Suceava

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Suceava_table_infobox_0

SuceavaSuceava_header_cell_0_0_0
CountrySuceava_header_cell_0_1_0 RomaniaSuceava_cell_0_1_1
CountySuceava_header_cell_0_2_0 Suceava CountySuceava_cell_0_2_1
StatusSuceava_header_cell_0_3_0 County capitalSuceava_cell_0_3_1
GovernmentSuceava_header_cell_0_4_0
MayorSuceava_header_cell_0_5_0 Ion Lungu (PNL)Suceava_cell_0_5_1
AreaSuceava_header_cell_0_6_0
CitySuceava_header_cell_0_7_0 52.10 km (20.12 sq mi)Suceava_cell_0_7_1
MetroSuceava_header_cell_0_8_0 473.29 km (182.74 sq mi)Suceava_cell_0_8_1
Population (2011-10-31)Suceava_header_cell_0_9_0
CitySuceava_header_cell_0_10_0 92,121Suceava_cell_0_10_1
Estimate (2018)Suceava_header_cell_0_11_0 124,161Suceava_cell_0_11_1
DensitySuceava_header_cell_0_12_0 1,800/km (4,600/sq mi)Suceava_cell_0_12_1
MetroSuceava_header_cell_0_13_0 176,016Suceava_cell_0_13_1
Time zoneSuceava_header_cell_0_14_0 UTC+2 (EET)Suceava_cell_0_14_1
Summer (DST)Suceava_header_cell_0_15_0 UTC+3 (EEST)Suceava_cell_0_15_1
ClimateSuceava_header_cell_0_16_0 DfbSuceava_cell_0_16_1
WebsiteSuceava_header_cell_0_17_0 Suceava_cell_0_17_1

Suceava (Romanian: [suˈtʃe̯ava, German: Suczawa, Sotschen or Sutschawa) is the largest city and the seat of Suceava County, situated in the historical region of Bukovina, north-eastern Romania, and at the crossroads of Central and Eastern Europe. Suceava_sentence_0

During the late Middle Ages, more specifically from 1388 to 1564, the city was the third capital of the Principality of Moldavia. Suceava_sentence_1

From 1775 and 1918, Suceava was controlled by the Habsburg Monarchy, initially part of its Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, then gradually becoming the third most populous urban settlement of the Duchy of Bukovina, a constituent province of the Austrian Empire and subsequently a crown land within Austria-Hungary. Suceava_sentence_2

It was only surpassed by Cernăuți and Rădăuți, both located to the north. Suceava_sentence_3

Furthermore, given its diverse ethnic background during the late Modern Age, Austrian architect Rudolf Gassauer stated that the city of Suceava could have well been perceived back then as a 'miniature Austria'. Suceava_sentence_4

During this time, Suceava was an important, strategically-located commercial border town with the then Romanian Old Kingdom. Suceava_sentence_5

At the same time, it also received a large influx of German-speaking settlers in the process of the Josephine colonization (heneceforth known as Bukovina Germans). Suceava_sentence_6

This community has since dwindled to a very small number. Suceava_sentence_7

However, despite their current numbers, the Germans from Suceava are still culturally, socially, and politically active. Suceava_sentence_8

In the wake of World War I, after 1918, along with the rest of Bukovina, Suceava became part of the then newly enlarged Kingdom of Romania. Suceava_sentence_9

After the end of World War II, the city slowly underwent a process of forced Communist urbanization which increased its population about tenfold throughout the decades before the 1989 revolution. Suceava_sentence_10

It became a municipality (Romanian: municipiu) in 1968. Suceava_sentence_11

Names and etymology Suceava_section_0

See also: Names of Suceava in different languages Suceava_sentence_12

Moldavian chronicler Grigore Ureche presumed the name of the city came from the Hungarian Szűcsvár, which is combined of the words szűcs (furrier, skinner) and vár (castle). Suceava_sentence_13

This was taken over by Dimitrie Cantemir, who in his work gave the very same explanation of the origin of the city's name, however, there are neither historical nor vernacular evidences for this. Suceava_sentence_14

According to another theory, the city bears the name of the river with the same name, that is supposed to be of Ukrainian origin. Suceava_sentence_15

In Old German, the city was known as Sedschopff, in High German sources it can be found under such variations as Sotschen, Sutschawa, or Suczawa, in Hungarian as Szucsáva ([ˈsut͡ʃaːvɒ) or Szőcsvásár, in Polish as Suczawa, in Ukrainian as Сучава (Sučava), while in Yiddish as שאָץ ([ʃɔts). Suceava_sentence_16

History Suceava_section_1

The present-day territory of the city of Suceava and the adjacent surroundings were already inhabited since the Paleolithic period. Suceava_sentence_17

Stemming from the late Antiquity, there are also traces of Dacian oppidum of the 2nd century. Suceava_sentence_18

In stark contrast to several historical regions of Romania (most notably Transylvania and Oltenia), Suceava (along with the entire region of Bukovina for that matter) was not conquered by the legions of the Roman Empire and consequently was one of the lands of the Free Dacian tribes during the late Ancient Age. Suceava_sentence_19

Nonetheless, according to Ptolemy, at that time in the region also dwelled two likely Celtic-speaking tribes, specifically the Anartes and the Taurisci, as well as the Germanic Bastarnae, who have also been attested there. Suceava_sentence_20

After the fall of Rome and during the Migration Period, the predominantly Carpiani population was successively invaded by East Germanic peoples (such as the Goths or the Gepids), Huns, Slavs, Magyars, Pechenegs, and ultimately Cumans. Suceava_sentence_21

During the Late Middle Ages, the city of Suceava was the capital of the Principality of Moldavia and the main residence of the Moldavian princes for nearly two centuries (namely between 1388 and 1564). Suceava_sentence_22

The city was the capital of the lands of Stephen the Great, one of the pivotal figures in Romanian history, who died in Suceava in 1504. Suceava_sentence_23

During the rule of Alexandru Lăpușneanu, the seat was moved to Iași in 1565 and Suceava failed to become the capital again. Suceava_sentence_24

