Stonewall Inn served as a rallying point for celebrations after the New York State Senate voted to pass same-sex marriage. Stonewall riots_sentence_422

The act was signed into law by Governor Andrew Cuomo on June 24, 2011. Stonewall riots_sentence_423

Individual states continue to battle with homophobia. Stonewall riots_sentence_424

The Missouri Senate passed a measure its supporters characterize as a religious freedom bill that could change the state's constitution despite Democrats' objections, and their 39-hour filibuster. Stonewall riots_sentence_425

This bill allows the "protection of certain religious organizations and individuals from being penalized by the state because of their sincere religious beliefs or practices concerning marriage between two persons of the same sex" discriminating against homosexual patronage. Stonewall riots_sentence_426

Obama also referenced the Stonewall riots in a call for full equality during his second inaugural address on January 21, 2013: Stonewall riots_sentence_427

This was a historic moment, being the first time that a president mentioned gay rights or the word "gay" in an inaugural address. Stonewall riots_sentence_428

In 2014, a marker dedicated to the Stonewall riots was included in the Legacy Walk, an outdoor public display in Chicago celebrating LGBT history and people. Stonewall riots_sentence_429

Throughought June 2019, Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019, produced by Heritage of Pride in partnership with the I Love New York program's LGBT division, was held in New York to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall uprising. Stonewall riots_sentence_430

The final official estimate included 5 million visitors attending in Manhattan alone, making it the largest LGBTQ celebration in history. Stonewall riots_sentence_431

June is traditionally Pride month in New York City and worldwide, and the events were held under the auspices of the annual NYC Pride March. Stonewall riots_sentence_432

An apology from New York City Police Commissioner James P. O'Neill, on June 6, 2019, coincided with WorldPride being celebrated in New York City. Stonewall riots_sentence_433

O'Neill apologized on behalf of the NYPD for the actions of its officers at the Stonewall uprising in 1969. Stonewall riots_sentence_434

The official 50th commemoration of the Stonewall Uprising happened on 28 June on Christopher Street in front of Stonewall Inn. Stonewall riots_sentence_435

The official commemoration was themed as a rally—in reference to the original rallies in front of Stonewall Inn in 1969. Stonewall riots_sentence_436

Talent for this event included Mayor Bill De Blasio, Senator Kirsten Gillibrand, Congressman Jerry Nadler, American activist Emma Gonzalez and global activist Rémy Bonny. Stonewall riots_sentence_437

In 2019, Paris, France officially named a square in the Marais as Place des Émeutes-de-Stonewall. Stonewall riots_sentence_438

Stonewall Day Stonewall riots_section_20

In 2018, 49 years after the uprising, Stonewall Day was announced as a commemoration day by Pride Live, a social advocacy and community engagement organization. Stonewall riots_sentence_439

The second Stonewall Day was held on Friday, June 28, 2019, outside the Stonewall Inn. Stonewall riots_sentence_440

During this event, Pride Live introduced their Stonewall Ambassadors program, to raise awareness for the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall Riots. Stonewall riots_sentence_441

Those appearing at the event included: Geena Rocero, First Lady of New York City Chirlane McCray, Josephine Skriver, Wilson Cruz, Ryan Jamaal Swain, Angelica Ross, Donatella Versace, Conchita Wurst, Bob the Drag Queen, Whoopi Goldberg, and Lady Gaga, with performances by Alex Newell and Alicia Keys. Stonewall riots_sentence_442

Historic landmark and monument Stonewall riots_section_21

Main article: Stonewall National Monument Stonewall riots_sentence_443

In June 1999, the U.S. Stonewall riots_sentence_444 Department of the Interior designated 51 and 53 Christopher Street and the surrounding area in Greenwich Village to be on the National Register of Historic Places, the first of significance to the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community. Stonewall riots_sentence_445