Michael the Brave captured the city in 1600 during the Moldavian Magnate Wars as he became the ruler of Wallachia, Moldavia, and Transylvania, but he was defeated the same year. Suceava_sentence_25

Together with the rest of Bukovina, Suceava was under the rule of the Habsburg Monarchy (and, later, the Austrian Empire as well as Austria-Hungary) from 1775 to 1918 (with the border of the Habsburg domains passing just south-east of the city). Suceava_sentence_26

During the late 19th century and early 20th century, the city was the third largest in the Duchy of Bukovina, after Cernăuți and Rădăuți. Suceava_sentence_27

Throughout this period of time, the Habsburgs and, later on, the Austrians, attracted many ethnic Germans from abroad to settle down in Bukovina and, implicitly, in the contemporary city of Suceava, then just a small market town. Suceava_sentence_28

Over the passing of time, these newly arrived German settlers and their descendants became collectively known as Bukovina Germans. Suceava_sentence_29

Additionally, at that time, on an administrative level, the city of Suceava was part of a namesake bezirk with a total population of 66,826 inhabitants. Suceava_sentence_30

In 1918, the city of Suceava (as well as the entire region of Bukovina) became part of what is known as 'Greater Romania', after an overwhelming vote of the German, Romanian, and Polish representatives of the General Congress of Bukovina. Suceava_sentence_31

All 7 political representatives of the Bukovina Germans led by Alois Lebouton voted for the union of Bukovina with the Kingdom of Romania. Suceava_sentence_32

Throughout the interwar period, Suceava undergone further infrastructural development within the then enlarged Kingdom of Romania. Suceava_sentence_33

Moreover, from an administrative point of view, it had also briefly belonged to Ținutul Suceava (between 1938 and 1940), one of the 10 lands established during King Carol II of Romania's reign. Suceava_sentence_34

Subsequently, from the 1950s onwards (along with the onset of Communism), Suceava was heavily industrialized and a significant series of historical buildings from its old city centre (more specifically the entire Franz Josef Straße) were demolished in order for Plattenbau-like blocks of flats to be constructed at the orders of the Communist officials. Suceava_sentence_35

Geography Suceava_section_2

The city covers two types of geographical areas, the hills (of which the highest is Zamca Hill) and the meadows of the Suceava river valley. Suceava_sentence_36

The unique setting of the urban settlement includes two groves, Zamca and Șipote, which are both located within the city limits. Suceava_sentence_37

Burdujeni, one of the neighbourhoods, is connected to the rest of the city by a prominent avenue, which makes the neighbourhood appear to be a separate satellite city. Suceava_sentence_38

Climate Suceava_section_3

Demographics Suceava_section_4

Historical data for the city proper Suceava_section_5

The Austrian census of 1869, which recorded only population in absolute numbers (bereft of ethnicity or religion), indicated that the city of Suceava had a total population of 7,450 permanent inhabitants. Suceava_sentence_39

The Austrian census of 1880 indicated that the city of Suceava had a total population of 10,104, of which 5,862 were Germans (i.e. Bukovina Germans), 2,652 Romanians, 441 Ruthenians, and 784 inhabitants belonging to other ethnic groups. Suceava_sentence_40

The Austrian census of 1890 indicated that the city of Suceava had a total population of 10,221, of which 5,965 were Germans (i.e. Bukovina Germans), 2,417 Romanians, 644 Ruthenians, and 905 inhabitants belonging to other ethnic groups. Suceava_sentence_41

In 1900, when the city was still under Imperial Austrian administration, its total population amounted to 10,955 inhabitants. Suceava_sentence_42

Of those, 61.5% declared their native language to be German (i.e. Hochdeutsch), followed by Romanian with 25.38% and Ruthenian (or Ukrainian) with 5.46%. Suceava_sentence_43

20 years later, when the city switched to the Kingdom of Romania, the 1930 Romanian census recorded a population which amounted to c. 17,000 inhabitants with the following ethno-linguistic composition: Suceava_sentence_44

Suceava_unordered_list_0

According to the 2002 Romanian census, the ethnic structure of the city of Suceava can be broken down in distinct groups as follows: Suceava_sentence_45

Suceava_unordered_list_1

According to the 2011 census data, Suceava had a population of 92,121, a decrease from the figure recorded at the 2002 census (106,138), making it the 23rd largest city in Romania at that time. Suceava_sentence_46

Additionally, the ethnic composition was as follows: Suceava_sentence_47

Suceava_unordered_list_2

Historical data for the Ițcani neighborhood Suceava_section_6

According to the 1930 Romanian census, the population of present-day Ițcani neighborhood (which at the time was considered a separate commune comprising two villages, namely Ițcanii Noi/Neu Itzkany and Ițcani Gară/Itzkany Bahnhof) amounted to 2,422 residents. Suceava_sentence_48

By ethnic criterion, those residents were: Suceava_sentence_49

Suceava_unordered_list_3

In religious terms, 28.4% of the then residents were Roman Catholic, 22.7% were Evangelical Lutheran, 22.04% were Orthodox, 18.04% belonged to Judaism, 8.17% were Greek Catholic, and the rest either belonged to other smaller cults or were irreligious. Suceava_sentence_50

Administration and local politics Suceava_section_7

List of mayors (1990–present) Suceava_section_8

The mayors elected since Romania's transition back to democracy and a free market economy in the wake of the 1989 revolution have been the following ones: Suceava_sentence_51

Suceava_table_general_1

Suceava_header_cell_1_0_0 NameSuceava_header_cell_1_0_1 Term startSuceava_header_cell_1_0_2 Term endSuceava_header_cell_1_0_3 Political partySuceava_header_cell_1_0_4
1Suceava_header_cell_1_1_0 Filaret PoenariuSuceava_cell_1_1_1 1990Suceava_cell_1_1_2 1992Suceava_cell_1_1_3 National Salvation Front (FSN)Suceava_cell_1_1_4
2Suceava_header_cell_1_2_0 Gheorghe TomaSuceava_cell_1_2_1 1992Suceava_cell_1_2_2 1996Suceava_cell_1_2_3 Ecologist Party of Romania (PER)Suceava_cell_1_2_4
3Suceava_header_cell_1_3_0 Suceava_cell_1_3_1 1996Suceava_cell_1_3_2 2000Suceava_cell_1_3_3 National Liberal Party (PNL)Suceava_cell_1_3_4
4Suceava_header_cell_1_4_0 Marian IonescuSuceava_cell_1_4_1 2000Suceava_cell_1_4_2 2004Suceava_cell_1_4_3 Social Democratic Party (PSD)Suceava_cell_1_4_4
5Suceava_header_cell_1_5_0 Suceava_cell_1_5_1 2004Suceava_cell_1_5_2 incumbentSuceava_cell_1_5_3 National Liberal Party (PNL)Suceava_cell_1_5_4

Notes: Suceava_sentence_52

Initially elected on the lists of the Democratic Agrarian Party of Romania (PDAR) but subsequently switched to the National Liberal Party (PNL). Suceava_sentence_53

Initially elected on the lists of the National Liberal Party (PNL), subsequently switched to the Democratic Liberal Party, then re-elected on the lists of the PNL Suceava_sentence_54

City council Suceava_section_9

The city's current local council has the following multi-party political composition, based on the results of the ballots cast at the 2020 Romanian local elections: Suceava_sentence_55

Suceava_table_general_2

Suceava_header_cell_2_0_0 PartySuceava_header_cell_2_0_1 SeatsSuceava_header_cell_2_0_2 Current CouncilSuceava_header_cell_2_0_3
Suceava_cell_2_1_0 National Liberal Party (PNL)Suceava_cell_2_1_1 9Suceava_cell_2_1_2 Suceava_cell_2_1_3 Suceava_cell_2_1_4 Suceava_cell_2_1_5 Suceava_cell_2_1_6 Suceava_cell_2_1_7 Suceava_cell_2_1_8 Suceava_cell_2_1_9 Suceava_cell_2_1_10 Suceava_cell_2_1_11
Suceava_cell_2_2_0 Social Democratic Party (PSD)Suceava_cell_2_2_1 5Suceava_cell_2_2_2 Suceava_cell_2_2_3 Suceava_cell_2_2_4 Suceava_cell_2_2_5 Suceava_cell_2_2_6 Suceava_cell_2_2_7 Suceava_cell_2_2_8 Suceava_cell_2_2_9 Suceava_cell_2_2_10 Suceava_cell_2_2_11
Suceava_cell_2_3_0 People's Movement Party (PMP)Suceava_cell_2_3_1 4Suceava_cell_2_3_2 Suceava_cell_2_3_3 Suceava_cell_2_3_4 Suceava_cell_2_3_5 Suceava_cell_2_3_6 Suceava_cell_2_3_7 Suceava_cell_2_3_8 Suceava_cell_2_3_9 Suceava_cell_2_3_10 Suceava_cell_2_3_11
Suceava_cell_2_4_0 USR-PLUSSuceava_cell_2_4_1 3Suceava_cell_2_4_2 Suceava_cell_2_4_3 Suceava_cell_2_4_4 Suceava_cell_2_4_5 Suceava_cell_2_4_6 Suceava_cell_2_4_7 Suceava_cell_2_4_8 Suceava_cell_2_4_9 Suceava_cell_2_4_10 Suceava_cell_2_4_11
Suceava_cell_2_5_0 PRO Romania (PRO)Suceava_cell_2_5_1 2Suceava_cell_2_5_2 Suceava_cell_2_5_3 Suceava_cell_2_5_4 Suceava_cell_2_5_5 Suceava_cell_2_5_6 Suceava_cell_2_5_7 Suceava_cell_2_5_8 Suceava_cell_2_5_9 Suceava_cell_2_5_10 Suceava_cell_2_5_11

Culture Suceava_section_10

The Seat Fortress of Suceava Suceava_section_11

Suceava is the place of several medieval sites that are closely linked to the history of the former Principality of Moldavia. Suceava_sentence_56

By far the most significant (and at the same time the most well preserved one) is the Seat Fortress of Suceava (Romanian: Cetatea de Scaun a Sucevei) or Suceava Citadel, a medieval castle situated on the eastern edge of the contemporary city. Suceava_sentence_57

The fortress was built during the reign of Petru of Moldavia (1375–1391), also known as Petru Mușat. Suceava_sentence_58

It was further expanded and strengthened during the reigns of Alexander I of Moldavia (1400–1432) and Stephen the Great (1457–1504). Suceava_sentence_59

The medieval castle was part of the fortification system built in Moldavia during the late 14th century, given the emergence of the Ottoman danger. Suceava_sentence_60

It even became strong enough to hold off an attack by Ottoman sultan Mehmed II (the conqueror of Constantinople) in 1476. Suceava_sentence_61

Suceava was the capital city of the former Principality of Moldavia between 1388 and 1565. Suceava_sentence_62

During this period, the castle served as princely residence. Suceava_sentence_63

Alexandru Lăpușneanu had subsequently moved the Moldavian capital to Iași in 1565, so the castle lost its status. Suceava_sentence_64

Afterwards, the citadel entered a period of steep decline. Suceava_sentence_65

In 1675, during the reign of voivode Dumitrașcu Cantacuzino, the fortress was destroyed. Suceava_sentence_66

Then, for over two centuries, the castle was completely deserted. Suceava_sentence_67

During the late 19th century and early 20th century, under the patronage of Austrian architect , a series of rehabilitation works and archaeological research had been conducted. Suceava_sentence_68

Between 1961 and 1970 other restoration and consolidation processes were carried out. Suceava_sentence_69

In 2013, a major reconstruction program was launched, aiming to return the castle to its original architecture and shape. Suceava_sentence_70

The Seat Fortress of Suceava consists of two concentric citadels. Suceava_sentence_71

The inner citadel, known as fortul mușatin, has a rectangular shape and a patio. Suceava_sentence_72