In a dedication ceremony, Assistant Secretary of the Department of the Interior John Berry stated, "Let it forever be remembered that here—on this spot—men and women stood proud, they stood fast, so that we may be who we are, we may work where we will, live where we choose and love whom our hearts desire." Stonewall riots_sentence_446

The Stonewall Inn was itself named a National Historic Landmark in February 2000. Stonewall riots_sentence_447

In May 2015, the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission announced it would officially consider designating the Stonewall Inn as a landmark, making it the first city location to be considered based on its LGBT cultural significance alone. Stonewall riots_sentence_448

On June 23, 2015, the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission unanimously approved the designation of the Stonewall Inn as a city landmark, making it the first landmark honored for its role in the fight for gay rights. Stonewall riots_sentence_449

On June 24, 2016, President Obama announced the establishment of the Stonewall National Monument site to be administered by the National Park Service. Stonewall riots_sentence_450

The designation, which followed transfer of city parkland to the federal government, protects Christopher Park and adjacent areas totaling more than seven acres; the Stonewall Inn is within the boundaries of the monument but remains privately owned. Stonewall riots_sentence_451

The National Park Foundation formed a new nonprofit organization to raise funds for a ranger station and interpretive exhibits for the monument. Stonewall riots_sentence_452

Media representations Stonewall riots_section_22

No newsreel or TV footage was taken of the riots and scant home movies and photographs exist, but those that do have been used in documentaries. Stonewall riots_sentence_453

Film Stonewall riots_section_23

Stonewall riots_unordered_list_0

  • Before Stonewall: The Making of a Gay and Lesbian Community (1984), a documentary on the decades leading up to the Stonewall RebellionStonewall riots_item_0_0
  • Stonewall (1995), a dramatic presentation of the events leading up to the riotsStonewall riots_item_0_1
  • After Stonewall (1999), a documentary of the years from Stonewall to the century's endStonewall riots_item_0_2
  • Stonewall Uprising (2010), a documentary using archival footage, photographs, documents and witness statementsStonewall riots_item_0_3
  • Stonewall (2015), a drama about a fictional protagonist who interacts with fictionalized versions of some of the people in and around the riotsStonewall riots_item_0_4
  • Happy Birthday, Marsha! (2016), a short, experimental drama, inspired by some of the legends surrounding gay and transgender rights activists Marsha P. Johnson and Sylvia Rivera, set on the night of the riotsStonewall riots_item_0_5

Music Stonewall riots_section_24

Stonewall riots_unordered_list_1

  • Activist Madeline Davis wrote the folk song "Stonewall Nation" in 1971 after attending her first gay civil rights march. Released on Mark Custom Recording Service, it is widely regarded as the first gay liberation record, with lyrics that "celebrate the resiliency and potential power of radical gay activism."Stonewall riots_item_1_6
  • The song " '69: Judy Garland", written by Stephin Merritt and appearing on 50 Song Memoir by The Magnetic Fields, centers on the Stonewall Riots and the idea that they were caused by the death of Judy Garland six days earlier, on June 22, 1969.Stonewall riots_item_1_7
  • New York City Opera commissioned the English composer Iain Bell and American librettist Mark Campbell in 2018 to write the opera Stonewall to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the riots, to be premiered on June 19, 2019, and directed by Leonard Foglia.Stonewall riots_item_1_8
  • The Stonewall Celebration Concert is the debut studio album by Renato Russo, released in 1994. The album was a tribute to twenty five years of the Stonewall riots in New York. Part of the royalties were donated to Ação da Cidadania Contra a Fome, a Miséria e Pela Vida (Citizen Action Against Hunger and Poverty and for Life) campaign.Stonewall riots_item_1_9

Theatre Stonewall riots_section_25

Stonewall riots_unordered_list_2

  • Street Theatre (1982) by Doric WilsonStonewall riots_item_2_10

Notable participants Stonewall riots_section_26

Stonewall riots_unordered_list_3

See also Stonewall riots_section_27

Stonewall riots_unordered_list_4

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: riots.