It was built by Petru Mușat in late 14th century. Suceava_sentence_73

During the second half of the 15th century, Stephen the Great expanded the structure by adding another citadel which had a circular shape surrounding the old one. Suceava_sentence_74

After 1476, new fortifications were added to the outer citadel. Suceava_sentence_75

Furthermore, the whole castle is encircled by a large defensive ditch. Suceava_sentence_76

Today, the fortress is a landmark of Suceava and a noteworthy touristic attraction. Suceava_sentence_77

Since 2011, it has also been used for hosting cultural events such as the rock music festival Bucovina Rock Castle. Suceava_sentence_78

The festival attracted a series of renowned national and international bands and artists (e.g. guitarist Jan Akkerman, formerly of Dutch progressive rock band Focus). Suceava_sentence_79

The Princely Court of Suceava Suceava_section_12

The Princely Court of Suceava (Romanian: Curtea Domnească din Suceava) was built and developed along with the Seat Fortress. Suceava_sentence_80

During the late 14th century, voivode Petru Mușat built the Princely House, a structure made in wood, which included a cellar. Suceava_sentence_81

After 1400, Alexander I of Moldavia rebuilt the wooden house and added a surrounding stone wall and a complex of buildings also built in stone. Suceava_sentence_82

During the second half of the 15th century, the Princely Court was severely affected by fire, the wooden house being completely burned out. Suceava_sentence_83

During his reign, Stephen the Great (1457–1504) restored the whole complex. Suceava_sentence_84

A new Princely House was built, this time made of stone, and the other buildings were extended. Suceava_sentence_85

Vasile Lupu (1634–1653) was the last ruler of Moldavia who took care of the Princely Court. Suceava_sentence_86

During his time, the cellars were rehabilitated. Suceava_sentence_87

The complex was abandoned at some point in the late 17th century, the buildings and the walls being gradually dismantled. Suceava_sentence_88

Currently, on the site of the Princely Court there are only ruins and leftovers of the former buildings. Suceava_sentence_89

The ruins of the former medieval court are located in the city center of Suceava. Suceava_sentence_90

Between 14th and 17th century, in the proximity of the Princely Court there were built several churches that still exist today and attract tourists. Suceava_sentence_91

Șcheia Fortress Suceava_section_13

On the north-western edge of the contemporary city, on a hilltop, there is another medieval citadel known as Șcheia Fortress (Romanian: Cetatea Șcheia) or the Western Fortress of Suceava (Romanian: Cetatea de Apus a Sucevei). Suceava_sentence_92

Unlike the Seat Fortress, Șcheia Fortress has left nothing but some ruined walls. Suceava_sentence_93

The citadel proper was built during the reign of Petru Mușat during the late 14th century, but was short-lived, given that it was dismantled during the early 15th century, in the time of Alexander I of Moldavia. Suceava_sentence_94

Șcheia Fortress, just like the main Seat Fortress, was part of the fortification system built in medieval Principality of Moldavia during the late 14th century. Suceava_sentence_95

Museums Suceava_section_14

The first museum in Suceava was opened in 1900, by the initiative of some local intellectuals. Suceava_sentence_96

In the beginning, the museum included only a few collections that were obtained as a result of the researches and excavation works at the Seat Fortress of Suceava. Suceava_sentence_97

The museum was expanded and developed over time and became an important cultural institution, currently named Bukovina Museum (Romanian: Muzeul Bucovinei). Suceava_sentence_98

It has several departments and administers the medieval sites of the Seat Fortress, Șcheia Fortress and the Princely Court, local museums (Bukovina Village Museum, the history, ethnographic, and natural sciences museums), the memorial houses of Simion Florea Marian in Suceava, Nicolae Labiș in Mălini, in Udești, Ciprian Porumbescu in Stupca, and two traditional houses located in Solca and Bilca. Suceava_sentence_99

The oldest department of Bukovina Museum is the history museum, which was the backbone for creating a county museum at Suceava. Suceava_sentence_100

This museum presents the local history of Suceava and Moldavia in the context of Romanian national history. Suceava_sentence_101

The exhibits of the history museum and the offices of Bukovina Museum are located in a historic building, in the city center. Suceava_sentence_102

The building, which hosted the prefecture of Suceava County during the interwar period, was built between 1902 and 1903. Suceava_sentence_103

Since 1968, it houses the history museum. Suceava_sentence_104

In 2014, the building and the museum entered an extensive program of modernization, rehabilitation, and expansion. Suceava_sentence_105

At the history museum there is a reconstitution of a scene from the former throne hall located in the Seat Fortress. Suceava_sentence_106

The scene presents some notable people from the history of Moldavia, made in glass fiber: Stephen the Great (ruler of Moldavia), Maria Voichița (his third wife), Bogdan III the One-Eyed (his son and successor to the throne), officials of that time. Suceava_sentence_107

The scene chosen to be reconstructed is an allotment of land for peasants. Suceava_sentence_108

The reconstitution is based on medieval documents, frescoes, and archaeological researches. Suceava_sentence_109

Furthermore, the history museum periodically organizes a wide range of cultural events, several of which also involve the local branch of the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (FDGR/DFDR). Suceava_sentence_110

Furthermore, the local branch of the FDGR/DFDR (German: DFDR Buchenland) is also in charge of the ACI Bukowina Stiftung, a Romanian-German cultural foundation whose president is Josef-Otto Exner. Suceava_sentence_111

Bukovina Village Museum (Romanian: Muzeul Satului Bucovinean) is an open-air museum that highlights the traditional cultural and architectural heritage of Bukovina region. Suceava_sentence_112

It is located in the eastern part of Suceava, near the Seat Fortress. Suceava_sentence_113

It was founded in the 1970s, but its major expansion and development took place after 1990. Suceava_sentence_114

The museum is designed as a traditional village in Bukovina, containing houses and various objectives from the ethnographic areas of Rădăuți, Humor, Câmpulung Moldovenesc, Dorna, and Fălticeni. Suceava_sentence_115

The museum includes among others a water mill from Mănăstirea Humorului, a traditional blacksmith workshop, a pottery workshop from Marginea and one of the many old wooden churches in northern Moldavia: Church of the Ascension, a Romanian Orthodox wooden church built in 1783 in Vama, a village in Suceava County. Suceava_sentence_116

The bell tower is also made in wood, and dates from 1787. Suceava_sentence_117

The church and the bell tower were both relocated in 2001, and currently are part of the museum. Suceava_sentence_118

Besides Bukovina Village Museum, another museum that reflects the traditional life in this part of Romania is the ethnographic museum. Suceava_sentence_119

It was opened in 1968 and includes old collections and exhibits that are housed in a medieval inn located in the center of Suceava, known as the Princely Inn of Suceava (Romanian: Hanul Domnesc din Suceava). Suceava_sentence_120

This landmark dates from the late 16th and early 17th century. Suceava_sentence_121

It was built of stone and has two floors and a cellar. Suceava_sentence_122

During the Austrian rule (1775–1918), the inn operated as a hunting lodge for the imperial family. Suceava_sentence_123

Since 1968, it hosts the ethnographic museum. Suceava_sentence_124

The Princely Inn is the oldest civic building in Suceava which had not been seriously affected by time and maintained its original architecture. Suceava_sentence_125

The natural sciences museum was founded in 1976–1977, being the newest museum in Suceava. Suceava_sentence_126

It highlights the flora and fauna of the surrounding area. Suceava_sentence_127

The museum's rare exhibits and collections are housed in an old building, located in the central park of the city and built between 1811 and 1814. Suceava_sentence_128

In the past, before being an attraction for visitors, the building operated as a school for boys. Suceava_sentence_129

Along with all these museums, Bukovina Museum includes memorial houses of some writers and artists born in this area of the country. Suceava_sentence_130

The memorial house of Simion Florea Marian (Romanian: Casa memorială Simion Florea Marian) is the only one located in Suceava, the other ones being in the surrounding area. Suceava_sentence_131

The memorial house operates as a museum. Suceava_sentence_132

It was opened in 1974 in the home where Romanian priest and writer Simion Florea Marian lived, from 1884 until 1907, when he died. Suceava_sentence_133

The museum hosts a collection that contains over 10,000 volumes, over 450 collections of magazines and newspapers, of which 150 are from Bukovina, manuscripts, letters, cultural and historical documents, old photos. Suceava_sentence_134

In front of the memorial house it was opened a small park with a statue dedicated to Simion Florea Marian. Suceava_sentence_135

Historical buildings Suceava_section_15

Colegiul de Artă Ciprian Porumbescu (Romanian: Ciprian Porumbescu Art College) is a high school which is hosted in a historic building, built in 1859, in the city center of Suceava. Suceava_sentence_136

The building had several destinations in the past: Suceava Town Hall (until 1904) and Școala primară română de fete (Primary Romanian school for girls). Suceava_sentence_137

Romanian jazz singer Anca Parghel taught music for a living in Suceava at this local Arts high school before turning to a professional singing career in 1989. Suceava_sentence_138

Gara Suceava Nord-Ițcani (Suceava North railway station, also known as Ițcani) is a train station built in 1871 in the village of Ițcani (today district of Suceava). Suceava_sentence_139

Between 1871 and 1918, it was a train station at the Austro-Hungarian border. Suceava_sentence_140

The historic building of Ițcani railway station was built in the Gothic style of the Central European railway stations of that period. Suceava_sentence_141

Palatul de Justiție (The Palace of Justice) is a historic building which was built in 1885 to serve as the seat of Suceava Tribunal and Court. Suceava_sentence_142

The building has four sides and a patio, and was designed by Viennese architect Ferdinand Fellner. Suceava_sentence_143

Later, during the communist regime, the city hall was moved in this palace and operated here until 2000. Suceava_sentence_144

Spitalul Vechi (The Old Hospital) is a complex of buildings built between 1891 and 1903 which originally hosted the district hospital. Suceava_sentence_145

The hospital ensemble consists of four pavilions of historic value and was built in the southwestern end of Suceava, in Areni neighborhood. Suceava_sentence_146

In 1964 a new hospital building (known as Spitalul Nou) was inaugurated nearby. Suceava_sentence_147

Colegiul Național Ștefan cel Mare (Ștefan cel Mare National College) is the oldest and most prestigious high school in Suceava County, established in 1860. Suceava_sentence_148

The baroque style building which houses the high school was built between 1893 and 1895, downtown Suceava, and today is considered a historical monument. Suceava_sentence_149

Gara Suceava-Burdujeni (Suceava railway station, also known as Burdujeni) is a train station built between 1892 and 1902 in the village of Burdujeni (today district of Suceava). Suceava_sentence_150

Between 1902 and 1918, it was a train station at the Austro-Hungarian border. Suceava_sentence_151

The historic building of Burdujeni railway station was built in the architectural style of Fribourg railway station, located in Switzerland. Suceava_sentence_152

Palatul Administrativ (The Administrative Palace) is a historic building which was built between 1903–1904 to serve as the seat of Suceava City Hall. Suceava_sentence_153

The building originally had only two sides of the four current sides, and was designed by Viennese architect Peter Paul Brang. Suceava_sentence_154

It was designed in the baroque style. Suceava_sentence_155

Currently, the palace houses the prefecture and the county council of Suceava County. Suceava_sentence_156

Casa Polonă (The Polish House) is a building made between 1903 and 1907 by the Polish community in the city of Suceava. Suceava_sentence_157

The building was designed by architect Alojz Friedel. Suceava_sentence_158

During the communist regime, The Polish House was nationalized, and since 1954, it housed Ansamblul Artistic Ciprian Porumbescu (Ciprian Porumbescu Artistic Ensemble). Suceava_sentence_159

In 1984 the building was restored, and then hosted a local theatre, until 1990. Suceava_sentence_160

In 1996, the building was returned to the Polish community of the city. Suceava_sentence_161

Uzina de Apă (The Water Plant) is a set of industrial heritage buildings, designed in 1908 by engineer G. Thiem from Leipzig and built between 1910 and 1912. Suceava_sentence_162

The water plant operated in these buildings between 1912 and 1960, and then it was moved into a modern building. Suceava_sentence_163

In 2012, in celebration of 100 years since its establishment, in the former water plant buildings there was inaugurated the Centre for Architecture, Urban Culture and Landscape in Suceava. Suceava_sentence_164

Biblioteca Bucovinei I.G. Suceava_sentence_165

Sbiera (I.G. Suceava_sentence_166

Sbiera Bukovina Library) is the first public library in Suceava, inaugurated on 12 December 1923. Suceava_sentence_167

It is also the largest library in Suceava County, with over 350,000 bibliographic units. Suceava_sentence_168

Currently, the library is hosted by two historic buildings located in downtown Suceava and built between 1925 and 1926, respectively 1929–1930. Suceava_sentence_169

The County Forestry Department in Suceava is an institution which operates in a heritage building located in Areni neighborhood, in the city of Suceava. Suceava_sentence_170

The building dates from the first half of the 20th century. Suceava_sentence_171

The Unions House in Suceava is a heritage building, located in downtown Suceava, which houses the unions offices, along with some shops. Suceava_sentence_172

The building is also known as Samuil Isopescu House. Suceava_sentence_173

Casa Costin Tarangul (Costin Tarangul House) is a heritage house dating from the 19th century (1886). Suceava_sentence_174

The building is located next to Simion Florea Marian Memorial House, in the center of Suceava. Suceava_sentence_175

Casa Ciprian Porumbescu (Ciprian Porumbescu House) is a heritage house dating from the 19th century, where Romanian composer Ciprian Porumbescu lived and created some of his works. Suceava_sentence_176

The house is located in Prunului street, downtown Suceava. Suceava_sentence_177

School No. Suceava_sentence_178

5 Jean Bart in Burdujeni (Suceava) is a school built in 1902 in the village Burdujeni, today a town district of Suceava. Suceava_sentence_179

The building that houses the school has historic value. Suceava_sentence_180

School No. Suceava_sentence_181

6 in Burdujeni-Sat (Suceava) is a school built in 1911 in the village Burdujeni, today a town district of Suceava. Suceava_sentence_182

The building that houses the school has historic value. Suceava_sentence_183

Former Burdujeni Town Hall in Suceava is a building that was built in 1902 in the village Burdujeni and initially was the town hall of the locality. Suceava_sentence_184

In 1926 Burdujeni became a district of Suceava, and so the town hall was abolished. Suceava_sentence_185

The historic building currently houses the headquarters of Electrica company. Suceava_sentence_186

Ițcani neighbourhood Suceava_section_16

Ițcani is a neighbourhood located several miles northwest of the city centre. Suceava_sentence_187

Initially established as a small village in the 15th century under the rulership of Alexăndrel of Moldavia, it subsequently expanded as a German-speaking colony much later, specifically starting in the late 19th century, seeing an influx of German settlers during the Josephine colonization which took place in the time of the Austrian Empire. Suceava_sentence_188

The north railway station (which depicts architectural elements of both Gothic revival and Neo-romanticist styles, also the oldest in the city) is situated in this neighbourhood as well. Suceava_sentence_189

Monuments Suceava_section_17

Near the fortress, in Șipote-Cetate Park, there is an equestrian statue of Stephen the Great, designed and made by the local sculptor Iftimie Bârleanu in 1977. Suceava_sentence_190

The monument has 23 meters in height, being the tallest equestrian statue in Romania. Suceava_sentence_191

In the city centre there's also a statue dedicated to Petru Mușat, Prince of Moldavia between 1375 and 1391. Suceava_sentence_192

Religious buildings Suceava_section_18

Romanian Orthodox churches Suceava_section_19

One of the most important cultural sites in Suceava is Saint John the New Monastery which includes the monumental Church of Saint George, built between 1514 and 1522. Suceava_sentence_193

The construction began during the reign of voivode Bogdan III the One-Eyed of Moldavia, after the nearby Mirăuți Church (the metropolitan cathedral of Moldavia at that moment) was devastated in 1513. Suceava_sentence_194

The construction was completed by Stephen IV of Moldavia (also known as Ștefăniță). Suceava_sentence_195

The monastery church served as metropolitan cathedral of Moldavia until 1677. Suceava_sentence_196

It has frescoes painted on the outside, typical of the region, and is one of eight buildings that make up the churches of Moldavia UNESCO World Heritage Site. Suceava_sentence_197

Since 1991 Saint John the New Monastery serves as the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Suceava and Rădăuți. Suceava_sentence_198

Saint John the New was a Moldavian monk who preached during Turkish occupation and was subsequently martyred in Cetatea Albă, present-day Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi in Ukraine. Suceava_sentence_199

Alexander I of Moldavia brought his relics to Suceava in 1402. Suceava_sentence_200

Mirăuți Church, dedicated to Saint George, is the oldest religious building in Suceava, founded by Petru II of Moldavia in late 14th century, in the same period with the Seat Fortress, when he moved the capital from Siret to Suceava. Suceava_sentence_201

The church established the city as a see of it. Suceava_sentence_202

Mirăuți was the metropolitan cathedral of Moldavia between 1402 and 1522, when the church of Saint John the New Monastery was completed. Suceava_sentence_203

In 1402, the relics of Saint John the New were transferred to this church from Cetatea Albă, and then, in 1589 transferred again to the nearby monastery church by voivode Peter the Lame. Suceava_sentence_204

The name Mirăuți derives from the fact that it was the coronation church of Moldavia until 1522. Suceava_sentence_205

Stephen the Great was crowned in here in 1457. Suceava_sentence_206

After the church was devastated, it was rebuilt in early 17th century, and then, in the 18th century, abandoned. Suceava_sentence_207

Church of Saint Demetrius was founded by Peter IV Rareș, ruler of Moldavia (1527–1538, 1541–1546), and the son of Stephan the Great. Suceava_sentence_208

The church was built in 1534–1535, with a bell tower added in 1560–1561 by Alexandru Lăpușneanu. Suceava_sentence_209

The bell tower is 40 meters high, being the tallest bell tower in Suceava and a landmark of the city. Suceava_sentence_210

The church had frescoes painted on the outside, that are still visible on one side wall. Suceava_sentence_211

The frescoes inside were restored recently. Suceava_sentence_212

Church of Saint Demetrius is located near the ruins of the former Princely Court of Suceava. Suceava_sentence_213

Furthermore, there is another old church near these ruins. Suceava_sentence_214

Church of Saint John the Baptist, also known as Coconilor Church or Domnițelor Church, was founded in 1643 by Vasile Lupu, voivode of Moldavia between 1632 and 1653. Suceava_sentence_215

It has no exterior frescoes and a short bell tower that has its roof linked with the roof above the church. Suceava_sentence_216

In its early days, the church functioned as a chapel for the Princely Court. Suceava_sentence_217

Church of the Resurrection (located in the proximity of Saint John the New Monastery) dates from 1551, and was founded by Elena Rareș, the wife of voivode Peter IV Rareș. Suceava_sentence_218

The church has no tower above the naos, its architecture reflecting the urban style of the medieval period. Suceava_sentence_219

Instead of the bell tower, the church has a zvonnitsa, an architectural form especially used in the Russian architecture of the 14th–17th centuries. Suceava_sentence_220

Church of the Resurrection was used by the local Roman Catholic community during the Habsburg occupation, and then by the Ruthenian Greek Catholic community, until 1936. Suceava_sentence_221

It is also known as Văscresenia Church or Elena Doamna Church. Suceava_sentence_222

Church of Saint Nicholas (Prăjescu) is another religious building in Suceava that features the medieval Moldavian architectural style. Suceava_sentence_223

The present church was rebuilt by treasurer Nicoară Prăjescu in 1611, during the reign of Constantin Movilă (1607–1611). Suceava_sentence_224

Throughout its history, the church functioned as a necropolis for the local boyars. Suceava_sentence_225

Between the city center and Ițcani neighborhood, on the slopes that descend to the Suceava river valley, there is Church of the Assumption, another old Romanian Orthodox church, founded in the first half of the 17th century (1639). Suceava_sentence_226

The church was built on the place where Ițcani Monastery existed before. Suceava_sentence_227

It functioned as a nunnery until late 18th century. Suceava_sentence_228

Today it is parish church, and has a zvonnitsa similar to that of Church of the Resurrection, located downtown. Suceava_sentence_229

In Burdujeni neighborhood, 4 km (2 mi) north-east of the city center, there is Teodoreni Monastery, founded in 1597 by local boyar Teodor Movilă, the elder brother of Ieremia Movilă, ruler of Moldavia (1595–1600, 1600–1606). Suceava_sentence_230

Burdujeni village (now a district of Suceava) was established and developed around this monastery. Suceava_sentence_231

The set of buildings includes Church of Ascension, the bell tower, living quarters for nuns and a surrounding wall. Suceava_sentence_232

Just 1 km (0.6 mi) north of Teodoreni Monastery, in the old district of Burdujeni, there is Church of the Holy Trinity, founded by archimandrite Filaret Scriban in 1851. Suceava_sentence_233

Ițcani neighborhood has two Romanian Orthodox churches founded in the first half of the 20th century: Church of the Holy Archangels (built near Suceava North railway station, in 1933–1938) and Church of the Holy Apostles (located on European route E85 and built in 1905–1908 by the German community of Ițcani, initially as a Lutheran church). Suceava_sentence_234

Church of the Holy Cross, located in Pătrăuți village (a few miles north-west of Ițcani), was founded in 1487 by Stephen the Great, and is one of the monuments that make up the churches of Moldavia UNESCO World Heritage Site. Suceava_sentence_235

Also not far away from Ițcani, there is Dragomirna Monastery, established by clergyman Anastasie Crimca in 1609. Suceava_sentence_236

Voroneț Monastery is located 40 km (25 mi) west of Suceava, in the town of Gura Humorului. Suceava_sentence_237

German Roman Catholic and Lutheran churches Suceava_section_20

During the late Modern Age up until the early 1940s, a sizable German community lived in Suceava. Suceava_sentence_238

They were of both Roman Catholic and Evangelical Lutheran faith. Suceava_sentence_239

These German-speaking colonists who were settled by the Austrian Empire in the city proper can trace their origins most notably to the territories of present-day southern Germany, Austria, and the Czech Republic (Bohemia), being thus both Catholics and Protestants. Suceava_sentence_240

Several religious buildings that served both aforementioned religious denominations can still be found today both in the city proper and in the Ițcani neighborhood, where a bygone community of ethnic Germans (stemming from contemporary Rhineland-Palatinate land in Germany) once lived. Suceava_sentence_241

Armenian Orthodox churches Suceava_section_21

In the past, Suceava used to have an important Armenian community as well. Suceava_sentence_242

Their cultural and historical legacy is highlighted by a series of well preserved religious buildings that still exist to this today. Suceava_sentence_243

The most representative ecclesiastical landmark established by the local Armenian population is Zamca Monastery (the term Zamca can actually trace its linguistic origin to Polish, denoting as such a 'fortified place' and being named this way by King Jan Sobieski of Poland in 1691), a fortified complex of buildings located on a plateau at the western point of the contemporary city. Suceava_sentence_244

Zamca Monastery was constructed between 1551 and 1606 and its church is dedicated to Saint Auxentius. Suceava_sentence_245

Along with the church, the monastery includes several buildings made of stone and a defensive wall that surrounds the whole medieval complex. Suceava_sentence_246

Between Zamca Monastery and the city center there are two more Armenian Orthodox churches. Suceava_sentence_247

Church of Saint Simon (also known as The Red Tower Church because of its bell tower) was founded in 1513. Suceava_sentence_248

The bell tower was constructed in 1551. Suceava_sentence_249

The church has an old Armenian cemetery in the proximity and a chapel that was built in 1902 (Pruncul Chapel). Suceava_sentence_250

Church of the Holy Cross was established in 1521 and was renovated several times in its history. Suceava_sentence_251

The Armenian parsonage is located near the church, along with several old tomb stones. Suceava_sentence_252

Hagigadar Monastery is another medieval complex built by the local Armenians. Suceava_sentence_253

It was founded in 1512–1513, and is located on the south-western proximity of the city, on a valley near European route E85. Suceava_sentence_254

Tourism Suceava_section_22

In the past few years Suceava started to evolve more rapidly. Suceava_sentence_255

The most important sights in the town date from its time as a princely capital (i.e. the Middle Ages). Suceava_sentence_256

There are numerous museums in the city proper including, most notably, the Bucovina History Museum, the Bucovina Village Museum, Bucovina Ethnographic Museum (housed in an inn dating back to the 17th century), or the Natural History Museum. Suceava_sentence_257

Sports Suceava_section_23

Football Suceava_section_24

ACS Foresta Suceava (Romanian: Asociația Club Sportiv Foresta Suceava), formerly known as Rapid CFR Suceava, is the football team that currently represents the city of Suceava in the third tier of the Romanian football system, more specifically in Liga III. Suceava_sentence_258

In the past, the city has also had other significant football clubs competing in either Liga I or Liga II (depending on their level of performance) such as CSM Suceava, FC Cetatea Suceava, or Foresta Suceava (the latter one being initially based in the city of Fălticeni from the same county). Suceava_sentence_259

The city also used to have another Liga III side called Sporting Suceava, but due to financing reasons the club had subsequently went bankrupt and ceased playing. Suceava_sentence_260

All the major sporting events are hosted on the Areni Stadium, a multi-purpose stadium in Suceava. Suceava_sentence_261

It is currently the home ground of ACS Foresta Suceava and can hold up to 12,500 people. Suceava_sentence_262

The stadium was initially opened in 1963 as the "Municipal Stadium". Suceava_sentence_263

Handball Suceava_section_25

CS Universitatea Bucovina Suceava is the city's men's handball team which currently competes in the Romanian Handball League (Romanian: Liga Națională). Suceava_sentence_264

It was founded in 2002 and it started playing in the first tier of the Romanian handball system in 2006. Suceava_sentence_265

In 2011 it achieved its greatest performance to date, namely finishing 3rd in the national handball division. Suceava_sentence_266

Education Suceava_section_26

The only university of the city (and also of the entire county) is Ștefan cel Mare University of Suceava which was established in 1990. Suceava_sentence_267

The most prominent high schools with theoretical pathways of the city are the following ones: Suceava_sentence_268

National College "Mihai Eminescu" Suceava Suceava_sentence_269

Suceava_unordered_list_4

  • Named after the most well-known Moldavian and Romanian poet, Mihai EminescuSuceava_item_4_27
  • Main study offers are: Social Sciences, Mathematics and Computer Science, Philology.Suceava_item_4_28

National College "Petru Rareș" Suceava Suceava_sentence_270

Suceava_unordered_list_5

  • Named after the voievod of Moldavia, Peter IV RareşSuceava_item_5_29
  • Main study offers are: English, Philology, Mathematics and Computer Science.Suceava_item_5_30

National College "Ștefan cel Mare" Suceava Suceava_sentence_271

Suceava_unordered_list_6

  • Named after the prince of Moldavia between the years 1457 and 1504, Stephen III of MoldaviaSuceava_item_6_31
  • Main study offers are: Natural Sciences, Mathematics and Computer Science.Suceava_item_6_32

Economical College "Dimitre Cantemir" Suceava Suceava_sentence_272

Suceava_unordered_list_7

  • Named after the twice Prince of Moldavia and the famous writer of the Descriptio Moldavie, Dimitrie Cantemir.Suceava_item_7_33
  • It is the only economics high-school in Suceava.Suceava_item_7_34
  • Main study offers are Tourism, Gastronomy, Alimentation, Economy, Countability, and Trade.Suceava_item_7_35
  • The main profile which the school promovates is the Technical profile.Suceava_item_7_36

Transportation Suceava_section_27

Air Suceava_section_28

Suceava is served by the Suceava International "Ştefan cel Mare" Airport (SCV), located 12 km (7.5 mi) east of the city centre, in the small town of Salcea. Suceava_sentence_273

The airport initially opened in 1962 when commercial services started with TAROM, the oldest operating Romanian airline. Suceava_sentence_274

In 1963, the runway was paved, and an apron was built. Suceava_sentence_275

Services by TAROM were discontinued in 2001, but resumed in 2004. Suceava_sentence_276

During this period, the airport was served only by Angel Airlines. Suceava_sentence_277

In March 2005, the airport was renamed Ștefan cel Mare Airport, and opened to international traffic. Suceava_sentence_278

In 2013, Suceava International Airport started a plan (worth c. €39 million) to rebuild and extend the old runway of 1,800 m (5,906 ft), to construct a new control tower and to install a new ILS system. Suceava_sentence_279

In August 2013, the construction works commenced, and on 12 January 2014, the airport closed in order to allow the runway works to resume. Suceava_sentence_280

The old concrete runway was completely removed, and a new runway, made out of asphalt, was constructed. Suceava_sentence_281

On 25 October 2015, the airport was officially reopened. Suceava_sentence_282

As of 2019, Suceava International Airport had an annual traffic of 430,064 passengers, a local record thus far, making it the 8th busiest airport in Romania. Suceava_sentence_283

Natives Suceava_section_29

See also Suceava_section_30

Suceava_unordered_list_8

International relations Suceava_section_31

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Romania Suceava_sentence_284

Twin towns — Sister cities Suceava_section_32

Suceava is twinned with: Suceava_sentence_285

Suceava_table_general_3

Regional, cultural, and economic partnerships Suceava_section_33

In addition to the official town/city twinning, the city of Suceava shares a series of regional, cultural, and economic partnerships with the following: Suceava_sentence_286

Suceava_table_general_4


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suceava.